A big shock in geopolitics, the approach of which you probably don’t notice ("Nation", Pakistan)


China and Russia are preparing to create an economic zone beyond the reach of Washington.

Let's start with what happened just two weeks ago, a geopolitical big bang, about which you know nothing. Its results are as follows: from now on, any potential attack on Iran by the Pentagon (in alliance with NATO) will in essence denote attacks against plans outlined by an interconnected set of organizations - BRICS (Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa), the Shanghai Cooperation Organization ( SCO), the Eurasian Economic Union (EAEU), the recently founded Chinese initiative of the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank (ABII) and the New Development Bank of the BRICS (NBR) are acronyms that also hardly tell you anything. Meanwhile, they represent a new order emerging in Eurasia.

Tehran, Beijing, Moscow, Islamabad and New Delhi are actively establishing interoperable security guarantees. They unanimously called endless drumming bluff with which the atlantists tried to draw everyone’s attention to the fictitious meme about the Iranian “nuclear program”. And a few days before the nuclear talks in Vienna were finally crowned with an agreement, everything fell into place at the double BRICS / SCO summit in Ufa, a place that you, of course, had never heard of before, at the meeting that The United States is almost completely overlooked. Yet, sooner or later, these events will undoubtedly make both the war party in Washington and the different-sized neoconservatives (as well as neoliberal conservatives), already breathing heavily over the Iranian treaty, nervous as their stories about the structure of the modern world begin to break. into small pieces.

Eurasian Silk Road

The Vienna Agreement, the result of endless negotiations, which I had the dubious pleasure of keeping a close eye on, turned out to be like the long-awaited Iranian Foreign Minister Javad Zarif and his diplomatic team from a pretty wrinkled wizard's hat: this is almost an incredible contract that can actually end sanctions imposed on a country as a result of an asymmetrical and mostly fabricated conflict.

Now imagine that meeting in Ufa, the capital of Russian Bashkortostan, as a preamble to the long-awaited agreement in Vienna. She groped for the new dynamics of the Eurasian continent and became a warning about the future geopolitical “big bang”. In Ufa, from 8 to 10 July, the 7-th BRICS summit and the 15-th Summit of the Shanghai Cooperation Organization overlapped each other, while the Vienna agreement required new and new terms.

Consider this a diplomatic ploy of Vladimir Putin to combine two summits with an informal meeting of the Eurasian Economic Union (EAEU). Call it a declaration of war against the imperial logic of Washington on the part of soft power, emphasizing the breadth and depth of the developing Russian-Chinese strategic partnership. Gathering all these heads of state under one roof, Moscow proposed a vision of an emerging, coherent geopolitical structure rooted in Eurasian integration. Hence the importance of Iran: whatever happens after Vienna, Iran will be for this new structure a vital intermediary / node / crossroads in Eurasia.

If you read the statement at the end of the BRICS summit, one detail should strike you: the tough economy-driven European Union (EU) is hardly mentioned in it. And this did not happen by mistake. From the point of view of the leaders of the key BRICS countries, they offer a new approach to Eurasia, directly opposite to the language of sanctions.

These are just some of the examples of dizzying activities that took place in Ufa and were completely ignored by the leading American media. During the meetings, President Putin, Chinese President Xi Jinping and Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi worked to achieve practical goals and promote what is essentially the Chinese version of the future unification of Eurasia through a series of interconnected " new silk ways. Modi approved the influx of Chinese investment in India, and both leaders, Chinese and Indian, promised to work together to solve common border issues that for a long time did not give their countries peace and, at least in one case, led to war.

The NBR, the BRICS response to the World Bank, was officially launched with 50 billions of dollars in start-up capital. According to its president, Kundapur Vaman Kamath (Kundapur Vaman Kamath), focused on financing major infrastructure projects in the BRICS countries, this bank is able to accumulate up to 400 billions of dollars in capital. Later, he plans to focus on financing similar enterprises in other developing countries around the Global Sub - based on local currencies, bypassing the US dollar. Given the composition of the members, obviously the NBR funds will be closely linked to the new “silk routes”. As the President of the Brazilian Development Bank, Luciano Coutinho, stressed, in the near future he will also be able to provide support to non-EU European countries such as Serbia and Macedonia. Think of it as an attempt by the NBR to break the monopoly of Brussels on Greater Europe. Kamath even suggested the possibility of ever providing assistance in the reconstruction of Syria.

