“... My creativity I dedicated to youth. Without exaggeration, I can say that when I write a new song or other musical work, I always mentally address it to our youth. ”
AND ABOUT. Dunaevsky
AND ABOUT. Dunaevsky
Isaac Dunaevsky was born on January 30 1900, in the small Ukrainian town of Lokhvitsa, located in the Poltava province. His father, Tsale-Yosef Simonovich, worked in a bank, and also had his own enterprise, a small distillery. Almost everything was played in the future composer’s relatives. Mother, Rosalia Isaakovna, sang and played the piano grandly, grandfather worked at the local synagogue as cantor and composed Jewish hymns, Uncle Samuel was a famous guitar player, songwriter, and also the owner of a wealthy gramophone in Lokhvitsa. The Dunaevskys had six children (a daughter and five sons). Subsequently, all the boys linked their future with music: Boris, Mikhail and Semyon became conductors, and Zinovy and Isaac - composers. Zinaida’s daughter chose the profession of a physics teacher.
Isaac's outstanding musical abilities began to manifest themselves in early childhood. Already at the age of four, he had picked up the melodies of marches and waltzes, performed by a small orchestra in the city garden on weekends. A freaky uncle had a huge influence on the little boy, from time to time he would come to visit and arrange guitar concerts for the whole family. They started teaching music to the future composer only at the age of eight, for which an excise department official, a certain Gregory Polyansky, was invited to the house, who gave Isaac his first serious violin lessons.
In 1910, the Dunaevsky family moved to Kharkov. Isaac was sent to a classical gymnasium and at the same time to the conservatory (at that time it was called the music school), where he studied with the famous musicologist Semyon Bogatyrev (in composition) and virtuoso violinist Iosif Ahron (in violin playing). During these years, young Isaac wrote his first musical works. They were sad and sad, the future composer called them: “Tosca”, “Loneliness” and “Tears”.
In 1918, Dunaevsky graduated from high school with a gold medal and entered the law school at Kharkov University. It should be noted that in those years, the majority of young men from Jewish families sought to get a legal education in order to get the right to cross the Pale. Simultaneously with his studies at the university, the young man continued to study at the music school in the direction of violin and successfully graduated from this educational institution at 1919. At the same time, Dunya, as his companions called him, fell in love for the first time. Lady of the heart was the actor Vera Yureneva. She was already over forty, and she quickly lost interest in the Jewish young man-musician, who had recited her “Song of Songs” by heart. With grief, young Isaac married an unloved girl, a university student. By the way, this marriage was very short - the couple separated just as easily as they met.
After studying one year at the university, Dunaevsky realized that the legal profession was not for him. It was a difficult time, there was a civil war, and Isaac Osipovich, who chose the music, in order to feed himself and his family, had to work as a pianist and violinist in the Kharkov Russian Drama Theater orchestra. Soon director Nikolay Sinelnikov paid attention to a young but incredibly talented musician. He suggested that Dunaevsky compose music for one of his performances. The composer's debut was successful, and soon Isaac Osipovich was offered several positions in the theater — the conductor, the composer and the head of the musical part. This moment marked the beginning of his ascent to the heights of musical glory.
In the twenties, Dunaevsky had to compose a very different music - songs, overtures, parodies, dances. In addition, he managed to lead the army initiative and read lectures. Any other musician who has a classical education in a prestigious conservatory would consider it an insult to work in similar genres, but Isaac Osipovich thought otherwise. With gusto, he composed music even for theaters of revolutionary satire. Many years later, the great composer noted in one of the letters: “Could you think thirty years ago that a young admirer of Borodin, Beethoven, Brahms and Tchaikovsky could become a master of light genre? But it was this musical sourdough that helped me in the future to create light music by serious means. ”
In 1924, the composer moved to Moscow and got a job managing the musical part of the Hermitage variety theater. Together with him, his new love, Zinaida Sudeykina, arrived in the city. The composer met her in the early twenties in the Rostov music hall, where she worked as a prima ballerina. Officially signed by the young people in the capital in 1925. They lived in a small room in a communal flat, renting it for a small fee. At 1926, Isaac Osipovich took over the leadership of the musical part of the Satire Theater and participated in the musical design of the new productions. Colleagues who worked with Dunaevsky recalled that if the young composer had to hear reproaches about the breakdown of the deadlines, then “the frantic spirit of writing was born in him”. In December, the Grooms operetta was staged by 1927 in Moscow, becoming the first, the music for which was composed by Dunaevsky. Then five more operettas came out of his pen: in 1924 “Both ours and yours”, in 1927 “Straw hat”, in 1928 “Knives”, in 1929 “Polar passions” and in 1932 “Million torments”. In addition, on the provincial scene his operetta Career Premiere was a success.
