Military Review

Lend-Lease. Northern convoys. Strategic importance

Lend-Lease. Northern convoys. Strategic importance

With the beginning of the war against the Soviet Union, the Hitler leadership was counting on the political isolation of our country, but already on July 12, Britain and the USSR signed an agreement on joint actions in the war against Germany. At the September 1941 conference held in Moscow on October 29 in October, representatives of the USSR, Great Britain and the United States decided to provide the Soviet Union with arms and strategic materials and our supplies to the United States and Britain of raw materials for military production.

The system of transferring or leasing weapons, ammunition, vehicles, industrial equipment, oil products, raw materials, food, information and services necessary for warfare to the countries - allies in the anti-Hitler coalition 1941 – 1945 that existed during the war years. Lend-Lease from English lend - to lend and lease - to lease was invented by US President F. Roosevelt, who sought to support the states that were attacked by the German and Japanese aggressors. The Lend-Lease Act was passed by the US Congress 11 in March 1941. Its validity was repeatedly extended and extended not only during the war, but also during the first post-war years. The law earned immediately after its adoption. On 30 June 1945, the Lend-Lease Delivery Agreement was signed by the USA with 35 countries. In response to the armaments and other cargo arriving in the USSR, the Allies received 300 thousand tons of chrome ore, 32 thousand tons of manganese ore, a significant amount of platinum, gold, wood, etc. Russia completed payments to the United States for goods supplied during the war only in 2006.

As soon as it became obvious that cargo from Great Britain and the United States would soon arrive in the Soviet Union, the question immediately arose about the routes of their delivery. The closest and safest route from America to the USSR in the summer and autumn of 1941 was through the Pacific Ocean. But, firstly, from 5 of the largest Soviet Pacific ports, only Vladivostok had a rail connection with the front, and secondly, cargo from Primorye was stuck for weeks on the Trans-Siberian Railway. However, the “Pacific Route” functioned throughout the war, and through it 47% of imported cargo was delivered to the Soviet Union. The air bridge Alaska - Siberia, which was unattainable for the enemy, acted here, along which about 8 thousand planes were delivered to the USSR. Another route ran through the Persian Gulf and Iran. But he was able to start functioning only in the middle of 1942. Subsequently, when all technical and organizational problems were resolved, this route took over 23,8% of all allied supplies. However, this was later, and help was needed in the fall of 1941.

The most appropriate was the third route - through the Norwegian and Barents Seas to Arkhangelsk and Murmansk. Despite the fact that the ships traveled this route in 10-14 days, and the proximity of the northern ports to the center of the country and the front, this route had significant drawbacks. The non-freezing port of Murmansk was only a few tens of kilometers from the front line and therefore was subjected to continuous air strikes. Arkhangelsk, relatively remote from the front line, for several months a year became inaccessible to ships due to freezing of the White Sea. The route itself from the British Isles to the Kola Peninsula passed along the occupied Norwegian coast, where the bases of the German Air Force and Navy were located, and thus it was under continuous influence throughout its entire length fleet и aviation the enemy. Nevertheless, in the period crucial for our country, 1941–1942. the northern direction was most effective.

The organization of convoys and the responsibility for the safety of their passage to our ports and back was assigned to the British Admiralty. In accordance with the organization of the convoy service established in the English fleet, the department of merchant shipping of the admiralty was involved in all matters relating to the formation of convoys and their transition. Convoys were formed in the base of Lough Yu and Scapa Flow in England, Reykjavik and the hall. Fjord in Iceland (in 1944 – 1945 - only Lough Yu). The points of arrival of the convoys and sending them back were Arkhangelsk, Molotovsk (Severodvinsk), Murmansk. Transitions were made in 10 – 14 days. During the freeze-up period, the movement of ships in the White Sea was provided by Soviet icebreakers. The convoy included British transports loaded in various ports, American and other allied transports arriving in England or Reykjavik from the United States. Since 1942, more than half of the ships in the convoys were American. From November 1941 to March 1943 (before transferring part of our ships to the Far East), Soviet transports were also included. The limitations of our merchant fleet and the lack of ships with speeds of 8 – 10 nodes did not allow them to be used on a wider scale.

Initially, the British formed convoys of 6 – 10 ships, sending them from one to three weeks apart. Since March 1942, the number of transports in convoys increased to 16 – 25, and PQ-16, PQ-17 and PQ-18 had respectively 34, 36 and 40 units. From the end of December 1942, the big convoys began to be divided into two groups, each of the 13 – 19 ships. From February 1944 began to send convoys consisting of 30 – 49, and in 1945 - from 24 – 28 transports. The passage of the convoys was carried out along the route England (or Iceland) - about. Jan Mayen - oh. Bear - Arkhangelsk (or Murmansk). Depending on the ice situation in the Greenland and Barents Seas, the route was chosen north of the island. Jan Mayen and Bear (possibly further from enemy bases and airfields in Northern Norway) or to the south of these islands (in winter). The British used circular security vehicles. It included squadron and escort destroyers, corvettes, frigates, sloops, minesweepers and submarine hunters. Each ship was assigned a place in the overall marching order of the convoy. When submarines were detected, separate escort ships left the line and began pursuing, often breaking away from the convoy. In some cases, the convoy fell apart (in stormy weather, with the threat of attack from surface ships).

To protect the convoy from a possible attack by surface ships, a covering squad was assigned. Sometimes it was divided into two groups: the cruiser detachment (close cover) and the long-range (operational) cover, which included battleships, cruisers, and sometimes aircraft carriers. A detachment of operational cover moved parallel to the course of movement of the convoy or deployed on long-range approaches to enemy bases. In the operational zone of the Northern Fleet (east of the meridian 18 °, and then 20 ° east longitude), protection was intensified by Soviet ships and aircraft. In addition, Soviet ships searched for submarines and trawling fairways on the approaches to the Kola Bay and in the throat of the White Sea to Arkhangelsk.

