Military Review

Turkey against the Kurds. Is there a new phase of conflict ahead?

A new round of the Turkish-Kurdish conflict is being planned. The Kurdistan Workers ’Party, as reported by Reuters, announced the denunciation of the truce concluded in 2012 with the Turkish government. The ceasefire agreement in recent years has provided relative peace in the territory of the eastern provinces of Turkey, where Kurds constitute the majority of the population. Since 2013, the Kurds did not actually conduct active hostilities against Turkey and abandoned the practice of terrorist attacks on Turkish targets. However, 25 July 2015, the situation has changed.

Turkey against the Kurds. Is there a new phase of conflict ahead?

Turkey inflicted airstrikes on the positions of the Kurds

The reason for the sharp discontent of the Kurds was the actions of the Turkish armed forces, which caused several aviation strikes on the positions of Islamic State militants on the Syrian-Turkish border. However, in addition to attacking the positions of IS, the Turkish aircraft also attacked the positions of the Kurds, who are just fighting against the "Islamic State". Turkish Prime Minister Ahmet Davutoglu said that on Saturday night, the Turkish army attacked the positions of the armed forces of the "Islamic State" in Syria, as well as the positions of the Kurdistan Workers' Party in northern Iraq - in the Zap, Metina, Gara, Avashin, Sinat regions. Haftanin, Hakurk, Kandil. The attacks of the Turkish armed forces were carried out from the air and by means of artillery shelling. At the same time in the territory of Northern Iraq were destroyed warehouses with weapons and the camp of Kurdish refugees fleeing Iraqi Kurdistan from IS militants. Thus, the Turkish leadership has shown that for him both the “Islamic State” and the Kurdish national liberation movement are an equal adversary, and the Kurds represent almost a greater danger to Turkish statehood. Officially, the Turkish leadership stated that attacks on Kurdish positions were aimed at protecting the national security of the Turkish state. Therefore, the leadership of the Kurdistan Workers' Party and reported that the ceasefire agreement has lost all meaning in the current political situation. This statement of the PKK was a signal for action for the numerous Kurdish opposition in Turkey.

In turn, Ankara renewed political persecution of opponents, first of all - supporters of the Kurdish national liberation movement. The Turkish authorities reported conducting an anti-terrorist operation in the 13 provinces of the country, during which more than 250 people were detained. Among those arrested were Kurds - supporters of the Kurdistan Workers' Party. The operation was a response to the explosion that thundered on July 20 in the Turkish city of Suruc. The bomber, a Turkish student, allegedly a militant or sympathizer of the IG, fired an explosive device. The victims of the attack were 32 people, more than 100 people were injured. At the same time, most of the victims were Kurds - activists of a youth organization who were preparing to be sent to Syria, to the city of Kobani, where Kurdish armed forces are fighting with IG troops. The Kurds considered that the terrorist attack perpetrated by a Turkish student was made possible by the policies of President Recep Erdogan, indulging in radical fundamentalist groups. Hundreds of Kurds and supporters of the Turkish radical left-wing organizations sympathizing with them came to Taksim Square in Istanbul, accusing Erdogan of indulging in fundamentalists. In the cities of southeastern Turkey, riots broke out against the Turkish authorities. As a result of clashes with police forces, two Turkish policemen were killed. The intensification of repression against the Kurdish national liberation movement in Turkey, in fact, plays into the hands of the IG - after all, the Kurds represent one of the most active fronts against the IG in the Middle East. The Kurdish militia "Peshmerga" in the territory of Syria and Iraq over the past years has remained the most combat-ready opponent of the advancing IG units. When Turkey begins to strike at positions of the Kurdish armed forces in Iraq, and also conducts mass arrests of Kurdish activists who are the main support group for Syrian and Iraqi Kurds in the territory of Turkey itself, this only contributes to the real strengthening of the IG, even if the positions of the latter are inflicted Turkish air strikes and artillery. The Kurdish national liberation movement accuses Erdogan of actually inciting the IG against the Kurds, hoping that with the help of the fundamentalists, he will be able to do away with the powerful centers of resistance of the supporters of the independence of Kurdistan. On the other hand, in order not to provoke a negative reaction from the United States and European NATO allies, Erdogan masks his real goals with the formal participation of Turkey in military operations against the IS on the territory of Syria and Iraq.

The United States and European countries differed in their assessment

Almost immediately after it became aware of the Turkish army’s aviation and artillery strikes against Kurdish positions, Ankara’s actions were welcomed by the top leadership of the United States of America. So, from where "the wind blows", once again, without a twinge of conscience, the Americans themselves demonstrated. At a briefing in Nairobi, a representative of the American leadership supported the actions of Turkey and called the Kurdistan Workers' Party a terrorist organization. And this is despite the fact that as far back as 2008, it was removed from the list of terrorist organizations by the European Union, and Turkey is denied accession to the European Union precisely because of massive violations of the rights of the Kurdish population and the unresolved issues of national self-determination of the Kurds and the creation of at least Kurdish autonomy eastern regions of the country. The position of the United States is clear - the Kurdistan Workers' Party is a socialist political organization and, therefore, represents an absolutely “polar” ideology of American imperialism, besides, supported by both Assad Syria and the Soviet Union. Ben Rhodes, who is the deputy national security adviser to the president of the United States, said he supported Turkey’s efforts to fight the Islamic State and stressed that the United States maintains good working relations with the Kurdish government in northern Iraq, but considers the Kurdistan Workers' Party a terrorist organization. Accordingly, Turkey has the full right to fight the terrorist threat on its territory.

