Military Review

There was such a guy. Vasily Makarovich Shukshin

“Believe that everything was not in vain: our songs, our fairy tales, our incredible gravity of victory, our sufferings — don't give it all to you for the smell of tobacco ... We knew how to live. Remember this. Be human".
V.M. Shukshin

Vasily Shukshin was born 25 July 1929 in the village of Srostki, Staro-Bardinsky district (now Biysky district) of the Altai Territory. His mother was called Maria Sergeevna Popova, and his father - Makar Leontyevich. Shukshin Sr. was born in 1912, and at the time Vasya appeared, his young father was only seventeen years old. Both parents were from peasant families, natives of Srostok. Basil was not yet four years old, as his father was imprisoned. The accusation was serious - the participant and, moreover, the organizer of the counter-revolutionary rebel group. Makar Leontyevich was convicted by a special troop of the OGPU and, despite the fact that the Shukshin family was among the first to join the collective farm, she was sentenced to be shot. 26 March 1933 of Shukshin’s father was arrested, and already on April 27 the sentence was carried out. In the years of Khrushchev's “thaw” (in 1956 year), Makar Leontyevich was posthumously rehabilitated.

Just before the war, Maria Sergeyevna married for the second time. Her choice fell on fellow villager Pavel Nikolaevich Kuksin. Vasya from the first days disliked his stepfather and tried in every way to “bring” him. In his memoirs, Shukshin admitted that he really wanted his stepfather to spit it out or hit it, so that mom would realize who had led into the hut, and correct his mistake. However, Pavel Nikolaevich turned out to be the kindest person and did not give in to the provocation of a teenager. When the war began, his stepfather was called to the front, and in 1942 he died heroically. Maria Sergeevna at this time, together with the children, was in Biysk. The family moved to the city back in 1940, where Shukshina, the mother who dreamed of getting a profession, signed up for one-year sewing courses. However, after receiving the funeral, the family returned to their native intergrowths.

With mother Maria Sergeevna, 1932 year

During the war years, all the hard peasant work fell on women and children. Along with everyone, he worked on the collective farm and Vasya together with his younger sister Natasha. The Shukshins had a small vegetable garden, which they planted with vegetables and potatoes. Rescued the family and the only cow Raika. Maria Sergeyevna sheared her fellow villagers and sewed people, but still the small family lived cold and hungry. Saved the Russian stove, not without reason, when the grown-up children left, the mother asked them to kiss her three times, saying: "Mother-stove, as you warmed me, fed and fed, so bless me on a long journey."

Among the village teenagers, a twelve-year-old Vasily walked in the upper reaches. Insults young Shukshin anyone, even adults, did not forgive and could easily knock out the eye of a neighbor's pig. He was sullen and silent, he studied poorly, he missed his lessons, preferring to play grandmas with his friends. Srostkinskaya relatives in one of the letters reported about him: “I completely lost my hands. Marya doesn’t know directly what to do with him, headlonging like that, - she doesn’t listen to anything. ” At some point in his growing up, Basil, having abandoned his beloved grandmother, became interested in reading. He read everything, his mother said: "It used to come up at night on a haystack and read there in the moonlight." Read, by the way, did not go for future use - Shukshin studied just as bad. A neighbor-teacher, a refugee from Leningrad, who made the list of references to the boy, came to the rescue. After this assessment, Shukshin’s school got better, and Maria Sergeyevna finally calmed down. On long winter evenings, Vasily read out loud to Dickens's mother and sister, but they only gasped and sighed. At forty, the director will say about these years: "There has never been a better time." Children's impressions of Shukshin formed the basis of his autobiographical cycle of stories “From the Children’s Years of Ivan Popov”.

In the fall of 1943, after the end of seven classes, Shukshin, along with other guys, went to Biysk and entered the automotive technical school. It was easier to live on everything ready (both food and uniforms) in the city. However, the urban guys to the village treated with contempt. Vasily Makarovich recalled: “For some reason they called us“ googles ”or“ devils ”. Although grown by the “devils” of bread, the biy “angels” burst for a sweet soul. We were amazed and suppressed by such open hostility and were silent. ” Shukshin came home every weekend, as well as during the holidays. However, Vasily studied for only two years - in the third year, due to problems with an Englishwoman, a quick-tempered young man dropped out of the technical school. Villagers laughed at him, and relatives worried. However, Shukshin himself said to his mother: “I would not have started working on this specialty anyway.”

