It is believed that the Cold War was the beginning of 5 March 1946. It was then that, at the suggestion of the President of the USA, Truman W. Churchill delivered his famous speech at the American Westminster College, in which he "substantiated" the thesis about the threat of another general war and "tyranny" from the USSR. However, Churchill's struggle against the USSR began much earlier, and was in full swing already in those days when the whole world was jubilant about the surrender of fascist Germany.
Winston Churchill is a person known, as is, incidentally, the pathological hatred of this statesman for the Soviet Union. True, sober political calculation forced him after the attack of Hitler's Germany on the USSR to sacrifice their principles. In the messages of I.V. Stalin admires the courage and heroism of the Red Army, the resilience of the Soviet people, ardently assures the Soviet leader of friendship and loyalty to the allied duty, emphasizes his sincerity, insistently asks him to believe.
A brilliant politician, Churchill successfully played the role of loyal friend and reliable ally. He knew that Hitler’s victory over the USSR would mean the defeat of Great Britain in the near future. By sending naval convoys with military equipment, weapons and food to the distant Murmansk, Churchill not only performed allied duties, but also cared about the fate of England, preserving the lives of British soldiers and officers who could be carried away by the war.
In 1944, he no longer doubted the defeat of Nazi Germany. So, his good old England can be calm for their present and future. But the more rapidly the Soviet troops moved west, the more troubled the Prime Minister became. He foresaw that Europe will face a great repartition, in which England will be on the sidelines. At first there will be Tips. To prevent this, you need to more boldly assert yourself, your own right to manage post-war Europe. Of course, Churchill understood that without the support of the Americans this is not feasible.
18 August 1944, he sends a telegram to US President Roosevelt, in which he clearly states his concept: “The glorious and great victories won by the US and British troops in France significantly change the current situation in Europe, and in general it can turn out that the victory achieved our allied armies in Normandy, will be able to overshadow with its greatness all that the Russian troops have achieved in any particular case. And I, therefore, think that they will treat our words with a certain respect if they are clearly and simply expressed. We are countries that defend great things, and we are obliged to give correct and correct advice for the sake of world peace, even if there is a risk that Stalin will be offended ... ”
In this telegram all Churchill. Of course, what he wanted most of all was “clear and simple” to give Stalin the “right advice” - not to go further with the Oder with his troops, leaving England and the United States to work on arranging post-war Germany. But he did not take risks and decided to wait with the "tips". The war was still going on. In addition, the Germans temporarily stalled the advancement of the allied forces, on whose "gigantic" victories Churchill wrote so enthusiastically. And yet he could no longer hide his position. Especially shocked him история with Poland, which literally slipped out of his hands. Instead of a government acceptable to him, having spent all the years of the war in London and on which Churchill was counting, a “red government” settled in the Polish capital. Now, since Poland was lost for him, he concentrated all his attention on Germany as on tomorrow's faithful ally.
“Russian troops will undoubtedly occupy the whole of Austria and enter Vienna. If they also take Berlin, will they not have an overly exaggerated idea that it was they who made the decisive and main contribution to our common victory, and whether it would not lead them to a state of mind that could cause serious and very impressive difficulties in the future? Therefore, I believe that from a political point of view, we need to move as far as possible eastward in Germany, and if Berlin is within our reach, we certainly should take it, ”Churchill wrote in one of his many telegrams.
Realizing that the current situation is not in his favor, he is again looking for approaches to Roosevelt. And she does not find that, actually, it is not surprising. There was no solid mutual understanding between the leaders of the two Allied powers, and conflicts often arose on various military-political issues. It was Roosevelt who “led” Churchill by insisting on the opening of a second front in French Normandy, and not in the Balkans, as the British prime minister wanted. Strikingly accurately described the position of the British Prime Minister, the operations officer of the headquarters of the commander-in-chief of the American armed forces in Europe, Ralph Ingersoll, who wrote the following in his diary: “The British are vitally interested in directing us against the Russians, just like before to direct Germany against the Soviets. "
Churchill was alarmed by the idea that his plans might not be realized if, after the capitulation, the German army ceased to exist. It was necessary to save it for the upcoming clash with Soviet Russia.
