Military Review

American all-terrain vehicle for Antarctica "Snow Cruiser" (Snow Cruiser)

The first half of the 2500th century was a time of dreamers. At this time, people dreamed of the North and South Pole, believed in communism, rushed with completely crazy projects. Construction of one-story buildings, a vessel for XNUMX passengers, Tanks weighing 1500 tons, an aircraft carrier and the development of spacecraft - all these people dreamed of. The specifics of the time was such that dreamers were easily among representatives of big business and government. As a result, some of them sought funding from others and implemented their projects. So the Empire State Building, the Titanic, the Ilya Muromets plane, the Tsar Tank and other projects that struck the imagination were born.

In this stories dreamers survived and the name of the all-terrain vehicle Snow Cruiser, which was designed and built by American Thomas Poulter. In 1934, Thomas took part in an Antarctic expedition that could cost its leader, Admiral Byrd, to live. Then, with only a third attempt, Thomas Poulter was able to make his way to an admiral locked in a blizzard on tracked tractors and save him. It was then that he set about trying to create a specialized transport for Antarctica. In 1930, Poulter worked as research supervisor at the Research Foundation of the Illinois Institute of Technology in Chicago. By holding this post, he was able to convince the director of the fund of the feasibility of his new project. As a result, over the course of two years, the organization’s team worked on the creation of the Antarctic snow cruiser, as Thomas Poulter called it.

If you do not take into account the low air temperature, the complex snow-ice cover and the lack of oxygen, the main danger during trips to the Antarctic were cracks in the ice cover of the continent, which very often turned out to be invisible under a layer of firn or snow and for this reason were particularly scary for researchers. Poulter undertook to solve this problem with a “cavalry swoop”: it was enough to design a car of such a large length, and the overhangs so large that its nose would overcome the crack by the time the front wheel fell into it. "Snow Cruiser" was supposed to move on four wheels. For what reason, Thomas Poulter decided to stay on such a scheme is unknown. Most likely, he considered the tracked propulsion unit redundant and very voracious.

The layout of the "Snow Cruiser"

The four wheels of the all-terrain vehicle were shifted to the center of the body — its base was about half the total vehicle length. Tires with a diameter of 120 inches (just over 3 meters) and 33 inches wide were manufactured by Goodyear from cold-resistant 12-ply rubber. Two six-cylinder Cummins diesel engines of 11 liters and 150 hp were installed in front of the front axle of the all-terrain vehicle. each. These diesels powered two electric generators that fed General Electric's 4 electric motors with an HP of 75 power. each. Each electric motor was installed in its hub, while the space in the two-meter hubs was more than enough for them. Thus, the all-terrain vehicle created at the end of 30-s of the last century was a diesel-electric hybrid. At present, dump trucks are manufactured according to this scheme.

Was unusual and all-terrain suspension. She had adjustable ground clearance. More specifically, the wheels of the car could be drawn into the arches on the 1,2 meter. Thanks to this solution, firstly, it was possible to warm the rubber and clean it from frozen ice (hot exhaust gases from diesel engines were fed into the wheel wells), and secondly, the all-terrain vehicle had to overcome cracks in the ice in this way. First, the Snow Cruiser had to reach the front edge of the crack with its front overhang, and then pull the front wheels into the body, and, “rowing” only with the rear wheels, push the front axle ashore. After that, the front wheels lowered, and the building on the contrary was drawn into the body. Now the front axle had to pull out the all-terrain vehicle. It was envisaged that this procedure could be carried out in 20 receptions (all actions would have to be performed in manual mode), and the time for its implementation would be 1,5 hours. In addition, all four wheels of the all-terrain vehicle were made manageable - you could try to turn around "on the patch" or move sideways.

The car turned out quite massive. The body of the all-terrain vehicle had a 17-meter length and a ski-like bottom, the height was from 3,7 to 5 meters (depending on clearance), and the width was 6,06 meters. Through the cracks in the ice, the width of which did not exceed 4,5 meters, which the Antarctic glacier abounded in, the all-terrain vehicle had to literally “creep”, including due to the shape of its bottom, was also supposed to overcome the fields of firn (granular ice).

Inside the building of the “Snow Cruiser” there was enough space not only to accommodate a triple control room (moved upstairs), an engine room, fuel tanks on 9463 liters of diesel, but also for a mess room with chairs, a five-bed bedroom, a kitchen with a sink and a stove on 4 rings, a workshop with welding equipment and a special room for the development of photographs. In addition, the all-terrain vehicle had its own stock of equipment and provisions and two spare wheels, which were placed in a special compartment of the car in the rear overhang.

