Military Review

Aircraft designer Pavel Osipovich Sukhoi was born 120 years ago

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Pavel Osipovich Sukhoi - an outstanding Soviet aircraft designer, one of the founders of the Russian school of jet and supersonic aviation. He was twice a Hero of Socialist Labor (1957 and 1965), a winner of the Stalin (1943), Lenin (1968) and State Prizes (1975), as well as a winner of the Tupolev Prize No. 1 (1975, posthumous). Under the guidance of this aircraft designer, more than 50 aircraft designs were developed. Over his life, Pavel Osipovich Sukhoi managed to create in his design bureau a real school for designing various aircraft, characterized by an innovative spirit, a non-standard approach to solving technical problems and courage of engineering solutions. July 22, 2015 the aviation community celebrates the 120th anniversary of the legendary designer.

Sukhoi Pavel Osipovich was born on July 22 of the year 1895 in the village, and now in the city of Glubokoe, Vitebsk Region in Belarus, in the family of Osip Andreevich and Elizaveta Yakovlevna Sukhikh, a teacher of the public school. By national Belarusian. There were six children in the Dry family: 5 girls and one boy - Pavel. In 1900, the father of the future aircraft designer was offered to head the school for railway children in Gomel, and the family moved to the city. In 1905, Pavel Sukhoi entered the Gomel men's gymnasium, from which he graduated in June 1914 with a silver medal, having excellent marks in ten subjects and good marks in German and Latin. Especially noted were his successes in mathematics and physics.

It should be noted that the future aircraft designer with surprising persistence sought the best education possible. In 1914, he enters the Moscow University Mathematics Faculty. And a year later at the Imperial Higher Technical School (the future of the Moscow State Technical University named after Bauman). At that time, it was the only university in the Russian Empire, which studied the technical and theoretical problems of aeronautics. Here he became a member of the aeronautics group, led by Professor Nikolai Zhukovsky. Even then, Pavel Sukhoi was well aware of what he would like to do in his life. Later, telling his daughter Irina about his adolescence, Pavel Sukhoi noted that the most impressive impression of his childhood years was the demonstration flights over Gomel of the airplane, which was operated by Russian aviator Sergey Utochkin. These flights were carried out as part of a public tour of the pilot in the cities of the Russian Empire.

Aircraft designer Pavel Osipovich Sukhoi was born 120 years ago


In 1916, Sukhoi was drafted into the army. After completing the School of ensigns in 1917, he was sent to the Western Front in the army, where he served in a machine-gun company, taking part in the First World War. After the October revolution of 1917, the front finally collapsed, and Pavel Sukhoi was demobilized and returned to his native Gomel, where for some time he worked as a mathematics teacher. In the summer of 1921, he decides to go back to Russia and continue his studies. In the fall of 1921, Sukhoi again visits his audiences at the Technical School in Moscow. In 1923, Sofia Feliksovna comes to the capital to help her widowed sister with small children. Pavel and Sophia met by chance on the streets of Moscow. Pavel Sukhoi made an offer to be his wife to his compatriot, to which she answered with consent. 29 April 1925, the couple had a daughter, Irina, and later, in 1932, the son Dmitry.

In 1925, studying for Pavel Sukhoi came to an end. At the same time, Andrei Tupolev already recognized the talent of an aviation designer in Pavel, so he invited a young engineer to work at the ASSC (Aviation. Hydroaviation. Experimental construction) - the design department of the Central Aerohydrodynamic Institute (TsAGI) in Moscow. The future aircraft designer agreed to this work and was sent to the Design team of A.N. Putilov to the position of design engineer.

The education received by the designer helped him to read aviation technical literature in German freely, and also, knowing Latin, to read with the dictionary and in some other European languages ​​- French, English, Italian and some other. All this in some way influenced the successes of Pavel Sukhoi in his engineering and administrative activities. They helped him to translate technical literature and his wife Sophia (from French) and daughter Irina (from French and English).

