Military Review

Mangazeya - the first experience of the Arctic alternative

22
In the fourteenth century, the climate on our planet underwent dramatic changes that reflected most directly on the historical development of mankind. The astrophysical and geophysical causes of these changes to science are completely and reliably unknown until now, but historical the consequences are devoted to hundreds, if not thousands, of books.



In the middle of the fourteenth century, the sharp decrease in the amount of heat that the Gulf Stream carries from the tropical waters of the Gulf of Mexico in the north-western direction made the climate of Western Europe more continental. Thus, for example, during the so-called Avignon captivity, the Baltic Sea froze in winter in such a way that the communication between the coastal cities of this basin was carried out mainly by land for that time, on sleds. In some winters, the Hanseatic merchants quietly traveled from Germany to Sweden. At the end of the century, this sharp cooling also unexpectedly gave way to warming, but not for long. In subsequent centuries, cold winters regularly returned and the climate of the continentality (cold winters and hot summers) reached a maximum in the second half of the 16th century (here you can also recall the Dutch 1570-yo-yo, which were used to go skating).

At the same time, for Russia-Russia, this period was characterized by a weakening of the Arctic anticyclones reaching Eastern Europe - the winters here were the same as in Europe, and in the North-West - sometimes even milder. It is at this time accounts for the existence of a unique historical and geographical phenomenon, now known as Mangazeya. For Rus, who had thrown off the Tatar yoke, as is well known, it was a time of large-scale expansion to the east and northeast, an extensive expansion of the economic system based on agriculture and the intensive exchange of goods. In the growth of the economic well-being of the country, furs have always played a large role, and now new territories rich in it have been included in the system of domestic and world trade. Systems, the economic base of which was nomadic or distant cattle breeding, as well as slave trade, were in a less advantageous position. The harsher the winter, the more expensive any animal husbandry (and the anticyclones going to the south and south-west from the side of Western Siberia did not weaken).

It is worth noting that in general all subsequent climate changes in one way or another contributed to the transformation of Russia into Russia and the expansion of their borders to the east. Of course, all this does not negate other reasons for the strengthening and expansion of Russian civilization in the era being described: both purely economic, and cultural, ideological. It does not negate the historical feat, as well as the unique civilization mission of the Russian people. It’s just another facet of historical development, and studying its significance in the historical process, one cannot but pay attention to one of the most unusual pages in the history of the development of the northern and Arctic spaces - the Russian city in the distant northern land with the same name Mangazeya.

In 1556, the English traveler Stephen Borow met Pomors off the shores of Novaya Zemlya (near the Kara Gate), who were going to go along the sea route to the east to the mouth of the Ob River. They even offered the Englishman to go along with them.

About the very same Mangazeya first wrote an unknown author of Novgorod, who wrote at the end of the fifteenth century the tale "About unknown people in the East". This country was inhabited by tribes, which he called "Molokanzei", or "Molongzei" - Eastern Samoyeds or Nenets.

“Above the sea, people live the Samoyed zovye Molongsee. And their meat is deer and fish. Yes, among themselves they eat each other. And the guest will come to them from there. And they slaughter their children to the guests, and they feed them also. And which guest they will die and they eat that, but they don’t bury them in the ground, but take their own. Siyazh people are small with age. Slender. Noses are small. But frolic velmi and archers skory and much. And ride on deer and dogs. And the pay is sable and deer. "

Here we are talking about lands located along the eastern banks of the Gulf of Ob and along the lower reaches of the Taz and Pur rivers, and, possibly, also over a larger territory, up to the lower course of the Yenisei. In any case, this means that at that time, the Pomeranian sailors had the opportunity to swim along the shores of the Arctic Ocean to the Kara Sea, or to Narzomskoe - as it was then called. (It is now known that in some, however, short periods, solid ice retreated in the summer so much that the coast could reach at least the mouth of the Yenisei and the western shores of Taimyr.)

Information about the various Samoyed tribes in some places is greatly adorned with fantastic details, but this is very characteristic of the sources of the time: some of them "on the navel people are shaggy to the dale, and from the navel to the top are like and other human beings", The third for the winter die for two months and come to life in the summer, the fourth without eyes, and"ryty their shoulders","and the shooting of their tube is iron in the hand. And in the other side the arrow is iron. Yes, the arrow puts the tube into the tube. Yes, hammering the arrow».

However, these are rather decorations, but in general, the descriptions of the riches of the land are important in this text: fish, sable, arctic foxes, deer - here the author tries to be precise.