It is noteworthy that, unlike the United States, the European Union countries are not at all inclined to welcome the next round of aggression by the Turkish army against the Kurds. Condemning the airstrikes of the Turkish Air Force against the positions of the Kurdistan Workers' Party was made by the German Defense Minister Ursula von der Layen. She stressed that attention should be paid not to the Kurds, but to the “Islamic State”, and to hinder the activities of the latter, including joint efforts with the Kurds. The representative of the Green Party of Germany Jem Ozdemir noted that the Kurds are one of the most important opponents of the "Islamic state", therefore, in the conditions of the military-political situation in the Middle East, it is unwise to launch aggression against the Kurds who are holding back the IG. The weakening of the Kurds only plays into the hands of the “Islamic State,” said Jem Ozdemir, therefore Germany should explain to Turkey’s NATO partner the irregularity of its actions to resolve the “Kurdish problem”. The position of the German leadership is explained not only by the strategic interest of the Federal Republic of Germany in the IG confrontation in Western Asia, but also by the presence of one of the world's largest Kurdish diasporas in Germany. Angela Merkel, in a telephone conversation with her Turkish counterpart Ahmet Davutoglu, welcomed the efforts of Turkey in the fight against IS, however, she recommended a balanced attitude to solving the Kurdish problem and not postponing it. This indicates that Germany, unlike the United States, calls on Ankara to focus not on fighting the Kurds, but on confronting the "Islamic State." And there are reasons for this. Naturally, in the event of a further escalation of the conflict between Turkey and the Kurdistan Workers' Party, the consequences of the confrontation will inevitably affect the territory of the Federal Republic of Germany. In German cities, clashes between Turks and Kurds took place more than once, in which the leadership of Germany is extremely uninterested. At the same time, most of the German Kurds are made up of immigrants from Turkey. Many of them sympathize with the Workers Party of Kurdistan. According to German politicians, Turkey, instead of deploying a conflict with the Kurdish national liberation movement, should join forces with it and oppose the Islamic State, which is approaching Syria to the Turkish border. However, it is still unknown whether Recep Erdogan and his entourage will listen to quite reasonable recommendations from Berlin. For Ankara, the Kurds traditionally remain “the number one adversary,” since the self-determination of the Kurds, according to the Turkish authorities, will violate the territorial integrity of the country and undermine its political, economic and military might.

The dream of the freedom of Turkish Kurds

Recall that the Kurds remain the most numerous people of the world, not having their own statehood, but having a developed national identity and rich history. Tens of millions of Kurds live in Western Asia - in Turkey, Iran, Iraq, Syria, smaller groups also in the countries of the Caucasus, Afghanistan, Central Asia. Impressive Kurdish diasporas exist in most countries of Western Europe, in the Russian Federation. At the same time, the majority of Kurds - at least 20 million people - live in Turkey. The Kurds constitute the absolute majority of the population in southeastern Turkey, making up over 65% of the population, or more than 5 million. In Eastern Anatolia, Kurds make up at least 50% of the population, including in the center of Eastern Anatolia - about 80% of the population. About 2 million Kurds live in Istanbul and its environs, making up about 15% of the region's population. In addition, the Kurds settled in a number of other regions of Turkey. In addition, in the east of Turkey there is an ethnolinguist-related ethnos zaza, which is close in culture to the Kurds, numbering about 2 million. Zaza is closely associated with the Kurds and usually identify themselves with the Kurdish population of Turkey, including in political terms. The differences between the Turkish and Kurdish population are based on fundamentally different languages ​​- the Turks speak Turkish, belonging to the Turkic group of the Altai family, and the Kurds speak Kurdish languages ​​and dialects belonging to the Iranian group of the Indo-European family and are directly derived from the Median languages ​​spoken inhabitants of the Ancient Mussel. The Kurds are one of the most ancient peoples of Asia Minor, who made a great contribution to the history of this region. There are differences in the confessional plane - among the Kurds, in addition to Sunni Muslims, there are a large number of followers of Alevism, the teachings of Al-e-Haqq and Yezidism - the ancient Kurdish religion, whose followers (Yezidis) identify themselves as a particular people and have very ancient and interesting traditions. With the consolidation of the Kurdish people in the struggle for their independence, religious and cultural differences between individual groups of Kurds, Zaza, Yezidis, fade into the background.

In accordance with the Sevres 1920 peace treaty between Turkey and the Entente countries, an independent state of Kurdistan was to be created. However, later, in 1923, the new Treaty of Lausanne was concluded, according to which the Treaty of Sevres was annulled. After the refusal of Turkey to grant the Kurds independence and even autonomy, in the 1920-s - 1930-s. there were several popular uprisings. However, due to the harsh, repressive policies of the Turkish authorities, the Kurdish movement in the country was crushed and Iraq became the center of the Kurdish resistance for some time. After the uprising of Kurds in Iraqi Kurdistan began in 1961, the Kurdish national liberation movement in Turkey was on the rise. Meanwhile, the Turkish authorities did everything possible to prevent the strengthening of the positions of the Kurdish national movement. For just one mention of the Kurdish problem in Turkey in the second half of the twentieth century, one could easily get a prison sentence. Thousands of activists of Kurdish social and political organizations were in the prisons of Turkey, and the population of the Kurdish areas in the east and southeast of the country was exposed to outright discrimination by the Turkish authorities and security forces. At the same time, it was the political upturn of the 1960's - 1970's. submitted the Kurdish problem for discussion not only Turkish, but also the world community. In Turkey itself, the problem of the Kurds interested, in the first place, the Turkish left, who were also subjected to harassment by the authorities.