At the beginning of 1946, sixteen-year-old Shukshin left home and disappeared - he did not send letters to anyone. His sister recalled: "Mom squeezed everything in the wooden case for Vasya, from above he put notebooks, books, and we carried him to nowhere." Vasily appeared only in the spring of 1947 in Kaluga, and in his biography there is still a months-long gap. Among biographers, there is even an unintelligible version that Vasily Makarovich, like Yegor Prokudin from Kalina Krasnaya, was a member of a gang of thieves. Whether this is true or not is unknown, but at 1947 in Kaluga, a young guy from the Soyuzprommekhanization trust in Moscow was sent to build a new turbine plant. In this city, Vasily Makarovich worked until January 1948. Subsequently, he said: “He was a laborer, they drove me to and fro, often offended. For some reason, it was especially exciting for everyone that I was only from the village ... ”. Zhil Shukshin lived in a working barrack, but he only came there to spend the night. In his free time he, searching for solitude, wandered through the streets of cities.

From the beginning of 1948 to April of the same year, Vasily Makarovich worked as a car mechanic at a tractor factory in Vladimir. At this time, he fired up to become a pilot. Having received the necessary direction from the military registration and enlistment office, the young man brought documents to the Tambov region in aviation school. Unfortunately, important papers were lost along the way. Shukshin didn’t dare to come to school, he didn’t return to Vladimir either: “Very kind people sat in the military enlistment office, and it hurt me to upset them that I was a sort of“ hat ”. Already in Ryazan, the young man made an attempt to enter the military automobile school. However, this desire to get an education ended in failure, Vasily Makarovich failed in exams.

From April 1948 to August 1949 Shukshin was the laborer of the main repair and recovery train number five. He participated in the construction of a power station at the Moscow-Kursk railway station Shcherbinka, and then built a railway bridge at the station of the Belarusian railway Golitsyno. Vasily Makarovich never became a pilot, but he became a sailor or, more precisely, a sea radio operator. He was called up in the fall of 1949 to the Baltic Fleet, and the following year transferred to the Black Sea. The commander of the department recalled the senior sailor Shukshin: “I read a lot, I visited the Sevastopol Maritime Library, but I did not write anything. Maybe I tried, but nobody knew about it. Vasily Makarovich, in general, was thoughtful, closed ”. In the dismissal, the future actor did not go and did not meet with girls on the Sevastopol embankments, spending all his free time studying textbooks and dreaming of getting a high school diploma. Most of all, Shukshin was fond of the London novel “Martin Eden” at that time, a work that became for him something like the “writer's tutorial”. It is curious that Vasily Makarovich sent home “romantic” letters - they say, I get into storms, they say, the sailor was washed off the watch, and could not be saved ... However, alas, all this was a test of the pen and myth-making - served Shukshin as a coastal sailor and on duty, he kept ground radio communications with warships. In January, 1953, according to the medical department's conclusion, the young man was demobilized ahead of time - the cause was exacerbated gastric ulcer.

After seven long years, Shukshin showed up in his small homeland. At this time, one of the Srostkintsy wrote to distant relatives: “Vaska, Maryin's son, has appeared again in Sroshki! He walks in a vest! Forsyth! Misbehaves and all bullies ... ". However, after a week-long spree, Vasily Makarovich took up his mind. Former sailor externally passed the exam for high school and received the coveted certificate of maturity. After that, the future writer stayed in Sroshki, finding a job, not by anyone, but by the headmaster of the evening school. Among other things, he taught literature and the Russian language, and also wrote notes to the district newspaper in which he urged rural youth to study. Later, Shukshin confessed: “Honestly, I was not a good teacher as a teacher - without experience, without special education - but even now I can't forget how gratefully girls and boys tired of working day looked at me when I managed to tell them something interesting and important. " At the same time, Maria Shumskaya appeared in his life, whom Shukshin saw as a fourteen-year-old teenager when he came from the Biysk Technical School for the weekend.