In the legend, along with the country "molgonzei", the country Bald (or Baid), located to the east of Mangazeya, is mentioned, where "people live in the land (apparently in dugouts), but they eat sable meat; and there is no other animal for them anymore, it is conservative. And they wear sable cloth and mittens and legs, and they have no other payment, not a commodity».

Later in the 17th century, the first Russian polar town in Siberia, Mangazeya, emerged here. It was located in the lower reaches of the Taz River (about 180 km upstream) at the confluence of the Mangazeyka River.

It is noteworthy that the city was not just a large trading station. Soviet archeologists in 60-s found here evidence that it was also a center for handicraft production. The number of permanent residents could reach several thousand people. During the excavations, in particular, Venetian glass, Chinese porcelain and coins from Europe were found. The earliest found out buildings dated 1572 year, but scientists were sure that the settlement arose much earlier.

Since 80-s, the whole fishing industry was controlled by customs - that is, there was a central power.

«The city itself Mangazeya was a fairly powerful fortified point of the northern outskirts of Moscow Russia, located on the high, convenient for the defense of the river bank. Initially, in 1601, a wooden vyaznuyny ост standing on the corners ’jail was cut down - a protective wall of vertically mounted continuous row of pointed logs with small towers on the corners.

Ostrog was erected so that the southern part of the protective wall was very close to the coastal cliff. Inside the prison, a voevodsky courtyard was built, moving out of a hut, a prison, an archer's gatehouse - a guard house. In the assembly house of the voivod, their subordinates and watchmen were responsible for administrative, detective and court cases, the voivod's treasury was kept there, the state money, grain and salt salary to servicemen was issued. The trade baths and the right to sell wine in taverns surrendered to the huts. It is curious that, taking into account the sharp temper of the Pomor and industrialists and Cossacks in general, the voivode during the reception of people in the assembly hut was fenced off from them with an iron grill ...


... Particularly developed was the manufacture of products from walrus and mammoth bones and wood. In 40-ies of the XVII century. in Mangazeysky Posad a smelting business is widely developed. Moreover, it is surprising, but a fact firmly established by the expedition: at that time artisans in Mangazeya smelted copper-nickel ores from the Norilsk deposit, which were brought in small quantities to the r. Taz from the area of ​​the Lower Yenisei. "

M.I.Belov, V.F.Ovsyannikov, V.F. Starkov "Mangazeya. Mangazeya sea course
».

Mangazeya was also well known outside of Russia as the “Tsarev gold-melting patrimony”, for example, the Dutch geographer Nikolay Vitsen described it in detail. From Mangazei district, which by the beginning of the seventeenth century covered almost the entire north of Western Siberia, they began annually exporting up to 100 – 150 thousands of sable skins. Then (it was Time of Troubles) the cheapest skin cost five rubles in Moscow. For comparison, the same amount was given for a young healthy man; a young woman cost from three rubles; a five-wall hut there cost one ruble (of course, real estate in Moscow was the most expensive). Thus, the economic importance of Mangazeya could not only be very great - it was one of the decisive factors for the development of Moscow Russia and the largest source of income for the treasury, even after the conquest of the Siberian Khanate by Ermak.

In 1642, the city suffered a disaster that was not uncommon for those times - a fire in which most of the buildings burned, as well as the city archive. But he was not the cause of the subsequent decline. At the end of the seventeenth century, the climate on the planet began to change again. Western Europe received new opportunities for development (the ports in the Netherlands and Britain stopped freezing), and the sea route through the Kara Sea every year became more and more difficult. The main way there now lay on the Siberian rivers (and it began from Tobolsk). The beast in the Mangazei region was also becoming smaller. As a result, in 1672, on the orders of Tsar Alexei Mikhailovich, the city of Mangazei was finally abandoned, and all the sovereign and service people were transferred to Turukhansk.
In conclusion, it remains to add that modern climate change, as well as the associated development of shipping in the Arctic Ocean and various Arctic projects, one way or another suggests certain parallels with the history of Mangazeya. Will Russia again be able to profit from the opening of opportunities?
Author:
Photos used:
Materials archaeological excavations in Mangazei (State Historical Museum)
22 comments
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  1. NOMADE
    NOMADE 22 July 2015 05: 34
    +10
    Thank you, a very interesting and informative article. With the climate, yes, an interesting analogy, ports in Europe and England would have frozen, it would be very good))
    1. kaa_andrey
      kaa_andrey 22 July 2015 09: 02
      +3
      And may Europe turn from Russian gas to this wonderful moment ... :)
  2. Nagaibak
    Nagaibak 22 July 2015 07: 33
    +2
    "For comparison - the same was given for a young healthy man; a young woman cost from three rubles; a five-walled hut there cost one ruble (of course, real estate in Moscow was the most expensive)."
    Is the author up to date on prices? And where does such data come from? Where to read this price list?))) We are talking about slaves?)))
    1. V.ic
      V.ic 22 July 2015 12: 52
      0
      Quote: Nagaibak
      Where to read this price list?

