Military Review

Science to fall

"Military Industrial Courier" looks at life through the scope of a sniper rifle

It is believed that in Russian security agencies, unlike similar Western structures, little attention is paid to the development of a sniper case. Some domestic experts claim that world-class arrows are only in the Special Purpose Center of the FSB of Russia, but they are armed with old British rifles.

Meanwhile, in industry publications and social networks, you can see photos from various sniper pair competitions, which involve not only Federal Security Service officers, but also members of the Defense Ministry and internal troops, even police officers armed with modern rifles, including foreign ones, and equipped GPS receivers, weather stations, range finders, etc.

So how is sniping developing in Russia, what are the snipers of various law enforcement agencies armed with, what equipment and clothing do they prefer to use? The snipers from the Command of the Special Operations Forces of the Ministry of Defense, the Special Forces Brigade of the Southern Military District, one of the Airborne Forces units, the Special Purpose Center of the Internal Affairs Ministry and SOBR of the Special Operations Center of the Interior Ministry agreed to answer these questions.

Sniping tactics

Currently, in the Russian Ministry of Defense, sniper units (companies, sometimes separate platoons) are part of not only airborne forces and marines, but even motorized rifle and tank brigades. Also, each battalion or detachment of special forces includes a sniper group, pairs of which are assigned to reconnaissance groups "for the task," as they say in the special forces. In special-purpose units of the internal troops, sniper pairs are not reduced to separate groups, but are routinely included in platoons.

For several years now a sniper school has been operating in the Russian Ministry of Defense in Solnechnogorsk near Moscow, where trainees take three courses: the first is an individual training, the second is an action in a sniper pair, the third is an “Instructor” qualification. The training is quite complicated, so the percentage of those who have been dismissed is also high.

Such courses operate in the FSB and FSO, and in the Ministry of Internal Affairs and in the internal troops they look with envy at colleagues from the Ministry of Defense. “It is immediately evident that the military leadership is sick of this business, understands how snipers should act. Aby who do not give a rifle, "- said an officer of the explosives.

It is noteworthy that, regardless of the department, the steam is equipped according to a single principle. The first number is armed with the so-called exact weapons complex - a non-automatic sniper rifle, also called a bolt or just a bolt. The second number of the pair, in turn, is armed with a self-loading SVD, it also transfers all equipment, including a tactical telescope, a range finder, a weather station, etc.

The organization of the couple, where the second numbers are armed with automatic sniper rifles, is traditional for the units of the armed forces of Great Britain, France and Germany, it is sometimes called English.

In the American scheme, the second number is armed not with an automatic sniper, but with an assault rifle with a grenade launcher. It is noteworthy that both schemes are present in the US military. In particular, in the Marine Corps sniper pairs are organized according to the American scheme, and in the US Army there are English, where the first number is armed with an M-24 rifle, and the second - with the self-loading М110.

Science to fall

“Soviet snipers after the Great Patriotic War never acted in pairs. There was one shooter with SVD. But already in Afghanistan, a sniper began to be attached to a sniper for protection. True, he did not wear any equipment, but he defended the sniper and worked with him in a pair. Snipers acted in the same way during the first Chechen war, ”recalls an officer of the SOBR MIA.

According to the interlocutor of the Military-Industrial Courier, according to the English scheme, the sniper pairs of the FSB Special Purpose Center began to work first, from where it gradually spread to other security agencies.

It is noteworthy that in addition to the bolt-on rifle, the first number for combat at close range is also armed with Ak-74 (in internal troops) or silent AC / BCC (in special forces of the GRU and the airborne forces).

“I carry a rifle in a backpack in a special compartment, and in my hands is an AK-74, as well as a pistol in a holster on the waist system. It turns out that in the division the sniper has the biggest load. Instead of the AK, a sniper can be armed with a “Vityaz” submachine gun, ”says an officer of the internal troops.

A similar ammunition from his colleagues from the GRU and Airborne Special Forces. True, according to the officer of the Airborne Forces, in addition to the SVD, it would still be advisable to equip the second issue with AK with PBS.

The tasks of sniper pairs vary by agency. “For us, the main thing is monitoring, adjusting artillery fire and actions aviation behind enemy lines. In exceptional cases, the elimination of enemy commanders and especially important goals. The most important thing is secrecy, but we are primarily scouts, ”said an officer of the brigade of the Special Forces of the Ministry of Defense.

His colleague from the Airborne Forces adds that in the conditions of local conflict, special forces snipers have other tasks: “In the so-called buffer zone, we, having hidden ourselves, can direct artillery and aviation fire on enemy troops, as well as independently hunt for its personnel, and sometimes the technique. "

An example of such work can serve as the actions of sniper couples of the SBU in Novorossia last August, when they completely blocked the road between Krasnodon and Lugansk, not only correcting artillery fire, but also independently destroying enemy vehicles.

For the SOBR snipers, the MIA’s main task is to monitor and destroy terrorists, often in urban settings. “We are involved in search and intelligence activities. It happens, we are looking for, blocking and destroying terrorists in populated areas, in the forest or in the mountains, ”the officer of the internal troops admits.

Having taken a position, a sniper couple deploys weapons, equipment, communications and surveillance equipment. “The second number with the help of TK helps the first to find and identify the target. The range finder determines not only the distance, but also the elevation angle of the target, and data on wind speed, humidity and temperature are taken from the weather station. Based on these parameters, the first number calculates corrections vertically and horizontally and introduces them into the sight using special drums, as they are officially called “angle entry mechanisms,” says a special forces officer of the Ministry of Defense.

