Military Review

For the Navy Day. At the dawn of the Russian fleet

July 26, Russia celebrates Naval Day Fleet. Usually, the creation of a regular Russian navy is associated with the name of Peter the Great, since it was Peter, with the help of invited foreign (mainly Dutch) specialists, who began the construction of the Baltic Fleet. However, the first ships created according to the European model appeared in Russia much earlier than the accession to the throne of Peter the Great. And this - if you do not remember the traditional old Russian flotillas that went on naval campaigns at the dawn stories Russian statehood. The most developed shipbuilding was in the Novgorod land. In the northern seas, small vessels were built - Kochmar, Aspen trees, Carbass, on which the Pomeranian merchants mastered the Murmansk region. For longer voyages, a “koch” vessel was created. It was a single-deck flat-bottomed sailing vessel with lengths from 16 to 24 meters and widths from 5 to 8 meters, with a mast and a straight sail, which was made of leather. However, the largest naval vessel used by Pomeranian navigators was the sea boat. The three-mast boat could carry cargo up to 200 tons and even slightly surpassed the famous “Santa Maria” in displacement - the ship of Christopher Columbus, on which the celebrated traveler discovered the West Indies. However, despite the obvious success of the Pomor in shipbuilding, they could not compete with European maritime powers. The regular navy of the Russian principalities was also absent, which was also caused by the lack of access to the warm seas - the Black and even the Baltic. But as the liberation from the Tatar-Mongolian yoke, the overcoming of the feudal fragmentation of Russia and the formation of a centralized Russian state under the authority of the tsar, the young state’s need to strengthen foreign economic relations with other countries of Europe and Asia, including the development of maritime traffic that in itself created the need to build not only the merchant fleet, but also the navy.

For the Navy Day. At the dawn of the Russian fleet

Captors of Ivan the Terrible

Thus, in the 16th century, as the territory of the Russian state expanded, the development of the Caspian and Baltic trade routes began. King John IV decided to create a maritime fleet on the Baltic Sea, hoping that he would be able to protect the Narva trade route. But since the Russian state lacked both qualified shipbuilders, qualified seamen, and the technical base for building its own fleet, Ivan the Terrible decided to hire capers - seamen who were employed along with the ships to serve the sovereigns of various states. Fortunately, during the period under review there was no shortage of "abandoned" sailors and captains in Europe. In 1569, on the Narva trade route, the first privateers appeared, commanded by Carsten Rode - a professional corsair, a German by nationality, a former Danish citizen and originating from the peasant republic Ditmarschen. Previously, Rode had his own ship, was engaged in trade and transported goods to Lübeck, but then as a privateer he entered the service of the Danish king Frederick II. At this time, Denmark was fighting with Sweden, Sweden was also one of the main opponents of the Russian state in the Baltic. Rode, going to the Duke of Livonian Magnus, then found himself in the service of Ivan the Terrible. In March, 1570 in Rode received a special certificate from the sovereign Ivan the Terrible, in which the king pointed out the need to protect the trade routes from attacks by Polish privateers who were engaged in looting merchant ships. The attacks of Polish privateers caused great damage to Russian-European trade and were so frequent that they prompted the sovereign to allocate funds to hire their own privateers. Corsair Carsten Rode chose Ezel Island as a base for his fleet, more precisely, the city of Ahrensburg (Kingisepp), which was a very convenient port located on the Baltic Sea. Ivan the Terrible allocated to Captain Rode money for the purchase of a kick armed with three cast-iron cannons, ten small cannons — leopards, eight peepers and two combat pickaxes, which were used to breach the enemy ships. With Russian money, Rode hired both 35 sailors and ship officers. In accordance with the agreement, Rode undertook to transfer every third ship he had captured to Russia, and to transfer the tenth part of the captured loot to the Russian authorities, and to transfer valuable prisoners to Moscow-based orders. At the same time, the crew members did not share the prey among themselves, but received a fixed salary. The teams of their ships Rode recruited from among the Danish professional sailors, as well as coast-dwellers and archangel archers and gunners.

The emergence of the maritime private fleet controlled by Moscow in the Baltic Sea was a matter of great concern for Sweden, Denmark, the Commonwealth and other regional powers not interested in the appearance of their own military fleet with the Russian state. Russia's competitors in the Baltic Sea quite rightly saw in the appearance of the Russian military fleet in the Baltic a great danger to their military-political, economic and trade positions in the region. In order to capture Rode and destroy his squadron, Swedish and Polish flotilla were sent, but the famous corsair had to end his battle way through the fault of his compatriots, the Danes. In October, Rode 1570 was arrested in Copenhagen and imprisoned on charges of attacking Danish merchant ships. Nothing is known about the further fate of the first "Moscow admiral". Subsequently, as a result of wars with the Livonian Order, Sweden and the Commonwealth, Russia lost access to the Baltic Sea, losing previously acquired territories. After that, for a considerable period of time, Moscow was forced to abandon plans for the construction of the navy in the Baltic Sea. The only way through which Russia could carry out sea communication with European countries was the northern seas. In addition, river navigation developed, primarily the construction of ships on the Don and the Volga, since the southern direction was also considered as a priority.