At 1954, a young specialist was invited to work in the Komsomol district committee, but by that time he had a new dream - to enter the capital's Literary Institute. Gorky. And in the summer of 1954, Vasily Makarovich went to Moscow. Arriving in a huge city, Shukshin realized that he had made a mistake - it was necessary to send his work to the creative competition in advance. Those who passed the competition were invited to take exams, but the Altai young man did not know about it, and, of course, he was not accepted by the documents. According to a well-established legend, a Siberian Yevgeny Yevtushenko approached the strange-looking boy in a vest and tunic, riding breeches and tarpaulin boots, who was sitting dejectedly on a bench in the park of the institute. His star at that time had not yet risen, but was already on the rise. They got into conversation, and the poet advised Vasily Makarovich to go to VGIK, to the directing department to the workshop of the legendary Romm. And Shukshin went ... Later, he smiled and said: “The admissions office, obviously, was amazed who Mikhail Ilyich was recruiting. Still, I apparently differed from those around me by my lack of cohesion and drowsiness. ” The admission committee, by the way, did not want to take two - Vasily Shukshin and Andrey Tarkovsky. The first, according to the conclusion, was so obscure that he did not read Tolstoy and did not know anything at all ... The second, on the contrary, knew too much. But Romm still insisted that the young people be enrolled. This event was the turning point in the fate of Vasily Makarovich. Later he wrote on this subject: "I have always been lucky for good and intelligent people."

Vasily Makarovich settled in the VGIK hostel, located on Trifonovskaya Street. By that time, Maria Shumskaya graduated from the pedagogical institute in Novosibirsk, returned to her native village, and in August 1955 married Shukshin. After the wedding, the husband-student returned to Moscow, but the young spouse flatly refused to go to the capital and stayed with her parents. A year later, Shukshin wrote to his mother that he would not live with Maria. Shumskaya did not give consent to the divorce, and Vasily Makarovich managed to “neutralize” this marriage only after losing the passport. Srostkintsy unanimously condemned the "good-for-nothing Vaska," while he himself at that time was learning the basics of cinema at full speed. The assertive student completely denied the mounting (specifically cinematic) vision, Romm’s assistant noted: “In a somewhat simplified version, his view of the shooting could be determined this way - it’s enough to put the device, the actors play well in front of him, and everything else is from the evil one. He listened to Romm, Romm listened to him, and each remained with his. By the way, most of the etudes with imaginary objects Vasily Makarovich performed using his rich life experience - he showed how the sailor lit a pipe, how the mower mows.

Relations with classmates at Shukshina also evolved confused. Some considered him to be a bully and wildcap, others as uncouth peasant, others as a darling of fate and a careerist, fourths a desperate debater, fifths unsociable and sullen, sixths sensitive and sincere ... Shukshin could have been any one. In the late fifties came the "thaw". Vgikovtsy listened to jazz and watched Western movies, read Hemingway, Remarque and Salinger. Together with the others, I listened, watched and read Shukshin, but much of the “fashionable” just passed by his soul. It is known that as a protest to “narrow trousers” Vasily Makarovich walked around VGIK in kersey boots. He himself wrote about this: "I reasoned like this: they copy the West, and then I" come back "back to Russia."

In 1956, Soviet film director Sergei Gerasimov began filming "Silent Don." In this tape Shukshin first appeared as an actor. He got a tiny episode, peeking out from behind the fence of the sailor. In the summer of 1957, a third-year student was sent to Odessa Film Studio to practice. There he was noticed by the famous director Marlene Hutsiyev, who was preparing to shoot the film “Two Feodors” and heard about the “Altai peasant in kirzacs”. He called Vasily Makarovich to the main role. Shukshin, already accustomed to the director's profession, suddenly realized that he could be an actor at the same time. The picture was a success, and Shukshina noticed. At the same time, Vasily Makarovich wrote his first stories. On the recommendation of Romm, he sent them in a fan to various metropolitan magazines. The first was Smena, typing in the fifteenth issue of 1958 for the year, Vasili’s still rather indifferent story “Two on a cart.”