Deep bombing at the entrance to the Kola Bay

The first convoy from Great Britain to the USSR was 21 August 1941 d. It consisted of English 6 and Danish 1 transport in the protection of 2 destroyers, 4 corvettes and 3 minesweepers. He received the name by the name of the operation for his posting - "Dervish." But later, when the convoys going to the Soviet Union were given the letter designation PQ, the first in the documents began to be called PQ-0. This designation arose completely by accident and was the initials of a British officer who was in charge of the operational management of the admiralty at that time in planning the escort operations to the Soviet Union, Peter Quilin. Reverse convoys were designated QP. From December 1942, the convoys were designated respectively YW and RA and the sequence number, starting with the conventional number - 51.

31 August 1941 The Dervish convoy arrived in Arkhangelsk without a loss and became the real incarnation of the Anglo-Soviet military cooperation. The fact is that, along with trucks, mines, bombs, rubber and wool, 15 disassembled English Hurricane fighters were unloaded onto the moorings of the Arkhangelsk port. Until the end of 1941, 10 convoys were conducted in both directions. The situation prevailing in 1941 on external communications did not cause concern for the fate of external convoys. The German plan "Barbarossa" planned the defeat of the Soviet Union in a fleeting company mainly by ground forces and aviation. Therefore, the German Navy also did not consider the Polar region as an area of ​​possible application of their efforts. The Germans did not take any measures to disrupt external communications and there were no losses in the convoys. 1942 for the northern convoys was in many ways not similar to the previous one, there was an ever-increasing impact of the enemy.

Since A. Hitler did not believe that the German fleet could achieve the decisive goals of the war in the West against Great Britain, he decided to use the core of large surface ships, significant forces of the submarine fleet and aircraft to achieve victory in the East. In order to interrupt sea communications between the Soviet Union and Great Britain, and also to prevent a possible landing of troops to northern Norway, in January – February 1942, the battleship Tirpitz, the heavy cruisers Admiral Scheer, were relocated to the Trondheim region, Lutz "," Hipper ", light cruiser" Cologne ", 5 destroyers and 14 submarines. To ensure these ships, as well as to protect their communications, the Germans concentrated here a significant number of minesweepers, patrol ships, boats and various auxiliary vessels. The number of 5 air fleet of Germany, based in Norway and Finland, increased to the 1942 aircraft by the spring of 500. The first ship on the route of the northern convoys was lost on 7 in January of 1942. It turned out to be the English steamer “Waziristan”, which was part of the convoy РQ-7. The first major operation of the Nazi surface forces against the Allied convoys was carried out in March 1942 (code name "Shportpalas"). The battleship Tirpitz in escorting 8 destroyers and submarines went to intercept the QP-3 convoy. As a result, the timber carrier Izhora, lagging behind the convoy, was sunk.

The death of timber "Izhora"

In March, 1942, the German aircraft began to strike at convoys at the sea crossing, and in April began to massive raids on Murmansk. As a result of air attacks, the convoy PQ-13, which arrived in Murmansk on March 30, lost the 4 ship and the escort ship.

Last minute houses Murmansk July 1942

If before this time the Northern Fleet ensured the movement of external convoys in the order of daily combat activity, then from the PQ-13 convoy to provide two regular convoys (coming to the USSR and leaving to the UK), the fleet began to conduct operations in which almost all the forces of the fleet participated: destroyers and patrol ships reinforced the direct guard of the convoy; the aircraft bombed airfields and bases, covered the convoys as they approached at a distance of 150 – 200 miles to the coast and carried out air defense of the bases and stops of the ships; minesweepers, patrol ships and boats maintained coastal areas and raids safe from mines and submarines. All these forces were deployed on the eastern leg of the convoys up to 1000 miles. But the situation became more complicated from 75 ships in the 4 convoys that left the UK, Iceland and the Soviet Union in April 9 was sunk: QР-10 - 4 vessel, РQ-14 - 1 vessel, РQ-15 - 3 vessel.

At the end of May, the PQ-16 convoy lost 6 transports due to air strikes. May 30 in an air battle over this convoy, shooting down three U-88, killed one of the famous pilots of the Great Patriotic War 1941 – 1945. commander of the air regiment Hero of the Soviet Union Lieutenant Colonel B.F. Safonov (27 in May, he was presented by the Commander-in-Chief of the Navy to be awarded the second Gold Star medal). In general, the situation around the northern convoys, in the summer of 1942, can be defined as critical. A peculiar watershed, the deepest crisis of the northern convoys was РQ-17, which became the most tragic convoy of the Second World War.
27 June 1942 The RQ-17 left the Hvalfjord in Iceland as part of the 36 transports (including the Soviet tankers Azerbaijan and Donbass) and 3 rescue vessels. Two vehicles soon returned due to damage. The escort included up to 20 English ships (destroyers, corvettes, air defense ships and minesweepers). To the south of the convoy was a close-cover squad of 4 cruisers and 2 destroyers. In the eastern part of the Norwegian Sea, the long-range squadron was maneuvered as part of 2 battleships, 2 cruisers and the aircraft carrier Victories with cover from 12 destroyers. By June 29, the K-2, K-21, K-22, U-403 and nine British submarines were deployed off the coast of Northern Norway.

Convoy RQ-17

On the airfields of the Kola Peninsula were prepared for the actions of 116 aircraft. Thus, the provision of the convoy with surface forces was sufficiently reliable in the event of a meeting with the enemy squadron. To defeat the convoy, the fascist German command prepared 108 bombers, 30 dive bombers, and 57 torpedo bombers. 11 submarines were to act against the convoy. Two groups of surface ships were in Trondheim (the battleship Tirpitz, the heavy cruiser Admiral Hipper, the 4 destroyer), and Narvik (the heavy cruisers Admiral Scheer, Lutz, 6 destroyers). The use of large surface ships to attack convoys A. Hitler allowed only if there were no British aircraft carriers nearby.

On July 1, enemy aerial reconnaissance detected a PQ-17 convoy in the Norwegian Sea. During the first 4-x days, the convoy successfully repelled attacks from aircraft and submarines, although 3 vehicles were sunk. At about the same time, a detachment of enemy ships, while deploying from Narvik to Altenfjord, hit the stones, as a result of which the heavy cruiser Lutz and 3 destroyer were damaged. In the morning of July 4, the Allied Command became aware of the upcoming deployment of an enemy surface force, including the Tirpicz battleship. The first sea lord Admiral D. Pound decided to disperse the convoy. In 22 h 30 mines 4 July, on the orders of the British Admiralty, the direct-escort destroyers and near-cover ships moved west to join the long-range unit. The transports were ordered to disperse and independently follow to the Soviet ports.

