Military Review

17 July 2015 marks 99 since the birth of Russian naval aviation

99 years ago, on July 17, 1916, the Russian pilots won a significant victory in an air battle over the Baltic in the framework of the First World War. It is noteworthy that this is a seaplane M-9 aircraft carrier Orlitsa. It is this fact that served as the starting point for determining on July 17 in the calendar of holiday dates as the birthday of the national sea aviation.

17 July 2015 marks 99 since the birth of Russian naval aviation

M-9 seaplanes can rightfully be considered the "great-grandparents" of modern naval aviation aircraft of the Russian Air Force. M-9 created the famous Russian aircraft designer Dmitry Grigorovich - a native of Kiev, who used the technology used in the design of aircraft prototypes of the M5-M-8 seaplane. Dmitry Pavlovich Grigorovich - a relative of the writer Dmitry Vasilyevich Grigorovich, known for his publications in Literary Gazette, Severnaya Bee, Otechestvennye Zapiski and other literary publications, including in collaboration with Nikolai Nekrasov and Fyodor Dostoevsky.

The aircraft designer Dmitry Pavlovich Grigorovich received a brilliant engineering education for those times. Its first stage is graduation from a real school, then training at the Kiev Polytechnic Institute. Immediately after graduating from the Kiev Polytechnic Institute, Grigorovich trained at the University of Belgian (Walloon) Liege. After internship abroad, Dmitry Grigorovich worked first in the journalistic field, after which (in 1912) he was appointed to a leading position at the St. Petersburg plant of the “First Russian Aeronautical Association S.Schetininin K”. It was in Petersburg that the young aircraft designer created the world's first seaplane (M-1), which was called the “flying boat”.

An important design achievement of Dmitry Grigorovich can be considered the aircraft M-5, which was a biplane made of wood. The technical characteristics of M-5, on the basis of which M-9 was developed, which brought victory in 1916, were as follows:

Wingspan - 11,5 m, total weight - 660 kg, payload - 300 kg. Engine power - 100 HP The maximum speed is 105 km / h (according to other data - 128 km / h). The first combat flight of the M-5 took place on 12 on April 1915, and the serial construction of these reliable aircraft for those times continued even after the collapse of the Russian Empire - until 1923.

For the creation of a heavier seaplane M-9, the Marine General Headquarters presented Dmitry Grigorovich with an award to the Order of St. Vladimir, IV degree.

Engine power M-9 was already 150 hp There was a function of water cooling, which can also be considered a design breakthrough, because until this point cooling was carried out exclusively by air. The bow of the M-9 had a special compartment from which it was possible to conduct machine gun or cannon fire. It was also an innovation for its time.

It is worth noting that the allies of the Russian Empire in the First World War, having learned about the impressive characteristics of M-9 design of Grigorovich, made an order to purchase such seaplanes. Britain went even further and requested the Russian authorities to buy the blueprints, arguing that London would build the same aircraft at its facilities to "assist Russia in the fight against Germany." As a result, several M-9 were sold in the USA, and not just Grigorovich’s drawings, but also all the technical documentation on the production and maintenance of this unique military equipment at that time.

Grigorovich himself was not at all embarrassed, and he continued to work on new models of naval aviation. Another outstanding achievement was the development of the aircraft "SUUP" - a plane with a shortened takeoff and landing. This plane was not destined to get into the series, but on the basis of Grigorovich’s technologies other similar aircraft machines were created that could land on small airfields. Over time, the design was improved, and some of its principles were borrowed to create the technology of carrier-based aircraft, when both take-off and landing should be carried out in ultra-small areas (ship deck).

The first domestic marine aviation department was established on April 4, 1932. It was being created at the headquarters of the naval forces of the Far East. The first baptism of fire in the Pacific fleet received after 6 and a half years - in August 1938 during the battles about Lake Hassan.

During the Great Patriotic War, Pacific destroyers sunk two destroyers, four tankers and more than 30 enemy transport vessels.

For courage, bravery and military merit, the 8 units were transformed into guards, 2 divisions and 3 regiment were awarded honorary titles. 15 naval aviation pilots were awarded the title Hero of the Soviet Union. In the post-war period, Pacific Fleet aviation became jet, all-weather, missile-carrying.