But that's not all. On the roof of the all-terrain vehicle was supposed to be located a small biplane plane, which in those years could have played the role of a GPS navigator for the Snow Cruiser. Also on the roof of the all-terrain vehicle should have been stored 4 thousands of liters of fuel for the aircraft. To lower the plane and lift it back on board, as well as to replace the wheels, there were special winches on the all-terrain vehicle that were pulled out of its roof.

Path to Antarctica

In 1939, Thomas Poulter presented his Snow Cruiser in the US Congress, so much so that he could even “spark” senators with his idea. Congressmen agreed to finance an expedition to deliver an all-terrain vehicle to Antarctica. A cash for the construction of "cruiser", almost 150 thousands of dollars (a very serious amount at the time), Poulter was able to collect from some private investors. After the approval of the US Congress was received, the expedition was scheduled for November 15 1939 of the year - the Antarctic Spring. At the same time, the yard was already 8 August. A unique all-terrain vehicle needed to be built and delivered to the ship in just 11 weeks. The story is silent about whether Pullman employees left their jobs and how long they slept while, but the “Snow Cruiser” was ready in six weeks.

October 24 1939, the first all-terrain vehicle was brought, and on the same day the “cruiser” headed from Chicago to the military port of Boston, where the ship was waiting for the North Star. The all-terrain vehicle’s dimensions really allowed it to be called the “Snow Cruiser”, it towered above the crowds of onlookers surrounding it, like an aircraft carrier in the port above other ships. Painted in bright red color to be noticeable in the snowy expanses of Antarctica, he had to go the way in 1700 km.

The maximum speed of the all-terrain vehicle, which was accompanied by police cars, was quite decent for those years 48 km / h. However, the all-terrain vehicle simply did not fit into some turns in one go, and not all the bridges were able to withstand its weight - 34 tons. Therefore, part of the bridge car just went around the "bottom", simultaneously doing the crossing of small rivers. During one of these tests, the all-terrain vehicle damaged the power steering, for which reason the car ran under the 3 bridge the day it was being repaired. In general, while driving on the highway, the all-terrain vehicle showed its best. On the road, including loose sand, the car was also pretty confident.

It is worth noting that the “cruiser” did not try to experience serious off-road, since the main task was to have time to arrive at the port by the appointed date. If Poulter and his brainchild were late for loading the ship, he would have sailed without him. But the road to Boston was eventually overcome successfully and on November 12, 3 the day before the ship’s departure, the Snow Cruiser ended up in the military port of Boston. To place a giant all-terrain vehicle on the deck of a ship (across the deck), the rear part of the car (spare tire cover) was removed. In this case, Thomas Poluter independently drove onto the ship’s deck along the ramp. 15 November 1939, as planned earlier, the vessel set sail for the shores of Antarctica.

Project failure

It was at this moment in this whole story that one could have put an end, since traveling along American roads and the snowy expanses of Antarctica turned out to be incomparable with each other and ended in the failure of the project of the American dreamer Thomas Poulter. 11 January 1940, the ship moored to the coast of Antarctica at Whale Bay. According to the route plan, which was drawn by Thomas Poulter for the US Congress, the “Snow Cruiser” had to cross Antarctica twice crosswise, having traveled almost the entire coastline and twice visited the pole. At the same time, the fuel reserve should have been enough for 8000 km of the way. In order to lower the all-terrain vehicle onto the land, a special ramp of wood was built. During the descent of the vehicle from the ship, one of the wheels broke the wooden flooring, but Poulter managed to push the gas pedal in time and the Snow Cruiser successfully slid into the snow, avoiding catastrophic consequences.

The real disaster followed almost immediately. It turned out that the Snow Cruiser is not designed to move on a snowy surface! The 34-ton all-terrain vehicle on four absolutely smooth wheels immediately sat on the bottom. The wheels of the car just plunged into the snow a meter and spun helplessly, unable to move the all-terrain vehicle from a place. In an effort to somehow improve the situation, the team attached the spare wheels of the all-terrain vehicle to the front ones, thereby increasing their width 2 times, and also put the rear wheels of the car in a chain. After that, the all-terrain vehicle was able to at least somehow move back and forth. After several futile attempts, Poulter found that when driving in reverse, he behaves much more confidently, said a “curved” mass distribution along the axes of the car.