5 July around 11 hours a German squadron led by the battleship Tirpitz (12 ships) went to sea. Soon, in the area north of Gammerfest, the submarine K-21 (captain 2 of rank N. Lunin) found her, attacked the battleship with torpedoes and reported it to the command. On the same day, the squadron was discovered by an airplane and a submarine of the British, who also reported on its appearance. Having intercepted these radiograms, the German command ordered the squadron to return to the Altenfjord. The ships left without cover in the conditions of the polar day became easy prey for enemy aircraft and submarines. From 5 to 10 in July, 20 transports and a rescue ship were sunk in the northeastern part of the Barents Sea. Those who escaped in the bays and bays of Novaya Zemlya and whose crews showed heroism in the struggle for the survivability of their vessels were rescued from the convoy.

The Northern Fleet required vigorous and extensive measures to search for and assist in transport. On July 28, the last transport of the PQ-17 convoy, Winston Salem, arrived in Arkhangelsk. Of the 36 transports of the PQ-17 convoy, two vessels returned to Iceland, 11 reached Murmansk and Arkhangelsk, 23 were sunk. 153 people were killed. Soviet ships and ships saved about 300 English and Soviet sailors. Together with transports, 3350 cars were lost, 430 tanks, 210 aircraft and about 100 thousand tons of cargo.

After the catastrophe with the PQ-17 escort, the British government refused to send convoys to the Soviet Union. Only under pressure from the Soviet government in early September, the convoy РQ-18 left Iceland for the Soviet Union. It consisted of 40 ships. The convoy provided more 50 escort ships. For the first time, a convoy aircraft carrier with 15 aircraft on board was included in the escort, which caused significant damage to the enemy during a raid by enemy aircraft. The conditions for the transfer of the PQ-18 convoy were in many ways similar to the previous one, but this time the escort ships and all Allied support forces took the fight. The convoy attacked 17 submarines and more 330 aircraft. In total, German aviation managed to sink 18 transports from the PQ-10 convoy, submarines 3 transports. In the zone of the Northern Fleet only 1 transport was sunk. The German fleet and aircraft received due repulse - 4 boats were sunk and 41 aircraft were shot down.

British EM “Eskimo” in guarding РQ-18

During the passage of the PQ-18 and QP-14 convoys, losses on both sides were great, but it became clear that with strong security and sufficient measures to ensure the Germans would not be able to interrupt communication routes between the Soviet Union and Great Britain in the North. However, the Allies again refused to send convoys before the polar night. In October - November 1942, at the suggestion of the Soviet command, the system of movement of single transports was tested (“movement by drop”). The Allies considered sailing single vessels ineffective, and was later abandoned.

With the onset of the polar night, winter stormy weather, the movement of convoys to the Soviet Union resumed. The first convoy in mid-December passed unnoticed by the enemy. The second was attacked by two heavy cruisers and 6 destroyers. To transport they did not make their way. Both sides lost a destroyer, and there were no losses in transports. This failure was one of the reasons why A. Hitler decided to replace the German fleet commander, Grand Admiral E. Raeder, who replaced the actions of large surface forces with Admiral K. Dönitz, who gave priority to submarine forces. In January and February, 1943 in the North passed several convoys with strong escort. From February to November 1943, not a single convoy arrived at the Soviet ports - PQ-17 syndrome was too large. Given that during the whole winter the convoys going to the Soviet Union did not lose a single transport. True, reverse convoys lost 6 ships sunk by German submarines. But this is 6 from 83 transports.

After the British ships sank in December 1943 of the battleship Scharnhorst in the Barents Sea, the German command refused to engage large surface ships to fight the convoys. The activity of the German fleet in the North Atlantic has sharply decreased. The main opponents of the convoys in the North were submarines, whose number has increased.

Since February 1944, the English Admiralty has returned to the formation of large convoys for the USSR with 1 – 3 escort aircraft carriers in guard. The defense of the convoys increased the proportion of ships that conducted a preliminary search. In the anti-submarine defense system, the role of naval aviation has increased significantly. During 1944, on account of lend-lease deliveries, the Northern Fleet received a large hunter 21, torpedo boats 44, 31 sentry boat, minesweeper from the USA 34, equipped with acoustic and electromagnetic trawls, had sonar stations and Hedgehog jet bombs, and Hedgehog jet bombs, and qualitatively changed the fleet trawl forces. In addition, in accordance with the decisions of the Tehran Conference on the future division of the Italian fleet, in August 1944, the Soviet crews brought to the North the battleship Arkhangelsk (Royal Sovereign), 9 destroyers of the type Hot (Richmond type), The 4 submarines of the Ursula ("B") type are from Great Britain, the cruiser Murmansk (Milwaukee) are from the United States. The enemy repeatedly tried to influence the external communications of the allies, but did not have much success. Before 5, the 8 convoys from the 275 transports passed in both directions, losing just the 4 transport and two destroyers. For the entire year of the 1944, the Germans managed to sink the 6 transports and the 3 escort ship, losing 13 submarines.

External convoys continued to move between British and Soviet ports until 28 in May 1945. The final phase of the campaign is characterized by increased activity of enemy submarines. They began to operate in areas where evading them was almost impossible - on the approaches to the Kola Bay and the areas adjacent to it. When crossing the Allied convoys, the number of enemy submarines in these areas increased to 10 – 12. All of them were upgraded and equipped with a Snorkel device, which ensured the operation of diesel engines and the charging of batteries at the periscope depth, had more advanced radar and sonar stations and received self-guided acoustic torpedoes. All this forced the command of the Northern Fleet to allocate additional anti-submarine forces along the route of the convoys. In total, to ensure the safety of external convoys, fleet ships in 1945 sailed 108 times, anti-submarine aviation made 607 sorties. When escorting external convoys, the Allies lost 5 transports and 5 escort ships. The Northern Fleet lost the destroyer Active, torpedoed on January 16 by an enemy submarine. In 1945, 5 convoys consisting of 136 transports arrived from England to the northern ports of the USSR; the same number of convoys went back - 141 transport.