You will not be surprised to learn that the headquarters of the new Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank and the NBI are located in China and will complement each other in the course of their work. At the same time, the private equity fund, a foreign investment unit of Russia, signed a memorandum of understanding with funds from other BRICS countries and thus marked the beginning of an unofficial investment consortium in which the Chinese Silk Road Fund and the Indian Infrastructure Finance Company will be key partners.

Full range of transport dominance

At the basic level, all this should be considered as part of the new Great Game in Eurasia. Its downside is the Trans-Pacific Partnership in the Pacific and the same version in the Atlantic, a transatlantic trade and investment partnership that Washington is trying to promote to maintain American global economic domination. The question raised by these controversial projects is how to integrate trade and commerce in this vast region. According to the Chinese and Russians, Eurasia should be integrated through an extensive network of highways, high-speed rail lines, ports, airports, pipelines and fiber-optic cables. New “silk routes”, laid over land, by sea and by air, are intended to create an economic version of the Pentagon doctrine called “Full spectrum of domination” - it’s not for nothing that the Chinese corporate managers are already driving around Eurasia, concluding infrastructure deals.

For Beijing, in the second quarter of 2015, which returned to 7 percent growth rates, despite the recent state of panic in the stock markets of the country, this has an ideal economic sense: as labor costs increase, production will be transferred from its western provinces, while those parallel and interconnected "belts" of the new "silk routes" will be the natural way out for all kinds of products.

Meanwhile, Russia has begun to modernize and diversify its own economy, which is dependent on the extraction of energy resources. Among other things, its leaders hope that the totality of the developing “silk roads” and the consolidation of the Eurasian Economic Union - Russia, Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan - will be transformed into a multitude of transport and construction projects for which the industrial and engineering know-how of the country will be decisive.

Since the EEU has begun to create a free trade zone with India, Iran, Vietnam, Egypt and the Latin American bloc MERCOSUR (Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay, Uruguay and Venezuela), the initial stages of this integration process are already beyond Eurasia. Meanwhile, the SCO, which began as a small security forum, is expanding and moving into the area of ​​economic cooperation. His countries, especially the four Central Asian "-stanes" (Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan and Tajikistan) will rely even more on the Chinese-managed Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank and the NBI. In Ufa, India and Pakistan have completed the transition to a new level, becoming observers as members of the SCO. As a result, we got an alternative G8.

Meanwhile, when it comes to Afghanistan on alert, the BRICS and SCO peoples have already called for “armed opposition to disarm, recognize the Constitution of Afghanistan and break ties with al Qaeda, the Islamic State and other terrorist organizations.” Translation: within the framework of the Afghan national unity, the organization will accept the Taliban as part of the future government. Relying on the integration of the region, they pin their hopes on the future stability of Afghanistan, which is able to absorb even more Chinese, Russian, Indian and Iranian investments, and with construction - finally! - a long-planned, 10 billion-dollar, Turkmenistan-Afghanistan-Pakistan-India (TAPI) kilometer-long 1420 gas pipeline that serves the energy-hungry members of the SCO, Pakistan and India. (They would get 42% gas, the rest 16% - to Afghanistan).

Central Asia is currently the geographic epicenter of the convergence of the economic aspirations of China, Russia and India. It is no coincidence that Prime Minister Modi stopped in Central Asia on the way to Ufa. Like the Chinese leadership in Beijing, Moscow (as stated in a recent document by the Valdai Discussion Club) is counting on “the interpenetration and integration of projects of the EAEU and the Silk Road Economic Belt to create a“ great Eurasia ”and a“ sustainable, developing, secure common neighborhood »For Russia and China.

And do not forget about Iran. At the beginning of 2016, when economic sanctions are fully lifted, it is expected that it will join the SCO, turning it into G9. As Iran’s Foreign Minister Javad Zarif made clear in a recent interview with Russia 1, Tehran considers Russia to be its strategic partner. "Russia," he said, "was the most important participant in Iran’s nuclear program, and under the current agreement it will remain Iran’s main nuclear partner." The same thing, he added, will be fair with regard to cooperation in the "oil and gas sector", given the common interest of these two energy-rich countries in "maintaining price stability on the world market."