At the turn of 1960-x - 1970-x. the positions of the Turkish left against the Kurds and the Kurdish struggle for national self-determination shifted towards further deepening interaction with the Kurdish national movement. The Workers' Party of Turkey, which for a long time remained the largest left organization in the country that played the role of the Communist Party (the communist parties in Turkey were officially banned), for the first time stated that there was a Kurdish problem in Turkey and stressed that Kurdish residents are in the position of second-class citizens. At the congress in 1970 The Workers' Party of Turkey officially recognized the existence of the Kurdish people and declared its condemnation of the policy of the Turkish government towards the Kurds, aimed at assimilating this numerous people. However, the leaders of the Workers' Party of Turkey were in favor of solving the Kurdish problem within a single democratic state, therefore the party did not support the idea of ​​complete independence of the Kurdish people, which was shared by the Kurdish radicals. Thus, the solution of the problem of the Kurdish population of Turkey was made directly dependent on the changing political and socio-economic situation in Turkey itself. Despite the fact that the RPT and many other left parties did not support the idea of ​​full political independence of Kurdistan, there was a lot of progress in talking about the presence of the Kurdish people, whose existence was not recognized by the Turkish government for a long time, and about the existence of the problem of discrimination and assimilation of the Kurdish population in Turkey. At the same time, the policy of the Turkish leadership towards the Kurdish population of the country was described as fascist and racist, and the Kurdish people were called the victim of the reactionary measures of assimilation and discrimination undertaken by the Turkish government. Ultimately, the prohibition of the Turkish Workers Party by the government of the country resulted from the party’s position on the Kurdish problem. Meanwhile, at the end of the 1960's. a rather powerful and influential left-radical movement was formed among the Turkish youth. The Federation of Revolutionary Youth (“Devgench”) became the largest student left-wing radical organization in Turkey, and it was on its basis that a whole series of Turkish Maoist and Hevarist revolutionary organizations emerged. Most of the young Turkish leftists became disillusioned with the possibility of coming to power in the country peacefully and took the course of an armed struggle. At the same time, the Turkish left's critical perception of the Kemalism’s political line originating from Mustafa Atatürk. As a result, the concept of a “rural guerrilla”, adopted by the Turkish left from Mao Zedong and Che Guevara, was established among the left radicals in Turkey. Three main parties were formed, focused on the armed struggle against the Turkish regime - the People’s Liberation Army of Turkey under the leadership of Deniz Gezmish, the People’s Liberation Party - the Turkish Front under the leadership of Mahir Chayyana and the Turkish Communist Party (Marxist-Leninist) with the Turkish Workers' Liberation Army under guidance Ibrahim Kaypakkaya. Moreover, the first two organizations focused more on the experience of the Latin American revolutionary struggle, and Kaipakkaya was a staunch Maoist. The activities of the listed armed organizations ended tragically. All of their leaders were executed or died in battles with the Turkish police and government forces, after death, becoming literally “icons” for the Turkish youth left-wing radical movement.

Kurdistan Workers Party

The modern period of the struggle of the Turkish Kurds for national self-determination began in 1984 and is associated with the activities of the Kurdistan Workers Party (PKK) - the largest Kurdish national liberation organization in Turkey and one of the largest and most active and influential national liberation organizations in the world. The Kurdistan Workers' Party was created in 1978 and was a left-wing socialist party, but did not adhere to the Soviet-style Marxist-Leninist ideology. The founder of the Kurdistan Workers' Party was Abdullah Ocalan (born 4 on April 1949) - a native of the Kurdish peasant family of the village of Omerli, in Sanliurfa province, in the most southeast of Turkey, on the Syrian border. The family of Abdullah Omar Ocalan’s father did not differ in wealth and the young man had to leave his parental home and get a job in the city of Nizin. Being a talented and motivated guy, Abdullah Ocalan received a secondary education in Nizin, while working at harvest. Then he was able to enroll in a craft college and then, after graduation, he worked in the land cadastre in Diyarbakir. At the end of 1970, Ojalan was able to enter the Faculty of Political Sciences at Ankara University. In 1971-1974 He studied in Ankara, where he became interested in socialist ideas and created a political group of national socialist persuasion. Political activities prevented Ocalan from completing a full course of study at the Faculty of Political Science.

Communicating with socialist-minded youth, Ocalan participates in rallies and demonstrations. 7 April 1972 was arrested for the first time and placed in Mamak prison for 7 months. In the winter of 1975-1976. Ocalan wrote the Manifesto of the Kurdish Revolution, in which he outlined the basic principles of building a Kurdish revolutionary organization. In April-May, 1977, the city of Ocalan, toured the Kurdish settlements of Eastern Anatolia, after which he finally became convinced of the need to create a political party that would express not only the national, but also the social interests of the peoples of Kurdistan — Kurds, Armenians, and and Arabs. 27 November 1978 was held in the village of Fis, in the county of Lice, a constituent congress of the Kurdistan Workers' Party (PKK) was convened, at which Abdullah Ocalan was elected chairman of the party. From then until now, “Comrade Apo”, as Ocalan is called in the Kurdish environment, is considered to be the recognized leader of the Turkish Kurdistan national liberation movement and one of the most respected Kurdish politicians. In the Kurdish world, the scale of influence with Ocalan can, perhaps, be representatives of the Barzani family - the political leaders of the Iraqi Kurdistan national movement. By the way, it was the Iraqi Kurds who once betted on the United States and Israel, regarding them as important allies in the fight against the regime of Saddam Hussein. More or less peaceful relations have developed between the leadership of Iraqi Kurdistan and Ankara, which cannot be said about the Turkish and Syrian Kurds proper.