Postings of convoys have preserved many examples of mutual assistance and mutual assistance of British and Soviet sailors and pilots. A number of them were awarded orders of the USSR and Great Britain. Allied Arctic convoys have become one of the clearest examples of the combat engagement of the Allied fleets in World War II. Thus, the heroic feat was accomplished by the crew of the Soviet “Old Bolshevik” timber carrier, which was marching as a part of the PQ-16 convoy. The ship, loaded with military equipment, ammunition and gasoline, was attacked and set on fire by fascist aircraft. Soviet sailors rejected the proposal of the English command to switch to other transports. The convoy left, leaving the burning timber. For eight hours the crew of the ship that lost the course beat off the attacks of the enemy's aircraft, fought with water, fire, and emerged victorious. Having eliminated the damage, the Soviet sailors delivered the cargo necessary for the front to Murmansk. For the courage shown, many crew members were awarded orders and medals, and the captain of the vessel I.I. Afanasyev and B.I. Akkazenok was awarded the title Hero of the Soviet Union.

"Old Bolshevik"

В history Northern convoys entered a lot of heroic pages. The most obvious of these is the tragedy of PQ-17. A small Canadian paramilitary trawler "Ayrshire" under the command of Lieutenant L. Gradwell, after an order to disperse, took 3 transport under his guard and led them into the ice. Having camouflaged ships under icebergs, uncovered and putting in alert the guns of transported tanks, the group arrived without loss to Novaya Zemlya, and from there to Arkhangelsk. Captain of the tanker "Azerbaijan" V.N. Izotov refused to transfer from the burning ship to the rescue ships that had arrived, the crew of the tanker, consisting mainly of women, managed not only to locate the fire, and soon extinguish it. The fuel was delivered to the destination. Part of the crew of the Soviet steamer “Kiev” who was killed in April 1942 (convoy QP-10) was returning to Homeland, on English transport, “Empire Byron”. When the ship was torpedoed by a German submarine, the British and Soviet sailors were in the same boat. Skillful actions of the English foreman V.Pras and the Soviet ship's doctor A.I. Leskina slept their lives.

In total, during the war years, 40 convoys consisting of 811 ships passed to the Soviet Union with Arctic waters. Of these, 58 transports were destroyed by the enemy at the junction and 33 returned to the ports of departure. In the opposite direction, from the Soviet Union to the ports of Great Britain and Iceland, as part of the 35 convoys, 715 ships departed, from which 29 were sunk at the crossing, and 8 returned. Thus, in both directions during the war years in the northern convoys, the entire route passed 1398 ships, the losses amounted to 87 ships, 69 of which fell on the most tragic 1942.

The northern route played an extremely important role in the delivery of strategic cargo for the USSR at the first stage of the war. The risk was justified by the speed at which weapons were delivered to the Soviet front in the most difficult period for the country. Until July 1942 with northern convoys sent 964 thousand tons weapons, materials and food - 61% of all goods imported into the USSR from abroad. 2314 tanks, 1550 tank tanks, 1903 aircraft and others were delivered via the northern route. From July 1942 to the end of 1943, the role of the northern route began to decline, the total share of supplies to the USSR decreased from 61% to 16%. Although still almost half of all weapons imported into the country (tanks, airplanes, etc.) were delivered by the northern convoys. At the final stage of the war, due to the gradual closure of the “Iranian corridor”, its role again increased. In 1944 – 1945 according to it, over 2,2 mln. tons or 22% of all cargoes were delivered to the country. Over the years of the war, the northern route delivered 36% of all military cargo.

Loading tanks "Matilda" in the English port and American
Mustang attack aircraft on board transport

List of Allied Arctic Convoys

In the USSR From the USSR
Dervish - PQ-0 from Iceland August 21
to Arkhangelsk 31 August QP-1 from Arkhangelsk 28 September
in Scapa Flow10 October
PQ-1 from Iceland 29 September
to Arkhangelsk 11 October QP-2 from Arkhangelsk 3 November
on the Orkney Islands November 17
PQ-2 from Liverpool 13 October
to Arkhangelsk 30 October QP-3 from Arkhangelsk 27 November
scattered on the way, arrived 3 December
PQ-3 from Iceland November 9
to Arkhangelsk 22 Nov. QP-4 from Arkhangelsk 29 Dec
scattered on the way, arrived 9 January 1942
PQ-4 from Iceland November 17
to Arkhangelsk 28 November
PQ-5 from Iceland November 27
to Arkhangelsk 13 December
PQ-6 from Iceland December 8
to Murmansk 20 December
PQ-7A from Iceland 26 December 1941
in Murmansk 12 January QP-5 from Murmansk 13 January
scattered on the way, arrived 19 January
PQ-7B from Iceland December 31
in Murmansk 11 January QP-6 from Murmansk 24 January
scattered on the way, arrived 28 January
PQ-8 from Iceland January 8
to Arkhangelsk 17 January QP-7 from Murmansk 12 February
scattered on the way, arrived 15 February
PQ-9 and PQ-10 from Iceland February 1
to Murmansk 10 February QP-8 from Murmansk 1 March
in Reykjavik 11 March
PQ-11 from Scotland 14 February
to Murmansk 22 February QP-9 from Kola Bay 21 March
in Reykjavik 3 April
PQ-12 of Reykjavik 1 March
to Murmansk 12 March QP-10 from Kola Bay 10 April
in Reykjavik 21 April
from Scotland 20 March
to Murmansk 31 March

