Military Review

"You're not an orphan, baby!"

9


The war with Nazi Germany forced the Soviet leadership, concerned about the loss of the possibility of upbringing in the family for adolescents, to take prompt measures to remedy the situation. A resolution of the USSR Council of People's Commissars of 23 January 1942 of the Year “On the device of children without parents” was issued, which included a number of measures to alleviate the situation and ensure favorable conditions for the upbringing and education of such adolescents. In connection with this, commissions were established on the arrangement of orphans, public inspectorates for the protection of childhood "(quoted from the book by IS Pisarenko. Soviet school law during the Great Patriotic War).

To ban to 16 years ...

In considering this issue by the Rostov City Executive Committee in April 1943, it was noted that in the central streets and markets of the city young children are engaged in trade in cigarettes, seeds, water, as well as children who have lost their parents. The city executive committee ordered the police and public education authorities to carry out a decisive struggle against children's homelessness. For the management of this work, commissions for the placement of children were chaired by the district council of the executive committee under the district councils of workers' deputies. They included the head of the city police department, the inspectors of the city board and the secretary of the Komsomol district committee (data from the State Archives of the Rostov Region). The same decisions were made in other cities and regions of the Don and the North Caucasus.

As measures to combat child homelessness, it was envisaged, firstly, to prohibit children staying on the streets after 16 in the streets after 21 hours, unless the children were accompanied by their parents, and secondly, to prohibit children from 16 years from going to the evening performances, film shows ending after 20.00, unaccompanied, thirdly, to prohibit admission of children up to 16 years and students of all types of schools in the evening to canteens, buffets, cafes, pubs, in which the distribution of alcoholic beverages and beer was made.

Due to the increasing number of accidents among children due to the careless handling of explosives left by the Germans, parents' responsibility for controlling children was increased, and explanatory work was conducted among children by school doctors and Komsomol organizations.

A large amount of work of local authorities and public organizations was associated with the identification and placement of orphans and children who lost their parents. To solve this problem, the Krasnodar Krai Executive Committee in April 1943 ordered the NKVD bodies to organize children's receivers in Krasnodar, Armavir, Maykop, Kropotkin, Tikhoretsk and the village of Timashevsk in two weeks.

After the identification of street children, the relevant commissions decided to send them to orphanages and other children's institutions.

New orphanages and first Suvorov schools

At the same time, the plight of the city after the occupation did not immediately solve the problem of providing about half of orphans. As a temporary measure, the education authorities considered the need to establish control over their living conditions, to involve housewives and teachers in the educational work of the asset. In addition, it was decided to export part of the urban children affected by the German occupation to the collective farms of the Rostov Region.

However, the available social opportunities in most areas of the Don and North Caucasus did not correspond to the growing number of children who lost their parents. Often, single mothers and low-income families, by virtue of their difficult financial situation, themselves sought to temporarily place their children in an orphanage. In this regard, the party-state bodies took measures to rebuild the destroyed orphanages and organize new special institutions for the maintenance of children in need.

The revision of this work was facilitated by the decision of the Council of People's Commissars of the USSR and the Central Committee of the CPSU (B) "On urgent measures to restore the economy in areas liberated from occupation." So, 29 August 1943, the Bureau of the Krasnodar Regional Committee of the CPSU (B) decided to organize, train, and educate the children of the Red Army soldiers, as well as the children of workers who died from occupiers, in the city of Maikop to 500, two special craft schools for 400 people each, 15 special orphanages for 1500 people, three children's receiving centers for 200 people, two home-children for 100 people (data from the Russian State Archive of Social and Political stories. F. 17).

In accordance with this resolution, the Novocherkassk Suvorov School was also opened in November 1943. The high demand for the school is evidenced by the fact that over six thousand applications were submitted to 300 of possible places. Preemptive right to enrollment enjoyed the children of the dead and continued serving the military. Therefore, from among the pupils in the school, 51 belonged to the children of the deceased officers, 87 - to the families of officers and generals, 90 - to the families of ordinary soldiers. Regional specifics also manifested themselves in the composition of the pupils, since 101 was accepted from a boy from Cossack families (data from GARO, F. P-1561, Op. 2. D. 477. L. 36).