As a result, the team of Thomas Poulter went backwards on a journey across the expanses of Antarctica. In addition to the fact that the wheels of the all-terrain vehicle without tread constantly stalled, it turned out that there were other problems. For example, giant overhangs that were good for airfield tractor in the conditions of the snowy continent turned out to be only a hindrance - any all-or-one noticeable break in the surface of the all-terrain vehicle could not be overcome even in the topmost position of its suspension, resting its nose or tail into the snow. Among other things, the engines of the Snow Cruiser, despite the air temperature ten degrees below zero, were constantly overheating. After the 14 days of torment, the American dreamer simply threw his brainchild in the snows of Antarctica, saying goodbye to his dream of driving around the whole continent, and went back to the USA. By that time, the Snow Cruiser was able to overcome the entire 148 km of snow desert.

The rest of the crew of the all-terrain vehicle remained to live in the car as the scientific staff of the polar station. The Snow Cruiser turned out to be a very mediocre SUV, but a very good home in Antarctica. The heating system of his cabin was thought out quite well. The exhaust gases of diesel engines and coolant circulated in special channels, providing almost room temperature inside the “cruiser”, and they also melted snow in a special boiler. The stock of food and fuel in the car was enough for a whole year of autonomous work. The crew of the all-terrain vehicle covered the car with wooden shields, which finally turned it into a house and began to conduct research - conducting seismological experiments, measuring background radiation, etc. A few months later, before the onset of the Antarctic winter, the “Snow Cruiser” was finally abandoned by people.

The next time the polar explorers got inside the car at the end of 1940 of the year. Investigating the all-terrain vehicle, they concluded that it is in absolutely working condition - you only need to lubricate the mechanisms and pump up the wheels. However, on the eve of the US entry into World War II, the development of Antarctica was no longer a priority.

The next time the car was discovered already in the 1958 year. This was done by an international expedition, which established that for 18 years the all-terrain vehicle has brought several meters of snow. The location of the Snow Cruiser showed a high bamboo pole sticking out above the surface, which had previously been prudently installed by its crew. By measuring the snow height from the wheels themselves, the polar explorers were able to understand how much rain fell over a given period of time. Since then, no one has ever seen this all-terrain vehicle. According to one version, it was finally covered with snow. According to another version, he ended up in one of the gigantic icebergs that annually sail from the ice shelf of Antarctica, after which they drown somewhere in the waters of the World Ocean located to the north.

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  1. qwert
    qwert 2 July 2015 07: 07
    Plusanul. It was interesting to read.
    1. Malkor
      Malkor 2 July 2015 09: 32
      It’s American - to poke somewhere without understanding anything, shit and run away. The Norwegians (Amundsen) who conquered the South Pole were professionals, carefully preparing for the expedition.
      1. The comment was deleted.
  2. inkass_98
    inkass_98 2 July 2015 07: 54
    Very interesting, I hadn’t heard about this project before. Thank you, Sergey.
    When designing such vehicles, one must have at least a minimal idea of ​​winter and the behavior of a vehicle on snow and ice. And here an aggregate of interesting construction was blinded, but they forgot about an elementary thing - a rowing tread on tires. In snowy conditions, spikes may not be needed, but a good tread is a must. Well, the layout of the transmission also delivers. It was much more reasonable to make three axles with minimal overhangs in front and behind, then there would be cross-country ability, and there would be no problems with bow / stern abutment.
    1. cosmos111
      cosmos111 2 July 2015 11: 39
      interesting article...

      life, the Americans worked perfectly, there was special dishes and sleeping places / compartments ...
      1. cosmos111
        cosmos111 2 July 2015 12: 00
        plan for an expedition to Antarctica ...