Su-2


The first work of the novice aircraft designer was the fighter And-4, and then the all-metal fighter And-14 and a number of other projects. In the 1932 year, Pavel Sukhoi is appointed responsible manager for the design and construction of an RD vehicle (“distance record” - ANT-25). In 1934, this aircraft managed to set a world record of the duration and distance of a flight along a closed route. In 1937, the crews of Valery Chkalov and Mikhail Gromov successfully perform the legendary flights over the North Pole to the USA. And in 1938, the Rodina airplane, DB-2B, designed and built by Pavel Osipovich, the crew of Valentina Grizodubova, Polina Osipenko and Marina Raskova managed to make a record flight to the range.

In the 1938-1939 years, Pavel Sukhoi takes part in the competition for the development of the nearby bomber "Ivanov" and wins the victory in it. With this victory, he sees a unique chance of organizing his own CB. The light bomber Su-2 (“Sukhoi-2”) became the first-born of its design bureau. The machine has been successfully tested and built serially. The aircraft took part in the Great Patriotic War, it was used as a passing bomber and attack aircraft. Crews of more than 900 Su-2 aircraft heroically fought with the enemy in the skies of Belarus, Bessarabia at the initial stage of the war, as well as near the walls of Stalingrad. At the same time, work on the design of more advanced combat aircraft was also actively pursued in difficult war years. In 1943, the designer was awarded the Stalin Prize of I degree for the development of an experienced armored attack aircraft Su-6.

In 1945, the Sukhoi Design Bureau is working on an experienced Su-9 jet fighter, the era of jet aviation begins, in which Pavel Osipovich Sukhoi’s talent unfolds to the full, sparkling with all its facets. Before 1949, the new Su-9, Su-11, Su-15 and Su-17 aircraft are being created, which, in close cooperation with aviation science and, above all, with TsAGI, have been able to work out many new solutions; . By that time, the backbone of the creative team of the Sukhoi Design Bureau was fully formed. But despite this fact, in 1949, the Soviet government decided to change priorities, disbanding Sukhoi’s experienced design bureau. During this period, Sukhoi works as deputy Andrey Tupolev. Under his leadership, was designed modification of the Tu-2 - UTB.



It should be noted that in all his works, which relate to the period from 1925 to 1953 years, one can easily trace the uncommonness of creative ideas, reasonable technical risk and the uniqueness of embodiment in practice. Pavel Sukhoi’s asset as a designer, as well as his associates and design bureau staff can be tagged with the mark “made for the first time” retractable landing gear, wing fuel compartments, smooth metal lining, control booster, ejected pilot seat, brake parachute , the aircraft crew rescue system in a detachable cockpit and much more.

In May, the Soviet government recognized the mistake of 1953, and reappointed Pavel Sukhoi at the head of his own design bureau. He was appointed head of KB-1, whose team since the middle of 1952, studied the fighter "Saber" of the American production. Separate results obtained in the study of the American machine, were used by Sukhy and his design bureau in further works.

In October, 1953, Pavel Sukhoi got at his disposal a production team representing plant No. 51. At the same stage, the plan of work on the Saber fighter was curtailed, but in turn, work on the creation of new aircraft was widely deployed. At this stage, Pavel Osipovich showed his best qualities, confirming the reputation of an excellent creator and organizer, if these concepts should be separated at all. The designer managed in a very short time to rally new for him teams of production workers and designers, while creating outstanding for the flight performance of the machine.

Su-17


For example, the C-1 aircraft took to the skies in September 1955, that is, approximately two years after the initiation of work on this project. Six months later, the T-3 took off to the sky. Later, under the direct supervision of the famous aircraft designer, several types of aircraft were designed with a large number of modifications, each of which could be called a breakthrough in Soviet and world aviation.

Leading people means foreseeing the future. Pavel Sukhoi possessed this quality, or even a gift, in full measure, this gift was based on his vast experience and intuition. The confirmation of this gift is that he managed to choose the optimal parameters for all of his production aircraft, providing them with a very long life - up to 30 years and more “life” in the sky; this is also confirmed by the creation of a strategic bomber T-4, the possibility of development of which at that time was denied by all reputable industry experts; initiative development of the Su-25 attack aircraft, which became the process of revival of attack aircraft in our country based on the most advanced technologies at that time; the choice of the T-10 aircraft dimensions, the use of instability in the longitudinal channel and the integral layout - solutions that largely determined the success of all Su-27 aircraft.

