Operational time 12: 58. The enemy, having defeated a motorized infantry brigade, having suffered defeat at the intermediate line Makarovka (in the direction of Murom 14 km) - Repino (in the direction of Panfilovo 11 km), departs in the direction of Murom, Navashino, conducts restraining military operations, retreating units trying to gain a foothold on the right bank of the river The Oka, at the same time, is pushing reserves from the depths from the east (Vacha-Navashino).
The 1 Ombra 20 Army completes the destruction of the enemy in the battalion areas of the defense of the first echelon at the turn of Makarovka-Repino. The reinforced motorized rifle battalion, the vanguard of the 1 ombsbr, the main forces went to the western outskirts of Panfilovo. 5 MSR - head marching outpost, located on the southern outskirts of Karacharovo. Her combat reconnaissance patrol goes to the River Oka.
According to the report of military intelligence, in the area of 1 km southeast of the railway bridge of the city of Muroma - oz.Staritsa - mark. 79.1 go to the defense of the unit forces to the infantry battalion. The works on fortification equipment and the installation of mine-explosive obstacles are noted.
In 17 minutes, a tactical airborne assault will be landed in 13 km southeast of Murom railway bridge in 15: 1,5 with the task: to ensure a bridgehead seizing on the right bank of the Oka river in the upcoming connection offensive zone. The most convenient for forcing is the site: the southern outskirts of Karacharovo, Zagryazhskoe. Before the offensive, it is necessary to conduct reconnaissance of possible locations of equipment for the ferries, force the Oka River on the indicated section, and, in cooperation with the tactical air assault force, defeat the enemy on the right bank. K 14: 30 to seize the area of Lake Beloe - Lake Omut - elev. 82,5 and ensure the forcing of the river by the main forces of the brigade.
On the Oka 21 River in May 2015, a demonstration lesson was held on the actions of the engineering troops when crossing the water barrier. According to Lieutenant-General Yuri Stavitsky, the head of the engineering troops, such large-scale operations, during which more than 1000 military personnel were involved and about 200 units of various vehicles, were carried out for the first time in many years.
When crossing over six gauges, on a wide front, through a water barrier about 300 meters wide, transported ferry with a lifting capacity of 160 tons from the newest pontoon park PP-2005 was used. In addition to crossing the convoy of the main forces, technical and logistical support units on the floating bridge, under the cover of fumes and aerosols, strikes aviation and air defense units were transported missile system "Yars". In addition to a mobile launcher with a cargo model of a rocket, an engineering support and camouflage machine was also transported, followed by the deployment of inflatable mock-ups of the Yars ballistic missile launcher.
A few days before the hour X.
Moving on the ferry from the left bank of the Oka to the right.
A specially prepared detailed layout of the area will be installed in front of the guest podium.
Overcast, damp, strong piercing wind, about + 8С. Well VERY cold.
Towing motor boat BMK-460.
On the original bank, military engineers are preparing to force the river.
Tank platoons and something large under the maskset will also soon leave from one coast to another.
Self-propelled ferries PMM-2 on the banks of the Oka.
All participants in the events at the crossing in life jackets. Pontoon-in rubber boots and suits.
In the background is the Muromsky railway bridge.
The flag of the engineering troops is a four-pointed white cross with flared ends and with red-black-red-black corners equally divided between the ends of the cross. In the center of the cloth there is an image of a silver blade of a tracker, anchor, flaming grenada with lightning and crossed axes framed on top by a gear wheel.
In front of the main podium is mounting a scale layout of the area.
Washing the ferry from sand and clay.
Transportation of the Emergency Situations Ministry fire truck to the “enemy” shore.
At the command post exercises.
In 13: 00, aerial reconnaissance sweeps over the very heads. The task of the air reconnaissance aircraft is to reveal the deployment of command and control points, positional areas of air defense assets, firing positions of rocket forces and artillery, areas of concentration and the main directions of the advancement of the general arms units of the enemy.
To perform reconnaissance missions, a specialized Su-24МР integrated aerial reconnaissance aircraft is used. The aircraft provides all-weather integrated air reconnaissance day and night to a depth of 400 km from the line of combat contact with the opposition of the enemy’s air defense. Aircraft reconnaissance equipment consists of:
• Side bay radar "Bayonet";
• television intelligence equipment "Aist-M";
• Winter Infrared Reconnaissance Equipment;
• Spire-2М laser intelligence systems;
• General radio intelligence station "Pitch";
• Efir-1М radiation reconnaissance equipment;
• AP-402 aerial cameras panoramic and A-100 perspective shots.