Got a hallway - drove

The BRICS countries are promoting integration projects across Eurasia. A typical example is the Bangladesh-China-India-Myanmar economic corridor under development. It is currently being transformed into a multi-lane highway between India and China. Meanwhile, Iran and Russia are developing a transport corridor from the Persian and Oman gulf to the Caspian Sea and the Volga. Azerbaijan will be connected to the Caspian part of this corridor, while India plans to use the southern ports of Iran to improve its access to Russia and Central Asia. Now add to this the sea corridor that stretches from the Indian city of Mumbai to the Iranian port of Bandar Abbas, and then to Astrakhan, located in southern Russia. And these are only scratches on the surface of what is under development.

Several years ago, Vladimir Putin declared the possibility of the existence of a “Greater Europe” in the future, stretching from the Portuguese Lisbon on the Atlantic to the Russian Vladivostok on the Pacific Ocean. Under the heel of Washington, the EU ignored these words. Then the Chinese began to dream of new “silk roads”, marking their opposite direction to the Marco Polo route: from Shanghai to Venice (and then to Berlin).

Thanks to a set of mutually enriching political institutions, investment funds, development banks, financial systems and infrastructure projects, which today remain largely in the field of view of Washington, the Eurasian center of free trade is emerging. Someday he will link China and Russia with Europe, South-West Asia and even Africa. He promises an amazing development. If you have such an opportunity, keep a close eye on what is happening on the ground, even if these facts are rarely covered in the American media. They represent the New Great - let us emphasize this word - the Game in Eurasia.

Trump card - location

Tehran is now seriously involved in strengthening its ties with this new Eurasia, in particular the person following the process, Ali Akbar Velayati. He is the head of the Iranian Center for Strategic Studies and senior foreign policy adviser to supreme leader Ayatollah Khamenei. Velayati stresses that security in the Middle East, North Africa, Central Asia and the Caucasus depends on further strengthening the Beijing-Moscow-Tehran tripartite alliance.

He is aware that in geostrategic terms, Iran primarily has a favorable location. This country in its region, in addition to Russia, offers the best access to the open seas and is the only obvious east-west / north-south intersection for the trade flow coming from the Central Asian “-states”. It is not surprising that Iran will soon become a member of the SCO, although its “partnership” with Russia is already waiting for an undoubted development. Iran’s energy resources are extremely important and are considered a national security issue for China, and from the point of view of the country's leadership, Iran also plays a key role as a transportation hub for its “silk routes”.

This growing network of roads, railways and energy pipelines, as previously reported on TomDispatch, is the Beijing response to the Obama administration, announcing its “reorientation to Asia” and the efforts of the US Navy to stick its nose into the South China Sea. Beijing prefers to demonstrate its power through a huge number of infrastructure projects, mainly high-speed railway lines, which stretch from its eastern coast to the interior of Eurasia. If we continue in the same spirit, the Chinese-built railway from Urumqi in Xinjiang province to Almaty in Kazakhstan will certainly some day be extended to Iran and cross this country on the way to the Persian Gulf.

New world for Pentagon strategists

At an international economic forum in St. Petersburg last month, Vladimir Putin told Charlie Rose (PBS) that Moscow and Beijing had always sought a sincere partnership with the United States, but were rejected by Washington. Well, honor and glory to the “leadership” of the Obama administration. Anyway, she managed to combine the two former geopolitical rivals while they strengthened their pan-Eurasian general strategy.

Even a recent deal with Iran in Vienna is hardly - especially considering the “war hawks” in Congress - until the end will destroy the 36-year-old great wall of Washington’s distrust of Iran. Instead, there is a possibility that Iran, freed from sanctions, will actually be absorbed by the Russian-Chinese project on the integration of Eurasia, as a result of which we will have to watch the Washington soldiers who are not able to act effectively and are moaning like banshees.

