The trial of former high-ranking Libyan leaders began in Tripoli in April 2014. Libyan leaders have been accused of numerous crimes during Gaddafi's rule and during the Libyan Civil War. In particular, Saif al-Islam was accused of organizing the selection of mercenaries from African countries that sided with Gaddafi, the formation of armed detachments, and the issuance of orders to aviation strikes against civilian targets and shooting at protesters protesting against Gaddafi. Also, Saif al-Islam was admitted to incite mass murder and rape. However, while the verdicts of the Tripoli court remain unapproved by the Libyan Supreme Court and, accordingly, the convicts still have the opportunity to appeal the court's decision. As for the International Criminal Court and a number of international human rights organizations, they expressed concern about the verdict of high-ranking officials of the Gaddafi regime, as they questioned the impartiality of the court in Tripoli. According to human rights organizations, the sentence may be dictated by the desire to deal with political opponents and take revenge on Gaddafi's supporters by sentencing them to death. Saif al-Islam has long been considered the heir to Muammar Gaddafi, so his death sentence is perceived rather as a sentence to the elder Gaddafi himself, who, as you know, was brutally killed without trial or investigation. It is known that in recent years Libya has suffered "somalization" and, in fact, there is no state in the traditional sense of the word in modern Libya. The regime in Tripoli does not control most of the country's territory, has no influence either on radical fundamentalist groups or on the Arab-Berber tribes. Not only in the past, high-ranking officials, but also ordinary Libyans have been de facto hostages in the hands of armed groups that are free to pronounce sentences, execute and pardon people only at their own will. Philip Luther, spokesman for Amnesty International for the Middle East and North Africa, emphasizes that there was virtually no full protection of the defendants in the trial: ... However, this has not been done so far, since a series of human rights violations were committed against him. In fact, he was tried and sentenced in absentia; he continues to be held in isolation in an unknown place without access to a lawyer ”(http://amnesty.org.ru/ru/2015-07-29-kaddafi/).
By the way, Saif al-Islam Gaddafi himself was not present at the trial, but gave testimony via Skype. Seven other defendants held in Misrat were also tried in absentia. The second oldest son of the leader of the Libyan revolution is in the city of Zintan - held captive by a local rebel group, which actually operates autonomously from the Libyan authorities in Tripoli. Apparently, this group is not going to either kill Gadhafi’s son, nor extradite him to Libyan authorities, nor release him. Unlike Saif al-Islam, the position of his “colleagues in misfortune” is more complicated - they are imprisoned in Tripoli and were present at the trial. If the sentence cannot be appealed, the death penalty will certainly await them. After all, the Libyan authorities will prefer to execute Gadhafi’s confidants in order to demonstrate their determination to the numerous supporters of the murdered Libyan leader, many of whom continue underground resistance in Libya. In addition, the murder of Saif al-Islam will contribute to the delegitimization of supporters of Gaddafi in the eyes of the Libyan population - after all, the last member of the family, who had real political ambitions and had political influence in the country, will be killed.
Saif al-Islam was considered the probable successor of the father
Saif al-Islam was the second oldest son in the family of his father Muammar Gaddafi. He was born in 1972 year, when Muammar Gaddafi was already in power in Libya after the victory of the Libyan revolution 1969 year. Saif received his secondary education in Libya and Switzerland, and his higher education at the Libyan University Al-Fateh, where he received a bachelor's degree in engineering in 1994. Also in 2000, Mr. Saif received a Master of Business Administration from the University of Vienna, and in 2008 he received a Ph.D. from the London School of Economics and Political Science, where he defended his thesis on the topic “The Role of Civil Society in the Democratization of Institutes of Global Governance: from strength "to collective decision-making." Among the high-ranking comrades-in-arms of Muammar Gaddafi, Saif al-Islam was considered a supporter of a more liberal line — he advocated political reforms in the country and was widely known for his charitable activities. Until a certain time, Saif al-Islam sought, at least officially, to distance himself from participation in the political life of the country, but the beginning of the Arab Spring forced him to side with his father, becoming one of the leaders of the political and military forces of the Libyan Jamahiriya loyal to Gadhafi. When French President Nicolas Sarkozy officially recognized the Libyan opposition, speaking with weapons in the hands against Gaddafi, Saif al-Islam gave an interview to Euronews, in which he demanded the return of the money received from Libya to finance the election campaign of Sarkozy. Not being a professional military man, Saif al-Islam, nevertheless, took part