But the work of the second issue does not end there. “After the shot, the second issue is carefully observing the target in the TVLT. Ideally, the sniper should hit her with the very first shot, but at long range the slightest gust of wind can lead to a miss. In this case, the main task of the second number is to track the inversion trail of a bullet flying close to the target and give an amendment to the second shot. Depending on how the bullet passed relative to the target, the first number changes the aiming point and fires another shot. You can, of course, try again to introduce corrections into the scope, but if the shot needs to be made quickly, then you can take the sight and rifle to the right or left much faster, ”the paratrooper officer explains.

“If the bullet went higher or lower, then there was an error in measuring the distance to the target. The laser rangefinder gives an accurate distance, but, unfortunately, they are not in all units and often have to measure the distance with the help of special scales on the sights and TZT ", - said the officer-special forces.

What are the covers?

It should be noted that at present only the special forces of the Internal Troops of the Ministry of Internal Affairs are fully “packed” with domestic sniper weapons. “We are armed with CB-98 and MC-116, respectively, SVD and AU and BCC. SV and MC are under the millimeter 7,62xNNXX domestic cartridge, it is close to the western .54 (308x7,62), ”says the officer of the internal troops. Until recently, the SOBR CSN MVD snipers were also armed, but now Finnish TRG rifles of the Sako company of the .51 caliber have entered the squadron.

Austrian rifles manufactured by Mannicher SSG-04 (.308 caliber) and SSG-08 (.300 and .338) are used in the units of the Ministry of Defense. “Some“ specialists ”like to say that“ Manlicher ”is a rifle created for hunters, and for special forces operating behind enemy lines. Sniper complex requires careful attitude to yourself, all the little things are important, from this and success. While running, sometimes something will fall asleep in the trunk. There may be moisture if it gets under the rain, - the officer of the Airborne Forces shares his experience. - You take with you “on the task” a can of oil and rubbing to “drive away” the barrel before firing. A good sniper will have no problems. We must follow the rifle.

It is noteworthy that the Command of Special Operations Forces as a self-loading rifle tried to purchase NK-417 caliber 7,62 of millimeter from Heckler and Koch, which is used as a weapon of the second number of sniper pair in the American Delta and DEVGRU. “A couple of years ago, they tried to push the purchase of HK-417 for our needs, but failed. Thanks to Alexei Navalny, if you remember. history with allegedly inflated prices for the purchase of Austrian “Glock” pistols and in the future with sights, ”says an officer from KSSO.

SSG-08 caliber .338 (8,6х70) are in service only in special purpose centers of the KSSO, causing envy of snipers from other units of the Special Forces of the Ministry of Defense, their colleagues from law enforcement agencies. “The ammunition of the .338 caliber is many times better than the ballistic coefficient, more firing range than the .308. Much less affected by external factors. For example, when shooting at 500 meters, I have to make corrections on my CB-98, to make takeaways. And the shooter with .338, is the wind - no, it lays down and hits the target without any unnecessary movements. To be honest, my dream is SSG-08, but they are not in the MVD. In the same caliber, I would not have refused the Russian T-5000, ”says the officer of the internal troops.

A colleague from the special forces brigade agrees with him: “We mainly work in the mountains in the profile, maybe there are small distances in comparison with the plain, but the weather, altitude, pressure difference strongly influence, we often need to shoot upwards with a significant excess. Of course, we hit the target from SSG-04, but from SSG-08 it would be much easier. ”

According to a SOBR officer, the Finnish TRG, due to its size and barrel length, is good for solving police tasks, but sniper detachments would love to get models of sniper rifles to the caliber 8,6x70 millimeters.

In contrast to Russian foreign rifles, according to the publication’s interlocutors, it is necessary to pay heightened attention and constantly refine. “I do not want to say anything bad about the CB-98 and MT-116, but everything in them is somehow not worked out, not thought out. For example, the new version of the CB-98 - easy box, but what prevented to make a folding butt? On the British AW, there are more than 20 for years. Established bipod does not hold a rifle in place. A little bit, she falls to the side, which means that the sight is lost. This is a sniper rifle, everything should be neat, miniature, and there the screws are the same as in an electrical outlet, ”the officer of the internal troops says.

But all the interlocutors of the publication declared their interest in the Russian Orsis T-5000 rifle. “Orsis” is still damp, but I’m sure that it will be brought and everything will be fine, ”an airborne officer notes. His colleague from the internal troops emphasizes that the T-5000 is produced in Russia: “Nowadays there is a difficult international situation, and foreign firms may refuse to service. Even if you just need to modify the rifle, it is much more difficult to turn to an Austrian or Finnish company than to our Russian one. If necessary, I can drive up to Orsis at any time and solve all the problems. ”

The Defense Ministry officers using the Manlichera note that from the ergonomic point of view there are no particular complaints about rifles.

According to the sniper from the Airborne Forces, the only thing that was additionally installed for the SSG-04 was the so-called suppressors, nozzles for attenuating the sound.

“In fact, these are silencers that mask the sound of a shot, but since the bullet is not subsonic, it overcomes the supersonic barrier when it leaves the bore and the sound is heard. With a suppressor it is much quieter, ”explains the officer of the Airborne Forces.

At MC-116 and CB-98, SWAT officers and officers of the internal troops independently buy new bipods, preferring Harris products, linings and adapters to Pikkatini and Weaver trims.

Both in the special forces of the Ministry of Internal Affairs and in the units of the Special Forces of the Ministry of Defense, a large-caliber 12,7-mm ASMAK sniper rifle, also known under the designation 6X8 “Kord”, is used according to the “bullpup” scheme. The SOSBR TsSN in service has a silent large-caliber sniper complex VSK "Exhaust". It should be noted that the Russian military department purchased a small batch of Truvelo .50 South African sniper rifles.