Telegram Montgomery on the need to carefully collect the German weapon Churchill was the first step in the implementation of the plans. But not the last. 6 May 1945, Churchill sends another telegram to Montgomery, asking the following questions: “Why is it necessary to plant military generals in prison cells for prisoners of war? Do we not have the ability to observe the usual differences between military ranks until individuals are charged with war crimes? ”
Behind these seemingly humane considerations lies one of Churchill’s main tasks — to preserve the former Hitler generals as the brains of the new German armed forces. As for his attitude to war crimes, it clearly manifested itself in the case of Admiral Doenitz. Churchill was ready to close his eyes to all the atrocities of the fascists, if only they served England, and were for her "a useful tool."
Indicative and the following document. “Prime Minister - General Eisenhower (France) 9 May 1945. I learned with utmost concern that the Germans were obliged to destroy all their aircraft. I want to hope that this policy will not be applied to weapons and other types of equipment. It is likely that we will need them some day, and even now they can be useful both in France and even more so in Italy. I am sure that we need to preserve everything that deserves preservation. For example, a heavy artillery gun, which I had saved since the times of the last war, continually led its fire from the heights of Dover in this war. We have a great jubilation here. ”
The British prime minister was not accidentally worried about the preservation of German aircraft. He knew how important it would be aviation in the upcoming war. Of course, neither in France, nor even in Italy, or Greece, where at that time the communist movement was gaining strength. Events were to take place in a completely different theater of operations - where the Soviet troops were. Pay attention to the date of sending the telegram - May 9. All of Europe rejoices, rejoices in the long-awaited victory. Churchill, on these very days, is making plans for a new war. Against their background, his information about great glee looks hypocritical. He himself did not rejoice. Two days later, the leader of Great Britain for the first time will talk about World War III.
“Prime Minister - Eden (San Francisco) 11 May 1945. Today in the newspapers there were reports that the withdrawal of large contingents of American troops, carried out from month to month, should now begin. What should we do? Soon a lot of pressure will be exerted on us in the country to achieve partial demobilization. After a very small amount of time, our armies will melt, and the Russians, in their locations, can stay with their hundreds of divisions as masters of Europe from Lubeck to Trieste and to the Greek border on the Adriatic. All this is much more important than the amendments to the world constitution, which, probably, will not be implemented until after a certain period of pacification it is replaced by the Third World War. ”
This document clarifies a lot. And above all, it shows that the British Prime Minister is dissatisfied with the withdrawal of American troops deep into Germany. Actually, he repeatedly expressed his dissatisfaction with a Western ally, whose actions did not fit into Churchill's concept. Realizing that Berlin would be taken by the Russians, Churchill began to accuse Roosevelt of being slow, agreeing that, supposedly, the whole world was in debt to England. He persistently persuaded the Americans not to depart from the Elbe, since he needed the area occupied by them for bargaining with the Russians. But all for nothing. And, nevertheless, Churchill kept the Americans and did everything to form a powerful new armed forces from the defeated Nazi army, obedient to his will.
At this time, Churchill sends a number of telegrams to General Ismayu for the committee of chiefs of staff, where he demands to suspend any reduction of bomber aircraft, prohibits the destruction of German combat aircraft and spare parts for them, cancels the previously announced demobilization. These telegrams, more like battle orders, testified to Churchill's military aspirations.
It is striking that the British Prime Minister practically began the 1945 year of May, when Europe celebrated the Victory, firmly believing that the war was over forever. But the facts are a stubborn thing. Dissatisfied with the outcome of the war on the continent, Churchill decided to personally take up the great division of Europe. His main opponent was the Soviet Union.
17 July 1945 was the long awaited hour for Churchill. He had long felt the burning need to “explain” to someone whom not so long ago he called “my dear Prime Minister Stalin.” And now his time has come. In the Berlin suburb of Cecilianhof, near Potsdam, the conference of the leaders of the three Allied Powers began. On it the United States of America was represented already by G. Truman, Great Britain - Winston Churchill and C. Attlee. The leaders of the states were accompanied by foreign ministers, chiefs of staff, and advisers.
Churchill was determined. He was eager to make the conference "his", to take revenge for the Yalta meeting, which he considered beneficial only to the Soviet Union. The British Prime Minister was preparing to say a lot to Stalin, but to demand even more from him. He hoped that his ideas would dominate in Potsdam, his conditions would be accepted.