in the leadership of the loyal Muammar Gaddafi formations. After the capture of Beni Walid and the death of Muammar Gaddafi and his son Mutazzim, which followed on October 20, information appeared about the capture of Saif al-Islam near the city of Sirt. But this information was not confirmed. Gaddafi’s son disappeared, and the opposition could only speculate about where he is. According to one version, Saif was killed, according to another - he fled to Niger. However, 23 of October already revealed that Saif Al-Islam was alive and, moreover, personally headed the remnants of the loyal Gaddafi armed forces, promising to avenge the death of his father Muammar. Meanwhile, information about Saif al-Islam’s possible flight from the country and its appearance in other African countries - Niger or Sudan continued to appear in the world media. So, Sudanese media reported that Saif al-Islam is in Darfur. For a long time there was a war against the central government of Sudan in this western Sudanese province, started by the Justice and Equality Movement. Khalil Ibrahim, who is at the head of the Darfur rebels, received financial assistance from Muammar Gaddafi, therefore he was obliged to the family of the Libyan leader and, which was not excluded, could easily shelter his son Saif. Finally, on November 19. 2011, Mr. Saif al-Islam was captured by a detachment of the Transitional National Council in southern Libya and placed under arrest. Since then and almost 4, Saif al-Islam has been in the city of Zintan, in a local prison. The zintan tribe, which controls the city and has its son Gaddafi, did not want to extradite him to Tripoli, since the relationship between the regime established in the Libyan capital and the tribal leaders of Zintan is very tense. The latter do not like the rise of radical Islamists in the country, which they associate with the influence of Qatar and Turkey. The traditional tribal elite fears the loss of their influence in case of further strengthening the positions of radical religious fundamentalists, who, among other things, undermine the systems of social organization and hierarchy of the Arab-Berber tribes of Libya that have developed over the centuries.
The tragedy of the Gaddafi family
In general, the trial of Saif al-Islam can be assessed solely as an attempt to continue the massacre of the Gaddafi family, which the current leaders of Libya hate. As you know, in the life of Muammar al-Gaddafi there were two spouses. With his first wife Fathia Nuri, Khaled Muammar Gaddafi lived less than a year - from December 1969 to spring 1970. From his first marriage he had a son, Mohammed al-Gaddafi. In July, 1970, Mr. Muammar, married Safia Farkas nurse, a representative of the Al-Baraas tribe. In this marriage, which lasted the whole life of Muammar Gaddafi, six sons and one daughter were born. Saif al-Islam was the eldest among the children of Muammar Gaddafi and Safia Farkash. In 1973, they had a son, Saadi al-Gaddafi, who then became a professional footballer and played in the Italian clubs Perugia and Udinese. During the civil war, Saadi, in the rank of colonel of the Libyan army, also participated in hostilities, then fled to Niger. According to available information, in the end, in the 2014, the Niger issued Saadi al-Gaddafi a new Libyan regime. Hannibal Gaddafi, the fourth son of Muammar, was born in 1975 and received a marine education. He received a Master of Business Administration in Shipping from the Copenhagen Business School and served in various Libyan maritime companies. Hannibal Gaddafi practically did not engage in political activities and had no serious influence on the political life of the country. After the capture by the rebels of Tripoli, Hannibal Gaddafi with his family, his mother Safiy Farkas, his sister Aishey, and his elder brother Mohammed fled to Algeria. The fifth son of Muammar Mutazzim Bilal Gaddafi was born in 1977 year. He chose a military career and served as national security adviser. Mutazzima Gaddafi, like Saif al-Islam, was often called one of Muammar Gadhafi’s probable successors. At least, he was always close to his father and provided assistance in political and military administration. During the Civil War in Libya, Mutazzim directly led the defense of Sirte, after taking which he was captured and brutally murdered without trial.
The sixth son of Muammar, Saif al-Arab, was born in 1982, and in early childhood he learned the "kindness" of the West: when Saif al-Arab was four years old, the USAF bombed Tripoli. Then little Saif was injured. In 2006-2010 He studied at the University of Munich, and in 2011 he returned to Libya. Fate turned out to be unfavorable to Saif al-Arab, who was called the most distant from politics and the least influential of all the sons of Muammar Gaddafi. On the night of 1 in May, 2011 of Mr. Saif al-Gaddafi, his two children and two-year-old nephew, the son of Gaddafi’s daughter Aisha, were killed by the bombings of the NATO air force. The dead were buried, but when the rebels seized the Libyan capital, Saif al-Arab’s body was dug out of the ground, subjected to mockery and burned. Thus, the “democrats”, who position themselves as opponents of the “dictatorship,” took revenge on a dead young man who had never been involved in politics, just because he was one of the younger sons of Muammar Gaddafi.