QP-11 from Murmansk 28 April
in Reykjavik 7 May
PQ-14 from Scotland 26 March
to Murmansk 19 April QP-12 from Kola Bay 21 May
in Reykjavik 29 May
PQ-15 from Scotland 10 April
to Murmansk 5 May QP-13 from Arkhangelsk 26 June
in Reykjavik 7 July
PQ-16 of Reykjavik 21 May
to Murmansk 30 May QP-14 from Arkhangelsk 13 September
to Scotland 26 September
PQ-17 of Reykjavik 27 Jun
scattered on the way
arrived 11 July QP-15 from Kola Bay 17 November
to Scotland 30 november
PQ-18 from Scotland 2 September
to Arkhangelsk 21 September
JW-51A from Liverpool 15 December
to Kola Bay 25 December RA-51 from Kola Bay 30 December
to Scotland 11 January 1943
JW-51B from Liverpool 22 December
to Kola Bay 4 January 1943
FB independent ships without an escort "move by drop"
JW-52 from Liverpool 17 January
to Kola Bay 27 January RA-52 from Kola Bay 29 January
to Scotland February 9
JW-53 from Liverpool 15 February
to Kola Bay 27 February RA-53 from Kola Bay 1 March
to Scotland 14 March
JW-54A from Liverpool 15 November
to Kola Bay 24 November RA-54A from Kola Bay 1 November
to Scotland 14 november
JW-54B from Liverpool 22 November
to Arkhangelsk 3 December RA-54B from Arkhangelsk 26 November
to Scotland 9 December
JW-55A from Liverpool12 December
to Arkhangelsk 22 December RA-55A from Kola Bay 22 December
to Scotland 1 January 1944
JW-55B from Liverpool 20 December
to Arkhangelsk 30 December RA-55B from Kola Bay 31 December
to Scotland 8 January 1944
JW-56A from Liverpool 12 January
to Arkhangelsk 28 January RA-56 from Kola Bay 3 February
to Scotland February 11
JW-56B from Liverpool 22 January
to Kola Bay 1 February RA-57 from Kola Bay 2 March
to Scotland 10 March
JW-57 from Liverpool 20 February
to Kola Bay 28 February RA-58 from Kola Bay 7 April
to Scotland 14 April
JW-58 from Liverpool 27 March
to Kola Bay 4 April RA-59 from Kola Bay 28 April
to Scotland 6 May
JW-59 from Liverpool 15 August
to Kola Bay 25 August RA-59A from Kola Bay 28 August
to Scotland 5 September
JW-60 from Liverpool 15 September
to Kola Bay 23 September RA-60 from Kola Bay 28 September
to Scotland 5 October
JW-61 from Liverpool 20 October
to Kola Bay 28 October RA-61 from Kola Bay 2 November
to Scotland 9 november
JW-61A from Liverpool 31 October
November to Murmansk 6 RA-61A from Kola Bay 11 November
to Scotland 17 november
JW-62 Scotland from November 29
to Kola Bay 7 November RA-62 from Kola Bay 10 December
to Scotland 19 December

from Scotland 30 December
to Kola Bay 8 January 1945 RA-63 from Kola Bay 11 January
to Scotland 21 January
JW-64 from Scotland 3 February
to Kola Bay 15 February RA-64 from Kola Bay 17 February
to Scotland February 28
JW-65 from Scotland 11 March
to Kola Bay 21 March RA-65 from Kola Bay 23 March
to Scotland 1 April
JW-66 from Scotland 16 April
to Kola Bay 25 April RA-66 from Kola Bay 29 April
to Scotland 8 May
JW-67 from Scotland 12 May
to the Kola Bay 20 May RA-67 from the Kola Bay 23 May
to Scotland 30 May
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  1. Baikonur
    Baikonur 13 July 2015 16: 25
    My Dream Dream:
    In Russia, rallies with posters:
    1. Varyag_1973
      Varyag_1973 13 July 2015 16: 40
      For Baikonur. Zhenya, why this opus ?! It’s kind of like Lend-Lease or just that, Schaub Bulo ?! No offense, but do not post comments with text that does not carry any semantic load, and even off topic!
  2. starshina pv
    starshina pv 13 July 2015 16: 41
    Thank you for your help, of course. It’s good to continue to live in friendship, so no, we’re the very best! American priests.
    1. Varyag_1973
      Varyag_1973 13 July 2015 16: 56
      So it was not help, do not confuse! This is just business and nothing personal! By the way, we paid for this "help" with GOLD and paid off not long ago! Mattress covers rendered the same "help" to Nazi Germany up to 1943, though not with tanks and aircraft, but with alloy steel and other military goods!
      1. corn
        corn 13 July 2015 17: 10
        Quote: Varyag_1973
        By the way, we paid for this "help" with GOLD

        We paid only for what was not lost during the hostilities or was not returned to the amers.
        And don't tell stories. After the war, "Studebakers" and "Doji" were used in our national economy. I know for sure. And the fact that the Americans did not give and did not forgive everything unused remains on their (amers') conscience. They were never our friends.
        So the part that we did not pay was help.
        For the foreman border troops.
        Americans are not ... ki. You can talk about their low moral principles, but this is another area of ​​relations.
        1. Varyag_1973
          Varyag_1973 13 July 2015 17: 20
          For corn. What nonsense did you write ?! Like, we didn’t pay for the American equipment destroyed in the battle ?! Or did the Americans supply us with stew for free ?! So free that we paid for it until the XNUMXs ?! For what we returned to them we did not pay, then I agree, but otherwise complete nonsense!
          1. corn
            corn 13 July 2015 17: 38
            Quote: Varyag_1973
            What nonsense did you write ?!

            “The concept of this program gave the President of the United States the authority to help any country whose defense was deemed vital to his country. The Lend Lease Act [2] (English Lend Lease Act; full name -“ The United States Defense Act ”) . An Act to Promote the Defense of the United States), passed by the US Congress on March 11, 1941, provided the following conditions:
            delivered materials (cars, various military equipment, weapons, raw materials, other items) destroyed, lost and used during the war are not subject to payment (Article 5); [3]
            property transferred under Lend-Lease property remaining after the end of the war and suitable for civilian purposes will be paid in full or in part on the basis of long-term loans provided by the United States (mainly interest-free loans);
            in the case of the interest of the American side, undamaged and non-lost vehicles and equipment must be returned after the war in the United States. [3] "(from the wiki).
            I wrote only what I know and can confirm.
            And they paid off until the XNUMXs because for a long time they did not recognize or pay debts.
            I repeat, "Studebakers" and "dodges" of post-war exploitation in the national economy had to be paid according to the terms of the Lend-Lease agreement.
            And you before acquiring cons and accusing delirium of acquiring knowledge.
            1. Varyag_1973
              Varyag_1973 13 July 2015 23: 51
              What the fuck is a concept ?! Hey, people, why did you all collapse from the oak? In the USA before the Second World War there was a "Great Depression", unemployment, hunger and general impoverishment! And suddenly, the United States begins to produce goods for free and supply them to the belligerent Europe ?! Are you out of your mind ?! Show me at least one country (except the USSR), which really fed a bunch of satellites and their republics, which would voluntarily supply everyone for free ?!