      Many-wise, for the ataman Tornov, who was hanged at the gates of Ufa, 100 rubles were paid, for the extradition of E.I. Pugachev, 500 rubles were advanced. The landlords set the size of the rent themselves, see the materials on the era of "Katya No. 2". As Ilf and Petrov once noted in the immortal book "12 chairs": "Consent is a product with complete non-resistance of the parties."
      1. RiverVV
        RiverVV 22 July 2015 13: 47
        +4
        But nothing that Pugachev lived a little later? :) The ruble was already different. Inflation.
        In general, hamsters are touched by their gullibility. 150 thousand (sic!) Sables, and after all, supposedly they imported so much a year. Yes, for five years they would have beaten to hell with all the sables with such a craft. Those who wish can google how many skins are now mined from all over Siberia.
        1. V.ic
          V.ic 22 July 2015 15: 22
          0
          Quote: RiverVV
          Yes, for five years they would have beaten to hell with all the sables with such a craft.

          The natives claimed that "their" fathers saw mammoths and woolly rhinos in Siberia.
          1. Nagaibak
            Nagaibak 22 July 2015 17: 17
            +1
            V.ic "The natives claimed that 'their' fathers saw mammoths and woolly rhinos in Siberia."
            Yes, yes, after the fire water, you still don’t tell me that.)))
            1. Vasyan1971
              Vasyan1971 22 July 2015 18: 40
              0
              And there is not fiery water, but boiled fly agaric.
              Interestingly, the mammoths and rhinos were pink? laughing
            2. Alibekulu
              Alibekulu 23 July 2015 05: 06
              0
              Quote: Nagaibak
              Yes, yes, after the fire water, you still don’t tell me that.)))
              Yakaya is driven in water ?! am
              After all, when there are quite natural analogies between the aborigines of America and Siberia, certainly Russian users claim that their own "foreigners" were cared for and cherished. And unlike the damned Pindos, who soldered the poor "Redskins", RI forbade its sale to its small peoples .. stop
              1. Nagaibak
                Nagaibak 23 July 2015 05: 46
                0
                Alibekulu ". And unlike the damned Pindos who soldered the poor" redskins ", RI forbade its sale to its small peoples."
                You forgot about the human factor.))) Merchants could stupidly put down bans.))) This is Russia!)))
      2. Nagaibak
        Nagaibak 22 July 2015 17: 16
        0
        V.ic "Many-wise, for the ataman Tornov, who was hanged at the gates of Ufa, 100 rubles were paid, for the extradition of EI Pugachev, 500 rubles were advanced."
        My friend, but nothing that almost a hundred years have passed?))))
        1. V.ic
          V.ic 23 July 2015 07: 11
          0
          Quote: Nagaibak
          Boyfriend ...

          Have we already had a drink at the Brudershaft? I don’t remember.
          Quote: Nagaibak
          ... but nothing that almost a hundred years have passed?

          Yes, even two hundred, inflation at that time was almost zero due to the absence of usurious capital. So turn on your brains, "historian".
          1. Nagaibak
            Nagaibak 23 July 2015 12: 16
            0
            I didn’t drink with a brooder either))) This is for you the wise ...
            V.ic "Yes, even two hundred, inflation at that time was almost zero due to the lack of usurious capital. So turn on your brains," historian ".
            For my part, it was not about prices and inflation, but about WHO could be sold. The question then is for you, since your brains are on. So who sold the slaves or peasants in the 17th century?
            From wiki ... especially for you from me "historian"
            "According to the verdict of January 9, 1775, Tornov, along with E. I. Pugachev, I. N. Zarubin (Chika), A. P. Perfiliev, M. G. Shigaev and T. I. Podurov, was sentenced to death He was hanged on January 10 (21), 1775 on Bolotnaya Square in Moscow. "
            So that))))
    2. alexknochen
      22 July 2015 19: 41
      0
      I am the author. Apart from monographs devoted to that period, prices in Moscow at the beginning of the seventeenth century are given, for example, by G.V. Vernadsky ("History of Russia"). Historians know them from court documents.
      And by the way, in the troubled times there was inflation, the cost of the hut increased by 10 cents. This is a lot, given the fact that banks then did not accelerate prices, as now.
      1. Nagaibak
        Nagaibak 23 July 2015 05: 49
        0
        alexknochen "by GV Vernadsky (" History of Russia ")."
        So who in the 17th century could sell? Slaves? Or peasants? If you write so specify. Since there is a difference between those who could be sold in the 17th century and whom in the 18th to the middle of the 19th century.
  3. parusnik
    parusnik 22 July 2015 08: 49
    +1
    Stephen Borough met near the shores of Novaya Zemlya (in the area of ​​the Kara Gate) pomeranians who were going to go along the sea route east to the mouth of the Ob.... There is a version that Novgorodians and Pomors could reach the shores of Alaska at that time .. In Alaska, objects were discovered during archaeological excavations of the 16th century ...
  4. RoTTor
    RoTTor 22 July 2015 12: 06
    +3
    In the mid-60s, there was a surge of interest in Mangazeya: two of our travelers built, or rather, restored the Pomor Carbass, called, if I am not mistaken, "Shchelya" and sailed by sea to Mangazeya. There were TV programs about this campaign, and interesting articles in "Science and Life" and "Around the World". It was read excitedly.