"Frederick" - the first ship built on the territory of Russia

In the 17th century, the country's growing demand for maritime communications actualized the need to build a modern fleet, which by its characteristics would not be inferior to the fleets of European states. After all, trade relations were established with the port cities of Western Europe, with Persia, and their transport support required the development of maritime business and shipbuilding. However, Russia did not have its own specialists capable of organizing the construction of modern ships and their launching into the water. Therefore, the authorities decided to take advantage of the moment and borrow the technology of building and operating modern ships from foreigners. Moreover, favorable circumstances have been created for this. So, in 1634, the Holstein embassy arrived at the palace of Tsar Mikhail Fedorovich Romanov. Frederick III, Duke of Holstein, was going to develop trade with Persia, and the nearest way could lie only through Russia. Therefore, the monarch of Golstein was going to agree with the Russian tsar on the transit of Holstein trade expeditions through Russian territory. The task of the Holstein embassy was also to conclude an agreement on the construction of ten ships on the Volga, on which the Holstein merchants could carry goods to Persia. The Russian authorities took the idea of ​​the Holstein duke positively, because they hoped to borrow the technology of shipbuilding from foreign masters. It turns out that the circumstances were favorable for the development of the Russian fleet, and all that remained was to render the Holstein people the necessary assistance in building ships.

Shipbuilding was planned to be carried out in Nizhny Novgorod, for which Tsar Mikhail Fedorovich sent a certificate to the governor of Nizhny Novgorod, which said: “Walk them to Persis ... Volga on ten ships, and ships to them in our land, where there are forests that that business will be found, and that wood will buy them from our people free trade, and carpenters to that ship case, to their ship masters in addition, to hire our subjects eager people, and hire them to pay under a contract with them free trade, and from those carpenters bark Abel skill not hide and not conceal. " The construction of the ships was entrusted to six Holstein specialists, who arrived in Moscow in the same 1634 and from there went to Nizhny Novgorod. They were skipper Michael Cordes, ship's carpenter Cornelius Josten, translator Hans Burk, specialists Kashper Seeler, Johan Stirpomas and Joachim Kranz. A delegation of Holstein sailors was accompanied by Russian archers and carpenters. In March, 1636 arrived in Moscow with a re-embassy of the Holstein duke, led by Crusius and Brüggemann. The task of this embassy was to hire a crew for a ship under construction. In June, 1636 was launched the first ship, called the “Frederick” - in honor of King Frederick III. It was assumed that the ship "Frederick" will go with cargo to Persia, and by the end of the trip it will be concluded - is it worth building the next batch of ships. The ship Frederick received a description of the famous traveler Adam Olearius, who reported that Frederick had a length of 120 feet, a width of 40 feet and a draft of 7 feet. Thus, it complies with European standards galleys. Pine planks were the building material for most of the ship. The Frederick team includes both Holsteens and Russians. 1 July (11 July) 1636 from Moscow to Nizhny Novgorod were sent by envoys Alexei Savin Romanchukov, podyachy Skobeltsyn and interpreters Yushkov, who formed the basis of the Russian embassy in Persia. On July 30 (August 9), the embassy of the Russian court sailed from Nizhny Novgorod along the Volga. In total, the ship “Frederick”, flying the flag of Holstein, sailed 126 people - among them Holstein and Russian. October 27 (November 6) 1636 of the year the ship entered the Caspian Sea, but November 12 (November 22) hit a heavy storm in the Derbent region. The three-day storm caused significant damage to the ship, damaging all three masts of the ship. In the end, it was decided to stranded the ship in order to protect the cargo and crew from being killed in a shipwreck. Subsequently, "Frederick" was dragged to the shore in the vicinity of Derbent, where he was looted by the local population. So ended the story of the first ship of the European type, built on the territory of Russia. However, the Eagle ship, built thirty years later, is traditionally viewed as the first Russian sailing ship, because the Frederick, although built, was launched in Nizhny Novgorod, went under the Holstein flag, and therefore could not be considered Russian ship.