Today, naval aviation is conditionally divided into two types: ship and coastal-based aviation. Anti-submarine aviation is also highlighted (for example, the Tu-142, IL-38 aircraft), used not only to search for and track submarines of a potential enemy, but also to destroy them effectively.

There is a search and rescue segment in the naval aviation and a military transport segment represented by such units as Ka-27, An-26, Il-18, Mi-8. Deck helicopters Ka-27 are used for targeting during the search and destruction of submarines, repelling attacks of low-flying aircraft and anti-ship missiles.

Over the past years, the crews of the naval aviation of the Russian Federation have been systematically participating in the exercises, improving their training. Thus, in spring, at the Yelizovo airbase and in northeastern Russia, tactical flight exercises were conducted with a detachment of aircraft and a helicopter squadron. The exercises involved IL-38 aircraft and Ka-27 helicopters. The increase in the number and intensity of such exercises cannot fail to please people for whom the fate of Russian naval aviation is not indifferent.

“Military Review” congratulates Russian maritime aviation on 99 year of birth and speaks with the best regards to all those who are involved in Russian naval aviation.

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  1. aszzz888
    aszzz888 17 July 2015 06: 08
    Happy holiday sea pilots! Soft landings! Veterans on the holiday, health and all the best!
    1. ancient
      ancient 17 July 2015 14: 07
      Quote: aszzz888
      Happy holiday sea pilots! Soft landings! Veterans on the holiday, health and all the best!

      But .. DON’T FORGET that July 17, 2001 a sea pilot, Honored Military Pilot of Russia (1994), Hero of Russia (1995), Major General of Aviation Timur Apakidze died in a disaster.

      Commanded 100 IAP Air Force KChF.
      The first of the combatant pilots landed on the deck of an aircraft carrier.
      In total, he made more than 300 landings on the deck.
      Later he commanded a division of the Air Force KSF, then was deputy commander of aviation of the Russian Navy.

      He died during demonstrations at the festival in honor of the 85th anniversary of naval aviation at the Center for Combat Training and Retraining of the Naval Aviation's Flight Personnel near Pskov. Having completed all aerobatics, he came in for landing when his Su-33, located a few kilometers from the runway, "behaved unstable."
      After reporting this to the flight control center, a command was received to eject. However, Apakidze decided not to catapult and remained in the pilot's cabin until the car hit the ground and exploded, trying to save the fighter.
      According to the State Commission, Apakidze died "as a result of psychophysical overload."
      He disabled the limiters of the limiting angles of attack and overload to perform complex aerobatic maneuvers.
      As a result, during one of the maneuvers, he experienced eightfold overload and lost control of the machine.

      Everlasting memory! soldier

  2. chikenous59
    chikenous59 17 July 2015 06: 08
    Correct the title !!
    1. The comment was deleted.
    2. a housewife
      a housewife 17 July 2015 19: 20
      and what's wrong with the headline? hi
  3. fomkin
    fomkin 17 July 2015 06: 18
    I sincerely congratulate my classmates and all who serve and have served in the Naval Aviation!
    1. Alexey RA
      Alexey RA 17 July 2015 12: 55
      I really hope that this is the T-50.
      And not what everyone thought. laughing
    2. ancient
      ancient 17 July 2015 13: 33
      Quote: fomkin
      I sincerely congratulate my classmates and all who serve and have served in the Naval Aviation!

      Dear Fomkin, I congratulate you PERSONALLY drinks fellow soldier

      And all the COUNTRIES PARTICIPATING to Naval Aviation and the UNION veterans - Happy Naval Aviation Day of the Russian Navy! drinks soldier

      And the DECK ... seven feet under the keel and the correct hook hook! drinks soldier