“We use millimeters 12,7x108 ammunition as a sniper cartridge, and 12,7x99, a NATO .50BMG gun, is used in the Juar’s rifle. According to the characteristics of this cartridge is better than ours. True, the "Truvel" itself is a very specific rifle. The impact is so strong that the very first shot moves you off. After a couple of days, the shoulder, the spine and even the toilet go more often, so the recoil affects the kidneys, ”the special forces officer says. A colleague from internal troops adds that the shooting of most large-caliber rifles does not affect the health in general: “These are not only problems with the spine, lower back, etc. The pressure after the shot has a negative effect on the eyeball and the fundus of the eye. In our unit, only Kord, and in others there is OSV-96. At OCB-96 due to the flame arrester and the very design of the rifle, the recoil impulse is less than that of the 6C8. But the Kord has a slightly higher accuracy. ”

In all units, not only simple SVDs are in service, but also SVD-S with a folding butt. However, all the snipers interviewed stressed that they prefer to use the SVD of the release up to 1970. “Until that time, the rifle was produced in increments of 320 millimeters, but later, so that not only special sniper ammunition could be fired from the SVD, 240 millimeters were made a step, and this greatly affected the accuracy,” the officer explained.

His colleague from the Airborne Forces emphasizes that from the “old” SVD an experienced shooter can put bullets in a circle equal to one so-called Angel Minute - Minute of Angel (1MOA - a bullet hit in a circle with a diameter of 2,98 centimeter from 100 meters). The new rifles fit only 2 MOA.

I see the goal!

In the special security forces and special forces of internal troops there are certain difficulties with the standard sights for bolt rifles. “We regularly have PPO-3, PPO-5 and PSPP. This is not to say that this is the best option. For example, they have to "reset" when used every day. True, now appeared Leupold and Night Force. But there are technical problems, because on the MC-116 and CB-98, the sight is mounted on the so-called dovetail, and all modern sights are mounted on the Pikatini or Weaver bar. You have to look for adapters for your money, then modify them. But even here a problem arises: at the expense of the adapter, the sight turns out to be higher than the place of the standard installation, which means that the aiming line is “bullying”, which is not very good, ”an officer of the internal troops notes. According to him, the Russian X-NUMX-5 sight of the Daedal company has now appeared in the division. The same ones are already beginning to be regularly supplied to the SWAT.

“If we compare the Night Force and Daldalov's 5-20, then the latter has brighter optics. When you look through the "Night Force", it is too much yellow. When you shoot at night, it is important to regulate the illumination of the reticle. When you look at a bright object, for example at a lighted window at home, you need to increase the brightness, and in the night forest to reduce. Often, this has to be done very quickly so as not to lose the target. On the "Night Force" it is necessary to open a special compartment, from there to get a screwdriver and have her twist backlight. And on 5-20, a special rubberized button is taken out, you press it and there are no problems, ”the officer of the internal forces issues a conclusion. In addition, the 5-20 has a so-called blockage level indicator. “When you shoot at night, there is a chance that you will fill up the scope. It is clear that in this case, especially at long range, it will not work. On our sights to make such an error is very easy. On the 5-20, if you have rejected the sight even by one degree, the grid starts blinking until you correct the sight, ”the officer of the Interior Ministry Troops sums up.

The SOBR snipers of the Ministry of Internal Affairs put not only on the CB-98 and MT-116, but also on the Finnish TRG various Leupold sights, acquired for their money.

The Defense Ministry officers are also not fully satisfied with the regular sights on their Mannisher. “Leupold Mark-4 is the so-called multi-turnaround; when entering amendments, it takes too long to spin the drums, so there is a big chance to lose the“ zero ”, says the officer of the Airborne Forces.

For night firing at the Airborne Forces and special forces of the GRU, special nozzles are used — night-vision devices mounted in front of an optical sight lens. “At 500 meters you are already shooting at the silhouette. Light loss on the nozzle itself, plus the sight - this is the result. But I think that for rifles of such a class as SSG-04 and SSG-08, it is better to make a separate night sight, combined with a thermal imager, well, or just a thermal sight. We do not have such yet, ”complains the officer of the Airborne Forces.

In the special forces of the MVD, not only regular night sights of the DS-4 and the DS-6 are used, but also nozzles, including thermal imaging. “There are no special complaints against DS. With these sights, I shot even at long distances and fit into the 1 MOA. A good night head is the American PVS-27, but it is very expensive. True, we sometimes manage to take them through acquaintances and friends. When performing service and combat missions, we mainly work at a distance of 350 – 500 meters, so it is much more convenient to put the nozzle in front of the gun, ”explains the officer of the Interior Ministry Troops. According to him, in the last trip, snipers from his unit succeeded in testing the infratek thermal imaging tool: “The weather was bad. Fog. Visibility 5 – 10 meters. And through the nozzle, I was free to conduct aimed fire on 250 – 300 meters. There are much better products, from the same “Daedalus”, but for us, alas, they are not purchased. ”

Russian snipers of special-purpose units told the “Military Industrial Courier” about things without which sniper work is unthinkable.

Snipers pay much attention not only to “bolted” rifles, but also to self-loading SVDs. “In general, snipers believe that it’s impossible to shoot from a chrome-plated barrel. And just such a trunk is on the SVD. But despite this, the Dragunov sniper rifle is good for its tasks, ”the sniper from internal troops notes.

Lego rifles

According to all interlocutors of the "MIC", in order for the SVD to meet modern requirements, it is necessary to put new sights, bipods, Pikkatini and Weaver planks on it, etc. "The most optimal position for firing from any sniper rifle, including SVD, is lying from the stop or lying with bipods. Therefore, for our dragoons, we buy “Harris” bipods with a turning base, and on the butt we put a “back plate” to reduce the impact of recoil, ”says a sniper trooper.

The SVD is also being finalized in the GRU special forces, internal troops, special security forces. In addition to the bipods and the "butt plate", the PSO-1 regular sight also changes. “For a sniper soldier from a motorized rifle squad, this is a great sight, but it’s not suitable for us. In our division, we change it to Daedal 5-20. When firing from the SVD at a distance of up to 500 meters in this sight, bullet inversion and a sniper can be clearly seen without the help of the second number, equipped with a tactical telescope, can make corrections or change the aiming point, ”says a sniper from internal troops.

