Military Review

10 June 1807 was founded Izhevsk Arms Factory

On June 10, 1807, on the banks of the Izh River, by personal order of the Russian Emperor Alexander I, was founded armory office, which gave rise to the Izhevsk arms factory, as well as contributed to the development and actually salvation of Izhevsk itself as a city. The thing is that the ironworks that existed at that time, which was a city-forming one, almost fell into disrepair, which, in turn, negatively affected the life of Izhevsk itself. Mining engineer Andrei Deryabin led the construction of the new plant. In the future, noble citizens will erect a monument to him. Yes, and the plant itself today is located on a street named after Deryabin. During the construction of the plant, it was combined with the ironworks, for this reason the enterprise in Izhevsk did not experience difficulties with raw materials. In the autumn of 1807, the first small arms were created in Izhevsk. Here began to produce seven-line soldier smoothbore flintlock guns.

Founded in June 1807, the Izhevsk Arms Plant, according to the plan of its creator, Oberberggauptman Andrei Fedorovich Deryabin, was to become one of the most advanced industrial enterprises in Russia at that time. The organization of factory premises and production cycles initially assumed the creation in Izhevsk of a powerful, using a large number of mechanisms and machines, the mass production of small arms. Even then, the Izhevsk plant was distinguished by the highest concentration of production capacity. This feature was the main difference between the Izhevsk enterprise and the weapon centers in Tula and Sestroretsk that already existed in those years. For example, in those years at the Tula Arms Plant in state-owned factories only individual “machine work” was carried out, and everything else was done at home. Another thing - Izhevsk. Here, the entire issue of small arms initially went to 14 stone buildings located on a single factory site. At the same time most of the gunsmiths worked in one huge building - the main building of the plant, which was one of the first high-rise industrial buildings in the whole world. In the main building there was a clear division of production. Already in the very first years of the existence of the Izhevsk Arms Plant, its shop structure was formed: locking, barreled, instrument, lozhevoi, bayonet, tool, steel artel and workshops.

By the beginning of World War 1812, the release of small arms and cold arms for the tsarist army was already in full swing in Izhevsk. During the first 4 of the year of its existence, the plant managed to produce two thousand guns, and already during the war with Napoleon, the company supplied the army of Mikhail Kutuzov with more than 6 thousand silicon guns, increasing the volume of the initial release of weapons 10 times. In 1814, in Izhevsk, 10 thousands of guns and almost 2,5 thousands of hacksacks were already assembled. At the same time, the advanced production organization at that time allowed for a reduction in the cost of weapons produced by 1,5 times as compared with weapons produced in Tula.

At its design capacity, the plant, which was designed to produce 25 thousands of flintlock guns and 5 thousands of saws annually, was released by the 1830 year. In total, over 1830 a year, more than 26 thousand guns were assembled in Izhevsk, and in 1836, the company overcame a new production line, having already produced 30 thousands of guns in a year. A significant contribution of gunsmiths from Izhevsk to the development of all weapons technology was the unification of all parts of the gun. Thus, in Izhevsk Arsenal, the process of dismantling a dozen guns was often demonstrated to visitors, after which all parts were mixed, and then normally working guns were assembled again. Andrey Deryabin himself obliged to carry out such checks at the plant. In this regard, an analogy with another weapon — the Kalashnikov assault rifle, which the plant will start producing in a century and a half — involuntarily comes. Even today, our contemporaries once again amaze this “trick” when the details of ten machine guns are intermingled with each other, after which of them 10 perfectly working weapon models are assembled again. Without a doubt, the tradition of reliability of Izhevsk weapons was laid in the first half of the XIX century since the founding of the plant and passed down from generation to generation.

Up to the fifties of the nineteenth century, flint guns were made in Izhevsk, converted into impact-caps. But after the Crimean War 1853-55, which showed the lag of the Russian small arms in the rate of fire and the range of the battle, the Izhevsk plant began the transition to breech weapons of the Krnka system. And in 1874, the plant mastered the production of the four-line rifle Berdan. In 1870-80, the production of Berdan rifles was brought to 300 thousand pieces per year. At full capacity, the plant began to work during the Russian-Turkish war 1877-1878. Only in 1878, the Izhevsk Arms Factory produced 162 455 of such rifles. It is the small-caliber four-line rifle of the Berdan system, which was produced in Izhevsk from 1874 to 1890 years, became the most popular product of the plant of those years.