Su-27


Technical solutions helped to compete with Soviet and foreign aircraft building firms, many of which were first put into practice:

- on the Su-7 and Su-9 aircraft, an irreversible booster control system was introduced without switching to “manual”, a system of automatic control of air intakes appeared, a fully mobile stabilizer was used, all together allowed to overcome the sound barrier and ensure the aircraft’s speed, which twice the speed of sound.
- on the Su-17 aircraft, a variable sweep wing was introduced, which significantly increased the performance of this combat vehicle.
- on the Su-24 aircraft, a digital computer was used in the sighting and navigation complex, low-altitude flight mode was implemented with overflight of obstacles, which increased the combat effectiveness of the entire aviation complex.
- on the Su-25 aircraft, a combat survivability complex was introduced, which included a fully armored cockpit, the use of porous filler fuel tanks and some other measures that provided a significant reduction in the loss of attack aircraft and pilots in real combat conditions.
- on the T-4 aircraft, titanium and high-strength steel alloys, specially developed for this aircraft, as well as welded structures were widely used, a system of electrical remote control was introduced, a high-temperature hydraulic system was installed with a nominal working pressure 280 atmospheres, there were high-power multi-chamber steering gears with separate switchgear and actuators.

Mastered in the process of development and testing technology became the basis for the creation of the next generation aircraft.



The famous aircraft designer paid great attention to the development of the laboratory and bench base of the company, which began to be created in 1954 the year with the construction of a full-sized stand of a hydromechanical control system. At the same time, all innovations were tested and tested in laboratory conditions on semi-gage stands, as well as flying laboratories. At the same time, the volume of preliminary tests and inspections should have minimized the technological risk of introducing the latest technologies. This approach was reflected in the work of the Sukhoi design bureau, where each department had its own research complex of the appropriate focus.

Pavel Sukhoi lived and worked in Moscow, where 15 passed away on September 1975. He was buried in the Novodevichy cemetery. The memory of the famous designer was immortalized in Russia and in Belarus. In Gomel, a bust of the hero and a memorial plaque were installed on the building of the former gymnasium in which he studied. Also, a plaque appeared in the Russian capital on the house in which he lived, as well as on the building of the Moscow State Technical University named after Bauman. In addition, the Gomel State Technical University (GSTU) was named after Pavel Sukhoi, the streets in Gomel and Moscow. And in 1985, the Pavel Osipovich Sukhoi Museum was opened at school number XXUMX of the city of Glubokoe.