In 1960, Shukshin graduated from VGIK, and the year before he appeared in the Golden Echelon adventure tape, where he played the role of a Bolshevik underground fighter. In 1960, he played with Nonna Mordyukova in “Simple stories”, And in 1962, three pictures with his participation appeared on the country's screens:“ Alenka ”(Barnet),“ When the trees were big ”(Kulidzhanov) and“ Teddy bear, Seryoga and me ”(Pobedonostsev). Upon graduation, Mikhail Romm took Alexander Gordon, Alexander Mitt and Andrey Tarkovsky from Mosfilm from his course. Alas, Vasily Makarovich, who was not registered anywhere, was left behind, Mikhail Ilyich said to him: “From now on, he himself. You are a strong guy. ” For a while, Shukshin "on bird rights" lived in the Vgikovsky hostel, but then he had to leave there. In the early sixties, he wandered around the capital, often spending the night at train stations. The young director spent evenings with acquaintances and half-acquaintances, moving from one house to another. Vasily Makarovich also visited the house of Levon Kocharyan in Bolshoy Karetny Lane, where many noise companies were gathering at that time, and among the guests were Julian Semenov, Ilya Glazunov, Vladimir Vysotsky. And in 1961 Shukshin visited Novosibirsk. His son-in-law Alexander Zinoviev died, and his sister was left widowed at twenty-seven with two twin children in her arms. At the funeral, Shukshin said to her: “I want to be buried in Russian as well - with lamentations, with funeral services. And so that Mom was alive and you with the kids ... ”.

All this time, Shukshin did not cease to compose new stories, as well as deliver the writing on the editorial boards of metropolitan journals. To the question: “Where and when do you have time to write?”, Vasily Makarovich invariably answered: “In hotels. In the hostels. In hospitals. In the October edition of 1962, Shukshin appeared in heavy boots, in a rough beaver coat and in a huge red cap. Looking with gloomy distrust, reluctantly pulling the rolled-up manuscript, he said: "You still can not type, only spend time!". But it turned out differently - printed. And then it went, the stories Shukshina immediately began to publish in the "Young Guard", in "Moscow", in the "New World". In 1963, his first book "Villagers" appeared in bookstores. In the same happy year, Vasily Makarovich shot his first film, “Such a Guy Lives”. Samples Kuravlev on the main role were unsuccessful, but Shukshin, going against the decision of the artistic council, insisted on his choice. Vladimir Vysotsky said: "I wanted to play with him, but Vasya had already promised Kuravlev." Shukshin's word was a law, and he never conducted an actor's test (except for pro forma), knowing in advance perfectly well who he would shoot. First of all, Vasily Makarovich was interested in a person, and only then in an actor. That is why there are so many non-professionals in his films. When the tape “Lives like a guy” appeared on the screens, neither the audience nor the critics could understand - the negative or positive hero Kolokolnikov. Shukshin sarcastically responded: “Pasha Kolokolnikov, of course, does not strike with intellect. However, the film is not about the doctor of arts. This is a film about a driver from the Chuysky tract in Altai. ” At the All-Union Film Festival, held in Leningrad, the picture was awarded the prize as the best film comedy. Vasily Makarovitch was not happy, he didn’t even think of doing a comedy: “I was sure that a serious film would be released. We wanted to saturate him with the truth of life. And they wanted her (truth), easily understood ... ".

Shot from the film “There is such a guy”

In the fall of 1963, Bella Akhmadulina and Shukshin's “freakish” friendship began. She wrote about the first meeting: “I was shocked by the arrangement of his eyes, dark-light, pushed into the depths of the mind and face, heading the face of a man ...”. Each of them wandered, moreover, if Shukshin was not from a good life, then Akhmadulina, on the contrary, from a good life, fleeing from the welfare that followed her on her heels. Later, Shukshin told how a certain translator said to the poetess: “You are so elegant and intelligent as you can be with this Siberian boot.” Bella also drove the young director to the best houses of the capital, but he did not really appreciate it. They quarreled terribly about Pasternak, Shukshin assured that Akhmadulina should go to the village, that she would surely fall in love with the people who live there, "that everything is cleaner and higher than the poetic intellectual zaumi she so honors." Whether it was a love affair or just a friendship is unknown. In the memoirs, Akhmadulina noted: “I denote the rest by silence. Let only I know. ”

At 1964, Shukshin met Viktoria Sofronova, 32, who worked as the editor of the Moscow magazine and was the daughter of the writer Anatoly Sofronov. Their acquaintance happened in the restaurant of the Central House of Writers, where Vasily Makarovich looked in with Tarkovsky and Akhmadulina. There were empty seats near Sofronova, afterwards she wrote: “We were face to face with him, and all evening they looked into each other’s eyes. To me, such courage, in general, is not typical. And then he found me ... ". They began to live together, but the relationship is not made out. And soon Shukshin took the bride home - to acquaint with relatives. Before leaving, they visited the editorial board of Ogonyka, as the girl really wanted to introduce her beloved man to her father. However, the meeting did not take place, the men were shackled and silent. It did not work out in Srostkah - Maria Sergeyevna met her pregnant bride waryly. Later, the relationship of relatives changed, but fate has already made a new round.