Monument to A. F. Deryabin

At the same time, the look of the enterprise also changed. In many ways, the change in appearance was due to the fact that in 1867, gunsmiths in Izhevsk received their freedom, and, starting this year, the plant was given to lease-commercial management. The tenants of the Izhevsk enterprise, among whom was the brother of the famous inventor Ludwig Nobel, managed to change the enterprise considerably and for the better. During the years of lease, the Izhevsk Arms Plant was converted to a significantly larger annual production volume (up to 70 thousand guns annually), the existing machine park was seriously developed, and the power industry made a big step forward. Here, for the first time, a telegraph station was opened, telephone lines were stretched, and its own in-plant rail transport appeared. Already in 1870, the Izhevsk Arms Plant produced more weapons than the Tula and Sestroretsky plants combined. Later, with the development of the production of high-quality steel in Izhevsk, local gunsmiths became the only suppliers of weapon barrels and receiver boxes for the rest of the country's enterprises. For example, Tula received from Izhevsk to 360 thousand trunks per year.

By 1907, by the centenary of the enterprise, more than four million different weapons were produced at the plant. As part of the celebrations, which were dedicated to the centenary anniversary of the plant, a monument to Andrei Deryabin was erected in Izhevsk. By 1907, Izhevsk had developed three modifications of the legendary Mosin rifle, which was produced from the 1892 of the year: infantry, Cossack and dragoon. Also local gunsmiths developed a Mosin carbine. All of these samples of small arms produced in series. For many years, Izhevsk weapons factory owed its glory to Mosin’s magazine-assisted rifle. In various cases, this rifle was in mass production in Izhevsk for more than half a century. At the same time, the plant in Izhevsk was the only one in the country where all the varieties of the famous three-line design were produced. In total for 1892-1945 years in Izhevsk 56 million 793 thousands of 640 units of small arms of the Mosin system were assembled.

The next stage in the mobilization of power and workers was the First World War. During the war years, a number of transformations were carried out at the Izhevsk plant, both in the arms and steel industries. At the same time, the number of workers increased immediately in 3 times, along with men, women and children began to work at the plant. Factory capacity was able to expand by half. In total, during the years of World War I, the Izhevsk plant put 1 million 400 thousands of new rifles and almost 188 thousands of fixed to the front of the 1917. By the summer of 34, the XNUMX had already employed thousands of people in the factory. On the scale of concentration of labor and production, the Izhevsk Arms Factory on the eve of the first Russian revolution was one of the first places among all enterprises of the Russian defense industry, being one of the most powerful enterprises of the entire Russian Empire.

However, the revolutionary years have made their adjustments in the life of the plant. In the first years after the October Revolution, the 4 plant changed hands several times. The first time it happened in August was 1918, when the famous Izhevsk-Votkinsk uprising against the Bolsheviks thundered here. However, in November of the same year, the forces of the rebels were suppressed by the Red Army, which took the city and the plant. But in April, 1919, the plant was in the hands of the advancing troops of Admiral Kolchak, whom the Bolsheviks drove from Izhevsk in June of the same year. The fighting affected the state of the plant: during these years most of the existing equipment was disabled or removed from the plant. A very sensitive blow was also inflicted on skilled factory personnel. Despite these difficulties, the company was able to retain its potential, and in August 1920 had collected thousands of rifles here in August, among other things, during the Civil War, new products were launched here: cartridges, barrel boxes for Fedorov’s machine guns. In 48, the issue of hunting weapons is resumed here. The development of metallurgical production, as well as the release of a diverse tool. Immediately after the completion of all the hostilities, in the autumn of 1921, a five-year program of rehabilitation of the enterprise was prepared, it was reconstructed, cleaned and converted.

In 1930, an independent machine-tool production was opened at the Izhevsk Machine-Building Plant (Izhmash), and a new woodworking workshop appeared. In the same year, the first machines were produced here. In 1933, on Izhmash, for the first time in the USSR, 5 powerful crankshafts were manufactured from special steels, including for the An-1, ANT-25 and other aircraft. In April, the New Design Bureau (BNK) was opened at the plant 1933. From that moment on, all the developments in the field of creating weapons were in it. Nowadays, these works are carried out in the Concern's design and weapons center.