In 1929, a talented composer was called to Leningrad, to the Music Theater that had just earned the variety theater, by the way, the one that later became famous for Leonid Utesov’s productions. By the time he arrived in the northern capital, Dunaevsky’s musical baggage was already quite solid. He wrote music for sixty-two drama performances, twenty-three variety shows, six vaudeville, two ballets and eight operetta. The composer worked a lot in the field of chamber music, creating over ninety different works - romances, quartets, and piano pieces.
In the Music Hall, Dunayevsky and Utesov created a creative union. In 1932, they together created the Music Store, a musical pop show that has become a true hit of the genre. It should be noted that by the time of the appearance of the “Music Store”, Isaac Osipovich masterfully mastered all the techniques of jazz orchestration. The composer deliberately eschewed “rasping”, “dirty” chords, focusing on precise rhythms and trying to make the music fun and happy. Utesov said that he never missed the opportunity to personally listen to Isaac Osipovich’s play: “Everyone loves Dunaevsky’s music, but those who haven’t sat at the piano with him cannot fully imagine the full talent of this truly remarkable musician.”
In the same year, 1932, the representative of the Soviet Belarus cinema factory addressed the composer. Isaac Osipovich was invited to participate in the creation of one of the first sound films “First Platoon” directed by Korsch. The offer of the film factory interested Dunaevsky, and he accepted it. After the "First Platoon" was the work on the tapes "Lights" and "Twice Born", which now no one remembers. Subsequently, Isaac Osipovich wrote music for twenty-eight films. At the same time, a boy was born to Zinaida Sudeikina and Isaac Dunaevsky, who received the name Yevgeny.
All-Union glory to Dunaevsky came to 1934, after the “Merry guys” tape came out on screens. In August, 1932 Soviet film director Grigory Alexandrov returned to his homeland after working in Europe, Mexico and America. He reflected on the creation of a national musical film comedy and decided to turn to Dunayevsky, already quite well-known in the film industry, for advice. Their first meeting was held at Utesov's apartment, the conversation revolved around the future film. In the end, Isaac Osipovich approached the piano and, saying: "About this work, music, which is already approaching us, I want to say ...", lowered his hands on the keys. When the last sounds of his improvisation melted away, Dunaevsky asked: “Well, at least a bit like?”. The astonished Grigory Vasilyevich could not utter a word and only silently looked at the composer. This evening was the beginning of their many years of joint creative path. For the Aleksandrov's film, Isaac Osipovich composed over twenty completely different musical numbers - the song Bones, the song of Anyuta, the violin lesson, the canter, waltz, tango, chastooshkas, the invasion of the herd, the musical scuffle, animated screensavers and much more. Before being on a wide screen, the picture, along with other works by domestic film makers, was presented at the International Cinema Exhibition in Venice. The film, which went by the name "Moscow laughs", was a great success and was awarded the prize of the film festival. Charlie Chaplin, looking at the picture, enthusiastically said: "Alexandrov discovered a new Russia, and this is a huge victory." But especially famous in Venice was the music of the comedy Aleksandrov. Translated into Italian, “The March of the Merry Guys” was performed at every corner. In addition, Neapolitan ensembles and small orchestras played Kostya’s song, composed in the rhythm of the tango, with a passion in their own musical presentation. In the future, the film “Merry Guys” went around the whole Soviet Union, and the song “that helps build and live” began singing in all corners of a huge country.
