Sculpture at the Moscow metro station "Belorusskaya"
The very idea of officially introducing the holiday of partisans and underground members into the Russian calendar was submitted by lawmakers and representatives of the executive branch of the Russian region, which is considered to be the historical center of the country's partisan movement since the Great Patriotic War. Speech on the legislators and the administration of the Bryansk region.
Why was 29 June chosen as the date of the celebration of the Partisan Day and the underground worker? It was 29 on June 1941 of the year - exactly one week after the attack of the Hitler army on the Soviet Union - the well-known directive of the Council of People's Commissars of the USSR and the Central Committee of the CPSU (b) issued. The directive was addressed to the party organizations and the Soviet authorities in the front-line regions of the Soviet Union and set them the task of organizing partisan detachments and sabotage groups in the territories and the enemy’s occupations.
We present the text of the directive of the Council of People's Commissars of the USSR and the Central Committee of the CPSU (b):
The treacherous attack of fascist Germany on the Soviet Union continues. The purpose of this attack is the destruction of the Soviet system, the seizure of Soviet lands, the enslavement of the peoples of the Soviet Union, the robbery of our country, the seizure of our bread and oil, the restoration of the power of landowners and capitalists. The enemy has already invaded Soviet soil, captured most of Lithuania with the cities of Kaunas and Vilnius, captured part of Latvia, the Brest, Bialystok, Vileika regions of Soviet Belarus and several regions of Western Ukraine. Danger loomed over some other areas. German aviation expands the territory of the bombing, bombarding the cities - Riga, Minsk, Orsha, Mogilev, Smolensk, Kiev, Odessa, Sevastopol, Murmansk.
By virtue of the war imposed on us, our country entered into a deadly battle with its dangerous and treacherous enemy - German fascism. Our troops are heroically fighting an enemy armed to the teeth tanks, aviation. The Red Army, overcoming numerous difficulties, selflessly fights for every inch of Soviet land.
Despite a serious threat to our country, some party, Soviet, trade union and Komsomol organizations and their leaders still do not understand the meaning of this threat, have not yet realized the significance of this threat, live complacently-peaceful moods and do not understand that the war drastically changed the situation that our homeland was in the greatest danger, and that we must quickly and decisively restructure all our work on a military basis.
The Council of People's Commissars of the USSR and the Central Committee of the CPSU (b) oblige all party, Soviet, trade union and Komsomol organizations to put an end to complacency and carelessness and to mobilize all our organizations and all the forces of the people to defeat the enemy, for the merciless reprisal of the hordes of the attacked German fascism.
The Council of People's Commissars of the USSR and the Central Committee of the CPSU (b) demand from you:
1) In a merciless fight against the enemy, to defend every inch of the Soviet land, fight to the last drop of blood for our cities and villages, to show courage, initiative and wit, peculiar to our people.
2) Organize comprehensive assistance to the existing army, ensure organized mobilization of spare, ensure the supply of the army with everything you need, the rapid advancement of transports with troops and military supplies, extensive assistance to the wounded in hospitals hospitals, schools, clubs and institutions.
3) Strengthen the rear of the Red Army, subjecting the interests of the front all its activities, ensure the enhanced work of all enterprises, explain to the workers their duties and the situation, organize the protection of factories, power stations, bridges, telephone and telegraph communications, organize a merciless fight with all kinds of rear organizers, deserters , alarmists, distributors of rumors, to destroy spies, saboteurs, enemy paratroopers, rendering all this rapid assistance to the fighter battalions. All Communists should know that the enemy is cunning, cunning, experienced in deception and the dissemination of false rumors, take all this into account in their work and not succumb to provocations.
4) In case of a forced departure of the Red Army units, steal the rolling stock, do not leave the enemy a single locomotive, not a single carriage, do not leave the enemy either a kilogram of bread or a liter of fuel. Collective farmers must steal livestock, hand over bread to the state authorities for transportation to the rear areas. All valuable property, including non-ferrous metals, bread and fuel, which cannot be exported, must be unconditionally destroyed.
5) In the areas occupied by the enemy, create guerrilla groups and sabotage groups to fight parts of the enemy army, to incite guerrilla war everywhere, to blow up bridges, roads, damage to telephone and telegraph communications, burning warehouses, etc. In the captured areas, create unbearable conditions for the enemy and all his accomplices, pursue and destroy them at every turn, disrupt all their activities.
To manage all these activities in advance, under the responsibility of the first secretaries of the regional committees and district committees to create from the best people reliable underground cells and safe houses in each city, district center, workers' settlement, railway station, state farms and collective farms.
6) Immediately bring to trial the Military Tribunal of all those who, with their anxiety and cowardice, interfere with the cause of defense, despite their faces.