              I'm awesome gentlemen and experts!
          2. opus
            opus 13 July 2015 18: 53
            Quote: Varyag_1973
            Like, we didn’t pay for the American equipment destroyed in the battle ?!

            We didn’t pay. Neither we are English, nor French, nor Chinese, well, others (Africa, Australia, etc.)

            + Burned fuel, eaten food, used up ammunition were actually supplied free of charge.

            What do you think would allow that (!) Electorate to see this:

            in the press, even to tear money for destroyed equipment.

            Quote: Varyag_1973
            We didn’t pay for what we returned to them,

            returned a little (ourselves needed HX destroyed), and transportation

            overseas heifer - half, yes ruble transportation
            (M. Saltykov-Shchedrin, Poshekhonskaya antiquity).
          3. veteran66
            veteran66 13 July 2015 21: 33
            Quote: Varyag_1973
            So free that we paid for it until the XNUMXs ?!
            leave these ideological stamps for fools, teach history better
            1. Varyag_1973
              Varyag_1973 13 July 2015 23: 42
              Well, yes, right now I will cry with emotion, what Americans are pacifists and just generous people! That's how they just took, produced goods and delivered them to the USSR for free ...! Would you even think about it with your head, where is it seen in the capitalist economy to produce goods for free ?! You gentlemen, if not clouded by ideological clichés, would even read "Capital" at your leisure! Do any of you have any idea how much it costs to build a tank or an airplane ?! And what do you want to say that JSA spent billions of dollars just like that, getting nothing in return ?! Do not assume that everyone around is foolish, you alone are smart! If you are so smart then answer my question, how did YUSA (a third-rate country) after the First World War become one of the leading powers in the world, and after the Second World War it became a superpower ?! Probably because I supplied everything for free to everyone ?! If you are not people of a distant mind, then believe the flag in your hands on Wikipedia, which YUSA contains! In general, it would not be bad to really understand the issue, or at least in the economy! You can give me as many disadvantages as you want, but you won't convince me, simply because I work as an economist at a metallurgical plant and I know perfectly well what and how!
              1. veteran66
                veteran66 14 July 2015 10: 18
                Do you know, dear you our economist, what is the national debt of YSA ??? Do not confuse the economy with the state, besides, YUSA produces very important products, popularly called "bucks" and therefore reacts very painfully to attempts by some states to conduct settlements in national currencies. Economist ... that's what I see, our metallurgy is still in the corral ...
              2. Timofey Astakhov
                Timofey Astakhov 23 September 2021 00: 42
                Well no. You're just a fool here. Equipment and materials used during the hostilities were not subject to payment.
      2. opus
        opus 13 July 2015 17: 37
        Quote: Varyag_1973
        So it was not help, do not confuse! E

        help us.
        What was produced and supplied made it possible, in fact (from "working hands") to form up to 10 divisions in mine annually

        Well, also "on little things"
        During the war, Soviet industry in total produced only 262 thousand tons of aluminum, and received 328 thousand tons by Lend-Lease. By the way, the engines for the T-34 were also made of aluminum ...
        - the copper to which the USSR produced 27,8 thousand tons during the war years, and received 387,6 thousand tons under Lend-Lease
        -The USSR produced 265,6 thousand of its own cars, and received 409,5 thousand by lend-lease

        -powder (in high-energy compositions) for the Katyusha MLRS was made from an imported component by 80%
        -Imported radio stations were equipped with three out of every four KV tanks and four out of every five army headquarters, fronts, as well as all field airfields and the entire level of the battalion - regiment - division in the ground forces.

        -During the Second World War, the USSR built a total of 800 locomotives (of which more than 708 - in 1941 a year) 1900 locomotives were received under Lend-Lease. The USSR cars made 1092, but received - 11075

        - rotary metal-cutting machines received from Great Britain and the USA, which made it possible to process the gear rims of a tower shoulder strap with a diameter of 1600 mm. Available equipment (domestic), not only was it loaded with the IS tank program, so it still could not pierce parts with a diameter of more than 1500 mm.

        And we fought
        Soviet army multiplied by zero 506,5 German divisions and about 100 divisions their satellites. While the Allies defeated all 176 divisions.

        Quote: Varyag_1973
        By the way, we paid for this "help" with GOLD and paid off not long ago!

        It is estimated that for the 1941 – 1945, the Soviet Union received from the United States nearly 16,7 million tons of cargo worth $ 9,6 billion. From the UK, weapons and supplies for 1945 million pounds were delivered by September 318 (15% of total aid) , from Canada, 1943 supplied arms, industrial equipment, non-ferrous metals, steel, rolled metal, chemicals and foodstuffs for 167,3 million Canadian dollars (6,7% of the total amount of aid).

        During the 1948 negotiations, Soviet representatives agreed to pay a small amount, but the US rejected the offer. The 1949 negotiations also failed. In 1951, the American side reduced its amount to 800 million, but the USSR was ready to pay only 300 million, referring to the proportions agreed upon by Great Britain and the USA in 1946. Only in 1972 did Soviet and American representatives sign an agreement in Washington on the phased payment by the Soviet Union of the amount of 722 million to 2001. By July 1973, only 48 million dollars had been paid, after which further payments ceased: the Soviet side thus protested against restrictions imposed on trade between the two countries. Only in June 1990 did the presidents of the USSR and the USA agree to pay off the debt to 2030. The agreed amount was measured in 674 million dollars.(these)
      3. bubla5
        bubla5 13 July 2015 21: 03
        Like a business, there one flight to the USSR immediately paid for the cost of the ship
      4. veteran66
        veteran66 13 July 2015 21: 31
        Bullshit on a moonless night
        Quote: Varyag_1973
        So it was not help, do not confuse!