Battle at the island of Kotlin - first sea battle

However, between the launching of “Frederick” and the construction of the ship under the proud name “Eagle” the history of the Russian fleet was also full of quite glorious events. So, 22 July 1656, the famous battle took place near the island of Kotlin, which is considered the first officially documented victory of the Russian fleet at sea in modern times. As is known, in 1656-1658. there was a Russian-Swedish war. Given the geographical location of the Swedish lands, rowing fleets were involved in the fighting, and they acted on both sides. On the Russian side, a detachment under the command of Governor Peter Ivanovich Potemkin (pictured) was advanced against Sweden, which was given a rowing flotilla of Don Cossacks, who had previously participated in naval campaigns on the Black Sea and had extensive combat experience. The squad of Potemkin included 570 Don Cossacks and 430 Novgorod and Ladoga streltsy and "eager people." They received the blessing of Patriarch Nikon "to go to sea on Stockholm." Pyotr Ivanovich Potemkin (1617-1700) at the time of the campaign to the Izhora lands was 39 years. The younger brother of the governor and steward Fyodor Ivanovich Potemkin, Peter Potyomkin participated in the war with Poland, and then he was assigned to lead the campaign against the Swedes. In June, the 1656 detachment under the command of Potemkin captured the Swedish fortress Nyenskans, which is at the mouth of the Neva. However, the seizure of this action could be called with reservations - the Swedes themselves left fortification. After the occupation of Nyenskans, the Potemkin detachment set out on rowing ships up the Neva and laid siege to the Noteburg fortress. However, the detachment soon split up and its part, led by Potemkin himself, returned along the Neva River to the mouth of the river and July 22 1656. collided with enemy vessels in the area of ​​Kotlin Island. At the time of the meeting, the Russian rowing flotilla contained 15 planes (relatively small sailing and rowing flat-bottomed ships), and the Swedish flotilla included the 3 of a much larger and better ship. Despite the fact that the Swedish ships opened powerful artillery fire on the Russian flotilla, the Cossacks managed to break through to the Swedish galleys and capture the Swedish flagship - a six-gun ship, which was taken to board the ship. The remaining ships of the Swedes were forced to retreat. Voevoda Potemkin sent a report to Moscow: “Kotlin of the island with the German people had a battle and by the grace of God, and the Most Pure Mother of God to help, and all the holy prayers, and the Great Sovereign and his son, the sovereign, with happiness, Kotlin took a half-ship and beat German people and the language caught the man, captain Irek Dalsfira, 8 man soldiers and outfit and banners were raped. " According to military historians, such an insignificant number of prisoners on the Swedish ship, whose crew was supposed to be much larger, indicates that most of the Swedish sailors and soldiers died during the boarding battle with the Cossacks and archers who were breaking into on board the ship. After winning a sea battle, a detachment of voivode Potemkin caused considerable damage to Kotlin Island, destroying four local villages. In the domestic naval history, the battle near the island of Kotlin is traditionally regarded as the first naval battle of the Russian fleet, and it is from it that the history of Russian naval victories in modern times is counted. However, the very course of the Russian-Swedish war 1656-1658. the battle at Kotlin Island did not have a major impact. Next 1657 Swedish troops launched an offensive on the Karelian and Livonian axes, and Count Magnus Delagardi invaded the territory of the Pskov Region, but was defeated there. In the end, in the battle of Gdovom, the Swedish army of Count Delagardi was defeated by the army of Prince Khovansky, which managed to return the advantage in the war to the Russian side. Prince Khovansky managed to seize settlements on the right bank of Narva. However, in 1658 the detachment of the Swedish governor of Narva, Gustav Gorn, managed to repel Yamburg and Nyenskans.