    3. The comment was deleted.
    4. 79057330785
      79057330785 17 July 2015 13: 49
      Why is the F-22 on a postcard, and not our plane?
    5. 79057330785
      79057330785 17 July 2015 13: 49
      Why is the F-22 on a postcard, and not our plane?
  4. fomkin
    fomkin 17 July 2015 06: 23
    P.S. Birthday and foundation day are slightly different things, but the meaning does not change.
  5. The comment was deleted.
  6. Andrey Yuryevich
    Andrey Yuryevich 17 July 2015 07: 16
    well ... with Birthday Men !!! drinks
  7. parusnik
    parusnik 17 July 2015 07: 22
    Happy 99th Birthday! drinks
  8. Banson
    Banson 17 July 2015 07: 50
    Which we never really had, since there never was a normal carrier fleet. And 99 years have passed.
  9. Prapor Afonya
    Prapor Afonya 17 July 2015 07: 52
    Clear sky to you! And so that the number of takeoffs equals the number of landings!
  10. Aleksander
    Aleksander 17 July 2015 08: 24
    There is another significant date for naval aviation; December 31 1916 years commander of the Black Sea Fleet, Admiral Kolchak A.V.
    issued an order from No. 227 “On the formation of the air division of the Black Sea Fleet”, which includedNaval Aviation Division along with two air brigades.
    The first complete aircraft carrier - naval aviation detachment (later renamed ship aviation division) . The uniqueness of the naval aviation division of the air division of the Black Sea Fleet was that in its composition along with the air division (four air squads, eight seaplanes in each squad) included four aircraft carriers. . . In total, during the First World War, the combat fleet of the Russian Navy entered 12 aircraft carriers ... Moreover, these aircraft-carrying ships fought actively and fruitfully-naval aviators conducted reconnaissance and entered into air battles, attacked enemy ships and submarines, adjusted the fire of naval artillery, bombed enemy ships, port facilities and defensive positions off the coast of Romania, Bulgaria and Turkey, conducted bombing of coastal batteries guarding the entrance to the Bosphorus, attacks on the Turkish port of Zonguldak (also Zunguldak), were involved in the Trebizond and other well-known operations of the Black Sea and Baltic fleets. Such is the "backward" country ...
    Unfortunately, all these achievements were ... after 1917 ...
    1. a housewife
      a housewife 17 July 2015 19: 37
      My God! If there weren’t the 17th, 41st and 91st !!! And even after them we are a Great Country, because we have such people !!! love
    2. The comment was deleted.
  11. Raven
    Raven 17 July 2015 08: 33
    somehow it’s very blurry ... it was possible to add details about air combat and other details of the formation of hydroaviation, especially since they are well known ...
  12. Good cat
    Good cat 17 July 2015 08: 50
    So that the number of take-offs equals the number of landings !!!
  13. Nikita Gromov
    Nikita Gromov 17 July 2015 09: 32
    Glory to the sailor pilots! A glorious combination of two great elements!
  14. sub307
    sub307 17 July 2015 09: 54
    I join in the congratulations. Happy holiday!
  15. DobryAAH
    DobryAAH 17 July 2015 10: 00
    Yesterday I couldn’t answer about anti-ship missiles and aircraft carriers. For those in the subject, article. The Americans themselves want to leave the aircraft carriers.
    Development of RCC on boats
  16. Serafim-k
    Serafim-k 17 July 2015 10: 04
    We have someone and something to be proud of, I join in all the congratulations, and I want to add on my own: - God forbid, our dear flyers will never fly out on combat missions, let your skill and modern technology keep our "friends" at a distance .. peace to you and your families and God's Grace. !! soldier
  17. Vades
    Vades 17 July 2015 10: 07
    And why is there not a word in the article about MPA? request
    1. ancient
      ancient 17 July 2015 13: 43
      Quote: Vades
      And why is there not a word in the article about MPA?

      Maybe because during the period of "reforming" the remnants of the MPA, in accordance with the order of the General Staff of the Armed Forces, released in March 2011., fleet aviation in a short time was transferred to the Air Force - all missile-carrying aviation, consisting of three squadrons of Tu-22M3 long-range bombers, the main part of attack and fighter units, as well as most of transport aircraft. crying
      1. Bongo
        Bongo 17 July 2015 14: 38
        Quote: ancient
        Maybe because during the period of "reforming" the remnants of the MPA, in accordance with the order of the General Staff of the Armed Forces, issued in March 2011, the fleet's aviation was transferred to the Air Force in a short time - all missile-carrying aviation, consisting of three squadrons of long-range bombers Tu-22M3, the main part of strike and fighter units, as well as most of the transport aircraft.