There was such a guy. Vasily Makarovich Shukshin
Vasily Shukshin and Victoria Sofronova

In the middle of February 1965, Sofronova and Shukshin, had a daughter Katya, but by this time the other actor had another favorite. It all started with the filming of the picture "What is the sea?" They were held in Sudak, where Vasily Makarovich, by hook or by crook, pulled out his sister with his nephews who had never been in the south. Here fate brought him to the twenty-six-year-old actress Lidia Fedoseeva. Initially, she, having learned that she would have to act with Shukshin, asked the director to find Vasily Makarovich a replacement. But already on the train on the way to Sudak, aversion turned into an interest. Subsequently, she said: “I watched him slowly: his eyes were green, funny and naughty. The company came out extremely pleasant, I even started singing. He looked at me strangely and picked up ... ". For a while Shukshin tossed between the two women, however, in the end, went to Fedoseyeva. And at the end of 1965, Vasily Makarovich, after five years of wandering around foreign corners, finally got a flat in Moscow - a two-room cooperative apartment in Sviblovo. In 1967 and 1969, two more daughters were born one after another - Maria and Olga.

In the summer of 1965, Siberian Lights published a novel by Shukshin called Lyubavina, which tells about the life of a peasant family in a remote Siberian village in crucial years. Shukshin himself reported: “When I give the book to a stern and righteous reading court, I feel fear. Probably, I am not alone in this capacity, however, this feeling seized me for the first time, and I did not have the courage not to admit it. ” The trial was indeed harsh, but whether it was a righteous question. Almost unanimously, critics and literary critics decided that Shukshin was not given a large form. And at the beginning of 1966, another film by Vasily Makarovich “Your Son and Brother” was released. Full-scale shooting went on Altai, and the director himself after the completion of the work landed in the fifth department of the clinic to them. Korsakov, where they were treated for alcoholism. According to Fedoseyeva-Shukshina: “Vasya could drink two or three weeks. When Masha appeared ... he left for a time. ” The last straw - in the literal sense - was the tragicomic event. Vasily Makarovich, having met a friend in a diner, forgot about his daughter left at the entrance. When I remembered, the girl was no longer there. In a panic, he ran around the whole area. While I was looking for Masha, I promised myself that if there was a daughter, I would not drink more than a drop of alcohol. He kept his word, and did not drink until the end of his life - neither for birthdays, nor for holidays, nor in Czechoslovakia, where, to the great surprise of his friends, he did not try Czech beer.

After leaving the hospital in the spring of 1966, Shukshin began to study historical materials related to Stepan Razin. Together with his operator, Shukshin traveled to Razin places, visited museums and archives of Astrakhan, Novocherkassk, Rostov-on-Don, conducted active correspondence with museum workers, bought rare books on the history of the seventeenth century. Vasily Makarovich could talk about the peasant leader himself for hours. The magazine “Art of Cinema” published the script “I came to give you free rein” in 1968. Before publishing it, the editors showed Shukshin’s work to the famous historian Schmidt, who delighted her and indicated that the author had not only seriously studied the topic, but was also able to express the spirit of that distant era. The film about Stepan Razin was supposed to be filmed at the studio. Gorky, but decided to postpone the tape. Arguments were given different - there is no money for the historical canvas, the Cossack was very cruel, I must make films about contemporaries ...

In 1966-1967, Vasily Makarovitch left the pen and immediately printed about two dozen stories that have now become classics (Chudik, Raskas and others). And in 1968 in the publishing house "Soviet Writer" was published a collection of Shukshin "There, away". The gap between the author and the lyrical heroes of his works was minimal, it is known that many episodes of Shukshin's stories are autobiographical. Vasily Makarovich himself wrote: “A simple, normal, average, positive person does not suit me. Boring Sickeningly. It is more interesting for me to explore the character of a person who is not planted on the science of behavior, a non-dogmatic person. Such a person is amenable to impulses, impulsive, and therefore, it is extremely natural. He always has a rational soul. ” According to Shukshin, the truth of the epoch was expressed in such absurd people.