        Deliveries were free, they paid only for what they left after the war. The USA never delivered anything to Germany, but before the age of 41, the USSR drove trains to Germany with food and raw materials
        1. Mik13
          Mik13 14 July 2015 00: 12
          Quote: veteran66
          Until the 41 year, the USSR drove trains to Germany with food and raw materials

          Well, questions to the USSR were not addressed - before 1941 he had the right. By the way, I got back a lot of everything. The Germans of the whole 2 year helped to create an industry that eventually broke the ridge to them. Check out:

          Quote: veteran66
          USA never delivered anything to Germany

          You are mistaken, also how they delivered. Through neutral countries. Almost the whole war.
          Check Out: Hiam Charles ENEMY TRADE

          So it could well turn out that the German submarine that torpedoed the American Liberty in the convoy was fueled with American oil.
          1. veteran66
            veteran66 14 July 2015 04: 55
            Quote: Mik13
            You are mistaken, also how they delivered. Through neutral countries. Almost the whole war.

            Wow, what a discovery !!! Only you, like many others are mistaken in the main, American bankers and industrial tycoons are not the United States. Unlike the USSR, in the states the economy does not belong to the state, bankers and industrialists traded (and why did they start this war), the state itself helped the anti-Hitler coalition both economically and by military means. But the USSR, just like the state, was trading with Germany at the time the Second World War began.
            Quote: Mik13
            Well, questions to the USSR were not addressed - before 1941 he had the right. By the way, I got back a lot of everything. The Germans of the whole 2 year helped to create an industry that eventually broke the ridge to them.

            Cool conclusion !!! In this case, American industry, with the Germans' money, produced equipment and weapons, which also helped to break the ridge to all Axis countries. What is the difference?
            1. Mik13
              Mik13 14 July 2015 12: 52
              Quote: veteran66
              Quote: Mik13
              You are mistaken, also how they delivered. Through neutral countries. Almost the whole war.

              Wow, what a discovery !!! Only you, like many others are mistaken in the main, American bankers and industrial tycoons are not the United States. Unlike the USSR, in the states the economy does not belong to the state, bankers and industrialists traded (and why did they start this war), the state itself helped the anti-Hitler coalition both economically and by military means. But the USSR, just like the state, was trading with Germany at the time the Second World War began.

              You incorrectly imagine the US economy 1930's - 50's. And American industrialists did just as much as the government allowed them. And the protracted war to deplete the resources of the warring parties - this is precisely the state policy of the United States.

              Member of the Democratic Party, Missouri Senator Harry Truman:
              “If we see that Germany is winning, then we should help Russia, and if Russia is winning, then we should help Germany, and so let them kill as much as possible, although I would not want to see Hitler a winner under any circumstances. None of them keep their word. "
              New York Times interview 23 June 1941

              (in case you, based on the inventions of some publicists, want to refute the reality of this statement, you can follow this link. They provide a scan of the New York Times newspaper by 24.06.1941, on whose 7 page you can find the recommended one. )

              Well, then - do you think that the US special services were not up to date, what do businessmen do? When the need arose, trade was immediately stopped.
              1. veteran66
                veteran66 14 July 2015 22: 06
                Quote: Mik13
                Member of the Democratic Party, Missouri Senator Harry Truman:
                "If we see that Germany is winning, then we should help Russia, and if Russia is winning, then we should help Germany,

                So what, just words, Truman was then a small fry, like many other senators. You think Congress voted unanimously for Lend-Lease. Everyone in Congress sat, but a reasonable decision prevailed and the Lend-Lease took place.
              2. veteran66
                veteran66 14 July 2015 22: 21
                Quote: Mik13
                And the protracted war to deplete the resources of the warring parties - this is precisely the state policy of the United States.

                You incorrectly imagine the US policy of that time, whose resources are depleted? Europe or the USSR ??? By the 40th year, Great Britain was sitting without resources, right, but it was the only ally (standing) with the United States, the resources of Europe (with the Germans), and in the foreseeable future, the Middle East are practically inexhaustible, I generally am silent. So whose resources did the US want to drain?
            2. Mik13
              Mik13 14 July 2015 13: 06
              Quote: veteran66
              Quote: Mik13
              Well, questions to the USSR were not addressed - before 1941 he had the right. By the way, I got back a lot of everything. The Germans of the whole 2 year helped to create an industry that eventually broke the ridge to them.

              Cool conclusion !!! In this case, American industry, with the Germans' money, produced equipment and weapons, which also helped to break the ridge to all Axis countries. What is the difference?

              Between the USSR and Germany there was an exchange of material values. The USSR sold raw materials, and before redistribution, and had a surplus of raw materials. Moreover, all the raw materials of Germany were sold at that moment - including the USA.
              I received the USSR machine tool products, mainly. Which other states refused to supply to the USSR.
              The agreement was disadvantageous for Germany, it disrupted the army’s armament program, but Germany was forced to agree to it to ensure the neutrality of the USSR in 1939.

              As for American industry, it worked all the time with state money. Trade with Germany absorbed excess production (it would be more correct - excess production) and the result was financial revenue. Which the US did not need to ensure production.

              The purpose of this trade is political, for the United States. Germany gave away gold, which in no way affected its ability to produce anything, weapons, for example. Gold is not fighting.

              Well, then - this is the United States (in the face of its businessmen) selling to the enemy the resources that were used to kill the United States ’Grajans. The USSR did not do this — and that is the fundamental difference.
              1. veteran66
                veteran66 14 July 2015 22: 11
                Quote: Mik13
                As for American industry, it worked all the time with state money.

                That's right, it was Lend-Lease that was paid by the state, and if there were deliveries (by the way, what? numbers and list to the studio !!) then they were carried out by private companies, and not from the United States. At that time there was a law that forbade the United States to supply military products to any warring country, but Roosevelt pushed through Congress law in 1939 authorizing such supplies, but only by the courts of these countries. And despite the fact that Great Britain dominated the Atlantic at that time, think about who could benefit from this law.
            3. Mik13
              Mik13 14 July 2015 13: 17
              Quote: veteran66
              But the USSR, just like the state, was trading with Germany at the time the Second World War began.