The Council of People's Commissars of the USSR and the Central Committee of the CPSU (b) declare that in the imposed war on fascist Germany, the question of the life and death of the Soviet state is resolved, whether the peoples of the Soviet Union should be free or enslaved.
Now everything depends on our ability to quickly organize and act, without losing a single moment of time, without losing a single opportunity in the fight against the enemy.
The task of the Bolsheviks is to rally all the people around the party of Lenin - Stalin, around the Soviet government for the selfless support of the Red Army, for victory.
The directive was signed by the Chairman of the Council of People's Commissars of the USSR, secretary of the Central Committee of the CPSU (b) I.V. Stalin, and vice-chairman of the Council of People's Commissars of the USSR VM Molotov.
It is also important to note the fact that at the time of the Khrushchev's “thaw” the historical materials of the directive were slightly changed. In a number of historical documents there is no, for example, a phrase about the need to rally the people "around the party of Lenin - Stalin." Instead, mentions the name exclusively V.Lenin. During the years of Gorbachev's perestroika and the years of the “all-conquering market” that followed, the historical documents were revised even more strictly (it’s not just a directive on the organization of partisan and underground movements).
The initiative of the authorities of the Bryansk region to include in the calendar the Day of the partisans and underground fighters was supported by the State Duma and the Federation Council, after which the Date became part of the calendar of military holidays in Russia.
In the Bryansk region, where 139 guerrilla detachments operated, which caused enormous damage to the Hitler army, for some time there has been a remarkable tradition that cannot be ignored. This is the tradition of conferring the honorary title "City (village, village) of partisan glory" by local authorities. The relevant law in the Bryansk region was adopted on October 8 2010 (1 entered into force on January 2011).
Cities of partisan glory of the Bryansk region: Dyatkovo. Bryansk bore this name unofficially since the Soviet times.
Guerilla fame villages: Hinel (Sevsky district), Zhurinichi (Bryansk district).
Material TC "Bryansk Province" on YouTube:
Villages of partisan glory: British (Dubrovsky district), Cell (Kletnyansky district), White Birch (Trubchevsky district).
There are in Bryansk region and the village of partisan glory. For example, Smilizh (Suzemsky district).
Guerrilla tactics at different stages of the Great Patriotic War underwent changes. If at the first stage - before the victory of the Red Army near Moscow, tactics did not go beyond the scope of small injections in the form of sabotage behind enemy lines (disruption of communication systems, sudden attacks), then the scale of the activities of Soviet partisans became ever more significant. The number of large strikes at strategically important transportation hubs that fell into the hands of the Nazis increased - the railway communication (supply of the Nazis) was disrupted by undermining bridges and the railroad tracks, strikes against the nodal stations and clusters of the enemy prepared for regrouping.
As early as December 1941, for the first time during the Great Patriotic War, the partisans managed to free the settlement from the Nazi occupiers for quite a long time. This settlement was Zhukovka (Bryansk region). A train was captured with food, many small units weapons and military equipment, eliminated 30 policemen.
Over time, partisan regions began to form, the activities of Soviet partisans in which led to a real horror on the enemy. Warning signs about danger in the form of active partisan units began to appear on the roads of the occupied territories.
Since May, 1942, in the Navlinsky district of the Bryansk region, a meeting of the secretaries of the underground district committees took place, at which the most important decision was made to create a full-fledged headquarters for the united partisan detachments. The commander of the headquarters was appointed D.V. Emlyutin, and the Commissioner - Secretary of the Trubchevsky RK VKP (b) A.D. Bondarenko. The command of partisan detachments, Dmitri Emlyutin, spread over the territory of the Oryol Region (at that time the Bryansk Region did not exist as a separate administrative-territorial unit in the USSR) and the Sumy Region. In the partisan region, which was under the responsibility of Dmitry Yemlyutin, more than 200 lived thousands of Soviet citizens, many of whom provided invaluable assistance to the partisan movement. Today, the streets in Bryansk, Saratov and Orel are named after Dmitry Yemlyutin (Hero of the Soviet Union).
In May 2013, the bust of the Hero was installed in Bryansk.
Of course, the guerrilla movement, like the movement of the underground workers, is not only Bryansk. Partisans and underground fighters operated in various parts of the country occupied by the Nazis: from Smolensk and Odessa to Minsk and Kiev. And the partisan movement of Russia itself begins its official history not with the Great Patriotic War, but with the World War 1812, when the popular impulse against the Napoleonic army, which ruined Russian lands, led to the formation of a powerful force that made an invaluable contribution to the common victory over the enemy.
One of the commanders of the partisan movement in 1812, Denis Davydov
On this day, Russia recalls all those who sacrificed themselves, fighting the enemy in partisan detachments, developed tactics to inflict the greatest damage to the enemy in organizations of underground fighters. On this day we honor the memory of the fallen and express our deep gratitude to the living veterans for the Great Victory! Happy holiday!