Military Review

The insight of the farm philosopher

18
The insight of the farm philosopher


Until now, they are afraid to reprint it in full. Despite the fact that it was he who invented modern Ukrainian spelling and composed the first Ukrainian historical novel. Why doesn’t Kulish like our current inquisitors from culture? Independence!

A STRANGER AMONG OWN. To this bilious and keen-on-language writer is the best definition: his own among strangers, a foreigner among his own. On the one hand - an ardent Cossack and collector of folklore. On the other hand, his own most ruthless critic, who called all kobzars in a crowd “unclean and dark”, and their work - “pianica brekhodurniyuyu about people in Kozak”.

The same double was the origin of Kulish. He considered himself an aristocrat. But only his grandfather had some kind of suspicious nobility. And already the father of Panteleimon lost the right to be numbered among the noble class and enrolled in the usual Cossacks, despite the fact that he owned a clan farm in the Chernigov province, and even serfs. Due to the lack of evidence of noble origin, Kulish was expelled from Kiev University of St. Vladimir At the time of Nicholas I, only noble children had the right to study there.

The story with the exception of Kulish from the second year is rather dark. Apparently, entering his studies, he called himself a nobleman and promised to provide relevant documents in the hope that the administration would forget about it. But the administration didn’t forget, and the young semi-clerk-half-pride went on free bread, having already emerged in the capital of the Russian Empire as a senior teacher of a gymnasium and at the same time a teacher of the Russian language at St. Petersburg University. How they took him there remains a mystery. After all, Kulish himself did not have not only higher education, but also secondary education. He managed to finish only five classes of the gymnasium in the provincial Nizhyn, leaving it either because of a lack of funds, or because of a lack of will to deal with the boredom that was brought about by compulsory subjects.

GENIUS WITHOUT A DIPLOMA. Ukraine is indebted for the lack of knowledge of the hero of this article to the simplified spelling he invented. Before the great spelling reform, Pan'ka Kulish (as his friends most often called him), Ukrainians used all-Russian spelling, which remained from the times of Kievan Rus. They also used "yati", "ery", did not know the apostrophe. Kulish it all seemed very difficult, and he proposed the so-called "phonetic" spelling. According to the principle: "writeable, yak chuєmo." How, using it, you can make mistakes - the mind is incomprehensible! Nevertheless, even today's primitive "kulishovka", created specifically for the education of backward peasants, is too tough for many current students.

Until spring 1847, Kulish was unusually lucky. At Kiev University, he met Mikhail Maximovich, a professor of Russian literature. Brought together their insanity in Ukrainian folklore. Kulish showed the professor a self-made collection of songs that he recorded from his mother. Mother, by the way, absolutely could not read. Therefore, the collection turned out the most that neither is genuine, truly popular, free from any book influences.

Professor Maksimovich brought a dropout folklorist with an inspector of schools of the Kiev school district Yuzefovich. Recalling later this useful acquaintance, Panteleimon wrote that Yuzefovich took care of him surprisingly: he supplied books and manuscripts, helped to print the historical novel “Mikhailo Charnyshenko or Little Russia eighty years ago” at the university printing house, and even provided a trip to Kiev gubernia for the official account. Kulish traveled along it intermittently for two years. The result of the scientific expedition was a collection of folk songs and legends "Notes on South Russia". The young author has acquired a literary name.

But in his declining years, Kulish responded about those blessed times with sarcasm:

Well then, that mi hour
Vibrohuvati rested,
І to Peter y to Katerina
Hulu that slander barked.

It was clearly written in the peak of Shevchenko and his poem "The Dream" with the famous lines about Peter the Great, who "roped our Ukraine" and Catherine II, who, according to Tarasova's version, "finished the orphan widow."

DISASTER 1847 OF THE YEAR

The streak of luck ended when the Third Division, the political police of Nicholas I, covered the Cyril and Methodius Brotherhood in Kiev, which planned the transformation of the Russian Empire into a federation of Slavic republics. The investigation revealed that Kulish was in correspondence with the majority of fraternity members. And not only was he, but also signed his messages with the title "hetman".

At all times, gendarmes lacked a sense of humor. A collection of intelligent talkers, they took for a deeply disguised underground center. Kulish was arrested in Warsaw at that very moment when, together with his young wife, he was going abroad to sip European air and gain tourist impressions. Instead, Berlin and Prague had to be in St. Petersburg during interrogation with the chief of staff of the gendarme corps, General Dubbelt. The question of the general: "Is it true that you intended to be a Ukrainian hetman?" Kulish remembered for a lifetime.