Athanasius Ordin-Nashchokin and the Russian fleet

By the time of the Russian-Swedish war 1656-1658. The beginning of serious work on the construction of the Baltic Fleet also applies. In Tsarevichev Dmitriev, the city began the construction of a shipyard, where it was supposed to create a flotilla for navigation on the Baltic Sea. He supervised the construction of the shipyard Boyar Afanasy Lavrent'evich Ordin - Nashchokin - one of the most significant figures at the dawn of Russian shipbuilding. Afanasy Lavrent'evich Ordin - Nashchokin (1605-1680) by origin was not a boyar, but belonged to the petty nobles. He was born in North-West Russia, since it was in the Pskov and Toropetsky districts that the poor estates of his father Lavrentiy were located. According to legend, the distant ancestor of the Nashchokins arrived in Russia from Italy. The Italian Duke Wieliczka, arriving in Russia, was baptized in Orthodoxy and received the name Dmitry and the nickname Red. Dmitry Red's son Dmitry Naschok got his nickname after he was wounded on the cheek during the 1327 uprising in Tver, when the townspeople rose up against the Golden Horde ambassador Shevkal. The descendants of Dmitry Nashchoki received the surname Nashchokin, and the double surname was associated with the nickname Horde by Andrei Nashchokin, who died in the battle of Orsha. Lavrenty Ordin - Nashchokin tried to give his son a good education, and learned his German, Latin and mathematics. Athanasius, distinguished by his abilities and purposefulness, independently mastered also Polish and Wallachian (Romanian) languages. He was well versed in his current political situation, which allowed him to use his abilities in practice. In 1642, Athanasius participated in the establishment of a new Russian-Swedish border. In 1656, it was Ordin-Nashchokin, who was already a diplomat, signed an agreement on alliance with Kurland, and in 1658, he was the one who signed a truce with the Swedes, for which he was awarded the high rank of Duma nobleman. In 1667, Ordin-Naschokin, the only one of the representatives of his last name, was awarded the Boyar rank and led the Ambassadorial Order. It was Ordin-Nashchokin who belongs to the idea of ​​the need to deepen economic and political cooperation with the countries of Western Europe and to establish control over the coast of the Baltic Sea. Thus, the Russian diplomat even outstripped his time - after all, the ideas, the foundation of which was laid by Athanasius Ordin-Nashchokin, were realized only decades later - after Peter I came to power and his success in the Northern War. In 1661, after the conclusion of the Kardis Peace Treaty, Russia, which lost in the confrontation with the Swedish crown, pledged to return all the territories seized before by the Russian troops to Stockholm and abandoned plans to seize the Baltic coast and create the Baltic Fleet. In accordance with the contract, the Russian authorities were to destroy all the ships that were laid at the shipyard in Tsarevichev Dmitriev city. Thus, Ordin-Nashchokin’s plans to create the Baltic Fleet failed to materialize; however, the politician did not lose hope of creating the Russian navy and paid attention to the southern direction — the Volga and the Caspian Sea. Moreover, this was demanded by the expansion of trade relations between Russia and Persia, with which a corresponding agreement was concluded, implying, among other things, the protection of Russian merchant ships sailing along the Volga and the Caspian Sea to Persia. In 1664, Shah Abbas II granted exclusive privileges to Russian merchants, and in 1667 he appealed to the Russian throne to allow the Armenian company established by Persian nationals - Armenians to trade raw silk through Russian territory. At the same time, the protection of cargo transported by Armenians was imposed on the Russian side for a fee. After all, the Caspian Sea at that time was very dangerous for merchant shipping, as there were groups of Cossacks and Caucasians, uncontrolled by the Moscow government, operating there that could attack merchant ships.

The unfortunate fate of the ship named "Eagle"

Afanasy Ordin-Nashchokin managed to get permission from Tsar Alexei Mikhailovich Romanov to build the Russian fleet on the Volga, after which he invited foreign shipbuilding experts. The choice fell on the Dutch, well known for their skills in shipbuilding and navigation. Among the invited specialists were Colonel Cornelius van Bukoven, who was entrusted with the direct leadership of the shipbuilding process, as well as shipwright masters Geltz, lieutenant colonel van den Strek and Minster. Thirty Russian carpenters, four blacksmiths and four gunners were allocated to help the Dutch specialists. Foreign experts arrived in the village of Dedinovo Kolomna district, located on the Oka River, where the shipyard opened. Dedinovo was chosen as the site for the creation of the first state shipyard, primarily for the reason that for a long time it was here that ships were built that ran along the Volga, there were skilled craftsmen who had experience in the construction of plows. The construction of the shipyard was funded by the Order of the Great Parish - the state structure that became the predecessor of the Admiralty of Peter the Great. The order of the Grand Parish not only sought public funds to finance shipbuilding, but was also responsible for recruiting qualified craftsmen, supplying tools, building materials and equipment. To equip the shipyard with tools, 2 iron jack, 4 hammer, saws and other tools were purchased abroad. An extract was organized to the shipyard in Dedinovo by craftsmen from all over the country - Kazan anchor craftsmen, Ryazan blacksmiths, and Moscow turners. In fact, the shipyard in Dedinovo was turned into an industrial enterprise that was advanced for Russia in those years, which had the appearance of Western European manufacture — with a clear division of labor, an orderly management system, and gradual mechanization of at least some of the ship building work.