In the meantime, Isaac Osipovich was awaiting many new proposals, among them the tape “Three Comrades”, which is being filmed on Lenfilm. At the beginning of 1934, director Semen Timoshenko addressed the composer with a request to compose music for this picture. Unlike previous works by Dunaevsky in Three Comrades, the music only accompanied the action, and only the Song of Kakhovka to the poem by Mikhail Svetlov received an independent life. And at 1935, the composer received an invitation from Mosfilm to participate in the creation of the adventure film “Children of Captain Grant”. The participants in this film recalled how Isaac Osipovich came to the pavilion after Alexandrov’s work day (here, at Mosfilm) and immediately energetically got involved in the work, developing the melodies born suddenly and portraying almost the entire orchestra. One of the composer’s colleagues wrote: “Dunaevsky always wanted his music to be“ real, ”and the song, infectious and sincere. The well-known fact that in the songs is important the ratio of text and music. Outdated, weak or inept text can be saved thanks to the high quality of the music. In the songs of Dunaevsky, the dignity of music is a determining factor, because they are still popular today. People enjoy the beautiful and bright melodies, without thinking particularly about the meaning of the words and using them only as a support for singing. For example, the main theme of the musical theme for the novel by Jules Verne came out not just successful, but universal. When Stanislav Govorukhin was shooting a completely new series in his search for Captain Grant, he did not dare to replace Dunaevsky’s famous work, leaving it as a symbol.
In 1936, the film Circus was released on the screens of the country, for which Isaac Osipovich composed over twenty pieces of music. The main thing in the film was the "Song of the Motherland". It was sung by builders of Komsomolsk-on-Amur and Magnitka, metallurgists of Kuzbass and Belarusian collective farmers. This song, broadcast on radio every morning from the beginning of 1938, at five minutes to six, launched a new working day of the Soviet Union. “The Song of the Motherland” fought against fascism - it was the password for the partisans of Yugoslavia, it was sung in the liberated cities of Hungary, Czechoslovakia, Bulgaria and Poland. And in 1938, Isaac Osipovich wrote the music for the film “Volga-Volga”, becoming not just a composer, but one of the co-authors of the comedy. This work was for him as exciting and interesting as it is complex and responsible. Volga-Volga, like no other Dunaevsky's motion picture, is imbued with his symphonic works, songs, verses, dance rhythms and musical episodes.
It should be noted that Isaac Osipovich has a lot of music created “on the go”, without much inspiration and interest. However, when he was really interested in the material, the process and the result were completely different. Thanks to the rare melodic gift of the composer, individual original melodies were born by him almost instantly. But the bulk of his work was the product of a professional's meticulous work. Textbook example "Song of the Motherland." Dunaevsky worked for six months, composed thirty-five versions, and finally found the only one — the thirty-sixth, when he heard that the great Chaliapin said: “This song is for me”. Another example is the story of the famous composer Solovyov-Sedoy about how Dunaevsky composed the refrain to the March of Enthusiasts for the Shining Path tape (1940 year): “I remember that he didn’t leave the refrain. There was a time when the composer, in despair of composing it, suggested to colleagues in the genre, including me, to add a refrain to the order of co-authorship. However, in the end, of course, he did everything himself. The Electrosila factory helped him in this. In one of the visits to the workers, Isaak Osipovich spoke at the largest turbogenerator workshop. Returning after the concert, Dunaevsky saw in the yard of the plant a group of workers marching in unison. The rhythm of their steps told him something. The composer shouted to the mourners: “My friends, so this is the“ March of the enthusiasts ”! Take me quickly to the piano. ”
At the end of the thirties, Isaac Osipovich was already a famous cultural figure of the USSR. Along with intensive musical work, the composer found time and energy for public work, in particular, he headed the board of the Leningrad Union of Soviet Composers from 1937 to 1941, and in 1938 he was elected deputy of the Supreme Soviet. In June, 1936 Dunaevsky was awarded the title of Honored Artist of the RSFSR, in December 1936 received the Order of the Red Banner of Labor. Finally, in 1941 the composer was given the title of lauret of the Stalin Prize of the first degree. From Lensovet Dunaevsky was allocated in the center of the city a luxurious four-room apartment. The composer was paid huge fees, which enabled him to buy cars and play at the races, which he, however, soon abandoned. He loved his friends and gave them expensive gifts, lent money, and never remembered about debts. Becoming a public figure of high rank, Isaac Osipovich tried in every way to respond to his position. For example, in the late thirties, he vigorously fought with various unconventional trends in Soviet music. Was Dunaevsky a "glorifier"? Undoubtedly, however, he glorified not the political regime, as some believe, but the romantic faith in a fabulous and kind country, where all people are healthy, happy, young. At the same time, he, like most citizens of the Soviet Union, was fanatically devoted to Stalin. In the thirties, at the dawn of his popularity, the composer tried to compose a work dedicated to the leader. Thus was born the "Song of Stalin." However, Joseph Vissarionovich himself did not like it. Among the musicians existed историяthat the head of state, when he first heard it, said: "Comrade Dunaevsky used all his extraordinary talent so that no one sang this song." Isaac Osipovich did not undertake any more attempts to chant the leader.