The younger son of Muammar Khamis Gaddafi was born in 1983 year and received military education in Libya and Russia, commanded the 32 brigade of the Libyan special forces. Khamis Gaddafi - a young brave military man - was one of the favorite heroes for all who sympathized with Muammar Gaddafi and sincerely wished his victory over the rebels and the aggressive NATO bloc behind them. Khamis Gaddafi was “buried” several times - reports of the death of a brave commander were constantly coming in, and they were constantly refuted by the regular military successes of the Jamahiriya special forces under his leadership. Thus, the first report on the death of Khamis was received by 29 in August 2011 during the battle for the city of Tarhuna, which is in 80 km. southwest of Tripoli. On the death of Khamis said the representative of the Transitional National Council of the Libyan Republic. A month later, the death of Khamis was refuted. However, October 20 2011 reported that Khamis died during the clashes in Bani Walid. However, for another whole year, both supporters and opponents of Gaddafi passed on conflicting information about the youngest son of the leader of the Libyan revolution. Thus, according to some data, he continued the partisan resistance in Libya after the final overthrow of the Jamahiriya government, but in October 2012 was still killed. At least since the end of 2012, nothing is known about the further fate of Khamis Gaddafi.
The daughter of Muammar Gaddafi Aisha Gaddafi has always been in the center of attention not only the Libyan, but also the world media. Aisha was educated at the Sorbonne Law School, but also, like many other Libyan women, she underwent military training and was promoted to lieutenant colonel of the Libyan army. This charming and educated woman, who was considered one of the first beauties in African and Middle Eastern politics, was a member of the public defenders of Saddam Hussein, was a goodwill ambassador of the United Nations and dealt with the problems of HIV-infected and AIDS patients, among whom a large proportion were always residents of the African continent. With the beginning of the Civil War in Libya, the UN banned Aisha Gaddafi from entering the organization’s member countries, despite the fact that if the rebels were arrested, Ayisha would inevitably wait for bullying and painful death without trial. By the way, Aisha was on the last term of pregnancy. Aisha’s two previous children were killed during the bombing of Gaddafi’s palace by the planes of the French air force 26 in July 2011. Aisha Gaddafi’s husband, Colonel of the Libyan army Ahmed al-Gaddafi al-Qahsi also died there. After the overthrow of the Gaddafi regime, Aisha, along with relatives, fled the country to Algeria. 29 August 2011 The representative of the Algerian authorities officially announced that Aisha Gaddafi is in the country and, since she must give birth, there can be no question of her extradition to the Libyan rebels. In response, the Libyan rebels compared the granting of asylum to a pregnant woman with an act of aggression against “free Libya” and demanded that Gaddafi’s daughter be extradited. Fortunately, the Algerian authorities did not go on about the demands of the rebels. 30 August 2011 Aisha Gaddafi gave birth to a girl and continued to be in the territory of Algeria. She occasionally appeared in the media sympathizing with Gaddafi with statements of intent to continue the struggle against American imperialism and the occupiers of Libya. It was only in 2013 that it became known that in 2012 the city of Aisha Gaddafi, as well as Mohammed and Hannibal Gaddafi, together with their families, received political asylum in the Sultanate of Oman. Thus, most of the relatives of Muammar Gaddafi tragically died during the hostilities unleashed by the rebels, as well as as a result of air strikes by NATO air forces. Among those who did not die were Saif al-Islam and Saadi, who fell into the hands of Libyan rebels, and Aisha with two brothers and their families, who were fortunate enough to leave the territory of rebel Libya and gain political asylum in Algeria and then in Oman.