        and movies about Snow Cruiser

        info from: http: //
        1. Argon
          Argon 2 July 2015 14: 27
          Here's how we quickly figured out- "It's all about the tread." - What a trifle ruined the whole idea ?! Nonsense!. A typical mistake of a person who is illiterate in design, the main mistake was, in principle, overcoming cracks, which entailed as a result of "pantone "layout, a small number of" axles ", hence, absolutely not rational distribution of masses on the wheels. Completed everything, the pathological desire of the Yankees for comfort, the platform was corny overloaded, to some extent with structural elements, including a household module, but to a greater extent And the protectors? It (with us) just 10 years ago, tubeless ultra-low pressure tires for snow swamp vehicles appeared. for example, (in the spring I watched) a T-150 on "bare cylinders" (probably those on which he left the factory scaring away mammoths) pulls a 6-share plow. Now Russia is forced to prepare for the back To promote their interests in the polar regions of the world, and the creation of all-terrain transport / combat platforms capable of functioning in such extreme conditions is extremely urgent. At first glance, the solution seems to be found - a two-link "goose", BUT !!! What will happen with such an all-terrain vehicle at a temperature of -30 after overcoming the slush hole with the subsequent movement on loose snow? Here the same "two-link" but on a wheel drive is more preferable, but we do not have such a machine (with a carrying capacity of 3-5 tons), unfortunately.
          1. cosmos111
            cosmos111 2 July 2015 14: 54
            Quote: Argon
            Here the same "two-link" is more preferable but on a wheel drive, but we do not have such a machine (with a carrying capacity of 3-5 tons), unfortunately.

            but 1-well, 1,5-ry already exist and work on industry objects ...
            and are produced, serially, but in small series ...

            to set the task for SUCH firmsnot state ... corporations((stolen and the price will be space))), there will be 3 ton-payloads !!!

            XPEN snow and swamp vehicle, one and 2's link ((tundra workhorse)))


            info from: http: //
            1. cosmos111
              cosmos111 2 July 2015 19: 01
              here excellent video / EXTREME about real work, 2's, XREN link snow and swamp walkers ((+ 18, Russian expressions skip)))

              Russian savvy good , we have no one to defeat us !!!
              watch from 1,02 '...
            2. Argon
              Argon 3 July 2015 00: 56
              I specifically indicated the carrying capacity, since with such a given parameter we get a chassis with a total mass of 8-15 tons. The creation of such a machine requires an academic approach, large volumes of R&D and testing. No illusions, not one of the firms a la "Skillful hands" mugs are the fruits of creativity which you bring with such a volume of work will not cope. Let me remind you that we are talking about a full-fledged "Two-link", and not about covered motor scooters. How many such private companies have created normal trucks in 25 years? I do not share your optimism about this. I know one country where for a long time all the stakes in production issues have been made on small private companies, this is England there and today there are many such "shops" and there is practically no national car industry. They collect Opel and Toyota.
    2. Albert1988
      Albert1988 2 July 2015 21: 12
      Quote: inkass_98
      When designing such vehicles, one must have at least a minimal idea of ​​winter and the behavior of a vehicle on snow and ice.

      The most interesting thing is that one of the participants of the previous expedition, Poultner, just emphasized that it was the caterpillar tractors that ensured success, and therefore the caterpillar mover was preferable, and that it was necessary to test the car at least in Canada before sending it to Antarctica.
      But naturally, the brave American "pioneer adventurer" did not want to listen to the "simple techie" ...
      Moreover - initially for the car tires with a powerful tread were designed, but they did not have time to make them, which is why they were installed smooth, which only aggravated the situation ...
  3. kolkulon
    kolkulon 2 July 2015 08: 18
    It’s strange. Sent without sea trials?
    1. Shick
      Shick 2 July 2015 08: 34
      pure adventure))
    2. The comment was deleted.
    3. Großer feldherr
      Großer feldherr 2 July 2015 08: 54
      A trip to the port was the so-called sea ​​trials;)
      Strange different than what the developers thought when setting 2 axles and those with high-pressure wheels? Did they expect to find asphalt, or exceptionally hard ice, in Antarctica? After all, even at that time it was obvious that the pole was a snowy desert.
      But if they made at least 3 donkey out of it, and even on low-pressure wheels, that would turn the story) But these are already dreams from the series "if only, but if only ..." lol
      1. Fafnir
        Fafnir 2 July 2015 21: 02
        If my memory serves me, then in the calculations we used the absurdly large bearing capacity of the infusion, something on the order of 10 tons per 1 square meter. And as a model of the surface - sand.
        1. Fafnir
          Fafnir 2 July 2015 21: 04
          They even forgot to weigh it. belay
  4. Bigfoot_Sev
    Bigfoot_Sev 2 July 2015 08: 27
    the errors that the Snow Cruiser had laid down in the general knowledge of mankind and helped advance the progress of the study of Antarctica. to say that they forgot the elementary ... well, it is possible to say on the topic of the steam cart Kunho that they did not see the obvious. there are no bagels with a pen, like on gazelles. and the wheels are upholstered in iron !.