True, his colleague from the GRU special forces notes that PSO-1 also has positive aspects: “There is a“ parabola ”scale at this sight, which allows, if you know the height of an object, according to the formula“ thousandths ”(it is also called“ blow a thousand ") Measure the distance to the target. This, of course, is not a laser range finder and accuracy will not be the same, but the “parabola” is always at hand and can be used at any time. ”

His colleague from the Airborne Forces complements: in spite of the fact that the modernized PSO-1М2 is now entering the troops, snipers still prefer to replace these sights with more advanced ones purchased at their own expense: “We take Leupold products. But with sights for SVD there is one nuance. The lenses of most of the sights are designed so that the recoil of the rifle goes strictly back when fired. But the SVD is a self-loading rifle, and when fired, the bolt moves backward at first, but then hits forward and not every sight can withstand such shaking. ”

According to the publication interlocutor, new night sniper sights for Dragunov's rifle - PN-93-4 with a third-generation electronic-optical converter began to arrive in the Airborne Forces: “This sight is placed on a regular PSO-1 place. I want to say that for their tasks the PN-93-4 is a fairly good sight. ” But as in the case of other models of small arms, which are in service with the Ministry of Defense, internal troops and the Ministry of Internal Affairs, for new sights on the SVD it is necessary to install adapters for Pikkatini and Weaver. “A few years ago, finding the right adapter for SVD was problematic. True, there are a lot of such products on the market now, and they are made not only by foreign, but also by Russian companies. However, the prices are high, ”complains a special forces sniper.

The original solution to the problem of installing new sights on the Dragunov rifle was found in the special forces of the explosives. “We were supplied with Ak-74PM assault rifles with a pistol grip, a tactical handle, and most importantly - at a tide of the receiver, it is also called“ dovetail ”, and a bar was set. We removed the cover, rearranged it at the SVD and installed the 5-20 dedalovsky sight, ”the special forces soldier of the internal troops shared his experience. The Dragunov rifle modified in this way showed itself perfectly during the performance of service and combat missions.

And what do you guys have in backpacks?

As already mentioned, for an accurate shot the sniper needs to know the distance to the target, as well as have data on temperature, humidity, etc. "Our" gentleman's set "is a weather station, a range finder, and a tactical telescope (TZT). True, the Defense Ministry regularly gives us only TZT, ”says a sniper from the GRU special forces.

According to his colleagues from the Airborne Forces, all the necessary electronic equipment has to be bought at his own expense: “We are given TZT by Zeiss, but it is quite large and it is not very convenient to carry it in the“ rear of the enemy ”. Therefore, we take the pipe M-4 Leupold, it is much more compact and well suited for our tasks. " He also noted that the laser instrument LPR-2 or LPR-3 is supposed to be used as a range finder. “But they are so large that they don’t make sense to take them to the real task. We buy for our money the Leica Rangemaster 1600, at a distance of up to 600 meters this range finder copes well with its task. But at long range it lacks power. There is another problem: the laser beam Rangemaster is clearly visible in a special optics and therefore it can unmask the position of a sniper. Vectronix has good range finders that can measure not only the range, but also the azimuth and even the elevation angle of the target, and most importantly, they are compact. But the price of such products - from 600 thousand rubles and above and even get them difficult. Rangemaster costs only 60 thousands and can be freely bought not only in the store, but even on Ebay, ”the paratrooper officer continues.

The commando confirms that even a commercial laser rangefinder for many snipers still remains an unaffordable luxury: “Now for us laser rangefinders have already become mandatory. But in some sniper units, not only in motorized rifle and tank brigades, but also in special forces, the range is measured on “parabola” scales in PSO-1 or in tactical telescopes. ”

“We don’t have any weather stations either. As we joke, it is necessary to call the Hydrometeorological Center for the data. Therefore, we buy Kestrol 4500 for our money, ”the sniper from the Airborne Forces tells. True, this situation is not in all the special purpose units of the Ministry of Defense. In particular, for snipers of the Special Operations Command recently, the state has been purchasing all the necessary products.

At the same time, special forces explosives snipers as so-called ZRTs (telescopes) issued in the Soviet Union as a tactical telescope. “To be honest, we are snipers of the Ministry of Defense, who have“ Zeiss ”and“ Lyupold ”TZT, envy. Our RTAs can only be used for training purposes. Inversion of a bullet into such a telescope can be seen maximally on 500 meters and then if you are lucky. Moreover, now these ZRTs are no longer being released, and those that are issued to us are from warehouses. Therefore, it is very important whether the storage conditions were respected, whether the silica gel was changed, etc., ”says the special forces sniper VV.

For internal troops, rangefinder units from Bushnel are regularly supplied. “They, however, do not measure beyond 600 meters. But in combination with the Sych-3 thermal imaging binoculars, which is now being purchased for the reconnaissance units of the internal troops, the Vectronix PLRF-10 range finder is available. This is a rather expensive product, costing more than 250 thousand rubles, but it also measures the distance by more than two thousand meters. Although by and large this rangefinder does not suit us. It is rather a surveillance device that shows only the range and azimuth. And we also need a corner of the target. Excellent combined thermal imaging and night rangefinder Vectronix-21 is at the FSO. But it costs more than two million rubles, and we can’t afford it, ”the MVD sniper regrets.