Restoration of orphanages

At the same time, measures were taken to restore orphanages. Most of them were severely damaged during the occupation and hostilities. For example, in the Krasnodar Territory 25 orphanages were completely destroyed. Immediately after the liberation, 30 orphanages were opened, until July 1943, more 24 orphanages, and later 15 special orphanages for 1 500 people. Thus, by the summer 74 orphanages operated in the region, of which the school type was 46, the preschool one was 12, the mixed one was 14, the deaf-mute boarding schools were 2 (data from the State Archives of the Krasnodar Krai. F. P-687. 1 op. D. 34).

In November, in the Rostov region 1943, special orphanages were organized for 1 500 people, as well as two children's homes. In the Stavropol region operated 40, and in Dagestan - 81 orphanage.

During the war years, the number of disabled children has increased. “In the 1944 year in the North Caucasus, in five orphanages for the disabled, in which there were 300 children, about 30 percent of them had prosthetic limbs - most of the children were undermined by mines left by the Germans after the occupation” (GARO. F. P-3737. Op .2. D.477).

Obkom check

The situation of children in many established orphanages was difficult. So, as a result of a check by the Rostov Regional Committee of the CPSU (b) in July 1943, it turned out that most of the orphanages did not have outbuildings and courtyards for children's games. there was not enough hard and soft inventory. The children slept on beds in twos or on the floor. The pupils did not have winter clothes, shoes and fuel.

In addition, "the regional trade department, the regional consumer union did not adequately provide food in children's organizations, and the released state standards did not reach the pupils" (data from the Documentation Center for the Newest History of the Rostov Region (hereinafter - TsDNIRO). F. 13. Op. 4. D 21).

Orphanage No. XXUMX of Rostov-on-Don was in extremely difficult conditions: “there was not enough bed linen, clothes, shoes. Children were exhausted, hemmed-up; common infectious diseases like chickenpox and typhus. However, the Directorate did not take any measures to bringing order, but also rudely treated orphans "(TsDNIRO. F. 1. Op. 13. D. 4).

In the home of a child in Rostov-on-Don, for 10 months 1943, 58 children died, with an average number of children no more than 50 people. The reasons for the high mortality of children were “negligence on the part of the head physician, as well as the lack of heating and glasses in children's rooms, poor organization of children's nutrition. As a result of a lack of warm linen, blankets and diapers, many children suffered from pneumonia” (TsNNIRO. F. 13. Op .4. D.68).

“Due to the irresponsible attitude to their duties of the director and medical staff, massive cases of children’s worminess were detected in Rostov Children's Home No. XXUMX, Orlovsky Children's Home; diseases of scabies in the Novocherkassky Children's Home and Kamensky Children's Home” (GARO. F. R-3. Op. 4130. D.1).

Recent examples show that the material and technical problems of the activities of orphanages were aggravated by the low qualification of personnel, as well as the irresponsible attitude of some workers to their duties.

A similar situation led to the fact that many pupils made escapes.

Also, one of the reasons for the massive runaway was the desire of teenagers to get back to their homeland. Often, shoots occurred due to lack of discipline and difficult living conditions in the institutions of the People's Commissariat of Education.

At the same time, vocational training adolescents ran less frequently. So, in the first quarter of 1944, 4054 people got into the detectors, who voluntarily left vocational schools and schools FZO. During the same period, a teenager 5 484 who escaped from orphanages was detained (GARO. F. P-9412).

After escaping, minors made long multi-kilometer movements across the country. An analysis of the number of detainees in vocational schools and orphanages detained in the Volgograd region in the 1945 year indicates a predominance of non-resident people among them. Local children made up only about 22 percent, the rest came from Moscow (16 people), Sverdlovsk (83 people), Tomsk (40 people), Tyumen (30 people) and other areas of the country (data GARO. F. P-3737).

The departments involved in the further arrangement of the children took a different approach to the organization of work. For example, by the mid-forties, the People's Commissariat of Internal Affairs had done significant work to improve the material and technical base of detectors, provided them with qualified personnel. The attractiveness of such institutions has increased.

However, similar measures were not held by the People's Commissariat of Education. It was assumed that the imbalances in the work could be eliminated with the improvement of the interagency cooperation between the two Commissariats. But this was not done, as evidenced by archival documents.

Receivers-distributors of the NKVD

The activity of children's reception centers, subordinated to the People's Commissariat of Internal Affairs of the USSR, was further developed. Organizationally, they were part of the anti-child homelessness and neglect department, which was established in mid-June, 1943. One of the tasks, which was solved by children receivers, was the adoption of measures for the employment of minors (data from the book “Children of the Gulag.” 1918-1956. M., 2002).

