“Buk” and “Tunguska”: perfection options


The Buk-M2E anti-aircraft missile system is a multifunctional highly mobile medium-range air defense system.


The Ulyanovsky Mechanical Plant OJSC (UMP OJSC), which is part of the Air Defense Division Almaz-Antey Concern, is one of the world's leading manufacturers of air defense systems for the short-range and medium-range ground forces as well as radar systems. For the fifth decade, the company's products are delivered to dozens of foreign countries These are such world-famous systems and complexes as ZSU “Shilka”, ZPRK “Tunguska” and its modification - ZPRK “Tunguska-M”, product “Orion”, ZRK “Buk” and its modifications Buk-М1-1 ", Buk-М2Е ADMS. Design thought does not stand still, and today UMP OJSC offers new, more advanced air defense systems and complexes.

Buk-M2E ADMS

The lead manufacturer of the Buk-М2E air defense missile system is OJSC Ulyanovsk Mechanical Plant, and the head developer of design documentation for the complex as a whole and main combat equipment is OJSC Scientific Research Institute of Instrument Engineering named after Tikhomirov (Zhukovsky). The developer of the design documentation for the target detection station 9С18М1-3E is OAO NIIIP (Novosibirsk).

Buk-M2E anti-aircraft missile system is a multifunctional highly mobile medium-range air defense system that ensures the successful conduct of combat operations both in a noise-free environment and in conditions of intense radio countermeasures, affecting any type of aerodynamic targets, including tactical ballistic missiles, special aviation, cruise and anti-radar missiles, as well as surface targets (class destroyer and missile boat) and ground-based radio contrast targets. Placement of the combat assets of the complex on self-propelled caterpillar (or wheeled) high-cross-country chassis, short deployment and curtailing times (up to 5 minutes) provide high mobility of the complex. In terms of its performance characteristics, the complex significantly surpasses existing foreign analogues.

Automated control of the combat operations of the complex is carried out by the command post (CP), which receives information about the air situation from the target detection station or the higher command post (CPSU) and transmits target designations and control commands to six batteries via technical communication lines.

Each battery consisting of one self-propelled fire installation (SOW), attached to it by one starting-charging installation (ROM) or one radar of illumination and targeting (RPN) with two ROMs, has four target channels and eight shooting channels.

Shelling of escorted targets is carried out both single and salvo launches of anti-aircraft guided missiles (SAM).

The highly effective missile defense system used in the complex with a solid-propellant rocket engine and flexibly adaptable military equipment to various types of targets allows you to confidently hit targets in the entire range of the affected area of ​​the complex:
- in range - 3,0-45 km;
- in height - 0,015-25 km.
At the same time, the missile defense system provides the flight range to 70 km and flight altitude to 30 km.

In the combat equipment of the complex, modern phased antenna arrays with an effective command method of phase control are used, allowing the complex to simultaneously accompany and hit the 24 goals with a minimum time interval. The probability of hitting a target with one missile is equal to 0,9-0,95. 10-12 Complex Reaction Time p.

The real effectiveness of modern tactical and operational-tactical air defense systems is largely determined by their ability to conduct successful combat work on missile targets: anti-radar, cruise and ballistic missiles. The Buk-М2Е SAM can hit rocket targets with an effective reflective surface (EOP) 0,05-0,1 м2 and a probability of hitting 0,6-0,7.

The maximum speed of hit tactical ballistic missiles - 1200 m / s.

The defeat of cruise missiles and other targets (such as remotely piloted vehicles - RPVs, unmanned aerial vehicles - UAVs, etc.) flying at low and extremely low altitudes, in conditions of wooded and difficult terrain, is provided by the complex due to the presence in the radar of the backlight and guidance (RPN) with an antenna post, rising to a height of 21 m.

Placement of combat vehicles on high-speed self-propelled tracked chassis, minimum deployment and collapse time of the air defense missile system (no more than 5 min. Without RPN), possibility of changing positions of main combat vehicles with 20-enabled equipment motivated by high mobility of the complex.