In the arsenal of snipers there are also so-called active headphones, which muffle loud sounds, in particular, shots and explosions, and amplify weak ones. But headphones are not always popular with snipers. “I don’t need simple active headphones. Looking for "ears" that are compatible with radio stations. But they do not always connect with our staff communications, ”explains a sniper from the GRU special forces. His colleague from the Airborne Forces prefers a simple headset to headphones: “We have active headphones, but we use them mainly in competitions, only sometimes in combat work. In the forest, you must constantly listen, so we use these products only for targeted events. But they are incompatible with our means of communication. ”

Technique of living

“For carrying sniper rifles, we use backpacks with a special compartment, in particular the Eberlystock Operator G-4 or Terminator of the same company. We also have special covers from BlackHawk. But the case is more suitable for competition and shooting range. "On the task" take only backpacks. Now the Russian company “Group-99” offers an interesting solution for snipers - a special cargo frame, on which, depending on the task, you can attach both the cover for the sniper rifle and the cargo bag, ”explains the paratrooper officer. But his colleague from the GRU special forces complains that he has to be content with regular backpacks: “They do not have a special compartment, you have to wrap the rifle in a protective fabric and fasten it to external side fastenings. It is clear that it is not very convenient. If you hook, you can easily knock down the sight. But there are no other options yet. ”

In the internal troops also prefer backpacks with special compartments. “We have several variants of covers, mainly products for hunters, a part purchased from the Russian company Survival Corps. But now we are looking at the backpacks, ”- says the officer of SOBR CSN.

An important element of the sniper's equipment is a heat-insulating mat that allows you to lie on the ground for a long time. All the interlocutors of the publication stated that the regularly supplied products not only do not protect against hypothermia, but are also dangerous to health. “Previously, they gave mats made of polyurethane. They were not long enough, and in the cold it was not only inconvenient to lie on them, but also dangerous, it was easy to get hypothermia or chill the kidneys. Now give mats in a special case from the “Warrior” kit. According to the insulating properties, it is the same as the old one, but for some reason the dimensions are twice as large. And it comes in a case about the size of a backpack, ”explains the GRU sniper special forces soldier.

According to the interlocutor, in his division, each individual mats individually selects: “We take in sports stores. The choice is good there. But self-inflating people do not live long in the mountains. The slightest puncture and it is already useless. "

One more important element of sniper equipment is the sapper shovel. “It only seems that it is easy to lie on the ground. Even on the mat, after a few hours, the muscles begin to ache and leak. Therefore, depending on how much time there is, it is better to dig a trench for prone shooting, and better for shooting from the knee. In this trench, you can sit down and relax. I personally prefer the usual small sapper, and folding American shoulder blades break very quickly, and digging up a trench is rather problematic, ”the paratrooper says.

His colleague from the GRU special forces said that the deminer is the best friend of the scout and sniper. “Not everybody has blades. But in the Quartet, one scapula is necessary. Although, frankly, not everywhere quickly dig up a position. For example, in areas where we perform service and combat missions, there are areas where the land is like pellets. The American folding will break, and after the work of our MPL, all hands will be in calluses. And then how to shoot? I personally think that it is better to spend time searching, but to find a normal position, ”explains a sniper from the special forces of the Interior Ministry troops.

For a sniper, it is important not only to prepare the position, but also to disguise. All the interlocutors of the publication use the so-called “Gili” suits (pants and jacket, trimmed with special strips of fabric) or their Russian equivalent - “Leshy” as camouflage suits. “We have a summer“ Leshy ”and a winter“ Leshy ”. But we offer another option - a suit, on which not only fabric strips are sewn, but there are also fastenings where other masking elements can be attached. So you can better adapt the costumes to the terrain by attaching color-matching patches, ”says a sniper from the Forces of the Interior Ministry.

I know the sniper by clothes

“We are regularly given the field form“ Kink ”, but it’s so sad that you don’t even want to speak. From thermal underwear, we only have cotton “officer” underwear. There are no modern membrane suits, no “soft-shelves” (non-blown and waterproof fabric that quickly removes sweat. - AM), and even less “warm houses” (warm jacket with Primaloft insulation), says the officer of the internal troops. - Everything has to be bought for your money. Thermal underwear we take the Russian, in particular, made by the "Survival Corps". Now began to buy the Italian company X-bionics. Manufacturers meet us halfway and sell practically at the purchase price. Good products from the Belarusian company "Garsing". For the last business trip, we took field suits with sewn knee pads and membrane suits. ”

His colleagues from SOBR MIA regularly receive summer camouflage in the “Doll” coloring, as well as insulated jackets and pants from styling SOBR-2000, under which, when performing the task, they hook under suits of Polartec or fleece. It is clear that the SOBR fighters in many respects are not satisfied with these kits. “Thermal underwear we take from the companies ALLOY and BASK, but the Italian X-bionics is very expensive and therefore we buy it quite rarely. Membrane costumes are in our company “Corps of Survival”, and we don’t almost use suits from “soft shell”, our snipers mostly lie in positions, and don’t run with backpacks in the mountains. The so-called 7 layers of American PCU and ECWCS kits were tested as a “greenhouse”. But for us they were uncomfortable. In particular, these suits have a large open gate, through which everything quickly goes warm, ”explains an officer of SOBR.

Servicemen of the Ministry of Defense have now received a new multi-layer set of VKPO produced by BTK-groups. “Now VKPO is criticized, but personally I like it. After all, not long ago we had “slides” or the so-called mountain set with an instantly torn demi-season field suit, fur socks with ties and other meaningless things “for all tasks”. I want to note that the so-called 5 layer, he also pants and a jacket from the "soft-shell" of the American PCU, breaks into the mountains in just a day when leaving the "task" in the mountains. A good suit from softshell was offered by the Russian company Gruppa-99, but unfortunately it is not being released now, ”says a sniper from the GRU special forces.