    as far as I understand the study of Antarctica is more complicated than the study of the Arctic. colder, farther from any bases, in fact, another non-coached continent. The Arctic by that time had already climbed decently, but with Antarctica everything was not so rosy. everything was the first time so why be surprised.

    a bold project, like much more in those years. yes, failed. but, there is no negative experience.
    Of course it was necessary to immediately do as in the picture, but no one guessed. :-))))))))))))))
    1. Fafnir
      Fafnir 2 July 2015 21: 09
      Maybe someone guessed wink but decided that the tracks are unreliable and require a lot of fuel. Although, given the resource of the then trucks, they may have been right.
    2. The comment was deleted.
    3. The stranger
      The stranger 3 July 2015 02: 08
      No, Mattraki is still a crap. There, essentially, the flaws and wheels and tracks were combined.
  5. trenkkvaz
    trenkkvaz 2 July 2015 09: 35
    "Well, stupid" (c) smile
    How can you swell so much money into a car for extreme conditions, and still not test it in advance?
    This does not fit in my head!
  6. Zigmars
    Zigmars 2 July 2015 10: 24
    Quote: trenkkvaz
    "Well, stupid" (c) smile
    How can you swell so much money into a car for extreme conditions, and still not test it in advance?
    This does not fit in my head!

    "And experience, son of difficult mistakes,
    And a genius, a friend of paradoxes "...
  7. Andrey Skokovsky
    Andrey Skokovsky 2 July 2015 11: 12
    from the first sentence I realized that we are talking about the next American van der Wafer,
    why? Yes, because even at school I read a simple story about the conquest of the USSR of the South Pole, there was such garbage in the Union "popular science literature for schoolchildren" which was not only excitingly interesting, but also gave young people the broadest knowledge in all areas of scientific and technological progress at that time !

    so here, ours is all! the equipment was caterpillar and specialized, and remembering what they had to go through immediately it was clear that the citizen from America did not understand what and why he was doing ...
    1. The comment was deleted.
  8. Denis
    Denis 2 July 2015 11: 16
    Maratrasniki, what kind of rubber in anal, it's not hot there
    More than half a century ago, a convoy of caterpillar all-terrain vehicles made in Kharkov made an unprecedented crossing through Antarctica. On snowy roads, and in high altitude conditions, cars overcame 2700 km and reached the South Pole.
    1. Andrey Skokovsky
      Andrey Skokovsky 2 July 2015 11: 48
      Vladimir Sanin. 1981
      "Seventy two degrees below zero"
  9. 0255
    0255 2 July 2015 11: 43
    An interesting device, it is a pity that it was not preserved. The museum would have him ...
    1. The comment was deleted.
    2. cosmos111
      cosmos111 2 July 2015 12: 49
      Quote: 0255
      An interesting device, it is a pity that it was not preserved. The museum would have him ...

      why didn’t it survive ??? in Antarctica is safe and sound .... although no one knows for sure ...

      In 1958, a team of geophysicists found a place where Cruiser was left. They dug it up, got inside, saw only a bunch of old rubbish and, having calmed down, left it
      info from: http: //

  10. Taoist
    Taoist 2 July 2015 12: 21
    Yes, a typical example of a situation when a "trifle" ruins a very serious project ... It was necessary to guess not to make a protector on wheels in a snowy desert ...
    1. Fafnir
      Fafnir 2 July 2015 21: 19
      They did not have time to make them. Although the tread still did not help them. laughing
    2. The comment was deleted.
  11. Free wind
    Free wind 2 July 2015 13: 55
    how could wheels be made for an all-terrain vehicle without a tread? Goodyear specifically podgadil. Interesting car.
  12. W zapase
    W zapase 2 July 2015 14: 19
    Quote: trenkkvaz
    How can I pump so much money into an automobile for extreme conditions?