According to the results of the reconnaissance aircraft, the advancement of two enemy columns with depths up to 5 km each, from the east and southeast, was opened. Their approach to the eastern edge of Murom is possible with 15: 00.
Before forcing the river, the engineering reconnaissance patrol determines the flow rate of the river using a hydrometric turntable, the bottom characteristics using the bottom probe of the GR-69, and the depth of the river using a gaff or dimensional cable with cargo and marking. The combat reconnaissance patrol on the source bank conducts reconnaissance of approaches, determines the presence of descents for military equipment, enemy minefields.
A platoon assigned to a combat reconnaissance patrol is reinforced by an engineer-sapper unit, if necessary.
Depending on the situation, engineering reconnaissance patrols can operate on various means of engineering armament: on an engineering reconnaissance vehicle (in the lower left corner of the picture), a floating transporter, a boat, an inflatable speedboat, and an armored personnel carrier.
Intelligence before forcing the main forces is conducted by the armored personnel carrier BTR-82 / 82А.
Learn more about the BTR-82 / 82.
Engineering reconnaissance of the source coast is carried out in order to obtain data for selecting or specifying the area of equipment for the ferries (landing, ferry, bridge) and locations of its elements, the presence of enemy mine-explosive obstacles, and also for developing a solution to organize the execution of tasks.
Under the terms of the exercises, the landing of a tactical air assault force under the guise of combat helicopters was planned.
In the interests of ensuring the landing of a tactical airborne assault force, the Mi-24 helicopter gunship of various types strikes.
Objects of destruction of helicopters of fire support can be living force and fire weapons of the enemy.
Engineering intelligence on a high-speed motor rubber boat landed on the shore. The picture shows a dog-fighter with a dog, a fighter with a cat on a rope, a fighter with a metal detector, a fighter with a proximity detector for explosive devices INVER Korshun.
The sappers discovered an anti-personnel mine simulator on a stretch right in the alignment. The patrol took cover, after which the sapper removed the dangerous obstacle by squeezing the stretch “cat” and thus triggering the ammunition.
According to the results of the exploration, the commander of the engineering reconnaissance group reported: "Birch", I, "Fighter-12", carried out reconnaissance of the source bank, the water barrier and the right bank. The characteristics of the water barrier in this area define it as wide, with a middle course, very deep along the riverbed, with predominant steep and steep banks. On the original and opposite banks there are areas suitable for entry and exit of floating military equipment. On the right bank of the river, on a specified engineering survey site, there are anti-personnel mine blast barriers installed by means of remote mining.
The combat launch of the ZRP-2 "Trail", 66 Training Center for Engineering Troops, Moscow Region, autumn 2014 of the year.
Prior to the beginning of the water obstacle forcing, the engineering units for making passes by the explosive method in anti-personnel minefields on the opposite shore can use the trail clearance mine Zrp-2. ZRP-2 is intended for making passes in the enemy’s anti-personnel minefield by applying an elongated charge of clearance to the minefield of the enemy in a reactive manner.
Undermining of the ZRP-2 “Trail”, 66 Training Center for Engineering Troops, Moscow Region, autumn 2014 of the year.
Undermining the extended single-detonating charge (from the CDR cable - 150 A); total package weight is 50 kg; carrying bag - 34 kg, in a detonating cable on 1 m - 0,15 kg BB (charge length 60 m, feed distance 140-160 m, passage dimensions: length - 54 m, width - 0,4 m).
The engineering department, operating as part of the IRD, is loaded into the boat and continues to check the adjacent water area for the presence of mine-explosive barriers.
Setting masking the crossing of the veil with the help of smoke and aerosols.
A strong wind in a matter of seconds brings the curtain ashore.
The span of a pair of combat helicopters Mi-24, which strike from on-board weapons on the enemy, occupying the defense.
PTS-2 floating conveyor.
After 15-20 minutes after the start of the forcing, combined-arms units supported by artillery, tanks and infantry fighting vehicles firing direct fire from the source bank and strikes by army aviation destroy the enemy in the platoon strongholds. Eliminating the possibility of enemy fire at direct obstacles across a water obstacle, amphibious crossings on the TCP begin to function.