Modern hardware and software implementation of noise protection channels with confident functioning of the combat equipment of the complex in intensive active interference with power up to 1000 W / MHz, a highly efficient optical-electronic system (ECO), implemented on the basis of two matrix channels (thermal imaging and television) and allowing the main combat one to work around the clock the facility of the complex - SOU 9А317Е in ECO mode (practically without microwave radiation), provides high noise immunity and survivability of the complex.

In 2009-2010 The Buk-М2E air defense system was actually tested under conditions as close as possible to the combat ones, with multilateral flight and shooting tests conducted at test sites of the Russian Federation Ministry of Defense and foreign customers. In the most difficult weather and meteorological conditions (ambient temperature - up to plus 50 ° С, high dustiness of air, wind - up to 25-27 m / s) when exposed to intense noise barrage with power up to 1000 W / MHz, firing tests both for single and for and on several targets simultaneously in the affected area of ​​various classes and purposes, completed successfully. They were a real test of the ultimate capabilities of the Buk-М2E air defense system and confirmed its high tactical and technical characteristics, as well as the great potentialities that were laid down during the development of the complex.

ZSU 2C6М1 "Tunguska-M1"

The lead developer of the Tungusk complex and its modifications is the Instrument Engineering Design Bureau (Tula), the head manufacturer is Ulyanovsk Mechanical Plant OJSC. The main combat vehicle of the complex is the Tunguska-М2 anti-aircraft self-propelled gun (ZSU) 6С1М1, which is intended for anti-aircraft defense of motorized rifle and tank units of troops in all types of combat operations. The ZSU provides detection, recognition of nationality, tracking and destruction of air targets (tactical aircraft, helicopters, including hovered, cruise missiles, remotely piloted aircraft) when working from a place, in motion and from short stops, as well as destroying ground targets. and surface targets and parachute targets. For the first time, the ZSU achieved the combination of two types of weapons (rocket and cannon) with a single radar-instrumentation complex.


The ZSU cannon armament consists of two double-barreled high-temperature anti-aircraft guns of the 30 caliber mm. The high total rate of fire - up to 5000 shots per minute - ensures effective destruction of speed targets in the firing zone for a short time. The high rate of fire, combined with high pointing accuracy due to the stabilization of the line of the shot, ensures high efficiency of shooting at air targets in motion. Ammunition is 1904 30-mm rounds. Each machine has independent power systems.

Missile weapons ZSU make up 8 anti-aircraft guided missiles. The rocket is a two-stage solid propellant biciberian with a detachable starting engine. Targeting a missile at a target is a radio command with an optical communication line. High maneuverability, with overloads up to 35 g, allows you to hit speed and maneuvering targets. The average flight speed at the maximum range is 600 m / s.

The operating experience of previous modifications of the ZSU showed that it is necessary to increase the noise immunity of the installation when firing rocket weapons at targets equipped with optical interference, and also to introduce into the ZSU equipment for automated reception and target designation from a higher command post in order to increase the effectiveness of the combat use of the ZSU battery during a massive raid goals. The consequence of the implementation of these areas of modernization was the creation of the ZNU 2С6М1 "Tunguska-М1" with significantly improved combat performance.

For ZSU 2C6М1, a new rocket with a pulsed optical responder was developed and the rocket control equipment was modernized, which made it possible to significantly increase the noise immunity of the rocket control channel and increase the probability of hitting targets operating under cover of optical interference. Equipping the missile with a radar non-contact fuse with a range of operation up to 5 m significantly increased the effectiveness of the ZSU in the fight against small-sized targets. The increase in the operation time of the rocket elements made it possible to increase the range of targets hit by a rocket from 8000 to 10000 m

The introduction of automated data reception and processing equipment for external target designation from the command post of the type of industrial-command follow-up greatly increased the effectiveness of the combat use of the ZSU battery with a massive attack of targets.