- left Saif al-Islam Gaddafi
Saif al-Islam, one of the few representatives of the Gaddafi family who survived and fell into the hands of the new Libyan regime, is in Zintan and his fate depends not so much on the possibility of appealing the verdict in the Supreme Court of Libya, but on whether his Zintan rebels will be extradited to Tripoli authorities or not. According to lawyer Jones, who is carrying out the defense of Saif al-Islam, most of the confessions of high-ranking defendants who came to Tripoli were beaten under torture. According to John Jones, “the trial of the son of former Libyan leader Saif Gaddafi and senior officials of the former regime is indicative from beginning to end against all defendants. The Minister of Justice of Libya himself called it completely illegitimate. In fact, the judges were fully subordinate to the armed groups that control the Al-Hadba prison ”(http://russian.rt.com/). It should also be noted that Saif al-Islam Gaddafi was declared internationally wanted by the International Criminal Court in The Hague, but the Libyan leadership refused to extradite him to international justice. This aroused the understandable indignation of the Hague judges, who hoped to hold their own trial of the heir to the leader of the Libyan revolution. It turns out that the opinion of the Libyan leadership depends on radical groups within the country much more than on the very “Western world” that contributed to the overthrow of the regime of Muammar Gaddafi. On the other hand, the new Libyan regime, which is experiencing a “crisis of legitimacy”, wants to show Libyan citizens that they are supposedly capable of carrying out an independent policy and may even disregard the requirements of the International Criminal Court and other structures patronized by Western countries.
Prime Minister and intelligence chiefs also sentenced to death
Another senior figure convicted in Tripoli and sentenced to death - the head of the military intelligence service, Colonel Mohammed Abdullah Al-Senussi, was charged with more specific war crimes. The colonel was called one of the closest confidants of Muammar Gaddafi. A native of Sudan and a native of the influential Arab clan of al-Megrah, Mohammed Abdullah Senussi was born in 1949 and in youth, in 1970, headed Libyan special services - first counterintelligence, and then military intelligence of Libya. Abdullah Senussi was promoted by his marriage to the sister of Muammar Gaddafi.
- Colonel Senussi
Starting from the 1970's. the brother-in-law of Muammar Gaddafi was responsible for the fight against dissidents in Libya, countering foreign spies, and conducting his own foreign intelligence. The daughter of Colonel Senussi Salma Senussi, who is in exile in the UK, said that her father Abdullah Senussi was prevented from holding a fair trial. By the way, Colonel Senussi, still in 1999, was convicted in absentia in France on charges of organizing the destruction of a French airliner in the sky over the Niger in 1989, which killed 170 people. Senussi was also suspected of involvement in the organization of the explosion of the American Boeing-747 aircraft over the Scottish village of Lockerbie. The victims of the attack were 259 passengers and another 11 people on earth. The American special services identified the direct organizers of the terrorist act - Abdel Baset Ali Mohmed Al-Megrahi and Al-Amin Khalifa Fhim. The British media claimed that Colonel Senussi, who received instructions from Gaddafi to avenge the American bombing of Tripoli in 1986, carried out the personal leadership of these people. However, for the Libyan opposition and ordinary Libyans, the name Senussi is associated with the destruction of 1200 prisoners during the suppression of the uprising that broke out in 1996 in the Abu-Saleem prison in Tripoli. Opponents of Gaddafi accused the colonel of having personally tortured political prisoners, mocked them and organized extrajudicial killings of dissidents, for which he received the nickname “Butcher” among Libyan oppositionists. 27 June 2011. The International Criminal Court issued a warrant for the arrest of Abdulla al-Senussi on charges of committing crimes against humanity during an organization to suppress a popular uprising in Benghazi. Subsequent information about the fate of Senussi was very controversial. According to some data, the colonel died during the hostilities, according to others he left the country and left for Niger or Mauritania. Finally, it became known that Colonel Abdullah Senussi is still in the hands of representatives of the new Libyan government and was questioned on the issue of Gaddafi’s nuclear weapons. Colonel Abdullah Senussi, like Saif al-Islam Gaddafi, was also defended by British lawyer Ben Emerson. He described the judgment as unfair because the trial was carried out with numerous violations.
- Dr. Mahmoudi
The third high-ranking accused at the trials in Tripoli, al-Baghdadi Ali al-Mahmoudi, from 2006 to 2011. He was the Secretary General of the Supreme People’s Committee of the Libyan Jamahiriya, that is, the de facto head of the Libyan government. Mahmoudi was born in 1945 and received a medical education, becoming a obstetrician and gynecologist. For a long time, he was responsible for health issues in the Libyan government, and in 2006, he replaced the post of general secretary of the Supreme People’s Committee, Shukri Ganem. Mahmoudi was nicknamed "the grandfather of all children" - he began his career with a simple obstetrician, took delivery of thousands of Libyan women and made a colossal career, having reached 35 years of work in Libyan medical institutions as Minister of Health and then as Prime Minister. He was interested not so much in politics as in solving social problems facing Libyan society. A purely civilian, Dr. Mahmoudi did not take a serious part in the fighting during the Civil War in Libya. 23 August 2011. He fled from besieged Tripoli to the island of Djerba in Tunisia, hoping to find there salvation from rebels, thirsting for the blood of all the country's politicians who remained loyal to Muammar Gaddafi. However, the Tunisian authorities preferred to detain a high-ranking refugee. In June 2012, the Tunisian authorities handed Dr. Baghdadi Mahmoudi to the Libyan leadership, where he was to stand trial on charges of the multiple crimes of the Gaddafi regime, including such absurd accusations as incitement to mass rape. It became known that during his time in the dungeons of the Transitional National Council, Dr. Mahmoudi was subjected to severe torture and harassment by the rebels. A court in Tripoli, Baghdadi Mahmoudi, despite his civil profession, was also sentenced to death.