Before the 1980 military coup, Ocalan emigrated into Syria hostile to Turkey and began to form armed units in the Kurdish provinces of Syria that were to become the backbone of the national liberation army. In the middle of 1980's. The Kurdistan Workers ’Party already had the Kurdistan Liberation Peoples’ Controlled Army, which numbered thousands of fighters, and in 1984 began fighting against the Turkish government forces. The number of the Kurdistan Workers' Party by the middle of the 1980-ies. was at least 58 thousand people, but there were much more sympathizers among the Kurdish rural population, the Kurdish intelligentsia in the most different regions of Turkey. The confrontation of the Kurdistan Workers' Party with the Turkish government has continued for over thirty years. The Turkish authorities have always focused on a tough repressive policy towards the Kurdish population. The Kurds were even denied the right to be considered by the people, not to mention the possibility of teaching children in their own language or developing their own culture. The strategic line of Turkey in the sphere of national politics, since the time of Mustafa Atatürk, has been “Turkization” of the whole country. All ethnic minorities were supposed to be “graced”, dissolved in the Turkish nation, or create conditions for them that they would prefer to either Turkize or leave the country’s borders. In particular, since 1984, around 3000 Kurdish settlements were wiped off the face of the earth. Hundreds of thousands of Kurds were forced to leave the territory of Turkey, fleeing from political repression. It is the policy of the Turkish regime that is one of the most important reasons for the formation of a large Kurdish diaspora in the countries of Western Europe. By the way, in the “diaspora” countries, the Kurdistan Workers' Party has a great influence on the Kurdish migrant youth and regularly organizes performances against the policy of the Turkish regime in various cities of Western Europe.
In July, 1981 hosted the first conference of the Kurdistan Workers' Party, which brought together 80 representatives of party organizations. In August, 1982 held the second congress of the Kurdistan Workers' Party, at which it was decided to prepare for an armed uprising in the event of the refusal of the Turkish government to recognize the rights of the Kurds by peaceful means. The Kurdistan Workers' Party came out from the standpoint of socialism, inextricably linking the struggle for the national liberation of the Kurdish people with the struggle for the social liberation of all the peoples of Turkish Kurdistan. Ocalan has repeatedly stressed that the problems of the national liberation of Armenians, Assyrians, Arabs, Greeks are of no less interest to him than the problems of his own Kurdish people. According to the Kurdish leader, Turkey over the centuries of its history has assimilated a large number of Anatolian inhabitants, who originally belonged to other non-Turkic ethnic groups. Moreover, the policy of assimilation and non-recognition of the rights of national minorities in the country continues to this day. The victims of this policy are not only the Kurds, but also representatives of many other peoples of the country. The internationalist position of the PKK led to the fact that Armenians, Arabs, Assyrians, Greeks, as well as numerous foreign international volunteers, as a rule, leftist radical organizations in Europe, Latin America and Asia fought Kurds shoulder to shoulder with the Kurds. A large role in the armed struggle of the Kurdish people is also played by women, who constitute a significant part of the Kurdish armed formations. Ocalan has always stressed the importance of equal rights for women and called for the abandonment of the tradition of reducing the role of women characteristic of Kurdish and Turkish society. According to some information, in the armed forces of the Syrian Kurdish militia "Peshmerga" women make up 40% of the military personnel participating in battles with the forces of the "Islamic State".

Prior to 1998, the city of Abdullah Ocalan, who enjoyed the support of the Syrian leadership, lived in Damascus. The main bases and training camps of the Kurdistan Workers Party were located in Syria. However, in October, 1998 Mr. Hafez Asad, not wanting to deteriorate relations with Turkey, nevertheless asked Ocalan to leave Syria and find himself a new refuge. Ocalan was looking for him in Greece, Italy and Russia, but all countries refused to accept the Kurdish leader. Despite the fact that the State Duma of the Russian Federation, by an absolute majority, supported the request of the Kurdish leader for political asylum in Russia, President Boris Yeltsin left the appeal unanswered. As a result, in February 1999, the city of Ocalan was kidnapped by Turkish and Israeli secret services in Kenya and handed over to the Turkish authorities. The PKK leader was sentenced to death, but then he was replaced by the death penalty with life imprisonment, which Ocalan, until now, is serving in prison on the island of Imrali in the Sea of ​​Marmara. In fact, Öcalan plays the role of a hostage, through which the Turkish leadership hopes to influence the behavior of Kurdish political organizations in the country. Indeed, in recent years, the Turkish leadership, whose representatives entered into negotiations with the arrested Ocalan, has managed to achieve certain improvements in relations with the Kurdistan Workers' Party. Ocalan spoke in favor of establishing peace with Turkey and ending the bloody war that claimed the lives of thousands of Kurds and Turks. However, recent events on the Turkish-Syrian border seem to have violated the existing truce between the Turks and the Kurds. It should also be noted that not only members and sympathizers of the Kurdistan Workers' Party, but representatives of other Kurdish military-political organizations are taking part in the Kurdish armed struggle for independence. The Turkish government prefers to hush up the very fact that there are a number of armed organizations of national liberation in the country. In addition, the Kurds make up quite an impressive part of the activists of the Turkish left-wing political organizations, also focused on a radical struggle against the Turkish regime.