Since September 1943, adolescents who have reached 14-year-old age, from child care centers, as well as children's labor colonies, after expiry of their tenure, were sent to vocational and railway schools, FZO schools and industrial enterprises (Rostov Region State Archive. F.R.-3737 D. D. 477). This created additional conditions for their further socialization by obtaining a profession. The level of street homelessness, neglect and juvenile delinquency decreased.

It is worth noting that in 1943 - 1944, the work of children’s receivers was severely hampered due to the increasing number of minors escaping from orphanages, vocational schools and FZO schools. These children joined the ranks of street children. Removing them from the street led to the overflow of detectors, the limit filling of which did not always allow us to accept and distribute all the children in need.

Their undershirts and shoes

In order to overcome this situation, additional measures were taken by the government aimed at raising the level of organization and strengthening the material base of orphanages. So, after opening in September 1943 of a special children's home in the Stavropol Territory and two special children's homes in the Krasnodar Territory, almost every pupil received a sheet, two pairs of stockings, four towels, two underclothes and one pair of shoes.

One and a half kilograms of meat or fish

Since 1 August 1943, food standards have been set for orphanages. Per month, one child had 1,5 kg of meat or fish, 500 g of fat, 1,5 kg of cereals and pasta, 50 g of sugar or confectionery, 8 l of milk, 150 g of cheese, 6 eggs, 750 g of flour, 7,5 kg of potatoes and vegetables , 6 kg fresh fruit, 25 g tea, 400 g bread.

Of course, these norms are inferior to modern ones, but in wartime conditions their introduction created a certain legal basis for ensuring the necessary minimum supply of orphanages with food.

At the same time, the practical implementation of the food supply of orphanages was accompanied by frequent interruptions in the supply of products, incomplete purchase of allocated funds. The funds directed by the government were not enough to carry out capital and current repairs in orphanages, to equip them with hard and soft inventory. In this regard, a large burden of ensuring the work of orphanages fell on local authorities, enterprises and public organizations.

Thanks to their efforts, the conditions of maintenance and upbringing of children in orphanages gradually improved. And, although the pupils continued to experience great difficulties, their situation cannot be compared with the ordeals of children left in the hands of the invaders. This grave fate befell the pupils of the Taganrog orphanages, many of whom died, and the lifelong survivors left terrible memories of their experiences.

During the recovery period, the work force of collectives, Komsomol and trade union organizations in organizing fundraising for orphans and orphans was widespread. For example, in the spring of 1943, Komsomol members of the Marxist collective farm in the Mechetinsky District of the Rostov Region took the initiative to create a fund for food aid to children. They collected a lot of products, sowed 5 ha of different cultures with their own hands, set up two pigs and 50 bird heads for fattening.

"You're not an orphan, baby!"

The Mosquets initiative was approved by a special resolution of the Rostov Regional Committee of the CPSU (B) and received a warm response on the ground.

Hundreds of hectares were sown in a fund for helping children. For example, in the Yegorlyk district - 13-ha of cereals and melons, in Bagayevsky - 88-ha. The so-called "children's hectares" appeared in the collective farms of Razvilensky, Bataysky, Azov and other districts of the Rostov region. Only in Bagaevsky district more than 200 kg of various products were collected. The article of the regional newspaper devoted to this initiative noted: "Let the little citizens of the Soviet country be provided with everything necessary for normal study and growth. You are not an orphan, baby! So we must tell every child who lost his father and mother. Let us warm the orphans of World War II maternal love and fatherly care "(newspaper" Hammer ". 1943. 4 May).

A common form was the month of help to orphanages, during which food, clothing, shoes were collected for pupils, and repairs were carried out. Each orphanage was assigned to the patronage enterprises and institutions, which showed constant concern for the pupils.

For example, in July 1943 of the year in Armavir during the month of school FZO allocated labor (roofers, plasterers, carpenters) to repair the premises of an orphanage. Students of the Mechanics and Technology Technical School weeded seven hectares of vegetable garden for their sponsored ones, collected things for the children's receiving center.

Great help to orphanages was provided by trade union organizations. At the initiative of the trade union committees, labor collectives helped in the repair of premises, equipping rooms and classrooms, and creating normal living conditions. The teams of enterprises and institutions of Armavir handed over to the orphanages 600 mattresses, 900 pillows, 50 sheets, 600 pillowcases, hundreds of pairs of bed linen, about 3 000 items of different dishes.