Supreme Commander of NATO, Dr. Strangelove, sorry, American General Philip Breedlove, insists that the West must create a rapid reaction force - online - to counteract Russia's “false tales”. Secretary of Defense Ashton Carter (Ashton Carter) states that he is seriously considering the possibility of unilaterally redistributing missiles with nuclear warheads in Europe. A candidate for the post of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Committee, naval commander Joseph Dunford, recently explicitly identified Russia as a real “threat to the existence” of America; Air Force general Paul Selva, who was appointed vice chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, supported this assessment by using the same phrase and calling Russia, China and Iran - in that order - more dangerous than the "Islamic State". At the same time, Republican presidential candidates and a flock of “hawks” of Congress just scream and smoke with anger when it comes to Russians and the Iranian treaty.

In response to the Ukrainian situation and the “threat” of a resurgent Russia (behind which resurgent China stands), the Washington-oriented militarization of Europe is in full swing. According to reports, NATO is currently obsessed with what is called "rethinking the strategy" - the compilation of detailed futuristic scenarios of war on European soil. As economist Michael Hudson (Michael Hudson) noted, even financial policy is becoming militarized and driven by the new NATO 2.0 cold war.

In its latest national military strategy, the Pentagon assumes that the risk of starting an American war with another nation (as opposed to organized terrorist groups) is low yet, but at the moment is “growing”. He identifies four nations as a “threat”: North Korea as a separate case and, predictably, the three countries that form the new Eurasian core: Russia, China and Iran. They are portrayed in the document as “revisionist states”, openly ignoring what the Pentagon defines as “international security and stability”; that is, the playing field created by globalization, exclusive capitalism and the Washington brand of militarism.

The Pentagon, of course, does not engage in diplomacy. Clearly disregarding the Vienna talks, he still blames Iran for the nuclear race. And he claims that the “military option” against Iran should never be dismissed.

So rely on the super blockbuster as you watch the Pentagon and the congressional “war hawks” react to the environment after Vienna and - although the summit was barely noticed in Washington - after Ufa, especially with the new occupant of the White House in 2017. .

It will be spectacular. Please note. Will Washington want to try to make amends to “lost” Russia or send troops there? Will he restrain China or the IS "caliphate"? Will he cooperate with Iran to fight the ISIS or reject it? Will he really turn his face to Asia, leaving the Middle East, or vice versa? Or will he try to hold back Russia, China and Iran at the same time? Or find some way to set them against each other?

In the end, whatever Washington does, it will certainly be moved by the fear of the growing strategic depth of the economic relations that Russia and China are establishing between themselves, a reality that is now becoming apparent throughout Eurasia. In Ufa, Putin openly declared Xi: "By combining efforts, we [Russia and China] will, without doubt, overcome all the problems we face."

The “efforts” should be understood as the new “silk routes”, the Eurasian Economic Union, the growing BRICS bloc, the expanding Shanghai Cooperation Organization, banks founded by the Chinese and everything else that contributes to the beginning of a new integration of a significant part of the Eurasian continent. What remains for Washington to fly like an eagle? Rather: scream like a banshee.
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21 comment
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  1. +2
    July 29 2015
    In general, BRICS and SCO are a direct challenge to the very existence of the United States (in the short term). That's what in phashington began a vigorous activity in the TTP. What remains for Washington to fly like an eagle?- NET, crawl like a lizard.
    1. +2
      July 29 2015
      The BRICS and the SCO is a breakdown of the unipolar world, but in the long run! Nobody wants to lose in the collapse of the dollar, as there are too serious assets! And everything possible is being done so that these assets do not disappear from the countries included in the BRIGS and SCO !! Work is not a turn off ......
      1. +2
        July 29 2015
        Quote: EGOrkka
        The BRICS and the SCO is a breakdown of the unipolar world, but in the long run! Nobody wants to lose in the collapse of the dollar, as there are too serious assets! And everything possible is being done so that these assets do not disappear from the countries included in the BRIGS and SCO !! Work is not a turn off ......

        Yes. The funny thing is that this pushed amers to decisive steps to change the work of their financial system.

        It seems they no longer want to save debt. Moreover - information flashed that they want to multiply paper dollars by zero.