During the Great Patriotic War of 1941-1945, up to 18 types of various weapons were produced in Izhevsk, including the anti-tank rifles of Simanov and Degtyarev, aviation guns and machine guns Berezin, aircraft guns Nudelman-Suranov and Shpitalnogo. In those years, thousands of people worked on Izhmash, and the production amounted to millions of weapons - from conventional rifles to aircraft guns. At the same time, the release of weapons was growing rapidly. Already in 1941, every day the company produced 12 thousand Mosin-designed rifles, so every day the Izhevsk plant armed a full-fledged rifle division. And in 1945, the release of weapons increased almost 3 times compared to 1941. In total, over the four war years in Izhevsk, small arms were produced more than 92 years before the Great Patriotic War combined. During World War II, more than 11 million rifles and carbines, more than 130 thousand anti-tank rifles and more than 15 thousand aviation guns were assembled here. At the same time, over the years of the war, the Izhmash team was awarded 10 times the passing Red Banner of the winner in the All-Union Socialist Competition, which emphasized the labor exploits of Izhevsk gunsmiths. Moreover, in 1942 the plant became the first order-bearing enterprise in the Udmurt Republic: on January 18, Izhmash was awarded the Order of Lenin. And on October 20, 1944, the enterprise was awarded the Order of the Red Banner. For permanent storage, the Izhevsk factory was handed the Banner of the State Defense Committee (GKO).

And after the war, starting with 1948, the era of production of a Kalashnikov assault rifle, which is still in service with the Russian army and armies in many countries of the world, began at Izhmash. Today it is the AK and its modifications that are the most common small arms in the world. According to available estimates, this type (including licensed and unlicensed copies, as well as AK-based models) is 1 / 5 of all small arms on the planet. Over the 69 years in Izhevsk, more than 70 of millions of Kalashnikov assault rifles were produced. These machines are in service with 50 foreign armies. The main competitor of the AK is the American MNNX automatic rifle, which was produced in the amount of approximately 16 million copies and is in service with the 10 armies of the world. At the same time, according to many experts, AK is the standard of ease of maintenance and reliability in the world of small arms. On its basis, a whole family of models of combat and civilian weapons of various calibers was created, including a Kalashnikov light machine gun (PKK) and Saiga smoothbore guns.

Today, the plant, which in 2015 has already celebrated its 208 anniversary, bears the name of legendary designer Mikhail Timofeevich Kalashnikov, who worked at this Izhevsk plant until the end of his life. 13 August 2013 NPO Izhmash was renamed Concern Kalashnikov OJSC, which is the parent company of Rostec GC holding company. With the renaming of the enterprise and its entry into the new group, work towards modernizing and improving production will be strengthened. In the future, the concern should combine the Izhevsk Mechanical Plant OJSC, the Molot machine-building plant Molot, the Progress NITI, the Leningrad Koshkin KBAL and a number of other domestic enterprises in the arms industry. The Izhevsk enterprise plans to annually develop and present new products to 2-3 end-users, which would meet the requirements of customers and the challenges of the time. One of the latest innovations of Izhevsk gunsmiths is the AK-12. According to the press service of the concern, in the framework of the Army-2015 forum, the residents of Izhevsk will present the latest version of the AK-12 machine gun, as well as a civilian carbine with the combat potential of the AK-15 development, which was created this year on the basis of the Saigi MK 107.

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  1. kebeskin
    kebeskin 10 June 2015 06: 07
    Eternal memory and glory to the Izhevsk gunsmiths, who for many centuries supplied the state with quality products, contributed to the defense.
    1. oleg-gr
      oleg-gr 10 June 2015 06: 18
      Izhmash's business card is M.T. Kalashnikov and its development. Kalash is known all over the world. Blessed memory of the Izhevsk gunsmith.
      1. Pit Bull59
        Pit Bull59 10 June 2015 06: 37
        Hunting rifle IZH-26 was produced at the factory in distant Soviet times. The barrel of the gun, at that time, was one of the best in the world! I had this - from my grandfather!
    2. The comment was deleted.
    3. Linkor9s21
      Linkor9s21 10 June 2015 06: 34
      After all, it has existed for two centuries, it’s just a kapets, this is the story of IZHMASH
  2. parusnik
    parusnik 10 June 2015 07: 16
    Happy holiday! And labor success! drinks
  3. fomkin
    fomkin 10 June 2015 07: 19
    Once upon a time there was a legend among motorists that IZH-412 is better than Moskvich-412, since the plant is defense-like. But back to the weapon. Recently I bought a Izhevsk product and really regretted my reckless act. Tolerances and bluing are below all criticism. I would like to congratulate you on the date, but there is a fact of degradation. For 25 years I wore a personnel PM production of Izh. Replaced pieces 5, not a single gripe, not a single misfire, but what happened now?
  4. blind
    blind 10 June 2015 07: 23
    there may be Kalashnikov, and at a height they are produced, but the products of hunting weapons are simply crappy. this is a common designer for crazy pens and it’s not clear why the factory doesn’t immediately put a set of files in the weapon box
  5. ssn18
    ssn18 10 June 2015 07: 23
    Quote: fomkin
    Recently bought Izhevsk product