              Well - and specifically for this reason - the USSR was both far and wide that WWII began. The USSR was a neutral state and had the right to trade from any of the parties to the conflict. Moreover, remaining within the law.

              As for morality - what, Molotov should have cried, watching Poland ruin stupidity, England - arrogance and arrogance, and France - blind trust in England? (When listing countries, we mean exclusively the political elites of these countries during the specified period. I pay tribute to the citizens and military of these countries, who did their duty to the end, including at the cost of life.)They all thought that Germany would start tearing up the USSR. They even betrayed Czechoslovakia, if only Germany would start tearing up the USSR. So "don't dig another hole" ...
              1. veteran66
                veteran66 14 July 2015 22: 15
                But I do not blame the Government of the USSR for this trade; I myself know the conditions in which the country was placed. Simply, if you bring veils, then do not use double standards. By the way, since the USSR ranked itself as a progressive mankind, the war that started did not go along it, especially since Spain had already fought USSR military men against the Nazis and fascists. Do not make an amorphous state from the USSR without political guidelines.
                1. online
                  online 21 July 2015 15: 34
                  I myself know what conditions the country was placed in
                  And in what conditions and by whom "was the country placed"?
                  By the way, since the USSR ranked itself as a progressive humanity,
                  Wasn’t he mistaken for an hour?
                  Soviet military men directed against the Nazis and fascists already fought
                  Mostly against phalangists. He tried to stop the natural course of the historical development of Spain. About how this was done by the Bolsheviks in Russia.
                  Do not make an amorphous state from the USSR without political guidelines.
                  Oh yeah. Landmarks were. But in that direction?
    2. Vasek Trubachev
      Vasek Trubachev 13 July 2015 17: 16
      Friendship for friendship does not flourish even in society, not like between states. The weak seeks friendship from the strong, and equals fight for leadership!
    3. sanja.grw
      sanja.grw 13 July 2015 17: 33
      At V. Pikul, a good novel Requiem for PQ -17
  3. Kilo-11
    Kilo-11 13 July 2015 19: 25
    Probably, for objectivity, I must say that the battleship Arkhangelsk, the cruiser Murmansk and 9 destroyers of the Zharkiy class were outright naval junk and did not represent any real combat value. The battleship Arkhangelsk entered service with the British Navy in 1915, in 1943 she was put into reserve and mothballed. The cruiser "Murmansk" was in the ranks of the US Navy since 1923. The destroyers of the "Hot" type in their performance characteristics were more likely to be destroyers, not destroyers. As part of the US Navy since 1917 -1919, while these were ships of a double Lend-Lease, at first they were transferred from the US Navy to the Navy of Great Britain and Canada, and then to us. However, the destroyers "Daring and" Tenacious ", despite their solid" age ", sunk one German submarine - "U-344" and "U-387". Submarines of the "Ursula" type were of real combat value, these ships entered the British Navy in 1937 and 1942. At that time they were quite modern submarines. At the same time, "V-2" owls She completed 1 military campaign, in which she sank the skr and transport. "B-4" made 1 military campaign, in which she sank 3 transports.
    1. ilya1975p
      ilya1975p 14 July 2015 00: 47
      Yeah, but on the Northern Fleet, "Noviks" fought, just super destroyers. At the beginning of the war, the Northern Fleet, by and large, was equipped with all the trash. Thanks to the allies, by the end of the war we had a fleet in the north.
  4. moskowit
    moskowit 13 July 2015 19: 53
    The series "Lend-Lease" has just been shown on "Zvezda", although it is a little opportunistic, but carrying quite truthful information. I advise you to look. Moreover, there are fewer and fewer readers who like to read, unfortunately ...
    1. veteran66
      veteran66 13 July 2015 21: 48
      Quote: moskowit
      Moreover, there are less and less lovers of reading, unfortunately ...

      Recently I read Stettinius, the American congressman who developed the Lend-Lease program. Looked, so to speak, at this case from the other side, learned a lot of new things. The value of this book is that it was written in 44, without any political conjuncture, just facts. Comments on this book are also interesting. I advise everyone, especially those who have read a lot of agitation from the ideological department of the CPSU Central Committee.
      1. Varyag_1973
        Varyag_1973 13 July 2015 23: 56
        And it’s not fate to think with one’s head without reading the agitation of the CPSU and American agitation! Or do you think that the American took it like that and wrote the truth, how good they are and how they helped us for free ?!
        1. veteran66
          veteran66 14 July 2015 04: 59
          And you would have read it yourself before spreading criticism, otherwise how in glorious times it turns out: "I have not read, but I condemn !!" So it turns out that I think with my own head, and some according to the principle: "one grandmother said." Read the original sources, not their interpretation.
  5. ICT
    ICT 14 July 2015 07: 51
    British EM “Eskimo” in guarding РQ-18
  6. Arikkhab
    Arikkhab 15 July 2015 16: 24
    "In response to the armaments and other cargoes arriving in the USSR, the allies received 300 thousand tons of chrome ore, 32 thousand tons of manganese ore, a significant amount of platinum, gold, timber, etc. Russia has completed settlements with the United States for goods supplied during the war. only in 2006 " Of course, the value of the supplied weapons cannot be overestimated, but the whole point in this proposal is - who is the war, and who (business) is mother. that's how they get into the "best economies in the world." ...
    separately I bow my head to all the sailors of the heroic convoys, as well as to all those who provided the convoys.
    1. online
      online 21 July 2015 15: 52
      Stalin paid dearly for maintaining his regime west of the Volga and the North. Dvins. Ores and gold, this is nonsense. Tens of millions of lives, this is the main board. And Stalin paid this price without hesitation. And without asking anyone's opinion. It was not sentimental. I wanted to spit on the population (there were no people in the USSR).
      But Britain and the US are hard to blame. They have their own national interests. This is normal. They needed to buy meat cheaper. Against Germany in Europe. Cannon. They found Stalin and bought it. The price seemed reasonable to them. Only business, nothing personal.
      I think that if suddenly in the summer of 1941. Red Army would swiftly rush west, then Hitler would sign an agreement with the Allies on Lend-Lease. Politics, nothing special.