The tough policy of the Turkish authorities in relation to the Kurdish national liberation movement raises many questions from the world community. It is the Kurdish problem that is one of the main factors preventing the entry of Turkey into the European Union, the idea of ​​which the government of Recep Erdogan actually refused. Finally, the Turkish army has repeatedly used unlawful methods of fighting against the Kurds, from torture and beatings in prisons to the use of chemical weapons. Thus, 11 in May 1999 during the battle of AONK (Army of the Liberation of the Peoples of Kurdistan) with Turkish troops in the area of ​​the village of Bali Kaya, Turkish troops used chemical weapons, resulting in the death of 20 Kurdish partisans. Despite the fact that chemical weapons are prohibited by international conventions, NATO countries have silenced the fact of their use by the Turkish authorities against the Kurdish guerrillas. And this is despite the fact that the Iraqi leader Saddam Hussein's use of chemical weapons against Iraqi Kurds was very expensive - it was called one of his main war crimes. Despite the cruelty of the Turkish authorities against the Kurds, the Kurdistan Workers Party has repeatedly tried to reach a peace agreement with Ankara. The first truce was announced on March 19 1993 - at a press conference that Ocalan, together with the leader of the Patriotic Union of Kurdistan, Jalal Talabani, gave in Lebanon, in the province of Bekaa. Moreover, the first truce was one-sided and lasted until 15 on April 1993. After Turkish President Turgut Özal, who was one of the initiators of the truce with the Kurds, 17 on April 1993 died of a heart attack, Turkish troops stepped up their attack on the Kurdish positions, after which The Kurdistan Workers Party was forced to suspend the truce and resume hostilities against the Turkish government forces. Thus, a new phase of armed confrontation began, accompanied not only by fighting in the mountains of Turkish Kurdistan, but also by a wave of terrorist attacks in Turkish cities.

Two and a half years later, 15 December 1995, a second truce was announced. After Öcalan received a letter from Turkish Prime Minister Tansu Chiller, the Kurdish leader declared a second truce, however after January 16 1996 Turkish soldiers shot a minibus with 11 civilians, then blamed the Kurds for the incident, the truce was terminated. 6 March 1995 city Turkish special services organized an attempt on Ocalan, which was the final reason for the further escalation of the Turkish-Kurdish conflict. However, 1 September 1998 followed by a third truce - it was a response to the request of the Prime Minister of Turkey Erbakan. However, 15 February 1999, after Abdullah Ocalan was captured by the Turkish secret services in Kenya, the truce was broken and the Kurds began to avenge the arrest of their leader. 2 1999 of August The Kurdistan Workers Party announced the withdrawal of troops from the territory of Turkish Kurdistan to Iraqi Kurdistan, and on September 1 announced a new truce. It lasted for about five years and was interrupted in June 2004, when the leadership of the Kurdistan Workers' Party realized that the Turkish government still refuses to fundamentally solve the problem of national self-determination of Kurds and other peoples of Turkish Kurdistan. However, 1 September 2006 The Kurdistan Workers' Party announced the conclusion of a fifth truce, thus responding to the requests of Kurdish public figures, both Turkey and the diaspora. In March, the 2009 a moratorium on hostilities was announced before 1 June 2009, and 29 September 2009. The moratorium was extended indefinitely. The refusal of the Kurdistan Workers 'Party to combat actions contributed to the cancellation of the decision to include the Kurdistan Workers' Party in the list of terrorist organizations. 3 April 2008 city The European Court overturned the decision recognizing the PKK as a terrorist organization. The Kurdish political organizations of Turkey demanded that the Turkish government review the law on countering terrorism, reduce the electoral barrier, and distribute state support among all political parties. However, the political course of the Turkish government contributed to the renewal of demands - now the Kurds demanded the release of political prisoners, the introduction of democratic autonomy to Turkish Kurds, which caused Erdogan’s sharp refusal from further negotiations with the Kurds. After the parliamentary elections 2011 the situation has changed - the Kurds were represented in the parliament, after which the Kurdish mine action was one of the subjects of the constitutional reform process in Turkey. However, the Kurds did not succeed in achieving autonomy and the release of political prisoners. Therefore, in 2012 63 political prisoners went on a hunger strike, joined by several hundred people. The protesters demanded a softening of the regime for Ocalan and the provision of opportunities to receive education and conduct litigation in the Kurdish language. Kurdish movement in Turkey during the 2000-ies.

The current situation on the Turkish-Syrian border and the airstrikes of the Turkish troops on the PKK positions seem to have disturbed the existing balance of power and could lead to a further deepening of the conflict. The bases and depots of the Kurdistan Workers' Party in the Kandil mountains are subjected to air strikes, which Turkish Foreign Minister Mevlut Cavusoglu explains only by the need to fight terrorism and protect Turkey’s national security. Turkish President Recep Erdogan argues that it is not possible to peacefully resolve the situation with the Kurds, since the latter continue to pose a threat to the national security of the Turkish state. According to the official line of the Turkish authorities, the PKK is the same terrorist organization as the IS, so the Turkish army will continue fighting against the Kurdish formations on the Turkish-Syrian border. In turn, the Syrian government has already described the actions of Ankara as an attack on the territory of Syria under the pretext of fighting the IS. The Syrian authorities fear that Turkey has launched its long-term plan to create a “security belt” in northern Syria in order to protect its territory from the neighborhood with the bases of the Kurdistan Workers' Party and the “Islamic State”. Plans to create a buffer zone in the north of Syria are actively supported by the United States of America.