During the war years, Dunaevsky worked as the artistic director of the Ensemble of Dancing and Songs of Railwaymen. In one car, together with his team, the composer traveled almost the whole country, visiting Central Asia and the Volga region, in the Urals and the Far East, instilling vigor and confidence in victory in the workers of the rear. At the same time, Isaac Osipovich wrote over seventy musical works on military subjects - courageous and harsh songs that gained popularity at the front. As for his family, the spouse and son with 1941 lived in Vnukovo in the country, but in October they were evacuated to Siberia. They returned to the capital in 1944, settling in the composer's office in the Central House of Railwaymen.
It is curious that, despite the nationwide fame, Dunaevsky was "restricted to leave". The composer was allowed to go abroad only once - he traveled to Czechoslovakia for a short time on 1947 during the filming of the film “Spring”. There, without agreement with the Soviet embassy, he gave an extensive interview to a right-wing newspaper. Subsequently, Isaac Osipovich wrote bitterly: “... In my years, being a prominent creator in art and a materially wealthy man, I haven’t seen so far and hardly see the lakes of Switzerland, the waves of the Indian Ocean, the fjords of Norway, the jungles of India, the sunset in Naples and much, much more that a simple, decently earned writer or artist can afford. ”
In the first years after the war, Dunaevsky, like many other artists, was actively involved in the struggle for peace, composing the music of the operetta called “Free Wind”. The musical richness of this work, dedicated to the struggle of peoples for a peaceful life, the composer concentrated in the Song of the Free Wind. In 1947, Isaac Osipovich wrote a wonderful Spring March for the comedy Spring. Two years later, popular songs for the Kuban Cossacks appeared. According to the memoirs of contemporaries, the works “How You Were” and “Oh, viburnum blossoms” from this film became popular hits. The composer himself and his relatives were forced to close the windows every day, as the sounds of these fashionable songs flowed everywhere. At such moments, Isaac Osipovich, obviously, cursed his work. And in 1950, the documentary-art film “We Are for the World!” Sounded the wonderful lyric hymn of the world - the song “Fly, Pigeons”, which gained worldwide fame and became the emblem of the sixth World Youth Festival held in Moscow. The works of Dunaevsky, by the way, listened with pleasure to the Kremlin, and therefore the composer was awarded the second Stalin Prize at 1951.
The composer’s second son, Maxim Dunaevsky, recalled: “When my father was working, he never closed his room so that he would not be disturbed. On the contrary, he could work in any situation, under any conditions, in any condition. With any number of people, he could suddenly turn off and, wrinkling his forehead, supporting his head with a hand with a cigarette, start recording some melody ... Daddy loved the classics, but it was not only she who heard in the house. From abroad, he was brought and sent records - all new musicals, all the new jazz. And, on the contrary, the music written by his father in the house rarely sounded, he never put it on his own. Why? I don’t know, probably, because it was his work. ”
In addition to song music, Dunaevsky, like any creative person, tried himself in other genres. He became the author of many operettas that have become classics of Soviet art. However, in 1948, when Khachaturian, Shostakovich and Prokofiev were accused of cosmopolitanism, Isaac Osipovich got it. One critic, speaking of his operetta "Free wind", expressed that "it does not feel the Soviet man, and noticeable attempt to squeeze the thoughts and feelings of our contemporary in the Western, foreign plots." In one of the response letters, Dunaevsky noted: “We are constantly poked as an example of Chekhov, Tolstoy, Glinka, Tchaikovsky, Surikov, Repin. And at the same time they forget that we do not have the opportunity to compose as they did ... ”. In his other letter there are such lines: “An operatic libretto was sent from Leningrad ... In the first act, the heroine sets a record, sets a record in the second, puts it in the third and fourth. And how should I work? .. The Bolshoi Theater asks to write the ballet “Light”. But how to write about the collective farm power? About her written two dozen stories, there are movies and stuff. How much can ... I can not get interested in the plot, where the heroine in each scene is explained to the combine in love. "