His colleague from the Airborne Forces believes that from VKPO it is worth using only thermal underwear and a jacket from Polartek: “To be honest, all the other elements of the set are of poor quality. Therefore, for our money, we take elements of the American PCU for special forces and combined-arms ECWCS in the colors “coyote” or “cartoons”. We take warm gloves in Alpindustriya, special warmed boot covers, which are worn on the parking lot instead of shoes, as well as those that are worn over the shoes, they are necessary for a long time in very cold weather. ”

Another problem is the selection of shoes, since the normally supplied products are mostly unsuitable for wearing. “In our crocodile uniform boots, under the action of loads, the seams quickly tear, the sole falls off. Yes, and the leg is very preyet ", - said the sniper from the internal troops.

His colleagues from the SPN GRU brigade have the same problems: “I look closely at Salomon Quest. Bribes that they are used by many Western special forces, but the price stops - almost 14 thousand rubles. A good version of the product of the company "Faraday". Of course, they also have problems, but for the price-quality, they are for me the best option so far, especially models with a membrane. ”

Growing up!

Sniper art in the Russian law enforcement agencies is developing very dynamically. There are problems, but one can still hope that they are not caused by systemic errors and miscalculations, but rather become “growth diseases”. It must be admitted that in a few years the Russian security forces made a sharp qualitative jerk in sniping.


At the request of the publication, a sniper from the special forces brigade commented on several popular films showing the work of snipers.

The old "Sniper" with Tom Beringer starring a very good movie. Of course, the work of the sniper there is not shown in full, but the features of disguise, covert movement are very clearly visible. But the recent "Shooter" with Michael Wahlberg - this is generally complete nonsense, although the authors tried to show the work of a sniper. In particular, it is clear how important it is to take into account the weather, especially the weapons, etc. But all this is sinking in meaningless and merciless action. The main character shoots a 10-mm CheyTac rifle bullet at a tin can, and then the same deformed bullet is fired from an .50 caliber rifle. Well, how do the authors imagine the flight of a broken bullet fired from a rifle of a different caliber and even 1,5 kilometers? And the American sniper nominated for the Oscar, to be honest, looks more like a hack. The main character does not work in pairs, but alone, at best, he is simply protected by a marine. Just lay with a sniper rifle, but then he threw it and ran to storm the building.

A good film is the recently released Battle of Sevastopol. Of course, this is not about modern snipers. In the Great Patriotic War, many things were different, and the film itself is more about personal drama and love, but there are still a couple of interesting places.
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  1. Makarov
    Makarov 27 June 2015 06: 37
    Excellent article, thank you!
    1. Rarog
      Rarog 27 June 2015 08: 26
      Quote: Makarov
      Excellent article, thank you!

      Especially this moment:

      ... equal to one so-called Minute of Angel - Minute of Angel (1MOA - hitting a bullet in a circle with a diameter of 2,98 centimeters from a distance of 100 meters).

      The minute of the Angel, then, probably, the second of the Archangel and the instant of Seraphim.
      Nevertheless, Minute of AngLE (and not AngEL) is a corner minute.
      It was possible to check the article before publishing.
    2. Malkor
      Malkor 27 June 2015 15: 53
      Different snipers are needed and different are important.
      It turns out that the sniper has the biggest load in the unit.

      And I thought that the machine gunner had the biggest load with ammunition in 2000 rounds, apart from the rest, and then the radio operator had a big load. In general, the load in the group is usually distributed evenly.
      Here you can read.
      1. Malkor
        Malkor 27 June 2015 18: 05
        And one more thing: in the mines, the yars will probably be replaced with heavier missiles. Poplars and yars in difficult years have helped to maintain nuclear potential. But poplars have monoblock warheads, yars are better, but the casting weight is small. Yars seems to be a successful missile and its use in the bzhrk will allow them to maintain their production and maintain the balance of the system.
        1. Malkor
          Malkor 28 June 2015 09: 32
          post not in this article hi
  2. D-Master
    D-Master 27 June 2015 07: 51
    The article is just wonderful, thank you so much. It is painful to read about the sluggishness of our gunsmiths, about the need to carefully fine-tune our weapons with the help of imported components - but this is harsh truth, and the faster we become more flexible and respond to the requirements of special units, the better we will be with arms.
  3. leonardo_1971
    leonardo_1971 27 June 2015 08: 05
    a good article, but the SV-98 mount is not a dovetail. Yes, we bought optics for our own money. Since the Ministry of Internal Affairs bought Belarusian sights from which the mark fell on its side after a couple of shots. .BCC I worked in the city. And SV-300 for a long distance in any terrain. Well, and SV-500 I only shot at the firing range. I have never had to use it in battle. Respectfully, SOBR sniper.
    1. AndreyS
      AndreyS 27 June 2015 12: 40
      Quote: leonardo_1971
      A good article, but the SV-98 mount is not a dovetail.

      Yeah, the article is cool. The general life motive of the situation transferred correctly! But there are a lot of minor flaws, such as indicating fixtures! Well, in addition, over many years of service, I was convinced that how many people, so many opinions, can not please everyone. And I also want to say that everything is sad on the supply of sights, and the question always arises, who is so smart sitting on public procurement ?! You ask one, buy another.
      I really like such an interesting thing on the SV-98 as a silencer (although it is more tactical than real). About bipod on the same rifle is almost true (there is only one but ... who has what level of training). I don’t understand yet another stupidity of our suppliers, why these ... will not buy bipods on SVD, because a necessary and useful thing ?! Like the same night nozzles from Daedalus, a useful thing, there is no need to change the OP to NP.
      Well, something like this.
  4. bunta
    bunta 27 June 2015 08: 19
    For example, a new version of the CB-98 - the bed is light, but what prevented the folding butt from being made?