In 1968, Vasily Makarovich decided to make a film on a modern theme. There was no time to write a separate script, and the director took his own stories as a basis, which were not combined in a plot - the tape was made up of short films. Although the action of the stories took place in the Altai, Shukshin worked on a painting in Suzdal and Vladimir, watching the site for his “Stepan Razin”. He was going to use actors who acted in “Strange People” in “Razin” - this concerned writer Yury Skopa, Vsevolod Sanayev, Yevgeny Lebedev, with whom Shukshin discussed the details of the future tape. On the set, the director got pneumonia and found himself in the hospital again. To shoot a film at the request of the doctors had to be in Yalta, urgently remaking the plot of one of the short stories.

In November, 1970 Shukshin went to the premiere of the film “Strange People” in Paris. Together with him, Gleb Panfilov set off to present the picture “The Beginning”. According to the latter, Shukshin traveled “in the beard of Stepan Razin, in a raincoat of unknown origin and in a cap of mass tailoring”. After viewing at a Paris cinema center, Soviet directors were led to a prestigious restaurant to eat oysters. According to Panfilov: “Vasya, touched the glorified delicacy with a disgust, similar to the disgusting horror of the child before the homicidal semolina hurt him.” In one of the cafés of Vasily Makarovich, a raincoat was left burning in the cloakroom. Instead of the burnt cloak, the anxious owners of the institution offered him - to the envy of the other participants of the event - an expensive sheepskin coat. However, the director of the sheepskin firmly refused, and passing through the streets of Paris in a raincoat with tucked tucked-down collar.

In 1969, Shukshin appeared in Gerasimov's “At the Lake” tape, and in 1970 again applied for shooting a picture about Stepan Razin. While the trial was going on, Vasily Makarovich made another trip to the Razin places. The following year, Shukshin was awarded the State Prize. Receiving the award, the writer managed to meet with Gennady Voronov, the former chairman of the RSFSR Council of Ministers, who promised to support the film about Razin. However, when the artistic council took place, Voronov already held another post. At this artistic council, held in February of 1971, a unanimous decision was made to close the tape indefinitely. There was also a third double - an attempt to shoot "Stepan Razin" on Mosfilm. But she failed.

As a consolation, the director was given the go-ahead with the tape “Stoves-benches”, the script of which had previously been fiercely criticized. Vasily Makarovich ironically: “From the great to the ridiculous just one step ... Well, I will shoot a comedy.” In the role of Ivan, Vasily Makarovich wanted to remove Kuravlev, but the actor had his own plans. According to the memoirs of the cameraman Zabolotsky, Shukshin rejected the refusal with pain and himself played Rastorguev. In the “family picture,” as Shukshin later called the “Pechki-benches,” Lidiya Fedoseyeva-Shukshin, the daughter Olya and Masha, starred. They filmed the film in Moscow, in Biysk, and also in Srostki - in the scene of the Rastorguyevs' wrestlers participated countrymen and distant relatives Shukshin. The premiere of "Pechek-Benches" took place at 1972 and went unnoticed. Vasily Makarovich also considered many scenes of the film to be his achievement.

At this time, Shukshin continued to work fruitfully as a writer - from 1970 to 1972 he wrote twenty-seven new stories, seventeen of which appeared in Our Contemporary, where the author was a member of the editorial board. And in 1973, Sovremennik publishing house published a collection of short stories, "Characters." At the beginning of 1972, a well-known director was asked to take the course of the recently deceased Mikhail Romm. Despite the general desire of students and the university administration, Vasily Makarovich, thinking, refused, explaining to the students: “The master is the person who will not let you disappear even after defending a thesis. He is obliged to support you, help get settled and make your way to the studio. So master was Romm. And yet I am not the person who could help you outside the walls of VGIK ”.