The hard line that Churchill chose was due to many reasons. The most important was the "unjust world." In addition, the pain of losing Poland was not dulled. Worried about the fate of the Balkans - Churchill's last hope to establish itself in Europe. The Yugoslav leader Tito was worried. An outburst of rage caused Churchill’s departure of the American and British troops, which had begun on the eve of the “Big Three” meeting. By the way, unlike the British government, the American did not even try to use the withdrawal of allied troops as a “bargaining chip” to secure significant concessions from the Soviet Union, including access to West Berlin, namely the creation of a Soviet occupation zone. corridor, leading to the former capital of Germany. Churchill was badly spoiled by his mood and the duel he had lost to Stalin regarding the timing of the Big Three meeting. Stalin, insisting on his, did not let it accelerate, reached out to July 17. In a word, Churchill was ready to give the Russians a real fight.
From the first day of the conference, he threw himself “into the attack”, making unacceptable demands to the Soviet delegation. It is difficult to say how this Potsdam duel would have ended if not for one important circumstance. 25 July, after the ninth meeting, the conference announced a break before receiving news of the election results in England. 26 July Churchill announced his resignation. 28 July Attlee returned to Potsdam as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom and accompanied by the new Foreign Minister E. Bevin.
“The results of the general election cut the negotiations into two parts, interrupted them ahead of time,” Churchill would later complain in his memoirs. But most importantly, they ruined all his plans. Had the opposite happened - and a new war would have become a cruel reality. It is not by chance that since May 1945, the remnants of Hitler's troops accumulated in the forests of Germany, and the combat equipment was shrinking. It is not by chance that 5 of June 1945, in his next telegram, Churchill reprimanded Field Marshal Montgomeriza, frankly stating that he did not want the German admirals and generals, with whom the British had recently agreed, to stand with their hands up.
What could the British prime minister negotiate with a defeated enemy? Of course, not about diligent behavior in captivity. This conspiracy had one single goal — to attract former Hitler generals to their side, to make them an obedient tool in a future war.
In this regard, the following document is of interest: “The Prime Minister - to General Ismay 23 July 1945. What do they do with German rifles? Destroying rifles is a big mistake. If possible, at least a couple of million need to be saved for England. ”
The question is, why would England, which had just finished a long-term war with Germany, have two million rifles? What was the purpose of the captured weapon? Not in order to arm the personnel of "Nord" and similar formations, which, according to Churchill's plan, were to act together with the British troops against the USSR. It is impossible not to draw attention to the date of sending the telegram - 23 July, the day when the participants of the Potsdam meeting resolved the issues of peaceful arrangement of post-war Europe. However, declaring itself a peacemaker, the British prime minister did not think about peace.
After becoming president of the United States, Truman sent his emissary, Joseph Davis, to London to influence the British prime minister. Davis's mission failed. “When Churchill began to talk about the Soviet Union,” wrote Davis in his report to Truman, “he became enraged and sharply criticized him ... If I understood him correctly, Churchill now expounds the doctrine of Hitler and Goebbels ... They described exactly the same picture and made the same conclusions as he is now. "
By the beginning of the meeting of the "big three" Truman and Churchill had already tied a lot. And it is not by chance that the British Prime Minister learned about the successful testing of the American atomic bomb a few days before Stalin. Moreover, 16 August 1945, Churchill informed the House of Commons that the decision to use an atomic bomb in Japan was made by President Truman and himself in Potsdam. Justifying the decision to bomb peaceful Japanese cities, Churchill explained that the invasion would have cost 1 million to America, and England to 250 thousands of lives. Churchill kept silent about the alleged losses of the Soviet troops in the Far Eastern theater of military operations. He no longer considered the Soviet Union as his ally.
Having led the opposition, Churchill continued to build up hysteria with his actions and frightening statements about the Soviet threat. He did not forget about the Balkans - the last hot spot of the Second World War. On September 10, Marshal Alexander arrived in Trieste to inspect the allied forces. The fact is in principle everyday. Unusually different. Together with him arrived Churchill and Admiral Kenngham. The first Churchill met was General Harding, commander of the English forces. What made the former prime minister leave London and take a trip to the north of Italy?