    Now all these places are in terrible decline ...
    1. NOMADE
      NOMADE 22 July 2015 15: 05
      +1
      Unfortunately, there is such a thing ... ((Although this land and people, putting information and experience in the north. Very interesting people, and I have personal experience with Evenki and Yakuts. More, Sakhalin and Kamchatka impressed!) Hello, everyone)) !
    2. Nagaibak
      Nagaibak 22 July 2015 18: 55
      0
      RoTTor "Now all these places are in dire decline ..."
      And what is the decline? Yes, even creepy.))) This is the Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug.))) It is only better for Moscow to live.))) How they extracted gas and oil they do.)))
  5. W stock
    W stock 22 July 2015 16: 02
    0
    According to the forecast of scientists (more precisely, most scientists) in our century, the next ice age will begin. The Gulf Stream has already changed its course, moving away from the coast and cooling several degrees. Although the current generation will not catch the frozen seas and oceans, climate change is already felt.
  6. Free wind
    Free wind 22 July 2015 16: 18
    +1
    In 1620, the Northern Sea Route to Mangazeya was banned, under pain of death. southern trade routes were reliably blocked by customs. And you can’t cross the arctic ocean. In addition, there were 2 fires in Mangazeya. both almost completely destroyed it, the sables were almost completely knocked out, the northern nature is easy to destroy, but it is very difficult to restore. It was very difficult to bring food to the north, which is why they moved it. Interesting mention of Samoyeds. Indeed, cannibalism from them is often mentioned. for the guests of honor they killed the girls. True or not, I don’t know.
  7. ism_ek
    ism_ek 22 July 2015 18: 27
    +1
    The author rarely amused. Mansi, Nenets, Selkups, Khanty are united in the Samoid group of peoples. For brevity, they called them Samoyed. Naturally, they did not eat children. But the battles between the Russians and the Samoids were fierce. Like Russia, Samoids were part of the Mongol empire and were actively trading with Central Asia. It is not surprising that Chinese and Bukhara goods were found in Mangazeya.
    By the middle of the XVI century, the Russians finally subjugated Perm and began to cross the Ural Range. The expansion began in the North, because the places there were not numerous, i.e. more secure. Cherdynskaya road was equipped with it began the history of Mangazeya
    1. fedotow
      fedotow 23 July 2015 02: 28
      +1
      "The author has rarely amused ..."

      1. The term "Samoyed" (language group) was introduced in the 30s of the twentieth century. Prior to that, the "ambiguous" term "Samoyeds" had been in use for several centuries. Thus, your dictum "The Russians called them samoyedami" for brevity is not correct.

      2. Mansi and Khanty are not included in the Samoyed group, although they are also sometimes called Samoyeds.

      3. As for the impenetrable battles, do not hurt your ears. They still live in families. One from another for tens of kilometers. They are so that a hundred people in a bunch to collect, evaporated. What kind of battles are there.
  8. Nagaibak
    Nagaibak 22 July 2015 19: 04
    +1
    ism_ek "The author was extremely amused. The Mansi, Nenets, Selkups, Khanty are united into the Samoid group of peoples."
    You too were mistaken. The first one. Not a Samoid group, but a Samoyed group. The second Khanty and Mansi did not enter it; they belong to the Finno-Ugric group.
    The Samoyedic group are subdivided into the following groups from the wiki ... "northern:
    Nenets (language of Nenets (Juraki))
    Enets (Yenisei Samoyed language)
    Nganasan (Tawgi language)
    juracki †
    south:
    Selkup (Ostyak-Samoyed language)
    extinct languages:
    Matorial †
    Thai †
    Karagas †
    Kamasinsky †
    coybalan †
    Soyot † "