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  1. Sensatus
    Sensatus 30 July 2015 07: 23
    As I understand it, the Kurds have recently begun to really crowd out ISIS. And this is not in the hands of the Turks. Here they are, in the style of their older brother, and "fight" terrorists: one bomb on terrorists, a shout to the whole world about it, and then hundreds of bombs on the Kurds.
    As a result, the Kurds attack on the capital of ISIS is stopped. Here is a policy. Fighters against terrorism, damn it.
    1. KERTAK
      KERTAK 30 July 2015 09: 34
      I agree with you. no matter how silly it may sound: "The enemy of my enemy is my enemy."
      1. EGOrkka
        EGOrkka 30 July 2015 13: 18
        Actually, the enemy of my enemy is my FRIEND !!!!
    2. 222222
      222222 30 July 2015 11: 44
      ... "" Here they are, in the style of their older brother, and "fight" the terrorists: one bomb on terrorists, a shout to the whole world about it, and then hundreds of bombs on the Kurds "" "
      == JULY 30, 2015, 10:41
      Regional intelligence unit attacked in southeast Turkey
      In Turkey, the building of the regional office of the country's National Intelligence Agency (MIT) was attacked. Unidentified persons attacked a building in the Hakkari province in the southeast of the country. "" "
      === JULY 29, 2015, 21:06

      Turkey enlisted the support of NATO partners: Brussels expressed solidarity with Ankara in the field of the fight against terrorism and with the Islamic State group.

      An emergency meeting of the North Atlantic Treaty was convened at the request of Turkey - against the backdrop of the air operations it began against ISIS and the Kurdistan Workers Party.

      It is emphasized that Ankara does not ask for military assistance, but only to discuss with its allies the situation on its borders.

      Turkish Kurds disappointed with NATO decision. In their opinion, peace is in any case better than war:

      - For our region, NATO decisions mean nothing. People will continue to die. If military operations against the Kurdish Workers Party continue, the region will suffer more and more, people will be tortured and killed. We need peace, not war.

      - I do not think that such operations will bring Turkey a positive effect. I do not believe that NATO can bring us peace and prosperity through such decisions. If this were so, people here would have long lived in peace and prosperity.

      In addition, many Kurds accuse Ankara that, under the guise of fighting the Islamic State, the Turkish leadership wants to crack down on the Kurdish Workers' Party - many of whose fighters, in turn, are also fighting against ISIS. "
    3. igor.borov775
      igor.borov775 30 July 2015 15: 34
      Which IG is an enemy if oil sells for free Ten bucks. They taught their own on the board they dressed they brought in armed. What else can there talk about. if banks of America are not authorized to be checked by anyone. This is Klondike for the USA. Well, for the whole world, you can broadcast loudly supposedly stealing and silence. The ig fulfills the role that the Yankees so stubbornly searched for. This is for the Pentagon’s budget, too, it’s a real enemy, and after it Russia is also a real enemy, it has so much good and doesn’t want to give everything for nothing.
  2. parusnik
    parusnik 30 July 2015 07: 38
    The Kurdistan Workers Party announced the denunciation of the truce concluded in 2012 with the Turkish government.... Now the porridge is brewing ... Erdogan starts digging his own grave in vain .. NATO will not help, in this "fair" struggle of Turkey, except morally .. but no more .. Thank you, Ilya ...
    1. Bakht
      Bakht 30 July 2015 10: 07
      Erdogan "started digging his own grave" 10 years ago. This is called a complete failure in foreign policy. This is called abandoning Ataturk's policies. Even 5 years ago, he had to be knitted with a Manila cable and sent to a madhouse.

      As for the Kurds ... I have a strong feeling that real politicians (like modern presidents) have less brains than a first-grader. The Ukrainian crisis has not taught anyone anything.
      1. parusnik
        parusnik 30 July 2015 15: 33
        Speaking about the grave, I’m a little about something else .. The name of the trump cards in my hands, one of them is the "Turkish stream" .. Erdogan could make Turkey one of the leading countries in the region without fighting .. spoke the horse Julius from the famous cartoon "Oh, duraaaaaak!"
        1. Bakht
          Bakht 30 July 2015 18: 47
          the whole problem lies in the words "not at war". He couldn't do it. The Kurdish problem existed long before Erdogan.

          How to solve national issues? You can war, but you can .... think. I cited Ukraine as an example. Kurds, Cyprus, Nagorno-Karabakh, Ukraine - all these problems have completely different roots and course of events. But they must be addressed universally. And the longer it takes to solve the problem, the tougher it is to react. In the spring of 2014 in the East of Ukraine they wanted only a regional language and economic self-government. Does anyone in the Donbass agree to this now? 30 years ago, the Kurds wanted autonomy. Now we are talking about a new state.