The purpose of the amphibious crossing on floating transporters is the crossing of automobile and tracked combat vehicles, artillery systems of the first echelon, personnel and cargo of no more than 12 tons. The units designated for the crossing carry out the loading of military equipment and the landing of personnel in the landing areas, from where they rapidly reach the water barrier and are being forwarded to the opposite shore.
The conveyor delivered to the bridgehead a truck with a mortar calculation on board.
In the interests of the connections of the first echelon of the 20 Army, a pair of fighter-assault aircraft is operating with the task of striking the advancing enemy columns. At the command of the advanced aircraft builder, the Su-34 steam comes in for a strike.
Combat helicopters cover the crossing.
Mi-24В - the most popular version of the Mi-24, with a mobile machine gun installation USPU-24 with a machine gun YakB-12,7. Produced in 1976 – 1986's. Built around 1000 helicopters.
PMM-2 self-propelled ferries prepare to enter the water. A battalion operating in a forward detachment with the task of forcing a water obstacle may be enhanced by a platoon of TCP (medium floating conveyor), a PMM (ferry-bridge machine) or pontoon subunits of engineering battalions.
The advancement of engineering units from the source area to the places of equipment of the elements of the crossing shall be carried out along paths that have been reconnoitered and designated by reconnaissance and equipped with engineering-road units or traffic units formed from the composition of the engineering units equipped with the crossing.
The advancement of the crossing means to the edge of the water is carried out, if possible, covertly and covered from the blows of the enemy. The unloading of the material part of the pontoon park begins after the destruction of the enemy in the platoon strongholds and the elimination of the impact of his fire weapons by crossing direct fire. The start time of ferry crossings through 25-30 minutes after the start of the forcing.
The discharge into the water of links and boats of the materiel of the pontoon-bridge park.
During the ensuing battle, head patrols suffer the first losses. The paramedic of the battalion with the orderlies is being promoted to provide medical assistance and organize the evacuation of the wounded. The place of collection of the wounded is indicated by a flag; in one of the river-walls, the wounded are loaded onto a floating conveyor for evacuation.
When aiming the crossing, the SES is obligatory involved - rescue and evacuation service. SES tasks: rescue crews and airborne infantry fighting vehicles, remaining under water, afloat or sunken at the crossing, evacuation of combat vehicles from the water. Rescue evacuation groups (ETS) go to the water barrier after the engineering reconnaissance determines the location of the ferry equipment on the water barrier. In the case of the forced stopping of a combat vehicle afloat or under water, the ECC independently makes a decision, acts quickly and initiatively.
SEG consists of two teams - rescue and evacuation. Rescue service is organized to save people at the crossing. It includes a rescue team and a medical assistance point. They are located on the lower side within the boundaries of the crossing. The rescue team is assigned to those who are able to swim well and are trained in rescue of drowning people. At the landing crossings in the rescue team can be included excellent swimmers from the composition of the troops.
The rescue team is equipped with a tracked floating transporter, a boat or a boat with a mounted propulsion unit and accessories to assist the victims (lifebuoys, floats, hooks, throwing ropes, etc.). In it, if necessary, include divers.
The 6-60-ti ferries are being assembled from the material part of the PP-91M fleet. A feature of the PP-91M park is that, from its material part, it is possible to assemble 8 transport ferries with a carrying capacity of 60 tons with coastal links. The presence of coastal links allows for the loading and unloading of heavy armored vehicles in silted areas of the coastal strip and timely departure of the ferry.
Another flight of Mi-24 combat helicopters.
Multipurpose attack helicopter Mi-24P. Cannon version of the helicopter with a fixed installation with a double-barreled 30-mm gun GSH-30 with elongated trunks in the fairing on the side of the fuselage.
When crossing ferries, tanks, combat vehicles, cars must stand with the first gear engaged, the handbrake tightened and the engine shut off.
On the source bank, he proceeded to load the second tank platoon on three 60-ti ferries. The third tank platoon continues to fire the enemy by firing from a regular weapons direct fire.
Hatches of tanks and armored vehicles, as well as the doors of other vehicles during the crossing should be open.
For shallow shores and strong soils of the bottom, the ferry is brought to the shore to the minimum permissible depth, and unloading of the transported vehicles is wade to the bottom with their subsequent movement to the shore.
The ferry was unloaded and sent for a new tank platoon.
Along with the ferry crossings from the material part of the pontoon-bridge park, ferry crossings from the ferry-bridge machines can be equipped. The start time of the operation of such a crossing is through 15-20 minutes after the start of the forcing, due to the time required for the transfer of self-propelled ferries from the traveling position to the working position.