    On the LOD women fuck. A folding butt worsens accuracy.
  5. Slavs69
    Slavs69 27 June 2015 08: 39
    In general, I liked the article. About Lupold and Daedalus, about the price tags for electronics, about purchases for your hard-earned money - that's right. You have to buy tripods and rangefinders, binoculars, unloading, covers, clothes and shoes. Yes, almost everything! It's simple in the Central Federal District - If necessary, I can drive up to Orsis at any time and solve all the problems. ”, and beyond the Urals ...... What is supplied to sniper couples in the joint venture of the Ministry of Internal Affairs, roughly speaking, "does not roll" primarily in terms of quality.
  6. RiverVV
    RiverVV 27 June 2015 08: 41
    We at one time in training were given the basics of sniper business. At a basic level, so that when commanding a platoon or squad, they can understand what the sniper needs and how to communicate with him. Well, they did some tests. Of the second company, two were sent to a sniper training, but not one came up with us. Two out of almost three hundred people. Quality selection, yes ...
  7. wanderer_032
    wanderer_032 27 June 2015 09: 35
    That is not, this is not. Just like children who haven’t bought another toy.

    And how during the Second World War, snipers fought?

    They had only army HB, kirzachi (winter boots), raincoat tents, quilted jackets (jacket and pants) and masked gowns sewn from sheets. Yes Mosin rifle with a PU sight (most often). According to the norm, from this rifle they were supposed to hit the target at 800 m (without any weather stations and other junk).
    So spin as you want, but be kind enough to complete the task.

    Watch from 26: 36 to 27: 18 wink smile

    It is true that a filmets with a shorted translation and articulation of speech does not coincide in some places, but in general the words are correct.
    1. nekish
      nekish 28 June 2015 20: 14
      yeah, only during the Second World War the enemy snipers were also with a bare ass.
      Quote: wanderer_032
      it was supposed to hit the target at 800 m (without any weather stations and other junk).

      yeah, you won’t see a person at 2m in 200-fold PU, but here at 800, well.
      1. Massik
        Massik 28 June 2015 21: 58
        yeah, you won’t see a person at 2m in 200-fold PU, but here at 800, well.
        Yeah, with a mosquito and 3,5 times PU I can shoot you eggs with 400 meters without any problems, if that please contact.
  8. Pavlov A.E.
    Pavlov A.E. 27 June 2015 09: 37
    It was time, too, wore two rifles SVDS and VSS the best years spent in the mountains.
  9. Leader
    Leader 27 June 2015 10: 30
    Something I have not heard about high-profile victories, effective "liquidations" and stunning results of our snipers ...
    Probably because they are always undermined by something from imported expensive equipment?
    1. wanderer_032
      wanderer_032 27 June 2015 11: 26
      Quote: Leader
      Something I have not heard about high-profile victories, effective "liquidations" and stunning results of our snipers ...
      Probably because they are always undermined by something from imported expensive equipment?

      Sniper Main Guide:


      A sniper is a warrior specially selected, trained and prepared for independent initiative actions, a well-aimed shooter who can skillfully act in a combat situation. The task of the sniper - the destruction of important and dangerous targets that appear for a short time - is solved by patience to choose the right moment to surely hit them. The art of a sniper is to independently find the target, evaluate its importance and hit with one shot.
      The sniper is obliged not only to destroy the enemy’s manpower, but also to paralyze the organization of the ongoing combat work by the enemy with marksmanship. To do this, destroy his officers; arrange an hourly hunt for his scouts, observers, signalmen, artillery spotters; break their observational devices; blind the enemy; teach him not to walk to his full height; make him crawl; do not let him lean out; sow panic among the lower ranks. The ultimate goal of a sniper is fear. Appear where you are not waiting. Remember: the enemy must be afraid!
      A sniper is a hunter. The hunter must be invisible. The invulnerability of a sniper demoralizes the enemy. Your method is stealth. Your work tool is patience. Learn to endure hunger, cold, pain, immobility. Only this will allow you to destroy the enemy everywhere, even in the depths of his defense. The enemy is a beast. Track him and lure him under the shot. The enemy is insidious - be trickier than him. He is hardy - be more persistent than him. Your profession is art. You can do what others cannot. They trust you. Russia is behind you. Be merciless. You will win because you must win!

      This memo was compiled by the commander of the 62nd Army, General Vasily Ivanovich Chuikov during the defense of Stalingrad. In a small leaflet, the essence of sniper fishing is very clearly formulated.
    2. Aleksandr72
      Aleksandr72 27 June 2015 12: 25
      And do not hear. A sniper in peacetime (participating in various kinds of counter-terrorism operations and peace enforcement operations are not considered a war) always remains an unknown hero, widely known in narrow (very narrow) circles. And this is right: we have enough inadequacies, which out of sheer foulness can cause trouble for the declassified shooter-sniper, and there will certainly be those who want revenge too. Advertising is the lot of the Americans, who without it cannot even take a step and the Europeans, who fell under the influence of overseas values.
  10. Izya Katzman
    Izya Katzman 27 June 2015 12: 40
    Conclusion: as an import substitution, it is necessary to commission the T-5000 under the paw cartridge as soon as possible. For if we are doing well with "Marksman" rifles, then with real sniper rifles we have big problems.
    1. AndreyS
      AndreyS 27 June 2015 12: 52
      Quote: Izya Katsman
      Conclusion: as an import substitution, it is necessary to commission the T-5000 under the paw cartridge as soon as possible. For if we are doing well with "Marksman" rifles, then with real sniper rifles we have big problems.