          "Without fighting" you can solve the problem if BOTH sides are ready to solve it. But modern rulers disappoint me more and more.
  3. slizhov
    slizhov 30 July 2015 08: 17
    Erdogan seems to have decided to fight everyone indiscriminately.
    And we told him Turkish, however, Potttoook ...
    1. t1g3r
      t1g3r 30 July 2015 10: 09
      Russian gas is very expensive, I think one way or another there will be no Turkish flow ...
  4. Mountain shooter
    Mountain shooter 30 July 2015 08: 38
    Turks are losing income from ISIS oil. Kurds are effectively fighting IS, knocking out the most important support from under it - financial. After all, most of the transit of smuggled oil from Iraq is under threat! They pass through areas with Kurdish populations. And the Kurds blew up the oil pipeline, greatly complicating the smuggling. So the Turks went berserk. Erdogan will set fire to his own country. It was very correct that Gazprom switched on the brakes on the Turkish Stream.
    There, in general, everything is not clear how it will end. Turks are not at all white and fluffy, as they want to seem.
    1. g1v2
      g1v2 30 July 2015 14: 17
      The Turks, of course, are far from white and fluffy - they sponsor the Islamic State, crush the Nazis, spoil Assad, and so on. However, the Turkish stream has more of our interests. Turkey is the second strongest NATO army and an influential country in the region. If there is a chance to take advantage of its dissatisfaction with the EU and NATO, then it is worth a try. If there is no such chance, then Kurdish separatism is a good deterrent for the Turks. Let them solve the problems with the Kurds and have less influence on the Caucasus and Crimea. Many militants from the Caucasus live quietly in Turkey, one of the leaders of the IS also recently posted photos from Turkish resorts. Let their army fight the Kurds. The longer the war, the more dissatisfaction of the Kurdish population will grow, the more uneasy it will be on the border between Turkey and Iran, the less likely it is for any gas pipeline from Iran to the west. Turkish stream is needed anyway. Firstly, the developed gas transmission network is our powerful competitive advantage and we need to develop it both domestically and abroad. Secondly, countries receiving less money for transit will be less interested in losing them. Thirdly, the presence of a southern gas pipeline will reduce Germany’s influence on us, otherwise it will be the only one through which our gas will go to the EU. Well and fourthly, through the Turkish stream, you can enter the Italian market. True, it is better to supply gas through Germany to Austria and Hungary, since Serbs and Macedonians are absolutely impossible to trust.
  5. Oper6300
    Oper6300 30 July 2015 08: 42
    The operation was a response to the explosion on July 20 in the Turkish city of Suruch. The suicide bomber, a Turkish student who allegedly was an IS fighter or sympathizer, fired an explosive device. The victims of the attack were 32 people, more than 100 people were injured. Moreover, most of the victims were Kurds

    The author has problems building sentences. The persecution of the Kurds was a response to the terrorist attack against the Kurds. Hmm ...
    1. ilyaros
      30 July 2015 09: 15
      IS militants (or provocateurs?) carried out a terrorist attack, which was used by the Turkish authorities as a pretext for launching an "anti-terrorist operation." Although the Kurds were killed in the terrorist attack, it is beneficial for the government, under the guise of fighting terrorists from IS, to crack down on the Kurdish national movement.
      1. The comment was deleted.
      2. Oper6300
        Oper6300 30 July 2015 10: 51
        This is all clear and without an author, I'm just against the prevalence of illiteracy in the media. Can the author recommend a good teacher? Good analysis, but here is a summary ...
    2. Bakht
      Bakht 30 July 2015 10: 09
      The author is all right with the logic. Read to the end. Then everything will fall into place. And pulling phrases out of context - it’s nonsense.

      Logic of the author: act of terrorism against Kurds - manifestation against incapacity of the authorities - dispersal and arrest of the Kurdish demonstration. Where is the logic broken?
      1. Oper6300
        Oper6300 30 July 2015 10: 35
        My dear, who wrote about logic? If you do not distinguish logic from vocabulary, you have no complaints. But the author is Russian, trying to write in Russian and must write so as to be correctly understood.
        1. Kasym
          Kasym 30 July 2015 11: 40
          An Azerbaijani with a Kazakh understood the Russians, but a German ... wink
          Take it only for a joke, and if touched - I apologize. smile
          1. Oper6300
            Oper6300 30 July 2015 15: 23
            Well, I'm no more German than the author of the review. Perhaps even less.
        2. Bakht
          Bakht 30 July 2015 15: 07
          I was taught that when they turn to "dear" - it is straight to the butt. :-) Joke.

          The construction of sentences is correct. As far as I know Russian. And I know him well. Your phrase "The persecution of the Kurds was a response to the terrorist attack against the Kurds." Does the author have a similar phrase? Where? So I wrote about logic correctly. And I did not find any mistakes in the vocabulary. And in logic, by the way, too.
          1. Oper6300
            Oper6300 30 July 2015 15: 29
            I dare to assure that you know Russian better than the author hi
            Moreover, it is your honor that you did not support the Türks contrary to the facts.
            If you read that paragraph, then make sure that they DO NOT SPEAK THIS. Believe my experience.
            1. Bakht
              Bakht 30 July 2015 18: 55
              I will read the paragraph. But honestly on this site you can talk about politics. The author wrote quite correctly. Believe me, I read more clumsy phrases in the Russian media.

              Regarding the support of the Turks. I am Azerbaijani, Yes, we have common roots with the Turks. We all belong to the Turkic world. But I never considered myself a Turk. One must have at least a little pride. And be proud of your country. Poor Shah Ismail (founder of the Azerbaijani state, although he belongs to the Iranian branch). He fought with the Turks all his life.

              In this case, there were and are enough smart people in Turkey who opposed Erdogan. And they are still confronting because they see where he led Turkish politics. But Erdogan managed to clean up the Turkish political field well. Remember that a year or two ago he actually beheaded the Turkish army. How many generals are in prison. One of the reasons for their disobedience was Erdogan’s policy in the Middle East. He was warned that this would not bring to good.