    Can I ask which one?
    It's just that Izhmash and Izhmeh are different factories, the schools of weaponsmaking are different and there has always been a certain antagonism between them (even because of the Izh brand), although they recently entered the same concern.
  6. bunta
    bunta 10 June 2015 07: 35
    Quote: fomkin
    ... what happened now?
    Krivoruchki came.
    1. ssn18
      ssn18 10 June 2015 07: 37
      Well no. It’s just that there is a military acceptance in the production of military weapons, and only OTK in consumer goods.
      1. bunta
        bunta 10 June 2015 11: 44
        What prevents the organization of the work of the quality control department on the principle of VP? The only difference is that VP has the right to stop the shipment of products, there is no OTC, since it obeys whom? That's right - Krivoruchka. Recursion.
        1. Bugor
          Bugor 10 June 2015 12: 59
          Are you ready to pay the costs of maintaining the military representative? This will affect the final price ...
          1. bunta
            bunta 10 June 2015 17: 55
            Not at all. I just once worked as a military representative. And as a self-education, he dealt with quality problems. He studied Deming, Ishikawa. Fundamentally, they did not find anything new in comparison with our VP. Just as in Soviet times they were chasing a rampart, and now they are looking for profit. And to establish an elementary order of working with quality for this, the same crank should have at least some idea of ​​production. At least as an example, what is a quality day and how does it differ in a court session. Take a look at the faces of the concern on its website. There is no one responsible for quality at all. The head of security was elevated to the rank of deputy general. That is, the head of the Quality Control Department is reduced down this hierarchy. By the way, Kirisenko was elevated to the rank of adviser. That's all, the pipe.
  7. V.ic
    V.ic 10 June 2015 07: 49
    Izhevtsy and Votkintsy were the most combat-ready units of Kolchak’s troops with high military discipline and fought against the Reds under the red banners, until the Kolchak’s team decided to hand them the St. George flag for heroism.
  8. Aleksiy
    Aleksiy 10 June 2015 07: 53
    Why not introduce a section on such enterprises as IzhMash into the course of Russian history, all the same the pride of Russia.
    1. rusmat73
      rusmat73 10 June 2015 08: 41
      it is possible to introduce history into the course, but those who live in Izhevsk will only regret and remember the old days (before the collapse of the USSR). since now the bulk of factories have gone into oblivion, the chain of personnel training has been interrupted (in the 90s, the factories did not pay money - the specialists left, many drank themselves) there is no transfer of knowledge in production as in Soviet times ... there are machines - there is no one to work on them ( there is not enough willing and qualified personnel). hunger of production cadres ... many after the institutes immediately want to be bosses - but they had to plow during the holidays between sessions in production in order to receive the baggage of their own knowledge and skills. look at anyone who has been put to a position by pull (head of department; beginning of production; foreman) they bend in front of their superiors, and they go out to subordinates, showing their importance (but understanding what happens to them, if anything, "in intelligence" NOBODY will go and cover their back she won't want such a bullshit) - and their conversation: I don't like go behind the fence, we have a turn to take your place. don't care about frames. DO NOT UNDERSTAND the simple truth: "STAFF DECIDES EVERYTHING." and then everyone wonders where is the quality? where is the breakthrough in innovation?
      instead of many productions in Izhevsk, there are shopping centers. Now the mechanical plant will be reduced to 4-5 thousand (and before 30 worked until 000) and shopping centers will also appear. yes
      Now the focus is on making a profit ... and raising and manufacturing is a very difficult task. (I've been on the road in Russia since the 90s, I have visited almost all regions of the country, it was sad to look at the collapse of industrial enterprises. Now, after the arrival of Putin, at least a little stability has appeared for enterprises and people, it is necessary to raise production! "directors will not understand that a manufacturing enterprise is not a family factory and it is necessary to retain and cherish personnel who express correct and important proposals, although they are not pleasant to the bosses. and not cherish hangers-on and women who only know how to pretend work (plans, reports ) but there is no work itself). yes
      I live in Izhevsk myself ... hi
      1. rusmat73
        rusmat73 10 June 2015 10: 58
        who set a minus - you can find out what you didn’t like ???
      2. Aleksiy
        Aleksiy 10 June 2015 17: 15
        Sadly, even at such enterprises as IzhMash wild capitalism reigns. Then the falling Protons are just flowers, alas. Menajors will not launch a rocket, albeit manually.
    2. tol100v
      tol100v 10 June 2015 23: 39
      Quote: Aleksiy
      Why not introduce a section on such enterprises as IzhMash into the course of Russian history, all the same the pride of Russia.