Abusid Omar Dord, another close associate of Muammar Gaddafi, was also sentenced to death by a court in Tripoli. Recall that Abuzid Omar Dorda (born 1944) from 1990 to 1994. He headed the Supreme People’s Committee of the Libyan Jamahiriya, then held the post of Permanent Representative of Libya to the United Nations, and in 2009 he headed the Organization for External Security of Libya, replacing Mussa Kussa as the head of the country's foreign intelligence. When, as a result of hostilities, Dorda was captured by rebels, he was subjected to severe torture. It became known that an elderly official was beaten and then thrown out of the window, as a result of which the former prime minister and foreign intelligence chief suffered several injuries and fractures. One can only guess how much the seventy-year-old Dorda has experienced in almost four years of being in the hands of the rebels. It is significant that the court in Tripoli condemned only those leaders of the Jamahiriya, who remained loyal to Muammar Gaddafi. The rest of the high-ranking officials who went over to the side of the rebels were not subjected to persecution, even if they personally had a relationship with the suppression of dissidents during their service to the Gaddafi regime.
Bloody chaos - a consequence of the overthrow of Gaddafi
The new Libyan government, entrenched in Tripoli, accuses the Gaddafi regime, with which all the relatives of the murdered Libyan leader are personified, in mass crimes against the Libyan people. Gaddafi had an unequivocal label of "dictator" and "executioner of his own people", although it was during the reign of Gaddafi that Libya turned into the country that it was before 2011 of the year - before the "Arab Spring" and the subsequent bloody war. For forty years, Gaddafi has managed to turn Libya into one of the most economically developed countries on the African continent. Of course, oil revenues played a decisive role, but it was Gaddafi who managed to create a political regime in which most of the income was spent on the needs of the country and its people. Yes, of course, Gaddafi himself, his family members, and other senior leaders did not live in misery and received their “share” of oil money. It had a place in the "pre-war" Libya and the cronyism inherent in all Eastern traditional societies. But, nevertheless, under Gaddafi, Libya favorably differed from almost all other African, Middle Eastern, and even European states. At least, Gaddafi never economized on solving the social problems of the Libyan population, hoping that people who were given free housing and high salaries, the opportunity to receive education and medical services would never give up the idea of the Jamahiriya. As it turned out - Gaddafi was wrong. He was not destined to win in a very unequal confrontation with the West, which was supposedly hiding behind the interests of establishing "democracy" in Libya. What is most regrettable is that after the overthrow of Gaddafi, the collapse of Libyan statehood has come. The rebels, who were able, with the help of NATO and the monarchies of the Persian Gulf, to overthrow Gaddafi and even crush the resistance of a significant part of his supporters, failed not only to establish a peaceful life, but even to ensure the military-political unity of post-Qadhafi Libya. If the Gaddafi regime was accused of violating human rights, under which the West understood the rights of the pro-American opposition to political will, then in modern Libya it is simply chaos. The victims of the rebels, all sorts of fundamentalist groups and just gangsters were thousands of people. For example, the city of Tawerga was plundered and burned only because a significant part of its population was made up of black Africans - representatives of the Negroid tribes of Southern Libya and people from neighboring African states. Thirty thousand people were forced to leave their homes, because the rebels accused them of complicity with the Gaddafi regime and even mercenarism.