At Dedinovo Shipyard in 1667, the construction of warships began, which were to serve for the protection of Russian merchant ships in the Caspian Sea. Initially, it was decided to build a frigate that was laid by 14 on November 1667 g. It was a double-deck and three-mast ship, 24,5 meter long, 6,4 meter wide and with a draft 1,5 meter. It was the frigate under construction that became the first Russian ship built in compliance with all the requirements of the then shipbuilding. The prototype for the frigate under construction was pinas, the armed ships of the Dutch East India Company, which were built for fighting in the southern seas and were actively used in the first half of the 17th century. In January, 1668, after the frigate, the shipyard began construction of the 18-meter yacht, and a little later - several smaller ships. The construction was carried out directly by the Dutch master Lambert Geltz, and the Russian carpenters were led by the nobleman Yakov Poluektov and the clerk of the hut, Stepan Petrov. Wood for the ships was harvested in the Kolomna district, and the iron was delivered from Tula and Kashira factories. In January, the bottom and sides of the first ship were built by 1668, and in March, a painter and a carver were requested by 1668 in Dedinovo to decorate the hull of the ship. Despite the fact that in May 1668 the ship was launched, work on its decoration continued, and the ship survived the winter in Dedinov at the shipyard. Fleet historian V.A. Dygalo describes the launch of the ship “Eagle” in the following way: “The superior of the Kolomna church of John the Baptist arrived at the celebration. Accompanied by a local priest, deacon and van Bukoven, he climbed onto the deck of the Eagle. Immediately on the flagpoles and masts of the ship soared huge flags and a long ribbon of a pennant. They served a prayer service, sprinkled holy water on the flags and went down to the Dedinovo coast. On the "Eagle" there were only a few people, led by the captain of the ship - the Dutch captain Butler. They were instructed to give anchor as soon as the ship went down to the water. Ordin-Nashchokin waved his hand and the bell-ringers sounded the bells of Dedinovo belfry. "Eagle" pulled away and slid on the stocks. A solemn chime drowned out the salute salvos. After a minute or two, the first Russian warship rocked on the blue surface of the Oka Creek ”(quoted in: Dygalo V. A. Where and what went off in the fleet).

The cost of construction work was estimated at 2 221 ruble. The 22 squeaked, 40 muskets, 40 pairs of pistols and hand grenades were used to launch the ship. After the ship was built, it was necessary to recruit for it a qualified team - after all, despite the presence of excellent craftsmen - carpenters, carvers, gunsmiths, trained sailors in Russia were not. It was necessary, again, to turn to foreign experts. The Russian government was instructed the Dutch merchant Joachim van Sweden to recruit in his home country a qualified crew of sailors, including hiring a ship captain. Yohim Van Sveden’s choice fell on his relative David Butler, who was the cousin of Van Swede's wife Maria Roots. David Butler in 1668 was 33, he was born in Amsterdam and received good maritime training. Butler signed a contract with van Sweden and set about recruiting a ship crew. At the same time, the Dutch captain decided to find out what flag the ship would fly under. For Russia, which previously did not have its own fleet, the question of the flag was a novelty. After the letter for fabrication of the flag, fabrics of red, white and blue colors were written out. Thus, the modern Russian tricolor originates in the village of Dedinovo and its history is inextricably linked with the first Russian warship and its captain the Dutchman David Butler. An image of a two-headed Russian eagle — the national emblem of the Russian state — was sewn onto the ship’s flags. Upon arrival in Dedinovo, Butler came into conflict with Colonel Van Bukoven, who had previously managed shipbuilding. It is known that Butler arrived in Dedinovo with big ambitions and immediately presented a project for the construction of an 36 rowing galley, intending to personally lead the shipbuilding process. In the course of the conflict with van Bukoven, it turned out that Butler was “unclean” and appropriated a certain amount of government money, and did not hold the patent of the captain. However, Butler managed to defend his right to manage the shipbuilding works, referring to the fact that he has very extensive experience of sea travel not only to Spain and France, but also to Indonesia. In the end, the Russian authorities took the side of Butler and his opponent, Colonel Bukoven, was removed from the management of the shipbuilding works, after which the shipyard was headed by the commander of the frigate, Captain David Butler.

In April, 1669, the ship received the name "Eagle" - in honor of the Russian state emblem, and soon set sail and set sail - it was assumed that it would pass from Dedinov to Astrakhan. However, by the time the ship was to reach Astrakhan, the city was awaited by insurgent Cossacks under the leadership of Stepan Razin. Hearing of the approaching razintsy, Captain "Eagle" Butler, completely unwilling to die in exile at the hands of the rebels, persuaded his subordinates to abandon the ship and flee to Persia. But the Dutch, fearing to fall into the hands of the rebellious Cossacks, fled even before their immediate commander, sailing on a small ship. David Butler, therefore, remained in Astrakhan and was captured by the rebels. However, soon the Dutch captain managed to escape from Astrakhan by boat, get to Dagestan, and then - to Persia. In Isfahan, Butler turned up in a Dutch compound. He left a note in which he described his long misadventures during his journey through Dagestan, and all the incidents that occurred with the Dutch experts in Astrakhan during the capture of the city by the rebel Cossacks Stepan Razin. Thus ended his navy service in Russia, which lasted several years, and David Butler died in 1680, still at an old age. As for the ship "Eagle", then abandoned by the crew, it seemed useless to the rebels - Razin did not have specialists capable of operating such a ship, and if they fell into the hands of the tsarist forces, they could use the ship for its "intended purpose" - against Razin and his cossacks. Therefore, the "Eagle" was abandoned, for years decayed and for a long time stood in the Kutum duct. After the suppression of the uprising, he was examined by tsarist specialists, but for the dilapidation it was decided to abandon the idea of ​​its further use. Russian trade with Persia, disrupted by the uprising of Stepan Razin, effectively ceased for many years. The boyar Athanasius Ordin-Nashchokin, who stood at the origins of national shipbuilding, gradually departed from public affairs. A number of attempts to create modern ships were undertaken by Russian merchants who were trying to expand trade with Europe through the White Sea, but there they faced fierce opposition from Dutch traders who were not interested in the appearance of competitors and did not allow the construction of Russian ships.