    Note that this is traditional for Americans. They have a lot of money, but even more crooks who PR various futuristic projects only for the purpose of profit, and not for the sake of technological progress.
  13. xomaNN
    xomaNN 2 July 2015 16: 06
    A good example of an unsuccessful project when trial tests are not carried out on models in kind.
  14. xoma58
    xoma58 2 July 2015 16: 12
    Whatever you say, Americans are able to create comfort even in the most severe conditions. What can I say, well done. One must live in comfort even where one cannot live.
  15. Free wind
    Free wind 2 July 2015 16: 34
    Think of people. create acceptable living conditions for people. And we have everything on patriotism. The first warm truck, KAMAZ. THIS IS IN 75 YEAR. The first warm passenger car is an Italian VAZ. Well, why are these designers ugly ??? don't think about people ???? It has been proven that a tired driver responds more slowly than a drunk who drank a bottle of vodka. Why in Japan since 1980 all cars must be air-conditioned. ??? Why don’t we care about our people. I saw an American truck, was amazed at the large number of passenger batteries. For what? It turns out that the Negroes would not tear themselves, changing them. Remember our tank batteries 135th, weigh 80 kilograms. Constructor,, Ko ... ze..l try to lift and replace them at least once ....
    1. Stvr-103
      Stvr-103 4 July 2015 20: 04
      Dear, I will answer you as a designer of the 1st category - we,, work on the statement of work (technical specifications) and if it indicates the presence of a heater, air conditioning, etc. etc., then all this will be in the final product, if not said, then it will not, because in the same TK there are other requirements, such as weight, dimensions, price. As an example, I’ll cite a case from practice - the customer (MO) wanted to get an emergency remote control with autonomous battery power (although in an emergency the system can be controlled by manual backups with success) - the master is a master, though we’ll paint it under the crest, but the customer didn’t like the price because only one battery costs about 100 thousand rubles, because This is not a finger Energizer, but a product with a 10 year warranty and acceptance of PP. And after that, the designer is a goat? You would, dear, to begin with, at least a tablespoon of design documentation to develop, at least just a drawing, but taking into account current GOSTs (especially GOST RV, who knows, he will understand), SanPiNov and other regulatory documentation, not to mention MOT, TU, PON, FEA, FD, IM, IE and other, other, other ...
  16. Maxwrx
    Maxwrx 2 July 2015 18: 22
    remember the armored personnel carrier from the movie "Aliens" ??
  17. 16112014nk
    16112014nk 2 July 2015 18: 46
    All successful developments in America were made by emigrants: Germans, Russians, etc. And this is an example of the Americans themselves. "Dragon" with "Falcon" from the same opera. And what would America be without emigrants? And how their noses turn up: we are exceptional! crying Learn how to snot!
  18. The stranger
    The stranger 2 July 2015 18: 56
    Well, yes, pure technical adventurism. In addition to the severe illiteracy of the author and financiers of the project.
    Wheels like Trackol did not appear 10 years ago, but back in the late 90s, when yours came up with them. These are huge low-pressure pneumatics with a draft tread. A fully loaded Niva floats on them like a boat, UAZ can no longer be loaded especially. We assume that the designers did not have this for objective reasons. But, in principle, they could have thought of something like arched tires, because they were first obliged to work out the issue of the mover, and only then to worry about armchairs and double beds with a canopy.
    In the 39th, the world already knew a lot about offroad, only to see and then ahead of the underdeveloped Soviet Chukchi. In terms of what writers, not readers :) In particular, the questions of overhangs and weight distribution have been fully studied, as more or less multi-wheel drive. They beautifully applied the BelAZ scheme with motor-wheels, only the failure of one, God forbid any second wheel, would have cost them their lives.
    Beautiful pans are certainly good, but a more or less competent engineer would start by studying the map and tables of bearing and coupling properties of the soil on a questionable area.
    In short - suckers.
  19. family tree
    family tree 2 July 2015 21: 18
    With a tread, I laughed, so at least I would have thought about chains what Although, I decided to see that snow, ice and asphalt are the same thing, it only differs in color, naive, cho lol
  20. Alex
    Alex 2 July 2015 22: 28
    he ended up in one of the giant icebergs that annually sail from the ice shelf of Antarctica, after which they drown somewhere in the south of waters of the oceans.
    North ... wink
  21. Karabogazgol
    Karabogazgol 3 July 2015 22: 11
    Quote: Free Wind
    Think of people. create acceptable living conditions for people. And we have everything on patriotism. The first warm truck, KAMAZ. THIS IS IN 75 YEAR. The first warm passenger car is an Italian VAZ. Well, why are these designers ugly ??? don't think about people ???? It has been proven that a tired driver responds more slowly than a drunk who drank a bottle of vodka. Why in Japan since 1980 all cars must be air-conditioned. ??? Why don’t we care about our people. I saw an American truck, was amazed at the large number of passenger batteries. For what? It turns out that the Negroes would not tear themselves, changing them. Remember our tank batteries 135th, weigh 80 kilograms. Constructor,, Ko ... ze..l try to lift and replace them at least once ....

    6- STEN-140M .. In TR such were on the T-54 (55) .. And not heavy at all)))