      Then you need to enter TULA and VLADIMIR! And there are many, many towns and weights where weapons were manufactured, manufactured and will be manufactured to protect the Fatherland!
  9. Vadim2013
    Vadim2013 10 June 2015 08: 07
    Quote: fomkin
    Once upon a time there was a legend among motorists that IL-412 is better than Moskvich-412, because the plant is defense-like.

    In 1996 I bought IL-412. The car did not start well in wet weather. There was not enough lubrication in the universal joints of the driveshaft. The steering trapezoid is not reliable.
    The car had to be constantly repaired.
    1. ssn18
      ssn18 10 June 2015 08: 15
      Quote: Vadim2013

      Izhmash then what?
    2. rusmat73
      rusmat73 10 June 2015 08: 57
      cardans and crosses were made at the Izhevsk Mechanical Plant (civilian direction) and at other enterprises of the USSR working with the Izhevsk Automobile Plant as suppliers.
      Izh412 and Moskvich 412 are one and the same. there was a Muscovite AZLK - Moscow.
      1. ssn18
        ssn18 10 June 2015 09: 43
        So the rear axle was entirely made by a mechanical plant. And what?
        This was not a priority for the plant. By and large, the automobile plant was generally a purely assembly production. Engines-Ufa, front suspension and steering column-Perm, electrics-Penza, etc. It's just that, unlike AZLK, which was subordinate to the Ministry of Avtoprom, the Izhevsk Automobile Plant was subordinate to another ministry. And therefore he was spread rot. When AZLK released Moskvich-2141 (Simka 1974), Izhavto released his own "Orbit", but with what efforts it was launched into series. I know firsthand how it was pushed into the most distant pavilions of VDNKh and repainted three times a day.

        But the question is not this, but that the article is dedicated to the weapons factory.
        1. rusmat73
          rusmat73 10 June 2015 11: 09
          I was at this plant a couple of years ago - I wanted to rent a workshop - the collapse of many buildings belay there are no window frames, doors, a crane of beams ... they tell me to restore at the expense of the rent ... there, to restore it, how much is needed ...
          almost all of the buildings were sold together with the land ... and if you look at the factory’s visiting building (it looks beautiful from a distance, but if you go to the factory from the monument to Deryabin just by the way, you can get a quick look at it (the last repair was in Soviet times) I guarantee! hi
          and many factories in Izhevsk and in Russia in the same form. I’m glad that some are starting to rebuild, it’s easier to demolish some and build new ones aimed in the energy-saving direction.
    3. Bugor
      Bugor 10 June 2015 13: 06
      For his Niva, he was looking for exactly the old universal joints of the universal joint from Izhemoskvich. They were eternal. All business - twice a year, drive into the pit and syringe. And it got worse in damp weather from the lack of maintenance of the ignition system ... The 412 itself was very good - its payload alone was worth what ...
    4. V.ic
      V.ic 11 June 2015 07: 53
      Quote: Vadim2013
      The car did not start well in wet weather. There was not enough lubrication in the universal joints of the driveshaft.