In the spring of 1973 began shooting the picture "Kalina red." Again, Shukshin simultaneously acted as a director, screenwriter and actor. The plot of “Kalina Krasnaya” appeared after Vasily Makarovich’s speech in the Biysk colony for minors. According to eyewitnesses, three days after that, Shukshin could not recover. He wrote the script in the autumn of 1972 in a Moscow hospital. The film itself was filmed at Mosfilm, where Shukshin went to work. The film crew, who arrived from the Gorky film studio, was a stranger to Mosfilm members. They were given inferior equipment and identified careless assistants, who looked down at Shukshins. The film was allocated 3600 meters of Kodak deficit film, instead of the required twenty thousand. In this regard, the first doubles were filmed on the domestic Sweme, and only then Kodak Ivanovich was refueled, as filmmakers called him. A lot of nonprofessionals were shot in the film - Vera Maretskaya did not want to play Egor's mother, and in this role the peasant old woman Yefimya Bystrova was shot, who next year froze to death in her lonely hut. In the role of the criminal Buldy, the writer Arthur Makarov was shot, the real prisoner sang the song of Esenin, the cameraman Alexander Sarantsev sang amazingly Nekrasov’s poems. Despite the difficulties, instead of the planned five months, the film was ready in two and a half. The editorial board of Goskino was opposed to the picture, but “Kalina Krasnaya” was shown at government dachas. Having looked at it, Brezhnev wept, which decided the fate of the tape. The picture was waiting for an unprecedented success - “Kalina Krasnaya” became a truly national film. Operator Zabolotsky once said: “Kalina Krasnaya” is the soul of Vasily Makarovich, printed in a film. ”

In the summer of 1974, Italian filmmakers turned to Shukshin, who had decided to make a series about Dostoevsky. Vasily Makarovich was made an offer that was not refused, namely, to become a screenwriter of the film and moreover play Fyodor Mikhailovich himself. By the way, Shukshin loved this writer, it is to him that the phrase belongs: "In order for Dostoevsky to appear alone, thousands must write." However, Vasily Makarovich did not have time to give an answer. Not having received the act of acceptance for “Kalina Krasnaya”, he accepted Bondarchuk’s offer to act as Lopakhin in his film based on Sholokhov’s novel. In addition, agreeing to work with the influential Bondarchuk, Shukshin counted on his continued support.

Lived actors on a rented ship. The shooting “They Fought for the Motherland” was already coming to an end, Vasily Makarovich was left with the last scene, and on October 4 he wanted to return to his relatives. October 1 1974 Shukshin called home and asked how the daughters live (Maria went to the first class, but he never managed to escape to Moscow). Later, Vasily Makarovich, together with Burkov, with whom the actor became firmly in friendship, visited the bathhouse, and then, until midnight, watched a hockey game on the boat. In the evening, Shukshin’s heart ached, as he told Georgy Ivanovich before leaving for the cabins. The next day, Burkov woke up late, glanced to his friend (the door to the cabin was not locked) and called him, but he did not answer. He did not enter, and, meeting Nikolai Gubenko in the corridor, asked to remind Shukshin that it was time to get up. Gubenko touched the actor by the shoulder, felt the pulse, but he was not there ... Vasily Makarovich was only forty-five years old. A few days before his death, permission was granted to launch the film “Stepan Razin”, and on the table in the cabin of Shukshin they found the manuscript of the last novel “And in the morning they woke up”.

An autopsy was carried out in the regional hospital of Volgograd. In conclusion, it was written "heart failure." Lydia Fedoseeva-Shukshina subsequently told that all her life Shukshin had suffered only a stomach ulcer, and just before taking the picture was completely examined - no problems were found with the doctor’s heart. Vasily Makarovitch was buried at Novodevichy Cemetery. A great number of people gathered to accompany him on his last journey, and almost all of them had bunches of viburnum in their hands.