        Wreckers are not interested! request It is much more pleasant to believe that "if something happens" we will instantly melt all the AUG.
  18. Taoist
    Taoist 17 July 2015 10: 37
    Happy holiday to all ... Professional after all ... ;-)

  19. The comment was deleted.
  20. Denis Skiff
    Denis Skiff 17 July 2015 11: 26
    Quote: fomkin
    I sincerely congratulate my classmates and all who serve and have served in the Naval Aviation!

    you have there xnumx why are you so?)) Happy holiday!
    as one marine said, landing on deck is a planned disaster. so you have to be a pilot so that everything was Glory to God!
    Happy Holiday, marine!

    And the car and the pilot well done!
  21. m x h a l h
    m x h a l h 17 July 2015 11: 30
    Sevastopol Kacha with a holiday !!!
  22. Alexey RA
    Alexey RA 17 July 2015 11: 35
    The first domestic department of naval aviation was established on 4 on April 1932. It was created at the headquarters of the naval forces of the Far East. The first naval baptism of the Pacific Fleet Aviation received through 6 and a half years - in August 1938 of the year during the battles against Lake Hassan.

    In fact, naval aviation received baptism of fire earlier. But also in the Far East.
    The Amur military flotilla included the 68th separate aviation river detachment - 14 MP-1 seaplanes. But in fact, only eight cars were involved in the conflict. Moreover, the four MP-1 seaplanes were based on the Amur aircraft, converted from the Whirlwind monitor.

    In a battle on October 31, seaplanes of the 68th detachment made nine sorties in the area of ​​Fugdin. Two MP-1 aircraft sank the gunboat Kian-hyun. The Chinese in all of Manchuria had only five Breguet aircraft; they have never appeared over the battlefield during the entire conflict.

    On October 31, 1929, she was sunk in Fugdin (Fujing) by the MP-1 seaplane from the 63rd separate river aviation squadron of the Soviet Far Eastern military flotilla based at the Amur floating base. During 1930-1931, it was raised by the Chinese, but by 1932 it was put out of action.

    On October 30, 1929, the steamer was sunk in Fugdin (Fujing) by the Soviet MP-1 seaplane based at the Amur floating base from the 63rd separate river aviation squadron of the Far Eastern Fleet. In 1932, it was raised by the Japanese and transferred to the Manchus.
  23. The point
    The point 17 July 2015 12: 27

    All involved, happy holiday!
  24. foma2028
    foma2028 17 July 2015 15: 21
    Get to know the book:
    "AVIANOSETS" author Makarov Yury Ivanovich (September 7, 1934, Kremenchug, Poltava region - June 2, 2002, Nikolaev region) - one of the organizers of the USSR shipbuilding industry, director of the Black Sea shipbuilding plant.
    Under the leadership of Yu. I. Makarov, more than 500 civil, fishing, research vessels, and warships were built. Among them are the heavy aircraft-carrying cruisers Minsk (1978), Novorossiysk [1] (1982), Baku (1987), Admiral of the Fleet of the Soviet Union Kuznetsov (1990), etc.
    The book describes the political upheavals, technological difficulties, design concerns and other aspects of the creation of aircraft carriers.
    1. foma2028
      foma2028 17 July 2015 15: 29
      The book describes the relationship of the creators of the ship with the Sukhoi Design Bureau and MiG.
      Quote from the book: “The MiG-29K damaged the cable many times when landing on the ship. The Su-27 was twice as heavy, but there was no damage.
      Once both planes were on the deck at once, and I suggested that the chief designer of the Hotlubey plant go to the deck together and simply visually compare the SU and Mig hooks.
      Five minutes later, everything became clear. Hoof's hooves had a slightly blunt but sharp lower edge. In Su, the bottom edge was smoothly rounded ...
      I demanded from the testers to modify the Miga hack similarly to Su.
      But Mikoyan's design bureau has a lot of ambitions and empty ambition, non-business disputes began ... "end of the quote.

      So that Sukhoi won a place on the deck, not only undercover struggle.
  25. Oldman
    Oldman 17 July 2015 22: 30
    Congratulations to everyone who serves in the naval aviation of Russia!
  26. Alex Danilov
    Alex Danilov 17 July 2015 22: 57
    Happy Holidays!