In 1952, the cousin of Isaac Osipovich, a professor-urologist Lev Dunaevsky, was arrested in the case of pest doctors. The MGB then called the composer himself, threatened with arrest. But Tikhon Khrennikov, first secretary of the Union of Composers, intervened in the case, under whose subordination was Dunaevsky, who headed the direction of light music in the Union. After the intervention of Tikhon Nikolaevich Dunaevsky was left alone. Zinaida Osipovna, the composer's sister, recalled: “During this mess, I talked on the phone with Isaac and inquired about his state of health. He answered me: “Zinochka, I have lost the habit of praying. If you have not lost this ability, then pray for the Russian Tikhon to our Jewish God. I owe him my life and honor. ”
In everyday life, Isaac Osipovich was a very sociable person. He also had a hobby - the composer collected long-playing records, brought to him from Greece by a good friend, a Soviet collector Georgy Kostaki. By the mid-fifties, Dunaevsky had one of the largest collections in the entire USSR. In addition, the composer’s family had their own tape recorder and television set, which in those days was an unheard of luxury. A separate topic was the letters of Dunaevsky. The composer wrote a great number of them, trying to answer almost all the people who addressed him. Sometimes the correspondence with admirers of his talent grew into real written novels. These messages, which have become the property of historians today, reveal the rare subtlety of observation and the literary gift of Isaac Osipovich. However, the most important thing is that in them Dunaevsky appears as a real romantic, a man of amazing spiritual purity. Maxim Dunaevsky recalled: “Father was a very generous and democratic person. He liked to gather people anywhere — in the house, in the country, in a restaurant. Always paid for everyone. He loved noisy companies to burst into restaurants and arrange the brightest revels. His friends were not some stars, on the contrary, good, simple people. For example, dance couple Tamara Tambute and Valentin Likhachev, engineer Adolf Ashkenazi with his wife. There were many such characteristic Moscow families in which the father didn’t touch the soul. And no celebrities, pathos, glamor. It cost my father a conspiratorial wink: “I know one interesting place,” and the whole company took off in one second. The father could, having pulled a cap on his forehead, so that they would not recognize him, drink beer together with his friends, having a snack on the station square. With the same company they came to our cottage in Bullfinches. Often it was the whirling assaults, the real spree. And then, at six o'clock, when they were still sound asleep, my father got up and sat down to work ... What he loved more ... flowers and nature in general. Cottage was one of his favorite places. Wonderful people lived in our neighborhood - the Bolshoi Theater soloists Maria Maksakova and Ivan Kozlovsky, the brilliant conductor and composer Aram Khachaturian, many academics, representatives of the medical professorship and serious fundamental science ... I remember how fun it was when everyone met at the same table. They organized costumed evenings. Could dress in absolutely incredible outfits, get painted and, having drunk beforehand for courage, in such a way, go outside, scaring passers-by. Could, for example, hide someone's car, which in those years was a great luxury. As boys spent on it all day. They collected leaves, chopped boughs and hilariously hid a car beneath them. I remember once they hid Kozlovsky’s car. In the morning he came to us completely exhausted, there was no face on him, and, with hope in his voice, he quietly asked: “Isaac, did you happen to see my car? .. My father was not a great athlete, but in his youth he played volleyball and tennis well. Over time, he began to play less - he smoked a lot, and he was soon tormented by diseases of the blood vessels and joints. However, he remained an ardent fan, closely followed the Dynamo Moscow, loved to go to the stadium ... My father read a lot, and absolutely unexpected books.