Trade union organizations actively participated in the creation of funds to help children, allocating funds to support orphans. Thus, the local committees of medical workers of the Krasnodar Territory in 1944, 5 000 rubles were allocated. By the end of the war, in most orphanages, it was possible to provide normal food, to somewhat improve the material and living conditions of pupils. It was possible to identify and arrange a significant part of street children.
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  1. Denis
    Denis 14 July 2015 06: 24
    +6
    In the orphanage, of course, there is no sugar, but better than without home. They fed and dressed as they could, while the children didn’t fatten at home. Moreover, later they graduated with a specialty
    Aw, liberalists, where are FZU and VET now?
  2. kvs207
    kvs207 14 July 2015 07: 16
    +8
    Quote: Denis
    They fed and dressed as they could, while children and children did not fatten at home.

    And most importantly, the Soviet government thought about it at such a time.
    1. igordok
      igordok 14 July 2015 12: 17
      +4
      Quote: kvs207
      And most importantly, the Soviet government thought about it at such a time.

      Thinking about the future.
  3. parusnik
    parusnik 14 July 2015 07: 49
    +7
    ... A little off topic .. but always, to the depths of my soul .. struck an episode in the film The Fate of Man:
    - Vanya, do you know who I am?
    - Who?
    - I'm your father...
  4. RuslanNN
    RuslanNN 14 July 2015 08: 26
    +3
    Our children are the future and future of our country. The attitude towards them should be appropriate, as we educate them, so will the development of the country.
  5. ivanovbg
    ivanovbg 14 July 2015 08: 35
    +4
    In the 1930s, there was a big surge of the so-called. "street crime" - hooliganism, robbery, theft. The basis of the criminal contingent was made up of young men and adolescents who were left without parents during the years of the revolution and the Civil War. By 1940, the authorities barely overcame this problem and on 22.06.1941/XNUMX/XNUMX everything began again. However, in the Second World War, the problem began to be solved even in wartime, no matter how difficult it was. Of the majority of the orphans, they managed to make them normal members of society. Although many of them have become thieves and "tramps" in life.
    1. Aleksandr72
      Aleksandr72 14 July 2015 11: 31
      +4
      Moreover, at that time, the state entrusted the NKVD with the task of combating homelessness and educating street children, who basically constituted the contingent of street crime, which coped with this task as a whole. It will be useful to recall that Anton Semenovich Makarenko, who is considered the founder of pedagogical science in the USSR and who is known to every teacher, educator, teacher — everyone who works with children, was an employee of the NKVD.
      Makarenko A.S. on behalf of the Poltava Gubnarobraz, he created a labor colony for juvenile offenders in the village of Kovalevka, near Poltava, in 1921 the colony was named after M. Gorky, in 1926 the colony was transferred to the Kuryazhsky monastery near Kharkov; headed it (1920-1928), from October 1927 until July 1935 he was one of the leaders of the children's labor commune of the OGPU named after F.E. Dzerzhinsky in the suburbs of Kharkov, in which he continued to put into practice the educational system developed by him.
      From July 1, 1935 he was transferred to Kiev, to the central apparatus of the NKVD of the Ukrainian SSR, where he worked as an assistant head of the department of labor colonies until November 1936. For some time - before moving in March 1937 from Kiev to Moscow, he directed the pedagogical part of labor colony No. 5 in Brovary near Kiev.
      I read in my youth his book "Pedagogical Poem".
      I have the honor.
    2. The comment was deleted.
  6. user
    user 14 July 2015 10: 29
    +1
    In the orphanage, of course, not sugar, but better than without a house.


    Make no illusions. I grabbed a little the remnants of that time. Yes, they were engaged in children, but how many teenagers, as they are now called difficult, went on the wrong path, although we chose the paths ourselves, but "difficult childhood and lack of vitamins" did their job, well if they managed to direct someone on the right path.
    Well, here it is;

    Aw, liberalists, where are FZU and VET now?


    there it was really normal with food and overalls, and whoever wanted could study and work. But remember how Vysotsky's "and the kids wanted to be under the tanks" everything is complicated.
    1. Denis
      Denis 15 July 2015 09: 47
      0
      Quote: user
      Yes, they dealt with children, but how many teenagers as they are now called difficult went the wrong way

      And how many would not be allowed on that track?
      And how much would it go if not