Having missed Poland, Germany, Churchill did everything to keep the Balkans, which provided England with domination in the countries of Eastern Europe and the Mediterranean. The situation in this region was alarming. In addition to the British troops, the 120-thousandth Polish army of General Anders was here - a center of intrigue against the new Polish government and our country. Its parts began to advance towards the Yugoslav border. Events in the Balkans, not without Churchill, could lead to a big war. The explosive situation defused decisive action of the Soviet government. Another combination of the former British Prime Minister was frustrated.
But what is curious. 7 November 1945, opening up foreign policy debates in the House of Commons, opposition leader Winston Churchill emphasized that any idea that the United Kingdom deliberately and deliberately pursues anti-Russian policy or arranges complex combinations to the detriment of the Soviet Union completely contradicts British ideas and conscience . This statement was made at that very moment when fascist organizations in England were already making themselves known, openly calling for war with the USSR, when on the other side of the Channel in the British occupation zone, in violation of the Potsdam Agreement on the complete disarmament and demilitarization of Germany, there was a million-strong grouping of the former nazi troops, ready at any moment to oppose the Soviet units.
But this is about the conscience of the politician. As for the "Nord", then his secret mission did not take place. Churchill's secret weapon didn't work. Moscow once again showed its character. Slowly, with wires, the German forces began to disarm. Churchill's dubious idea failed.
And soon March 1946 came. In Fulton Churchill arrived at the ceremony of awarding him a degree. He devoted his speech to the problems of the international situation. She was sustained in extremely aggressive tones. Churchill demanded the urgent creation of an Anglo-American alliance that would oppose the USSR.
He got his way. In Washington, he had like-minded people. Forgetting their allied obligations, the United States dramatically changed its policy towards post-war Germany. But above all, they changed the policy towards the Soviet Union.
At this time, Marshal Zhukov reported to Stalin his comments on the draft treaty of US Secretary of State Byrnes. Zhukov pointed out that the real purpose of the draft treaty was to want to end the occupation of Germany as soon as possible and to remove the armed forces of the Soviet Union from Germany. It is necessary for the Americans and the British to raise the question of the withdrawal of our troops from Poland, and later on from the Balkan countries. In addition, the British want to maintain military potential in Germany as a necessary basis for the implementation of future aggressive targets against the USSR. In the introductory part of the draft Treaty of Byrnes, it is said that Germany’s disarmament and demilitarization has already been substantially completed and now it remains only to ensure that Germany remains in a completely disarmed and demilitarized state. The actual cases of the disarmament of Germany were different, especially in the British and American zones of occupation, which contained the combat-ready German divisions.
It is believed that Churchill's speech in Fulton was a kind of "fuse" for the "cold war." But, as we can see, he began the “fighting” long before the surrender of Nazi Germany. And aiming at the war "hot."
Is it necessary to remember this? Yes, it is necessary. And above all, because our past continues to undergo revisions. The “scientifically based” claims about the USSR’s imperial claims and its aggressiveness are discussed. They even claim that, they say, not Germany was striving for war, but the Soviet Union. And 22 June 1941, the Nazis did not commit a perfidious attack, and struck first to escape from the aggressive Stalin. Some argue that the “cold war” was also the first to start the USSR.
Well, in the end, I consider it necessary to cite the lines from the diary of the former American officer, the front-line soldier R. Ingersoll, who, incidentally, did not have sympathy for our country: “Russia has only one primary interest, and it is to be left alone, so that it could fulfill the task of its enlightenment, reconstruct its industry, complete the development of its resources and, as a result of these gigantic steps, consolidate itself as a nation. ” This conclusion was made 70 years ago, when the world community plunged into a state of “cold war”.
Rzheshevsky O.A. W. Churchill. Triumph and tragedy. M .: OLMA-Press, 2004. C.10.
Rzheshevsky O. The Secret Military Plans of Winston Churchill vs. the USSR in May 1945 // New and Newest History. 1999. No. 3. C. 98-124.
Kosenko I. Shla “Cold War” // Military-Historical Journal. 1993. No.8. C. 73-78.
Chernyak A. Filin V. How the second world war turned into a third // Russian Federation today. 2005. No.9. C.52-54.