      You are not quite right! Unfortunately, it would be good to use ammunition to shoot good weapons at foreign calibers, but there are just a lot of problems, we don’t produce good ammunition for these calibers, foreign dear and not very eager for foreigners to sell them to us, to shoot them with hunting Ammunition is not a little camille for many reasons, but it is illegal to make ammunition on your own.
      A very large part of sniper business, this is a good ammunition.
      Well, something like this.
    2. Jan Ivanov
      Jan Ivanov 26 August 2015 16: 47
      And how are things going with paw cartridges? Learned to stamp in Barnaul in the order of import substitution? )
  11. Castor oil
    Castor oil 27 June 2015 13: 52
    Baby talk and not an article)))
  12. trofim27
    trofim27 27 June 2015 15: 34
    Thanks to the author for the article. Very informative. Of course, all the secrets will not be revealed, but still interesting. wink
  13. Dam
    Dam 27 June 2015 15: 51
    Some kind of heresy. The article was written by a kindergartner after reading a comic strip about sniping
  14. okroshka79
    okroshka79 27 June 2015 18: 52
    I am very far from sniper business, but I read the article with great interest. The conclusion of the ignorant is this. Corresponding military leaders work very poorly to provide snipers with everything they need. It is a shame for them when snipers modify their rifles, sights, and purchase equipment and ammunition. Russian patrons for sniper weapons are generally a disaster. Frankly, I didn’t know that with weapons and equipment things were so bad. So far, one IMHO chatter comes from our military officials in sniper business. If I am mistaken, correct.
  15. k_ply
    k_ply 27 June 2015 20: 24
    In the American scheme, the second number is armed not with an automatic sniper, but with an assault rifle with a grenade launcher. It is noteworthy that both schemes are present in the US military. In particular, in the Marine Corps sniper pairs are organized according to the American scheme, and in the US Army there are English, where the first number is armed with an M-24 rifle, and the second - with the self-loading М110.

    In MP and SSO, incl. infantry rangers, snipers work in "English" pairs, or alone. Normally, 1/3, with a sniper squad of 6 people (3 pairs), or 1/2, if there are 8 people in the squad (4 pairs, battleship MP), sniper pairs are armed with a 12,7 mm M107 rifle. Army sniper infantry / motorized infantry battles work in threes, each with a 12,7 mm M107 rifle (M82A3 "Barrett"), a 7,62 mm M24 rifle (in a reconnaissance battles - M110, equipped with a silencer), and 5,56 mm rifle / carbine with
    40 mm grenade launcher. It was worth getting acquainted with the field regulations of the United States Army (Field Manuals).
    In police, anti-terrorism and training units, couples are more likely to include an observer.
  16. Massik
    Massik 27 June 2015 23: 40
    That, behold, it was not given out, not by the military, but by some athletes. One nagging - give the angle of the target, temperature and weather, also highlight the target and pin it in one place?
    “We are routinely given the“ Izlom ”field form, but it is so sad that I don’t even want to talk. Of thermal underwear, we have only cotton "officer" underwear. There are no modern membrane suits, no softshells (windproof and waterproof fabric that quickly removes sweat - A.M.), and even less so warm clothes (a warm jacket with Primaloft insulation), says the officer of the internal troops
    Before nominally zvezduli for this very "kink" were put in an immeasurable amount, if you put it on after being issued. Your salary is 50 rubles for what ??? You are an officer, not like you used to live on 18 thousand people, and how many don’t give everything a little, you probably need to return the salaries of 2011 back ...
    1. Black
      Black 28 June 2015 00: 59
      Quote: Marssik
      Salary to you of 50 rubles for what ???

      For life .... A sniper, as a rule, is no longer a boy ... family, children .. Nowhere can he get 50 rubles?
      Shit is that the warrior dresses himself and equips himself.
      1. Massik
        Massik 28 June 2015 08: 59
        For life .... A sniper, as a rule, is no longer a boy ... family, children .. Nowhere can he get 50 rubles?
        others like living on 20 thousand women they also have a family, children ... Only how many people do not give him all is not enough. I served in the transitional period from 2010 to 2013, I saw how at first everything was in abundance, and then suddenly it became few, I wanted more.
        Shit is that the warrior dresses himself and equips himself.
        A warrior is given everything for the immediate execution of tasks, but if he wants to have a considerable amount of comfort at the same time, then be so kind as to unbutton the bag. Take the same balabasy 20 years ago and now, although the tasks are the same. Previously, two sets of "flora", "reed" shape, an old Austrian backpack, a tourist sleeping bag, etc. It seemed you didn’t live in poverty. Now, where there are no "cartoons", there are "marpat", there are 3 backpacks for each - different for all occasions, there are the same number of sleeping bags and something else is missing, you have to buy your own, you see ...
        1. bunta
          bunta 28 June 2015 09: 46
          Quote: Marssik
          Previously, two sets of "flora", "reed" shape, an old Austrian backpack, a tourist sleeping bag, etc. It seemed you didn’t live in poverty. Now, where there are no "cartoons", there are "marpat", there are 3 backpacks for each - different for all occasions, there are the same number of sleeping bags and something else is missing, you have to buy your own, you see ...

          Coconuts also started from this. Now they cannot fight without toilet paper. Are we going to this?
          1. Massik
            Massik 28 June 2015 21: 52
            May be. There is nothing to say about the urgent one, and if the "crickets" are such, they should be given everything. No, before it was still better when everyone was familiar with the "give birth" method ...
      2. Castor oil
        Castor oil 28 June 2015 14: 50
        Normally they equip and dress, and if you want something super-duper - the salary is sufficient, buy yourself a nightforce, benchmadic or garcings yourself. The article just tryndezh about "fsёblyapalo", having nothing to do with realities, the author pulled all kinds of crap from Wikipedia and in contacts from couch rembs, benny hill show ...
  17. Alexdark
    Alexdark 28 June 2015 04: 08
    Conclusion from the article. Almost literally everything is bought at your own expense!
  18. neo1200
    neo1200 1 July 2015 19: 58
    Well, everything is as usual with us, where are the Russian laser rangefinders, where is the normal Russian form of high-quality?
  19. W zapase
    W zapase 23 July 2015 13: 35
    Quote: Zero Nil Seventh
    sheer shame

    It's an expensive pleasure to defend the Motherland! It is clear that no army in the world is able to massively acquire super modern equipment for individual combat units. But polyurethane rugs in the "Warrior" set? Do they really not think with their heads at all?