Karsten Brandt and the Amusement Flotilla

After the tragic completion of the history of the ship "Eagle" the creation of the Russian fleet was postponed for several more decades. His further history is connected with the name of Peter the Great. By the way, Peter the Great, after a long time after the construction of the first Russian ship, the Eagle, which did not manage to become the flagship of the Russian fleet, highly appreciated this undertaking of his father, Alexei Mikhailovich: “Although the paternal intention did not receive its end, however There is an eternal glorification, a hope ... from the undertaking of that, as if from a good seed, the present case of the sea has happened. ” By the way, Karshten Brandt, one of the crew members of the first Russian warship "Eagle", became one of Peter the Great's teachers. A native of Holland, Carsten Brandt (1630-1693) came to Russia at the age of thirty-seven years old, being hired as a ship's carpenter and assistant to the ship's gunner for the construction of the Orel frigate and other ships. He worked at the shipyard in Dedinovo, then entered the crew of the Orel, and in 1670, being in Astrakhan, he fled from the rebel Cossacks Stepan Razin and moved to Moscow. In Moscow, Brandt settled in the German Quarter, where immigrants from Western European countries lived, and engaged in the carpentry and carpentry that was familiar to him. Meanwhile, in May 1688, the young Peter the Great, who was walking around the village of Izmailovo, found a small little boat in the barn of the boyar Nikita Romanov and became interested in it. Peter himself described this event: “It happened to us (in May, 1688) to be in Izmailovo, at the linen yard, and walking through the barns, where the remnants of things lay to Nikita Romanov’s grandfather’s house, between which I saw a foreign vessel, asked Franz ( Timmerman) what is this ship? He said that the bot is English. I asked: where is it used? He said that when the ships - to drive and carts. I asked the packs: what advantage does it have before our courts (of course he saw his image and fortress better than ours)? He told me that he was sailing not only in the wind, but also against the wind; which word me in great surprise led and supposedly incredible. " Then Peter, who was very interested in bot, asked his teacher of geometry and fortification, Franz Timmerman, to find a master who would be well-versed in the structure of European courts and could bring the little boat into proper condition. So at the court of Peter appeared carpenter Karsten Brandt - 58-year-old Dutchman, who lived in the German settlement. Under the leadership of Brandt, work began on the restoration of the little boat, which was transported to the village of Preobrazhenskoye on the bank of the Yauza River. Karshten Brandt was able to repair the ship, built the mast, set the sail. Thus, the famous little boat of Peter the Great, the “grandfather of the Russian fleet,” was launched. By the way, officially the little boat was called "Saint Nicholas". Under the leadership of Karsten Brandt, Peter the Great mastered the Dutch language, maritime terminology and the basics of vessel control, driving the small boat first on the Yauza River, and then on the Prosyanom Pond.

Later Karsten Brandt supervised the construction of Peter the Great's "Fun Flotilla" of other ships on Plescheyevo Lake. On the shore of Lake Pleshcheyevo in 1688, a small shipyard, a one-story palace and a pier for ships were laid. In 1689, under the leadership of Brandt, construction began on a yacht and two small frigates, which were built according to Amsterdam blueprints and with the participation of foreign experts. At the same time, at the initiative of Peter, Russian carpenters were also invited to participate in the construction as pupils - so Peter wanted to form the backbone of Russian shipbuilders. Among the working carpenters were Fedosey Sklyaev, Lukyan Vereshchagin, Anisim Molyarov and Mikhail Sobakin, formerly members of Peter’s “amicable army”. Peter also worked along with other carpenters and apprentices. In total, two frigates and three yachts came down from the shipyard on Pleshcheyevo Lake. In the winter of 1692, all the boats and longboats, built before in Preobrazhensky, were also transferred to Lake Plescheevo. 1 May 1692 was launched the first frigate, built at the shipyard under the direction of Karsten Brandt. After this, a flotilla parade was held under the command of Peter, and in August 1692 was held a water blessing on Plescheyev Lake with the participation of all the highest clergy and dignitaries of the royal court. Thus, the carpenter from the "Eagle" Karsten Brandt was at the origins of the "Fun Flotilla" - a prototype of the regular Russian Navy.