The ZSU digital computing system has been upgraded on the basis of a new calculator, which made it possible to expand the functionality of the central computer in solving combat and control tasks, as well as to improve the accuracy of the tasks.

Modernization of optical sighting equipment made it possible to significantly simplify the process of target tracking by the gunner while simultaneously increasing the tracking accuracy and reducing the effectiveness of the combat use of the optical channel as a function of the gunner’s professional level.

Modernization of the radar system ensured the reception and implementation of data of external target designation, the work of the gunner’s “unloading” system. Also increased the reliability of the equipment, improved technical and operational characteristics.

The use of a more powerful gas turbine engine with a doubled resource allowed us to increase the power of the ZSU power system and reduce the drawdown of the power supply when working with the activated weapon targeting hydraulic drives.

Currently, work is underway on embedding television and thermal imaging channels with automatic tracking into ZNS 2С6М1, as well as upgrading the detection and targeting station (SOC) to increase the target detection area in height to 6000 m (instead of the current 3500 m) by introducing two angles the position of the SOC SOC vertical. Factory tests of the upgraded model ZSU 2C6М1 showed the effectiveness of the introduced modernization options when working on air and ground targets. The presence of television and thermal channels with automatic accompaniment ensures the presence of a passive target tracking channel and the pervasiveness of the use of ZSU missile weapons.

Providing combat work in motion, directly in the combat formations of the army units under cover, the Tunguska ZSU, according to the effectiveness of defense against low-altitude air attack weapons, is currently unparalleled in the world.
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  1. Ion coaelung
    Ion coaelung 21 October 2011 10: 22 New
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    +6
    Tunguska is generally a beast-machine, more of such ingenious solutions!
  2. Phoenixl
    Phoenixl 21 October 2011 11: 13 New
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    -1
    With the advent of the Tunguska Shell is morally obsolete
    1. PSih2097 21 October 2011 13: 40 New
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      The Pantsir-S anti-aircraft gun and missile system (ZPKK) is intended for the short-range protection of civilian and military targets (including long-range air defense systems) from all modern and promising air attack systems. It can also protect the protected object from ground and surface threats. The BM cannon armament includes two 2A38M double-barreled anti-aircraft guns, borrowed from the Tunguska-M1 complex and capable of hitting air and ground targets in the zone in range - up to 4 km, in height - up to 3 km.
      Find 10 people:

      The Tunguska-M1 anti-aircraft gun and missile system (ZPRK) is designed to cover troops and objects from air attack attacks, primarily fire support helicopters and attack aircraft, cruise missiles operating at extremely small, small and medium altitudes, and also for shooting lightly armored ground and surface targets.
      1. Phoenixl
        Phoenixl 21 October 2011 13: 53 New
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        Infa from the site of the Tula "Instrument Design Bureau":

        Tunguska-M1:
        Aircraft damage area, m:
        missile weapons:
        range 2500-10000
        height 15–3500
        cannon weapons:
        range 200-4000
        height 0–3000
        Reaction time, from 6-10


        Carapace C1:
        Aircraft damage area, m:
        missile weapons:
        range 1200-20000
        in height 5-15000
        cannon weapons:
        range 200-4000
        in height 0-3000
        Reaction time, from 4-6
  3. Mustapha
    Mustapha 21 October 2011 13: 18 New
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    Tunguska can be used against infantry, and against lightly armored targets, and the carapace does not differ in similar universality, so Tunguska is indispensable in military air defense
    1. Esso 21 October 2011 13: 33 New
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      You are mistaken, the carapace is just even more versatile. It is essentially a combat robot, you can put it in automatic mode and it will shoot at everything that moves, flies, creeps.
      1. PSih2097 21 October 2011 13: 51 New
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        There is practically no difference between the shell and the Tunguska. made them in the same design bureau, the only difference from the tunguska is the modular shell ...
        The modular construction principle of the "Shell-S" allows you to create a complex in various configurations and placement on various transport bases, as well as stationary execution.
        The BM of the complex uses a modular design: a control module with BM calculation; weapon module; tower installation; power supply system (BOT) compartment.
        The main properties of BM: autonomy of combat use; combined rocket and cannon weapons; noise-resistant multi-band radar-optical control system; all-weather use; automatic combat mode; simultaneous shelling of four targets; coordination of actions inside the battery; protection (booking) of the crew from bullets and fragments.