        BRICS countries are actively buying gold. The Fed, it seems, is not very confident in its omnipotence.
        Comparing in a childish way: what is more reliable - a few tons of paper (treasure) or a few tons of gold?
        Once upon a time pieces of paper, but now - nooo ... smile
    2. 0
      July 29 2015
      Not! lie like a corpse!
  2. +2
    July 29 2015
    Well, that's nice! Played the frame
  3. +6
    July 29 2015
    The revival process is coming from Russia. As it should be. Yes
  4. +8
    July 29 2015
    It was smooth on paper. Only the United States did not eagle, and the mountain snake, until it is killed or dies, burns and breaks everything it can reach. As they say, there will be no war, but there will be such a struggle for peace that from it, maybe there will be no stone on stone.
    1. jjj
      July 29 2015
      A lot of weapons will be needed to protect the new world under construction
  5. +1
    July 29 2015
    you just have to wait for the response of the Americans; unfortunately, they too will not be done with a finger. Everything will not be easy ... they had enough brains to push us and China into the times of the great USSR ..
    1. 0
      July 29 2015
      Now Fashington is getting nervous and jerking more and more. Therefore, it will be more and more wrong.
      They already have a puncture on a puncture, and now they can’t control the avalanche.
      Late. And they will cut the mattress into strips of independent states.
  6. +2
    July 29 2015
    All the same, this very "Silk Road" has a final stop in the EU, because the standard of living there is higher, therefore they will pay more for goods, China has two vectors - one in the USA, the other in the EU, it is very profitable for him to trade with them
  7. +1
    July 29 2015
    All this is certainly good and pleasant to read, but the dollar on TV every day in relation to the ruble is steadily growing, inflation, respectively, is also growing inevitably devaluing our salaries.
  8. +1
    July 29 2015
    The article is purely informative. There is one drawback that fell out of the author’s field of vision.

    If everything was about the economy, it would be easier. But at present, purely economic factors are not working. An example is Ukraine. To break the ties between the EU and the Russian Federation, a war was provoked. To tear apart all the "silk roads" in Eurasia like two fingers on the asphalt.

    And the weakest point is Turkmenistan. Muslim jihad in Turkmenistan and China remain without gas. Like India and Pakistan. The dream of the European Union to receive Turkmen gas through the Caspian and Azerbaijan is covered with a copper basin.

    And the funny thing is that the destruction of Turkmenistan is beneficial to the two heavyweights in politics. USA and Russia. But if interest in the United States is long-term and desirable, then for the Russian Federation interest may be short-term and negative in the future.
    Information from Turkmenistan - the cat cried, and the situation there is alarming. Turkmenistan is the heart of all silk road projects. Waiting ....

    PS Given that all the leaders of ISIS were processed in American prisons and then were released - making a small war room there is very simple. When they give the go-ahead from Washington, the war will begin.
    1. +2
      July 29 2015
      Quote: Bakht
      But at present, purely economic factors are not working. An example is Ukraine. To break the ties between the EU and the Russian Federation, a war was provoked. To tear apart all the "silk roads" in Eurasia like two fingers on the asphalt.

      And the weakest point is Turkmenistan.
      When they give the go-ahead from Washington, the war will begin.
      At the same time, everyone is pretty tired of the Masonic-Protestant American "nothing personal".
      How you need to crank a rusty wheel - it’s better to go on.

      The reason for the omnipresence of Americans is their super-profit.

      To cut back their incomes, to tarnish social discontent inside - the rights of blacks - agility and decrease. And there will be no time for color revolutions, you see.
  9. +2
    July 29 2015
    If I knew how to "cut their income" - it would be easier.

    Unfortunately, the modern world rests on information. And it is entirely in the hands of the Anglo-Saxon world. Need an IDEA. And the very idea of ​​BRICS and the SCO and other abbreviations lies in line with Western values. Earn money and make a profit. Therefore, any organizational structures lie in the ideological field of the West. And victory in this field, by definition, cannot be won. We play in a foreign field by the rules of others.

    “But we are still alive!” You have to do something! At least something!
    - This is the concept of the current government. The concept of legitimization of surrender. To do anything means to pretend that something is being done to save the country. This is an imitation of deed, window dressing, visibility. If you do, then, as they say, in a big way. Something out of the ordinary.
    - What?
    - I do not know. Maybe rise to the full height and with the singing of the “International” go to certain death, as the communists once did. But we are not communists. We are just commies.