When, in 1693, the sixty-three-year-old Karsten Brandt died, then, by order of Peter the Great, his funeral was organized according to the general category. Karsten Brandt was buried at a large gathering of people, and Peter the Great forever preserved the memory of his teacher in marine business and always spoke of him with great respect. As for the “grandfather of the Russian fleet,” the little boat of Peter the Great before 1701 was in Izmailovo, and then was transported to the Kremlin. In 1722, after the signing of the Nishtadt Peace Treaty, Peter the Great turned the little boat into a monument. The king issued a decree, which ordered to preserve forever the remnants of ships, yachts and galleys built for the "Amusing Flotilla" and serving the king in the study of marine craft. In 1723, a small boat taken from a pedestal participated in the parade of the Baltic Fleet. After this, the small boat was placed under the shed of the Peter and Paul Fortress. And now it is a museum piece, recalling the glorious history of the formation of the Russian fleet.

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  1. fomkin
    fomkin 26 July 2015 06: 10
    Alexei Mikhailovich even before Peter1 realized that he needed a fleet. I ascertain this fact solely for the reasons given below. I am very surprised at the way of thinking of almost all of our leaders, with the exception of Stalin. The country has the largest maritime borders. I even often meet the opinion of users on the site that we do not need an ocean fleet, including an aircraft carrier. Stubbornly want to fight on their territory.
  2. Duke
    Duke 26 July 2015 06: 16

    The first Russian ship "Eagle"

    The firstborn of military shipbuilding in Russia. Built in 1668 in the village of Dedinovo on the river. Oka. Displacement of about 250 tons, length - 24,5 m., Width - 6,5 m., Draft - 1,5 m., 22 squeaky weapons, 58 crew (captain, 22 sailors, 35 riflemen). The organization of service and the actions of the crew members in battle were determined by 34 "articles of art", which were the prototype of the first naval charter of the Russian fleet. In 1669 he was transferred to Astrakhan to guard Russian merchant ships in the Caspian Sea. In 1670 it was captured by the insurgent peasants and Cossacks under the leadership of S.T. Razin. In the future, it stood inactive for many years in one of the Volga channels, and was not used for its intended purpose.
    "On a sunny day on May 19, 1668, on the banks of the Oka River near the shipyard, which was built here by order of the sovereign Alexei Mikhailovich, all the inhabitants of the palace village of Dedinovo gathered. A two-deck handsome ship" Eagle "was on the launching skids of the slipway. Boyarin AL Ordin -Nashchokin, who was determined by the tsar's decree "to be in charge of the ship business", together with the Dutch shipbuilder Colonel Cornelius Van Bukoven (according to the project of which the Russian ship masters Yakov Poluektov and Stepan Petrov created the "Oryol") walked around the shipyard and personally made sure that the descent the ship is ready for the water. ”The rector of the Kolomna Church of St. John the Baptist arrived at the celebration. Accompanied by the local priest, the deacon and Van Bukoven, he climbed onto the deck of the" Eagle. "Immediately huge flags and a long ribbon of a pennant were hoisted on the flagpoles and masts of the ship. , sprinkled the flags with holy water and went down to the Dedinovo shore. ”On the" Orel "there were only a few people, led by the commander of the ship- Dutch captain Butler. They were instructed to give up anchors as soon as the ship went down to the water.
    Ordin-Nashchokin waved his hand and the bell ringers struck all the bells of the Dedin belfry. The "Eagle" started and slid along the slipway. The solemn chime was drowned out by salutes. A minute or two later, the first Russian warship swayed on the blue surface of the Oka backwater. The ship got its name in honor of the Russian State Emblem.
    Fate had its own way with the firstborn of the Russian fleet. in the summer of 1669 "Eagle", a yacht armed with a plow, and two boats accompanying them came to Astrakhan. Here they were captured by the army of Stepan Razin. The rebels, fearing that Tsar Alexei Mikhailovich would use a warship against them in the future, in the spring of 1670 drove the ship into the Kutum channel, where it stood for many years and fell into disrepair.
  3. parusnik
    parusnik 26 July 2015 07: 06
    Koch, which appeared in the 2001th century, was adapted for swimming in broken ice and shallow water, as well as for dragging. It is believed that its name came from the word “kots” - “ice coat”. This was the name of the second casing made of solid oak or hardwood boards in the area of ​​the variable waterline. She protected the main skin from damage when swimming among the ice. According to the historian and archaeologist Mikhail Belov, the peculiarity of the koch was the hull, which had the shape of an egg or walnut shell. Thanks to this form, the vessel did not crush the ice during compression, but simply squeezed the ice onto the surface, and it could drift along with them. During the new excavations of 2009-XNUMX in Mangazey, archaeologists collected a lot of ship details. It is possible that their analysis will be able to change the prevailing notions of vessels sailing in the Arctic seas.
    1. Scraptor
      Scraptor 26 July 2015 09: 00
      And his rigging didn’t freeze and it didn’t turn over, but it’s all right, a trifle, and “leavened patriotism” ... feel Tell me after that that the Americans, er .. Europeans (Dutch, British, other great sailors there) are not stupid ...