According to materials of the site and the weekly edition “Our history. 100 Great Names »

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  1. Igor39
    Igor39 30 July 2015 07: 32
    A good man was Vasily Shukshin.
    1. Telakh
      Telakh 30 July 2015 09: 52
      On such a country rests. I wrote a graduation essay on it.
    2. 222222
      222222 30 July 2015 11: 52
      Vasily Makarovich Shukshin ... in one phrase .. !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
  2. Mikhado
    Mikhado 30 July 2015 07: 40
    The stories are so strong that I can’t read it sometimes - they “dig up” the soul too much ... One of the best connoisseurs of Russian life and truth, he lived and burned, such cannot boast of longevity.
  3. parusnik
    parusnik 30 July 2015 08: 04
    Our Shukshin is everything ... Writer, director, artist .. Man ... and now .. eh ..
  4. inkass_98
    inkass_98 30 July 2015 08: 07
    "... And after the indispensable bath,
    Pure before God and
    Yes, he took seriously
    More decisive than on the screen ... "(C)
  5. iakc
    iakc 30 July 2015 08: 44
    Once, at school, our teacher read one of Shukshin's stories. I remember now, "Boots" was called. Since then I "got sick" with Shukshin.
    1. Military Builder
      Military Builder 30 July 2015 13: 16
      I read the first story in a magazine, I was 10-12 years old, it was called "Microscope"
  6. bionik
    bionik 30 July 2015 09: 46
    Filmography 1956 - Quiet Flows the Don - sailor after wattle
    1956 - Assassins - Ole Andreson
    1958 - Two Fedor - Fedor the Great
    1959 - Golden echelon - Nizovtsev
    1960 - A Simple Story - Vanka Lykov
    1960 - Report from Lebyazhy - Ivlev
    1961 - Yurka - a free team
    1961 - Alenka - Stepan Howler
    1961 - When the trees were large - collective farm chairman
    1961 - Business Trip - Combineer
    1961 - Bear, Seryoga and I - Gennady Nikolaevich, class teacher
    1962 - We two men - driver Michael
    1964 - What is the sea like? - sailor Zhorka
    1967 - Journalist - Karpachev
    1967 - Commissioner - regiment commander
    1968 - Three days of Victor Chernyshev - Kravchenko
    1968 - Male conversation - Nikolay Nikolayevich Larionov, Sasha’s father
    1968 - 1971 - Liberation - Marshal Konev
    1969 - At the lake - Vasily Vasilyevich Chernykh
    1969 - Echo of the Distant Snow
    1970 - Love Yarovaya - Roman Koshkin 1971 - Dauria - Vasily Ulybin
    1971 - Hold on to the Clouds - Chekist
    1972 - Stoves and benches - Ivan Rastorguev
    1973 - Kalina red - Egor Prokudin
    1974 - If you want to be happy - Vladimir Andreyevich Fedotov
    1975 - I ask for the words - Fedor, a local playwright (dubbing - Igor Efimov)
    1975 - They fought for their homeland - Peter Fedotovich Lopakhin (voiced by Igor Efimov)
  7. Dan Slav
    Dan Slav 30 July 2015 10: 14
    Only with commies could such people break through.
    Now it’s practically impossible, and you don’t need those with such films, such roles and such books.
    Developed! Degrading, alas! (
    1. wadim13
      wadim13 30 July 2015 14: 49
      Fortunately, very rarely, but there are exceptions. Recently I saw a new film "Territory". Great people, great country, great land. But we were able to make such a movie now!
      1. parusnik
        parusnik 30 July 2015 15: 20
        A good film .. but the book is Soviet .. the novel by Oleg Kuvaev, considered the highest success of his work and tells about the successful discovery of gold in Chukotka in the late 1940s - early 1950s. Since 1975, the novel has withstood more than 30 editions ... and so the film turned out ... and the book is excellent ..
        1. 52
          52 30 July 2015 16: 38
          The film is much worse than the Book, alas!
  8. bso1961
    bso1961 30 July 2015 11: 19
    The human being. Salt of the earth.
  9. Strezhevchanin
    Strezhevchanin 30 July 2015 12: 19
    It’s beautiful here, it’s easy to breathe, just tomorrow I’ll go to Biyskie Lakes along Chuisky. People born in the Altai with an innate sense of justice! The late Evdokimov was also like that, sorry the Lord takes the best.
  10. chelovektapok
    chelovektapok 30 July 2015 16: 19
    V.M. Shukshin, V.S. Vysotsky .... It is difficult to put anyone just next to In Truth of Life. For such people, life was whole and indivisible, without lies. Wherever, as if, what! For that they have Bright Memory and the Bow of the Earth!
  11. Old soldier
    Old soldier 4 August 2015 23: 03
    When spring sucks whiskey, I remember Shukshin, Kalina red, And so everything is clear, I love Vasya Shukshin. gr.Lyube