    Russian tragedy (death of Utopia) A. Zinoviev
    1. dmb
      July 29 2015
      You are absolutely right. Gullible fellow citizens naively believe that the collapse of the United States (which so far exists exclusively in their imagination) will make their life more beautiful. Our "oilmen and electricians with accountants" will immediately decide that they have a surplus of accumulated capital, and will begin to distribute it in the cities and towns of our vast homeland to the aforementioned fellow citizens.
    2. 0
      July 29 2015
      Quote: Bakht
      If I knew how to "cut their income" - it would be easier.

      It’s just not a secret: the petrodollar and the (indirectly) related to it trigeries, which will reduce due to negative profitability (cleverly thought up!), Drug money (why else did the United States rush into Afghanistan and intensively “rule” in Colombia and others Latin American countries).

      Here, at least one of these pillars "move" - ​​it will be easier further.

      Empires collapse, although not overnight (although there is such an example), but inexorably.
      1. 0
        July 29 2015
        This is just a big secret.

        So to speak. We are collapsing the dollar (the petrodollar is already collapsing by itself) and the US economy is in a deep butt. But the same China sells a huge part of its products to the States. China's economy collapses next. China no longer needs so much oil and gas, and the Russian economy collapses next. Bears can play on the Power of Siberia gas pipeline.

        I wonder if everything is so simple, why are the BRICS countries in no hurry to collapse the hated economy? And then, who said that the States will calmly watch someone ruin their economy? I asked a question on a different topic - what is the US dollar secured with? It is provided by the US Armed Forces (By the way the strongest at the moment in the world). After all, no one wants to check for any lousiness of any AUG.

        As I was told in secret :-) before the Chinese produce something, the Europeans have to come up with this "something".
        1. 0
          July 29 2015
          Quote: Bakht
          This is just a big secret.
          I wonder if everything is so simple, why are the BRICS countries in no hurry to collapse the hated economy?
          - Still, it's not a secret, but a problem. Therefore, they are in no hurry - all the economies of the world are bogged down in the dollar. They themselves answered the question:
          Quote: Bakht
          and the US economy in deep pope. But the very same China sells a huge part of its products to the States. Following the collapse of the Chinese economy. China no longer needs so much oil and gas and the Russian economy collapses.

          Alternative financial institutions have not yet gained strength and are not rubbed.
  10. +1
    July 29 2015
    I’ll be kidding when they begin to compare some artificially created USA with Iran with a history of many thousands of years. Open your eyes! What else can be common in the inhabitants of India, except for the worship of the golden calf? How long will this religion last?
    Need an IDEA. And the very idea of ​​BRICS and the SCO and other abbreviations lies in line with Western values
    At the moment, opposition to the West is needed in order to subsequently get rid of their values.
  11. +1
    July 29 2015
    These values, through the efforts of 200-300 years of propaganda, have been firmly driven into the heads of the majority. I don't see any other values ​​yet. So far we all (ALL without exception) operate with such concepts as profit, GDP, oil price, gold, and so on. the idea of ​​the "golden calf" is at work. Therefore, you can repeat the classic "Carthage must be destroyed"
  12. +1
    July 29 2015
    I liked
    Dr. Strangelove
  13. 0
    July 30 2015
    I see the United States as not coping with all its accumulated influence. More and more they have leaks on their ship. And why have they still not started fighting? If you believe the media, the American population itself is tired of wars and the majority will not support another war, and even media propaganda is not able to change anything much, besides, even taking into account the powerful military lobby within the party among the congressmen, they also do not really want to get involved in bloodshed again. military ranks give more and more daring and belligerent interviews because such posts will not allow a "thinking general with an analytical mindset" to occupy, so they compete who will say louder that Russia is enemy number one. Yes, we are enemy number one, because we are the ones who started all these unions, trade in national currencies. Prosto the people of America are divided into those who are for peace and those who still dream of the exclusivity of America in this mire. Amerika is deflated. The country of the printing press can not oppose anything to powerful uniting economies.
    Who strive for equality in the region. Europe is already whining openly, but there simply still the presidents of the countries imposing sanctions have not completed their deadlines. The time will come and in every country will come to power who will not put up with the loss of the sovereignty of his country where striped. merge, Oland will not win because the sanctions are supported only by Oland, in the first round he will be endured by those who suffer themselves because of his policies, besides, the mistrals and the legalization of same-sex people are unlikely to contribute to an increase in the rating in the elections. ".

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