Mi-8MT helicopters are used during the guidance of the crossing in a variety of roles, for example, as part of a mobile obstacle detachment. Such a detachment is used by helicopters at the junctions of subunits, as well as to prevent the enemy from entering the flank and to the rear of the disembarked tactical airborne assault forces, bypassing the detachments and reserves. Currently in service consists of a helicopter mining system, which allows to put different types of minefields:
Ammunition (on one helicopter) - 116 cassettes (29 cassettes in 4-x outboard containers);
type of mines used - PFM-1, POM-2, PTM-3;
the length of the arranged minefield:
of mines PFM-1, POM-2 - 1800 m;
from min PTM -3 - 400 m; PTM - 4 - 800 m.
mining speed - 140-160 km / h;
mining height - 50-100 m.
one BK installation time - 1-1,5 min.
After assembling the 255-ti ferry from PMM-2, on the opposite shore, loading of the GMZ-3 tracked minelayers intended for operations in the mobile unit of the motorized rifle brigade begins. The main task of the mobile detachment of brigade barriers is the construction of barriers and the production of damage in the identified areas of the enemy’s counterattacks, covering the open flanks with barriers, spacing in battle order and securing the achieved lines.
After crossing the 85-ton ferries collected from PMM-2 and unloading the first flight of a tank platoon, these ferries leave the coast and begin to build afloat the 255-ton ferry.
The transferred tank platoon enters the firing positions on the captured bridgehead, and, developing the success of the offensive, continues to lead the enemy's fire attack, supporting the advance of the motorized infantry.
Airborne ferry includes several routes, some of which are intended for the movement of tracked floating conveyors, and the other for self-propelled ferries.
After unloading, the mobile detachment of obstacles is moved to the previously indicated line and installs a three-row anti-tank minefield, covering the flanks of the advancing units from the enemy’s counterattack.
Tracked minelayers are advanced in the column to the line of mining. Coming to the line, they turn around by turning. Having identified for themselves the landmarks, GMZ begin to set mines.
When installing an anti-tank minefield, the crews of the tracked minelayers use the “Cloud” smoke screen system, which reduces the likelihood of detection and destruction of the enemy’s anti-tank weapons.
The main characteristics of GMZ-3: ammunition - 624 mines; the mining step is 5 and 10 m; the length of the established minefield, - from mines with contact sensors of the target - 1 km., from mines with proximity sensors of the target - 2 km .; time to install a three-row minefield from one ammunition set - on the ground 12-14 min., to the ground - up to 17 min.
The ferry goes to the original coast.
For servicing the ferry, a ferry chief is appointed and the calculation of the pontoon boats and caters.
From the ferry installed for unloading, the ramp is lowered onto the shore and the equipment goes ashore.
Unloading heavy engineering equipment.
This task was to capture the bridgehead completed, in cooperation with the commander of the tactical airborne assault destroyed up to two enemy infantry. Battalion units of the river Oka forced. The battalion commander reported to the brigade commander about the crossing of the main forces of the forward detachment to the opposite bank and the fulfillment of the assigned task.
Now pontoon units suggest a floating bridge under the cover of a curtain of smoke and aerosols.
After unloading the 180-ton ferries, the pontoon units begin to build a bridge crossing from the materiel of the pontoon-bridge park.
Holding the floating bridge on the course with the help of boats.
The number of boats or other means necessary for keeping the floating bridge in the current is determined depending on the bridge design, propulsion characteristics and flow velocity.
Meanwhile, in the course of engineering reconnaissance, a destroyed road bridge across the Oka River on the eastern outskirts of Murom was discovered on the combat patrol route of the Yars mobile missile complex.
The 45 pontoon battalion of the separate engineering and sapper brigade was tasked with transporting the launch battery of the Yars mobile ground rockets system across the river.
The beginning of the operation of the ferry, designed to deliver on the opposite bank of mobile ground-based missile systems of strategic missile forces and special machines to ensure their movement and disguise.
The assembly of such a ferry is made from the material part of the PP-2005 fleet, the design features of which make it possible to arrange a double-width carriageway. In the event of the destruction or damage of bridges through water barriers, they will become serious obstacles when maneuvering actions are performed on missile regiments along combat patrol routes, which are armed with mobile ground-based missile systems.
An aggregate of the Yars mobile soil missile system with a length of more than 25 m, a height of 4,5 m and a mass of more than 100 tons enters a double-width ferry.