A silly joke cost him two months in a fortress during the investigation and exile in Tula. It was a purely symbolic punishment. In the town near Moscow, the Little Russian writer edited "Tula provincial Gazette" and lived for a cadre with the governor Kozodoev, which in his autobiography said: "Man as a man." There he became friends with the local gendarme captain Gusev and even moved with his wife to his mansion, where the policeman and the exile together were chasing tea. So in the old days political criminals intertwined in Russia and those who were obliged to look after them!

Tula link lasted three years. And then Nicholas I forgave Kulish. Well-wishers showed the king drawings failed "hetman." The emperor was deeply moved and immediately allowed the exiled editor to return to Petersburg. True, the ban on the publication of Kulish was not lifted. But he immediately found a way out, filling Petersburg journals with his translations of foreign authors under various pseudonyms.

The death of Nicholas I and the arrival of the liberal Aleksandrovskie time restored Kulish’s former freedom. The beginning of 60-s caught him a venerable writer. By this time, he published two versions of the Black Rada novel (in Russian and Ukrainian), edited and published the collected works of Gogol, received three thousand rubles for it (10 percent of profit), and, together with Nikolay Kostomarov, published the first Ukrainian-language magazine "Basis," brought to mind the manuscripts of Maria Markovich, who escaped from her husband, who wrote under the pseudonym Marco Vovchok ...

Kulish was considered the head of the “Ukrainian” party, an ardent nationalist, and suddenly he burns everything he worshiped and worships everything he burned. One after another, no longer novels from the writer's pen, but historical research based on documentary material — the three-volume History of the Reunification of Russia, Malyovanna Gaydamachchina and Disappearance of Little Russia from Poland. From now on, Kulish does not see anything progressive in the Zaporizhzhya Cossacks, which he chanted in his youth. Now the Cossacks for him are just bandits and murderers. They did not dream of any state. Their ideal was to drink and rob. The only progressive force in Ukraine, which ended both the Tatar raids and the Lyashian domination, yesterday’s Kazakophil recognizes the Russian Empire.

There is nothing surprising that with such thoughts even in independent Ukraine Kulish remains a semi-forbidden author. Black Rada is included in the school curriculum. But already the preface to it, where the author speaks about the political insignificance of hetmans, is not shown to students. As for the historical writings of Kulish, they are simply afraid to publish.



AUTHOR OF THE TERM "FARMING"

None of the Ukrainian classics spoke such harsh and impartial truths as Kulish to their fellow countrymen. In the treatise "Farm Philosophy" he wrote: "We were overwhelmed with Tatar's lacks of money and methods, if the Tatars, in their midst, beat us with the beatings and smothered them."

Kulish was the first to unmask Ukrainian historical myths soaked in cheap narcissism. How much ink has been transferred to praise the Kiev-Mohyla Academy! What kind of sanctuary of science it just did not describe. And the demanding author of the “Khutor's Philosophy” issued a derogatory sentence to this provincial educational institution on the outskirts of Europe: “Mohyla Academy did not give us a wonderful miraculous talent”. And try to argue with him! After all, Skovoroda and Feofan Prokopovich, the most famous graduates of Mogilyanka, are not included in the list of world-famous scientists. Both of them are just well-read apprentices of Western philosophers who have not created the original ideological systems — stars of a provincial scale.

Even Bohdan Khmelnytsky Kulish calls "the Ukrainian-Polish Batu," remembering "zhahlive vinischennya people podіbne before scho on us seized of the Tatars in cholі of Batiєm that Yogo nastupnikami and Zgoda on cholі of Bogdan i Yurієm Khmelnytskyi". According to the memoirs of the 17th century, he well knew the reverse side of the “national liberation war” - how Bogdan paid his countrymen with the Crimean allies, allowing them to collect yasyr in the villages.

Kulish seemed to have a premonition what the nonsense of his fellow romantics would lead to in the 20th century. Having repaid the youthful idealization of the Cossacks, in his mature years he was able to debunk the phantoms that he himself had engendered with Shevchenko and Kostomarov in the era of the Cyril and Methodius Brotherhood.

FOR RUSSIA TRIETARY!

Throughout all the years after 1991 in Ukraine, they only do what they are looking for a “national idea”. But she has long been! She was formulated by Kulish in his later poem "The National Ideal". First, he describes the collapse of United Russia after the invasion of Batu:

Yak slander on Russia tatarsk likholіttє,
Started in Kiev nemovbi tіlki smіttya.
On Klyazma th on Moscow, people crawled
І wore them, hto z kiyan tudi pribud.
І vs і, sco rusko ї Edinost_ was eager,
Little by little, they arrived in Klyazma on Moscow.