        The Tunguska-M1 air defense missile launcher equipment was equipped with automated target designation equipment from a battery command post, missile defense infrared direction finder — missile coordinate generation equipment, a new computer with high speed and memory, and an upgraded quality angle measurement system.
        The improvements made it possible to increase the firing range of SAMs from 8 to 10 km, increased the efficiency of the ZSU when reflecting a massive air raid by the enemy, provided reliable destruction of small targets, significantly increased the noise immunity of the ZSU and provided firing of missiles at targets carrying powerful sources of optical interference, and also automate the process of tracking the target with an optical sight while increasing the accuracy of tracking.
    2. PSih2097 21 October 2011 13: 36 New
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      +1
      the shell can also hit the ground, the problem is that the military air defense should be on the tracks (in view of the peculiarities of our country), and not on the basis of KAMAZ or mana.
      1. Phoenixl
        Phoenixl 21 October 2011 13: 55 New
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        Nothing prevents putting the combat module on the tracked chassis
        1. PSih2097 21 October 2011 13: 57 New
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          Nothing prevents putting the combat module on the tracked chassis

          And on which air defense two identical machines? Yes, and they do not teach us on the Shell, only beech, tunguska and c300v.
          1. Phoenixl
            Phoenixl 21 October 2011 13: 59 New
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            Tunguska and the carapace to compare is like T72 and T90
            Have to start learning.
            1. PSih2097 21 October 2011 14: 10 New
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              Unlike other ZSU, which are in service with the Russian army, this complex is mounted on a high-cross-country vehicle chassis with an 8x8 Ural-5323.4 wheel arrangement with a 7406 hp KamAZ-260 engine. The purpose of using a car chassis is to reduce the cost of the complex, which should cover the rear facilities, rather than troops in battle formations.
              1. Phoenixl
                Phoenixl 21 October 2011 14: 23 New
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                +1
                So what? Nothing prevents putting the combat module on another chassis, and besides, this is not the only air defense system on a wheeled chassis, the OSA is still in service
              2. Jaguar
                Jaguar 21 October 2011 22: 22 New
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                +2
                You are not right


                1. Sergh
                  Sergh 21 October 2011 22: 38 New
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                  Dip device! Thing.
  4. Artemka
    Artemka 22 October 2011 13: 44 New
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    Of course. Tunguska has a high rate of fire, a whole cloud of shells is created. And the plane cannot fly through it.
  5. TOP
    TOP 31 October 2011 16: 38 New
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    Beast car.
  6. Redjak
    Redjak 21 November 2011 02: 43 New
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    During my military service, I was the commander of the Tunguska. It’s not at all a beast ... it's just TIN !!! Automata just cut concrete houses, they smash brick into dust, they tear apart the equipment. Of course, it won’t break through, but everything hinged will sweep away .When a BT projectile hits the ground, it breaks through, burns through a course and goes into the sky ... It also works perfectly for air targets ... By the way, the turret’s rotation is 360 for 3 seconds ... I’ll tell you that amusement, especially when you're inside ...))
  7. Semetey
    Semetey 31 January 2012 03: 49 New
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    and babs do not need
  8. SergeSerw
    SergeSerw 23 February 2012 10: 43 New
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    hmm, interestingly saw somewhere
  9. SergeSerw
    SergeSerw 23 February 2012 15: 49 New
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    hmm, interestingly already seen somewhere

    hmm, interestingly already seen somewhere

    hmm, interestingly already seen somewhere
  10. SergeSerw
    SergeSerw 23 February 2012 17: 52 New
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    hmm, interesting news already seen somewhere