      Lubrication in the universal joints of the driveshaft does not affect the compression of the engine, the correct adjustment of the ignition timing and the battery charge.
  10. rkkasa xnumx
    rkkasa xnumx 10 June 2015 08: 15
    A small comparison:

    Until 1917 year

    - rifles Krka, Berdana, Mosin (created with the participation of Nagana );

    - In total, during the years of the First World War, the Izhevsk factory delivered to the front 1 million 400 thousand new rifles and almost 188 thousand corrected.
    -------------------------------------------------- ------------------------------

    after 1917 year

    - anti-tank rifles Simanova и Degtyareva, aircraft guns and machine guns Berezinaair guns Nudelman-Suranov и Shpitalnoy, Tokarev.
    This is only from 1917 to 1945. And which is characteristic, no Krnka-Berdan-Nagan. Only their own, Soviet.

    Well, the scale of production:

    - During the Great Patriotic War, more than 11 million rifles and carbines, more than 130 thousand anti-tank rifles and more than 15 thousand aircraft guns were assembled here.
  11. klev72
    klev72 10 June 2015 08: 38
    Here no one mentioned the Izhevsk Bearing Plant, which had sunk into oblivion, which was founded in the 50s under the USSR (GPZ 13) and was liquidated in the 90s. The story came out amazing, the workers went on vacation in the evening, and when they arrived in the morning they did not find their machines. In terms of product quality, GPZ 13 was considered the second in the USSR. On the site of this plant is now a shopping arcade. In shopping centers per capita, Izhevsk is in 1st or 2nd place in Russia. The buildings of the plant (reducer, also for example) allowed to turn around buy-sell. Wolves, bastard! It is painful to look at Izhevsk for the past 20 years. (
    (June 12 is the day of the city of Izhevsk, 255 years old, from 1984 to 1987 it was renamed Ustinov.)
  12. ssn18
    ssn18 10 June 2015 09: 50
    Quote: klev72
    In terms of product quality, GPZ 13 was considered the second in the USSR.

    I want to add that in the USSR there were only two factories producing needle bearings that go to the universal joints of the universal joints: Izhevsk and Minsk.
    Izhevsk bearing machines now work in Kursk. It turns out that AvtoVAZ, KamAZ, NefAZ, Izhavto should pull bearings from Kursk.
  13. valokordin
    valokordin 10 June 2015 10: 24
    Was at this plant in 1975. was amazed by the huge buildings, machine tools, and also surprised by the territory of the workshops where IL motorcycles were made, how many defective motorcycles and spare parts were thrown there. What a strict guard, but it was possible to make small details. But they did not do this. The working class at the factory is a real class, very kind and highly qualified.
    1. rusmat73
      rusmat73 10 June 2015 12: 19
      Now this is not ... Mr. Grodetsky sold and ruined everything in the 90s ... Now in the next world the report holds for the collapse of the Izhevsk factories, and is waiting for the same figures to join him.
      and the motorcycles were very good! hi
      1. Bugor
        Bugor 10 June 2015 13: 10
        Right In my young years, on the fifth Java, the gay men at Izh-PS caught up with me. :)
  14. aszzz888
    aszzz888 10 June 2015 14: 06
    Very good trunks make Izhevsk!

    How many hunting weapons were from IL and no complaints!

    All of them are the Good and Big!
    1. rusmat73
      rusmat73 10 June 2015 15: 07
      "Izhevchanin" ... "Izhevsk residents" ... hi
  15. damodan
    damodan 10 June 2015 16: 06
    And I have Izhevsk pneumatics, too, nature shooting is fun :)
  16. demo_mag
    demo_mag 10 June 2015 18: 17
    I myself come from Izhevsk and worked at the factory - I collected pneumatics. I can say that when the perestroika began, it was ... something --- people were not paid salaries for 6-8 months, then conversion (switching to pans), then sale of enterprises, in general, everything was fine - now they seem to be recovering very quietly. To remove the main thief from above.
  17. datur
    datur 10 June 2015 21: 57
    And in TULA, weapons have been made for almost 1000 years !!! HERE !!! wink
  18. Somers
    Somers 10 June 2015 23: 04
    Udmurtia rules! (little by little) And how many other things are poher ...
  19. sergey908
    sergey908 11 June 2015 16: 13
    Wise were the kings in Russia! The factory can be proud of now!
  20. Vladimir
    Vladimir 11 June 2015 16: 25
    I still ride on the IZH-Planet5 motorbike, the equipment is strong and reliable, but I bought it in 1991. And I do not complain about IZH-18M-M. In general, I think that the production of weapons should be treated responsibly, be it an automatic machine, be it a hunting rifle .