      Why dig up? Just ask the locals have not tried?
    2. Scraptor
      Scraptor 26 July 2015 09: 17
      Replicas kochi have long been. This is the same "Fram", see the link in the big comment below. They were at least 2 types, and besides them, the Russian Pomors built a lot of things.
  4. Scraptor
    Scraptor 26 July 2015 08: 18
    Quote: Ilya Polonsky
    ... However, despite the obvious success of the Pomors in shipbuilding, they could not compete with the European maritime powers.

    Yes, yes, of course ... Apparently, therefore, the cargo turnover of Arkhangelsk alone with grain with Europe on the Pomor kochi (and no one except the Pomor in those ice latitudes could go to the Crimean War and the era of steel steamer frigates), in pre-Petrine times exceeded the cargo turnover of all of Europe with "both Indies". And Kem (in the same Kemsk-volost), which the British then burned to the ground in the 19th century, was even larger than Arkhangelsk (then, on the contrary, there was no Murmansk). laughing

    Pomors discovered Svalbard 80-100 years earlier than the Vikings, all for the same reason - a monopoly on navigation in the ice. Who does not believe, see what the yacht "Fram" is. This is the first Norwegian ice experience which is simply based on the Pomorskiy koch. To the east, far beyond the North Cape, red-haired fly agaric lovers in the Middle Ages also did not meddle, because even in Solovki on an ordinary European wooden boat it is easier to die if caught in a slush not only to be crushed by ice ice cork).
    So, since Europe managed to compete poorly, all these Russian ships and ice-class ships the amusing emperor ordered to burn, and forbade the construction of new ones. And trade went through the Baltic Danish Straits, which were blocked by Danish stone forts better than Turkish, and the Danes there until 1857 rummaged in things while infecting them with their lice - see the "Zund tax", which was from a third to 2/3 of the income of this red-haired and lousy but proud kingdom. It turned out to be a very profitable corruption scheme - along the way in this Denmark there was a certain Kokui counterparty who was sitting on kickbacks, not otherwise. As in other ports, because Western ships were already sailing through the Baltic (and with their own lice - there were no baths in all of Europe and it did not wash until the 20th century).

    With all the states lying to the east of Denmark, except for the free city of Lubeck, under the Kingdom of Russia until Peter the Great, trade was conducted by land - the Baltic was a Swedish lake, the neck from which, at the exit to the ocean, was still in Danish hands (Denmark was either in union with Sweden or not was, Norway then was not). The Black Sea, like the eastern Mediterranean, was a Turkish lake - also with whom to trade except the Turks? There were no Montreux conventions and free passages through the "international straits" then. There was trade with Iran in the Caspian.
    Warships then differed from merchant ships only in the amount of cargo or guns. And Europe was in no way advanced. Neither in front of the Russians, nor in front of the Chinese (Junks), nor even in front of Oceania, from whose fast outriggers thereafter the bastard Cook, who was eaten. And on the model of which high-speed catamaran and trimaran large yachts are now being built for racing billionaires. The Opium Wars were also later, like Nelson. And if Peter came to the Russians with his tobacco and vodka, then there are chopsticks for lovers - gentlemen with a pipe. The Chinese in Europe could also swim like the Portuguese to them, they just did not need anything from them - it was in front of them on their knees for silk, tea and spices crawled and not they.
  5. Fox
    Fox 26 July 2015 12: 08
    but what does Nelson say about the Pomors, the author does not know ... and yes, he also taught P-1 in his pants to walk and removed from the trees.
    1. Scraptor
      Scraptor 26 July 2015 18: 00
      Dress in a woman soon ... But what about Pomors, Ushakov and Naples about Nelson?
  6. RiverVV
    RiverVV 26 July 2015 16: 06
    "The Russian principalities did not have a regular fleet ..." Aha! And what did Oleg sail to Constantinople? On rented kayaks from the Eskimos or what? So think: the Russian fleet is not 310 (or how old is it?), But more than a thousand.
    1. Fuzeler
      Fuzeler 28 July 2015 15: 15
      Do not lower the Ukrainians, please, with their 1000-year dates of the Ukrainian fleet!
      1. Scraptor
        Scraptor 28 July 2015 18: 43
        nobody drops you except you (they went to Tsargrad 1500 years ago and not 1000), then your Holland was not even pumped out of the sea.