Moscow Russia, according to Kulish, managed to preserve the spiritual heritage of the dead Russia of Kiev. It was there that the migration of the Slavic population from the Kiev region took place. And he is right - the carriers of ancient Russian culture moved precisely under the protection of the Moscow princes. And then came the period of Peter the Great's Petersburg Empire. For the author of the poem, this is a deeply progressive state mechanism, in contrast to the hetman civil strife of the Ruins period:

Imperiya - se power bula above the horns,
Over Khan, Turchin, Lithuania and Elyahs ...
I shcho b there ni bulo girkogo in Ukraine,
And densely having forgotten our narіd on the road.
De us dozens of for Palіїv lichili,
There mіlіonami edge ідний ми осіли.

Kulish understands that only the empire ensured the prosperity and self-esteem of the Ukrainian people. Only thanks to her and her victories he was able to settle in the territory of the defeated Crimean Khanate. And in the future, the author of the “National Ideal” sees the renewed triune Slavic empire:

Tired of poples_ kozatskoi Ruїni,
Click to synv words of birthplace:
Topimo at Dnіprі hate brother diku,
Sporudmo vtryoh one іmperіyu great,
І spirit trio bratv dictation dictator,
God forbid give us freedom.

Unlike Shevchenko, who knew nothing about the future, except for the banal conviction that “be blue and mother,” Kulish had a very definite social and political ideal, which he preached in his poetry.
Author:
Originator:
http://www.buzina.org/povtorenie/1577-kulish.html
18 comments
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  1. apro
    apro 31 May 2015 07: 33
    +5
    Good material, the more you study the history of the country, the more surprises in the form of forgotten and hushed-up sensible researchers. To judge the country and people, you need to know them; to foresee the future, you need to look comprehensively at history. but knowledge and order.
    1. vladkavkaz
      vladkavkaz 31 May 2015 11: 40
      +1
      Kulishovka this is the Kulish System or “Kulishovka” (Ukrainian. Kulishivka) - Ukrainian spelling, named for P. A. Kulish, who used it in Notes on Southern Russia (v. 1, 1856) and in “Grammar” (1857). It was later used in the journal Osnova, which was published in 1861-1862. in St. Petersburg V. M. Belozersky, N. I. Kostomarov and P. A. Kulish. Kulishovka (with some modifications) was used before it was banned by the “Ems Decree” of 1876. Later, the system of Zhelekhovsky (“zhelehovka”), close to the current Ukrainian spelling, spread instead of it. Http: //wiki-linki.ru/Page/515251- FOR ROMANOV, that would study History.
      But such a view knocks out their base from the feet of the Ukrainians about the so-called separateness of both Ukrainians and the language from Russia in general.
      http://alternatio.org/articles/item/4000
      1. apro
        apro 31 May 2015 11: 50
        +5
        Thanks for the link, the polonisms of the Ukrainian language are an adaptation of the language of the gentlemen for the locals.
  2. bocsman
    bocsman 31 May 2015 07: 38
    +14
    Tired of poples_ kozatskoi Ruїni,
    Click to synv words of birthplace:
    Topimo at Dnіprі hate brother diku,
    Sporudmo vtryoh one іmperіyu great,
    І spirit trio bratv dictation dictator,
    Say goodbye to us free emperor

    This is apparently the Soviet government did not forgive. I myself am from Nizhyn and studied at the same gymnasium (school 7). But in the lessons of the Ukrainian language and literature, no one told us about Kulish and his work. Although in the local history museum the first edition of "Black Rada" was on display. And how it should have been! Especially after 91. And thanks to the late author of this article for his life and his struggles. Everlasting memory .
  3. derik1970
    derik1970 31 May 2015 07: 45
    +1
    to the author, thanks, informative ... I appeal to all authors using Ukrainian mov in their articles, well, I would really like accurate translations from the Ukrainian type of language into native Russian, otherwise you’ll be tired of guessing the contents of the above, you will understand what foreigners from country 404 are talking about ... mov, I don’t want to learn all the more this is not a language but a bunch, then an obscene word follows ... thanks for earlier ... Ukrainians, that is, the same former Russian with a distorted language I do not advise to be offended by this statement, because , then follows - obscene word + atomic bomb ...
    1. tetrako
      tetrako 31 May 2015 12: 30
      +1
      Firstly, the author is no longer up to your thanks, and especially according to your application, he will no longer be able to translate articles into Russian. Moreover, the article does not sound like the current Ukrainian mov, but the so-called surzhik - a common South Russian dialect. And insulting him is also stupid than reproaching the author, for example, in quoting Old Slavonic. And for good you need to know the history of your language.
  4. Free wind
    Free wind 31 May 2015 09: 50
    +3
    It would be nice to translate into Russian, all these statements.
    1. Egoza
      Egoza 31 May 2015 10: 09
      +5
      Quote: Free Wind
      It would be nice to translate into Russian, all these statements.