It should be noted that the official marriage did not prevent Dunaevsky again and again with enviable strength and sublimity of feeling falling in love. The maestro treated each of his love responsibly, and because of this, as a result of the dramatic situations that developed, he suffered more than all the participants. Despite his modest appearance, the composer managed to win the hearts of the most prominent women. For example, the beautiful dancer Natalya Gayarina fell in love with 1943. Five years later, the same thing happened with the rising star of the national cinema Lydia Smirnova. Maxim Dunaevsky wrote: “The Pope - the famous Lovelace - had a lot of fans. And this despite its small sprout and bald spot. However, his father’s charm was such — it is acknowledged by many people, both women and men — that he could capture the attention of any audience in one second. The pope had some kind of natural, cosmic magnetism. ” The love affair with Lydia Smirnova started after the shooting of the film “My Love”, in which the actress performed the main role. The lover Dunaevsky did not stint on the manifestations of feelings - he sent Leningrad telegrams and letters from Leningrad every day. Lydia was flattered by Isaac Osipovich, but when he proposed to her, she refused. On this their romance ended. Soon after the break with Smirnova, the composer became interested in the nineteen-year-old dancer of the Ensemble. Alexandrova Zoya Pashkova. On the circumstances of the parents' meeting, Maxim Dunaevsky wrote: “My father was over forty, and he was fantastically famous. People, seeing him on the street, immediately surrounded the crowd. My mother, a very young dancer, only from the choreographic school, could not even think that she would be interested in this extraordinary person. It all happened very simply. My father was invited to one of the performances of the Alexandrov ensemble. Seeing mom on stage, Isaac Osipovich was absolutely fascinated by her. I wrote a note and handed it backstage. Many years later, my mother showed her to me: "When you appear on the stage, the hall seems to be illuminated by the light of the bright sun." Of course, the young girl was confused and confused. At the next performance, a chic bouquet awaited her, and then the first date followed. ”
Soon Pashkov was arranged by Dunaevsky in the Ensemble of Railwaymen, and in 1945 she gave birth to Isaac Osipovich a child - the future smash hit composer Maxim Dunaevsky. After the appearance of the illegitimate son, the life of Isaac Osipovich became very complicated. For many years, he literally darted between two families, unable to choose one of them. His wife was well aware of the affair with the dancer, in one of the letters Dunaevsky informed her: “Sometimes it seems to me that I am hopelessly and tragically confused. No power of passion, it turns out, can turn my feelings away from you ... I feel deeply unhappy. " In the last year of his life, Isaac Osipovich escaped an apartment for himself and a young mistress in the composer's cooperative to Ogarev, but did not live to see a housewarming party.
The last hours of the famous composer’s life are known almost by the minute. On the morning of July 25, 1955 Dunaevsky woke up early and decided to write a letter to his long-time acquaintance correspondent Vytchikova. In it, he also reported: “My health is naughty. My left arm hurts, my legs hurt, it's no longer my good heart. Because of this, my mood drops dramatically, as it is necessary to be treated, which I do not like, because I do not believe in medical instructions and do not want to obey the doctors ... I’m completing the new operetta The White Acacia. This is my only job now, except for her doing nothing. For a shake-up I went to Leningrad and Riga to author concerts. It was there that I caught a cold, I was diagnosed with inflammation of the left shoulder bag ... ”. At eleven o'clock in the morning, literally a few minutes after the end of the letter, Dunaevsky died. His body was discovered by the driver, all his relatives were at that time in the country. The death certificate stated: “Heart hypertrophy. Coronarosclerosis. To publish an obituary on the death of the genius composer, the authorities allowed only two central publications: Literaturnaya Gazeta and Soviet Art.
Meanwhile, soon after the death of Isaac Osipovich, a rumor was spreading among the people that the composer had allegedly committed suicide. On this occasion, Maxim Dunaevsky noted: “I had to hear different versions of his death. But the facts do not confirm this, and from a psychological point of view ... Anyone who knew his father, who was friends and worked with him, could never have imagined that such a cheerful, never discouraged, life-loving person could part with life of his own will. The norm for him was vigorous activity, he slept only a few hours, and the rest of the time he devoted to work and communication. Nothing could disturb him to such an extent that he committed suicide ... My father had heart problems, he did not want to go to the hospital and was treated only with music ... With music in his heart, he left. ”
After the death of Isaac Osipovich, Zoya Pashkova appealed to the family of the deceased with a request to recognize Maxim as the son of a great composer and to give her father's middle name. Since everyone was well informed about whose son it is, there was no rejection of the request. A short time later, Pashkov officially married. Zinaida Sudeikina lived for more than twenty years after Dunayevsky left, but she had a stroke on 1969 and she was paralyzed. The composer’s spouse died on 1979. All rights to the works of Isaac Osipovich belong to his sons - Maxim and Eugene. By the way, during the life of his father, two sons of Dunaevsky practically did not communicate with each other, but after his death they became friends.
According to the materials of the sites http://www.dunaevski.ru/ and http://chtoby-pomnili.com