              So I support Turkey, but I have always been against Erdogan’s policies. I do not respect Islamists in any form.
              1. Kasym
                Kasym 30 July 2015 21: 48
                In Turkey, Erdogan actually departed from Ataturk’s covenant to head for a secular state. The military drove and were considered the intelligentsia and the elite of the country. And this Turkey turned 180 degrees. Breaking a society that will take a couple of generations can undermine internal stability. Now the elite is the clergy. The generals will not forgive this - sooner or later there will be a revenge with such a policy of Erdogan, who played on the contradictions of the generals. hi
  6. master
    master 30 July 2015 11: 00
    As a result, not only the border with Syria will be unstable, but there is a chance that the war will affect Eastern Turkey. Turkish Kurds will not be idle if the conflict develops into a serious phase. And ISIS is only at hand, that the Kurds will lose strength and weapons in the fight against Turkey.
  7. Spas the Great
    Spas the Great 30 July 2015 12: 18
    Good political review!
    Turkey is shining big changes in the near future: slaveholding towards other nations will lead to the destruction of Turkey itself. And neither NATO nor mattresses will help.
    I wish the Kurdish people’s liberation movement victory and less sacrifice!
  8. Belousov
    Belousov 30 July 2015 12: 19
    Turks get bogged down in the war with the Kurds. There are two important points:
    1) the Kurds will not be able to seriously oppose ISIS, so aid to Damascus will decrease, so Assad may fall. Outcome: positive for staff and Saudis, the construction of a gas pipeline to Europe, an economic blow to Russia, etc.
    2) Turkey will weaken in the struggle, that means it will need staffing, so it will be possible to put pressure on it and no one will see any Turkish flows.
    1. Bakht
      Bakht 30 July 2015 15: 26
      Yes and no. Difficult question. Kurds have opposed the Turks for many years. Erdogan made a fatal mistake. Even two. When he helped in the war against Iraq and when he went against Assad. As a result of the first mistake, Iraqi Kurdistan appeared, as a result of the second, Iraqi and Syrian Kurds will join forces.

      Erdogan’s idea was to become the leader of the Muslim world. He was originally an Islamist. Truth is said to be moderate. But for me, moderate Islamists do not exist. Turkey could not and cannot become the leader of the Muslim world. For two reasons that Erdogan has been pointed out for a long time. First, there are no Muslim shrines in Turkey; the second - using the Kurds you can always blow Turkey. Erdogan does not have political stability in the country.

      The issue with gas pipelines is controversial. If the war in Kurdistan drags on, then you can forget about Nabucco, TANAP and other abbreviations. The Kurds have already promised to blow up both the gas pipeline and the oil pipeline from Azerbaijan. So Iranian gas will not flow to Europe. What is in the hands of the States.

      I’m afraid that this bums for a long time.
  9. Lehman
    Lehman 30 July 2015 12: 37
    The war, originally declared against ISIS, is beginning to spread across the region. And the hostilities of NATO member countries, not only against ISIS, but also its opponents (actual and potential), create a boiler that sucks in an increasing number of participants. The flywheel is actively spinning and cannot be stopped. Is the process becoming uncontrollable? Or is it a subtle plan, progressively aimed at creating chaos in the Middle East, and then in Europe? The beneficiary is one ...
  10. bso1961
    bso1961 30 July 2015 12: 49
    When Putin and Erdogan made a joint statement following Putin’s visit to Turkey, Erdogan, spitting saliva, denied the Armenian Genocide. I understand politics ... But not to the same extent. Denying the obvious facts, you won’t add to your popularity.
  11. t1g3r
    t1g3r 30 July 2015 13: 07
    no one cares who recognizes or denies the term genocide has a clear legal definition in international law, whether or not genocide was resolved in the Hague in a strict juridical manner ... and now the question is why for 100 years the Armenians have not filed their legal claims against Turkey? And just deal with issues related to the PR of this project?
    1. bso1961
      bso1961 30 July 2015 13: 19
      Well. Armenians, of course, are still hit. Here I absolutely agree with you.
      1. EGOrkka
        EGOrkka 31 July 2015 05: 53
        Well. Armenians, of course, are still hit

        ..... and the Turks are white and fluffy ???
  12. Slax
    Slax 30 July 2015 14: 49
    The State Duma of the Russian Federation, by an absolute majority of votes, supported the request of the Kurdish leader for political asylum in Russia; President Boris Yeltsin left this appeal unanswered.

    Yeltsin, in general, is a rare layman and drunk, the Turks sponsored Chechen fighters in all times during his reign and could have supported the Kurds in revenge in their armed struggle, but even here he made out such an advantageous geopolitical move
    1. Bakht
      Bakht 30 July 2015 18: 58
      It is difficult to argue about Yeltsin. But if you recall that, in addition to the Turks, Chechen fighters were sponsored from the Kremlin, then you have to admit that there are more faces than two in a glass.
    2. alone
      alone 30 July 2015 18: 59
      Quote: slax
      Yeltsin, in general, is a rare layman and drunk, the Turks sponsored Chechen fighters in all times during his reign and could have supported the Kurds in revenge in their armed struggle, but even here he made out such an advantageous geopolitical move

      In fact, all the weapons of the Chechen fighters were Soviet and Russian-made, and the Chechens financed themselves in various ways. From banks they received large sums using fake bills, for a good amount they contributed to arms smugglers, frankly robbed the train.
    3. t1g3r
      t1g3r 30 July 2015 21: 13
      Well, Duc Eltsyn was a degenerate in essence, in many respects it is his merit of the first Chechen war, after the White House was destroyed, he thought that all issues were solved by tanks, and when he set fire to Georgia and Azerbaijan, he did not take into account the fact that there would appear a bunch of "well-wishers" who are under the state a cover, and in most cases on their own initiative ... by the way, they helped them there and the Balts helped them well ... and by the way, in Russia itself, the Chechens had quite a few friends ...

      Burning someone else’s house, they thought that the fire could not be thrown to their own house ... and if someone does not remember Basayev had close contacts with the GRU and fought against the Georgians in Abakhazia, then no one really thought that they were training personnel who would fight against Russia ...

      I perfectly understand the eternal desire of the people of the population to give a shit to a neighbor ... but one must understand one thing, sooner or later the guys will return home from IS and you will again be "well-wishers" from Ukraine and Georgia at least ... you are not enough of them ???
  13. Gunther
    Gunther 2 August 2015 15: 20
    The author did a good job, plus an article