      Wait a bit - I will do everything in a row. I’ll add on my own that Kulish, as the first compiler of the Ukrainian alphabet, aimed to help master the literacy of the illiterate rural population, and therefore adapted the Russian alphabet to the prevailing ordinary dialect, but not in order to glorify ukromova, as they initially tried to attribute independence to him.
      1. Dudu
        Dudu 31 May 2015 11: 54
        -4
        Kulish actually did not compose any alphabet. His actions are still misinterpreted, attributing to him the creation of a kind of "kulishivka". In fact, he simplified the spelling, which is completely different. All documents of the 18th and early 19th centuries, signatures to paintings, literary works - either Church Slavonic with common parlance, or such Russian speech are written in a very strange, irregular language.
        Kulish’s works did not distort, but they did what they wanted with Shevchenko’s works. The most forbidden book is the Shevchenko Primer, published by him before his death. The tiny pamphlet that the Communists feared before and the nationalists fear now. There are given folk works in his notes, which demonstrate that the Ukrainian language is not a Mova of the Judeo-Komunars, but a completely different Slavic language.
        1. Silhouette
          Silhouette 31 May 2015 13: 44
          +3
          Quote: Dudu
          The most forbidden book is the Shevchenko Primer, published by him before his death. The tiny pamphlet that the Communists feared before and the nationalists fear now. There are given folk works in his notes, which demonstrate that the Ukrainian language is not a Mova of the Judeo-Komunars, but a completely different Slavic language.


          Can you give an example?
          1. Dudu
            Dudu 31 May 2015 21: 13
            -1
            "Can you give an example?"

            What for? Will you carry the truth to the masses or for yourself? If for yourself, then give your address and I will send scans, if to the masses - then we have already tried to roll everything up in concrete before you. So the prophet will not work, and the people have long been retrained in a different way ...
            Here is an example - no one saw or read anything from this ABC book, but already puts the cons - because they already KNOW EVERYTHING!
          2. The comment was deleted.
  5. Egoza
    Egoza 31 May 2015 10: 40
    +7
    Well then, that mi hour
    Vibrohuvati rested,
    І to Peter y to Katerina
    Hulu that slander barked.


    Since then, we are Ukraine
    They started to get (create) a lie
    And on Peter and on Katerina
    Hulu and slander were fouled (carried nonsense, nonsense)


    Kulish calls "Ukrainian-Polish Baty", recalling "More zhakhliv blame for the people, before that, before we were blamed by the Tatars against Batim and the offensives, and then against Bohdan and Yurim Khmelnitsky."

    “The terrible destruction of the people, similar to what the Tatars did with us, headed by Batu and his heirs, and then led by Bogdan and Yuri Khmelnitsky”

    Yak slander on Russia tatarsk likholіttє,
    Started in Kiev nemovbi tіlki smіttya.
    On Klyazma th on Moscow, people crawled
    І wore them, hto z kiyan tudi pribud.
    І vs і, sco rusko ї Edinost_ was eager,
    Little by little, they arrived in Klyazma on Moscow.


    How the Tatar hard times fell on Russia.
    Stayed in Kiev like only garbage
    People ran to Klyazma and Moscow
    And peeping (from there), which of the Kievans will arrive there.
    And everyone who wanted Russian unity,
    Klyazma and Moscow gradually arrived

    Imperiya - se power bula above the horns,
    Over Khan, Turchin, Lithuania and Elyahs ...
    I shcho b there ni bulo girkogo in Ukraine,
    And densely having forgotten our narіd on the road.
    De us dozens of for Palіїv lichili,
    There mіlіonami edge ідний ми осіли.


    Empire - this power was over enemies,
    Over the Khan, Turk, Lithuania and the Poles ...
    And so that there was no bitter in Ukraine,
    And often our people went wild in ruin
    Where dozens of us considered Pallias
    There we occupied the land of millions of native
    And often our people went wild in ruin
    There, in millions, we besieged the native land.

    (Paly is the nickname of one of the leaders of the peasant uprising, meaning "arsonist, the one who prompts action against someone)

    Tired of poples_ kozatskoi Ruїni,
    Click to synv words of birthplace:
    Topimo at Dnіprі hate brother diku,
    Sporudmo vtryoh one іmperіyu great,
    І spirit trio bratv dictation dictator,
    God forbid give us freedom.