Almost all the prisoners and detainees of Gaddafi’s supporters, as well as any other objectionable persons, end up in places of detention, become victims of arbitrariness and do not have the opportunity to organize their own defense, nor to achieve human trafficking. In fact, the territory of Libya has become a "training ground" for all sorts of radical and terrorist groups. The uncontrolled situation in the country has contributed to the repeated growth of the illegal arms trade, and Libyan weapons subsequently surfaced in all regions where, after Libya, bloody wars broke out - in Mali, in Syria and Iraq, Palestine, in Somalia. There, in Libya, terrorists from the very groups that are fighting in the territory of Syria and Iraq passed the “test run-in”. Finally, the situation in Libya destabilized all of North and West Africa, becoming one of the immediate causes of the revitalization of the fundamentalists in Mali and northern Nigeria. Finally, the standard of living of the Libyan population before and after the overthrow of Gaddafi is simply incomparable. Tens of thousands of Libyan citizens were forced to leave the country, fleeing the orgy of terror by radical groups and criminals. Libyans prefer to risk their lives by ferrying boats and homemade rafts across the Mediterranean Sea to the Italian island of Lampedusa than to stay at home, where human life itself has lost its value and its ability to preserve has become very illusory.
Meanwhile, before the outbreak of the civil war, Gaddafi resolved many issues in the interests of just the countries of Western Europe. First, Gaddafi, one of the few Arab leaders, was truly aware of the danger of religious fanaticism and harshly curbed the activities of fundamentalist extremist groups in Libya. Secondly, Gaddafi prevented illegal migration from African countries to Europe, since the Mediterranean coast of Libya was under the control of a strong state. Third, a significant part of African migrants found work in Libya itself, in oil fields and in various industries and services. Of course, after the outbreak of war, immigration to Libya stopped, but emigration from Libya increased many times over.
It is noteworthy that Saif al-Islam Gaddafi, who was recently sentenced to death, was a fervent advocate of the liberalization of the Libyan regime. As a modern man, Saif al-Islam understood that to preserve the Libyan Jamahiriya in the form in which it existed in the 1980s means to bring its real end closer. The country needed modernization - first of all, in the political sphere, and it was Saif al-Islam that suggested to his father the main vector of movement. The son proposed to democratize the political regime, to release most of the political prisoners, to dissolve the revolutionary committees. It was Saif al-Islam who was the author of the idea of paying compensation to all the victims of the famous shooting of insurgent prisoners in Abu-Saleem prison in 1996 year. In addition, Saif al-Islam advocated the early integration of opposition groups in the normal political life of the country and persuaded his father to decide on an amnesty for many members of the radical opposition. Most likely, if the West would not have prepared the overthrow of Gaddafi and his bloody murder by the hands of extremists, in the foreseeable future the elderly revolution leader would retire, and he would be replaced by Saif al-Islam. That is, democratic changes in Libya would be inevitable anyway, but they would take place differently - without bloodshed, without bombing, without mass murder and violence. Now the democratically oriented Saif al-Islam Gaddafi was among the war criminals and was convicted, albeit in absentia, to death, and those directly responsible for the destruction of Sirte, for the death of tens of thousands of ordinary Libyans of all sexes and ages, for the devastation of social and the country's economic infrastructure and the activization of radical fanatics, posing as “defenders of democratic and humanistic ideals”.
To some extent, Saif al-Islam Gaddafi and his father Muammar, who at the end of his life believed that it was possible to normalize relations with the West, with their own hands dug his grave. By refusing nuclear and chemical programs and transferring all the developments of the United States, issuing millions of financial loans to France, releasing political prisoners and inviting dubious pro-Western politicians to work in the government, the Libyan Jamahiriya approached its end. When the internal destructive forces intensified so much that they felt the reality of the possibility of overthrowing Gaddafi, they did not fail to speak, immediately gaining the support of yesterday's "new friends" of Muammar and Saif al-Islam. In one of his later interviews, given after the outbreak of hostilities, Saif al-Islam said bitterly that "the West does not know the concept of friendship." In general, the son of the Libyan leader is right. Really, история shows that the Western powers, from the old European colonial metropolises and ending with the "world gendarme" of the United States, act exclusively in their own political and economic interests. The fate of Libya is instructive in the fact that it was the civil war in this country and the NATO aggression to support the rebels that became the starting point for the bloody chaos of the Islamic world. In 2014, the “Libyan scenario” was tested in Ukraine, naturally taking into account local specifics. The lesson of the Libyan events, including the trials held in July 2015 in Tripoli, is that you can never believe the United States and, especially, puppet politicians acting under the guise of the United States and posing as the champions of democracy. With genuine democracy and humanism, mass murders without trial and investigation, lawsuits with the absence of lawyers and sentences of the death penalty on fabricated charges, have nothing in common. Much more international tribunals for crimes against humanity are worthy of the very "champions of democracy" from Washington and London, Paris and Berlin, as well as their numerous mercenaries and satellites doing "dirty work" around the world in the form of wars and pseudo-revolutions.