The RVSN does not have pontoon-dispatching units, and this task is carried out by units of the engineering troops.
The first to the opposite shore for the engineering reconnaissance of combat patrol routes and field positions is the reconnaissance group of the missile battalion, which includes an engineering support and camouflage machine (MIOM), which is the combat support unit of the Yars mobile soil missile system.
The engineering support and camouflage machine is designed to increase the efficiency of carrying out camouflage and imitation activities of the missile battalion at field positions, as well as for carrying out engineering reconnaissance of combat patrol routes and terrain at field positions.
The unit is mounted on the MZKT-7930 off-road wheel chassis.
In accordance with the prevailing situation, according to the decision of the commander, an engineering support and disguise machine can perform the following tasks:
- equipment of one false position of the missile battalion near the real field position of the concentrated combat order of the missile battalion (no closer than 3 - 5 km)
- equipment of one false position of the missile battalion to the field position immediately after leaving the real missile battalion
can also participate in the composition of the false column of the missile battalion, followed by taking up a false field position and deploying on it a false missile battalion.
The false rocket division kit is designed to simulate the location of the missile division as part of three launch batteries and rocket battalion support units for a field position. The kit includes 10 simulators, of which 3 is an autonomous launcher simulator and 7 simulators of support units. At the same time, under camouflage coatings, they have a complete resemblance to camouflaged units, overall characteristics are observed. The deployment and collapse time of one simulator based on 8 man is 1 hour.
In order to create normal living conditions for the crew, the machine is additionally equipped with a compartment to ensure the life, rest, food and medical care of the unit calculation for the period of its autonomous operation (7 days).
The Yars mobile ground-based missile system (adopted on 2009) is a modernization of the Topol-M missile system and forms the basis of the Strategic Missile Forces strike group. Currently, the RVSN is armed with more than 30 of such complexes.
A mobile solid-state intercontinental ballistic missile with a split head RS-24 has been installed on the mobile Yars soil missile system.
The mobile-based rocket PC-24 comes into operation from the factory in a transport-launch container, in which the entire service life is located.
The transport and launch container is located on the multi-axle high-pass chassis of the MZKT-79221.
The Yars mobile soil missile system has increased resistance to the enemy’s high-precision weapons and has the ability to deliver warheads to designated individual targets protected by a multi-layered missile defense system with space-based elements with a probability of 0,95. The destruction of targets is carried out with an accuracy of up to 150 meters, which allows the use of a rocket across the entire spectrum of military-strategic objectives.
Thanks to a number of measures, the possibility of detecting a deployed mobile ground-based missile complex with the help of intelligence devices of a potential enemy has been significantly reduced.
The launch of a mobile-based rocket is possible both from the combat patrol route and from the parking in the home base.
While ferrying the Yars, the floating bridge across the Oka was almost completed.
On the left flank on the water barrier acts horse river outpost. The main task of the outpost is to guard the crossing from enemy sabotage actions and from floating mines, torpedoes, large floating objects and firefighters (ships and rafts equipped with explosive charges). The structure of the gates can be allocated PTS, boats or armored personnel carriers. On broad, especially navigable, rivers, artillery and tank units may also be assigned to outposts. At night, in conditions of limited visibility, river outposts are equipped with searchlights and night vision devices. Outposts begin to perform tasks with the beginning of bridge pickup and end after the closure of the crossing.
Under the protection of the smoke screen on heavy-gauge bridge went heavy equipment.
The beginning of the functioning of the bridge is carried out an hour after the start of the forcing of a water barrier.
When opening the movement on the bridge, first pass the car the maximum allowable mass at low speed.
The arbitrary stop, sharp braking and turns of cars on the bridge are not allowed.
During the movement of vehicles on the bridge, all hatches and doors of vehicles must be prepared for the immediate exit of crews and transported personnel.
After building a floating bridge over it, the main forces of the brigade will pass. After the main forces, a crossing of technical and logistic units is carried out through a water barrier.
After the end of the exercise, all the equipment returned to the original bank over the bridge.
The traffic controller vigilantly watched the tracked vehicles go strictly along the center of the bridge.
PS In the course of monitoring the forcing of a water obstacle, I paid attention to some things that were incomprehensible to me. Who knows - what is it and for what?
This piece of wood hangs on each truck pontoon park. Is it for sealing something? Why such a coloring?
Something, apparently, for aviaavodki?
Something for exploding explosives?