    Rising from the ashes of the Cossack ruins
    We turn to the sons of the Slavic family:
    Drown in the Dnieper hatred wild fraternity
    The three of us will build one great empire
    And in the spirit of three brothers a consecrated dictator,
    May the emperor give us a system of freedom.
    1. Free wind
      Free wind 31 May 2015 17: 15
      +2
      Alyonushka thanks! smile
    2. corn
      corn 31 May 2015 19: 43
      +2
      Quote: Egoza
      Ruins

      Ruina - collapse, devastation. No offense.
      Very often, a rumor hurts when many Ukrainian leaders (or businessmen) think Russian, and try to speak Ukrainian (they haven’t wiggled). This doesn’t apply to you. Thank you for the translation, I wanted to do the same myself, but you got ahead.
  6. revnagan
    revnagan 31 May 2015 10: 59
    +2
    Quote: Free Wind
    It would be nice to translate into Russian, all these statements.

    Literary, in verse, it is difficult. And so everything is clear. Besides, it is impossible to translate some words literally. For example: "vibrihuvati". To invent, but not in the sense of "fantasizing", but "to suck your story out of your finger." as they do in Ukraine now.
    "Since that time we will
    invent started
    and on Peter da Katerina
    blasphemy and slander were carried. "

    "We have become overwhelmed by the Tatar imperfections to go and tod, if the Tatars, in their own devil, will be beaten and strangled by us."
    "Mi remained Tatar nedobitki even when the Tatars, in turn, were beaten by us and suppressed" (subdued).

    "More zhakhliv blame for the people, before that, before we were blamed by the Tatars on the choly of Batyum and the offensives, and then on the choly on Bogdan and Yurim Khmelnitsky"

    "the terrifying (terrible) destruction of the people, similar to what the Tatars, led by Batu and his heirs, and later led by Bogdan and Yuri Khmelnitsky, committed over us."

    "Yak piled on Rus Tatar likholittє,
    Started in Kiev nemovbi tіlki smіttya.
    On Klyazma th on Moscow, people crawled
    І wore them, hto z kiyan tudi pribud.
    І vs і, sco rusko ї Edinost_ was eager,
    They gradually arrived on the Klyazma and on Moscow. "

    As the Tatar invasion fell on Russia
    Stayed in Kiev as if only garbage,
    People ran to Klyazma and Moscow
    Looking for which of the Kievans will arrive there,
    And all who expected Russian unity,
    They arrived at Klyazma and Moscow.

    "Empire is the power of the bully over the enemies,
    Over Khan, Turchin, Lithuania and Elyahs ...
    I shcho b there ni bulo girkogo in Ukraine,
    And densely having forgotten our narіd on the road.
    De us dozens of for Palіїv lichili,
    There, in millions, is the land of my donkeys. "

    The empire was in power,
    Above the Khan, Turks, Lithuania and Panas, (Polish Panism)
    And what would be bad in Ukraine,
    But suddenly our people bloomed violently on the ruin
    Where dozens of fire victims counted us,
    There we settled in millions in our native land.

    "Tired of singing Cossack ruins,
    Click to synv words of birthplace:
    Topimo at Dnіprі hate brother diku,
    Sporudmo vtryoh one іmperіyu great,
    І spirit trio bratv dictation dictator,
    Let’s give us the way of freedom, Emperor. "

    Rising from the ashes of the Cossack ruins
    We appeal to the sons of the Slovenian family,
    Drown in the Dnieper wild fraternal hatred
    The three of us will build one great empire,
    And the spirit of three brothers consecrated a dictator
    May the emperor give us order.

    Well, something like this, there is no time to completely translate literary.
    1. Silhouette
      Silhouette 31 May 2015 13: 46
      0
      Quote: revnagan
      Besides, it is impossible to translate some words literally. For example: "vibrihuvati".


      Be curled up.
      1. revnagan
        revnagan 31 May 2015 15: 44
        +2
        Quote: Silhouette
        Be curled up.

        It is not true. Zavratsya is "zabrehatis". And "vibrihuvati" is to create a false history, perverting, "vybrehat" it.
        1. The comment was deleted.
  7. Prince Igor
    Prince Igor 31 May 2015 14: 09
    +2
    wink Ukraine is the outskirts of Russia. No one can separate our people!
  8. Type 63
    Type 63 31 May 2015 17: 22
    +3
    Elderberry writes (or rather, wrote) vividly, emotionally and informatively. Kingdom of heaven!
  9. Ostup bender
    Ostup bender 31 May 2015 20: 24
    +1
    What does this discussion of literary topics have to do with military review? And how can one delirium a person who has received all the posts and titles in his life by deceit and licit obscurity?