Based on materials from open sources
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  1. D-Master
    D-Master 22 July 2015 06: 46
    +5
    Pavel Osipovich - titan of the Russian aircraft industry. Sukhoi, Tupolev, Antonov, Ilyushin are people who will probably remain unsurpassed in Russian aviation. They created it essentially from scratch and became lawmakers for decades to come. I bow to Pavel Osipovich for the creation of such beautiful machines and, most importantly, the creation of a school where nothing was lost in a long box, and the achievements went from plane to plane. And if we take a look at the beautiful weaving and compare it with the Su-27, we will see that the experience gained from a strategic bomber has been integrated into the creation of a heavy fighter and has become its trademark for decades.
    1. Engineer
      Engineer 22 July 2015 08: 44
      0
      can you look at what in more detail and what aircraft was affected - T-10-1 or radically redesigned Simonov T-10-2 (C)?
  2. qwert
    qwert 22 July 2015 07: 17
    +6
    Dry of course titanium. Although Su-27 is to a much greater extent the brainchild of Simonov.
  3. RoTTor
    RoTTor 22 July 2015 07: 28
    +4
    The great truly Soviet aircraft designer, a worthy man, an excellent leader, who was truly respected by everyone who worked under his command.
    Less than others (absolutely impossible, fierce competition) engaged in intrigues against colleagues.
    Now our aviation needs such heads even more urgently !!!
  4. parusnik
    parusnik 22 July 2015 07: 55
    +4
    Thanks to Pavel Osipovich! For the technique, students ...
  5. andrei.yandex
    andrei.yandex 22 July 2015 08: 52
    0
    It is necessary that not only on the Internet these individuals are remembered, but also on central TV.
  6. Engineer
    Engineer 22 July 2015 08: 56
    +4
    Dry was not lucky: he was always in the shade - he did not receive large orders for his cars in the war. Only in the era of jet aircraft did he manage to fully express himself: Su-17, Su-22, Su-25. I read a lot about the epic from the T-4, what were the hopes and how everything collapsed, who tried there and so on. The car is certainly unique for that time, but in violation of the golden rule of the aviation industry in 30% of novelty, as a result, they received an unreasonably expensive car. Because everything was again for industry, and therefore resulted in large costs in the development and testing of new technologies and materials. And this is without a powerful production base at the design bureau.
  7. evil partisan
    evil partisan 22 July 2015 15: 30
    +1
    But Sukhoi could have won the race against Yakovlev for adopting a water-cooled fighter. his Su-1 was slightly better than the Yak-1. And in terms of time, it seemed he did not lag behind. I don’t remember: why the work on it was curtailed ...
    1. Aleksandr72
      Aleksandr72 22 July 2015 16: 55
      +3
      Because the Su-1 fighter, like its modification of the Su-3, was destroyed by an unreliable turbocharger, which they could not bring to mind. The power plant of the Su-1 - the M-105P engine with a capacity of 1100 hp and two TK-2 turbocompressors, standing on the sides, behind the engine and working from exhaust gases. Armament - 20-mm ShVAK motor-gun and two ShKAS synchronous machine guns above the engine. With reliable operation of the turbochargers, the speed of the Su-1 at an altitude of 10000 m was 641 km / h. It was a high-speed high-speed interceptor fighter. But the TK-2 turbocharger worked very unreliably, it was not possible to bring it to mind, and therefore work on the aircraft was stopped. The Su-3 differed from the Su-1 only in the wing of a smaller area, work on it was also stopped due to the inoperable TK-2, in addition, the war began and there was no time for revision. KB P.O. Sukhoi continued to work on improving the Su-2 and creating new aircraft - Su-6 attack aircraft (three versions: single with M-71F, twin with M-71F and AM-42), twin-engine Su-8, Su-5 and Su- fighters 7 with a combined power plant (piston engine + auxiliary jet).
      I have the honor.
      I have the honor.
  8. ty60
    ty60 22 July 2015 19: 11
    +1
    There were few Su-2s, their outlines were almost unknown. At the beginning of the war, Twice Hero of the Soviet Union (later) Sergei Lugansky almost ended up in a tribunal, shooting down a Su-2 scout returning from a mission. The case is described in Lugansky's memoirs - "On deep bends. "But the hard worker, plowed on an equal footing with Eli, although he had no armor. But now it's a name! And tradition is to be ahead!
  9. midshipman
    midshipman 22 July 2015 19: 24
    +6
    In 1965, I defended my dissertation and was appointed head of the laboratory at NII-33 (VNIIRA). I was lucky to create multi-functional AFS for all combat (light) aircraft. Including for all aircraft P.O. Dry. Then he led the creation of automatic landing systems for fighter jets and other types of military aircraft. P.O. Dry about the new system, he approved it. Dr present time on all machines P.O. Dry stand, created under my guidance system.
    I know that everyone in the Ministry of Defense, the Minaviaprom, and the Central Committee of the CPSU reckoned with his opinion. It was the genius of our aviation industry.
    I received my first order for his SU-9BM car. We respected him. In 1979, I was transferred to work in Moscow at the Ministry of Radio Industry. I had to see how his cars performed combat missions at different points where military operations were conducted.
    The creators of aviation technology will always have a memory of it. I have the honor.
  10. Arct
    Arct 23 July 2015 18: 27
    0
    partisans, in fact, if the Su-1 would have won the race, then not the Yak-1, except for the Mig-1. All the same, Yakovlev did a slightly different fighter than Mikoyan with Gurevich and Sukhoi.