Military Review

Production of aircraft engines in Russia

50
JSC "Ufa Engine-Building Production Association" is the largest developer and manufacturer aviation engines price Russia. More than 20 thousand people work here. UMPO is part of the United Engine Corporation.


The main activities of the company are the development, production, service and repair of turbojet aircraft engines, the production and repair of helicopter units, the production of equipment for the oil and gas industry.

Production of aircraft engines in Russia


UMPO serially manufactures AL-41F-1С turbojet engines for Su-35С aircraft, AL-31F and AL-31FP engines for Su-27 and Su-30 families, separate units for Ka and Mi helicopters, gas turbine drive AELs 31ST for gas pumping stations of OAO Gazprom.

Under the leadership of the association, a promising engine is being developed for the fifth-generation fighter PAK FA (a promising front-line aviation complex, T-50). UMPO participates in the cooperation on the production of the PD-14 engine for the newest Russian passenger aircraft MC-21, in the production program of the VK-2500 helicopter engines, in the reconfiguration of the production of RD engines for MiG aircraft.

1. Welding in the Atmosphere-24 habitable chamber. The most interesting stage in the production of the engine is argon-arc welding of the most critical components in the habitable chamber, ensuring complete tightness and accuracy of the weld. Specially for UMPO, the Leningrad institute Prometheus in 1981 created one of the largest welding sections in Russia, consisting of two Atmosphere-24 installations.



2. According to sanitary standards, a worker can spend no more than 4,5 hours per day in the cell. In the morning - check costumes, medical control, and only after that you can start welding.
Welders travel to Atmosphere-24 in light space suits. Through the first airlock doors they pass into the chamber, air hoses are attached to them, the doors are closed and argon is fed into the chamber. After he expels the air, the welders open the second door, enter the chamber and start working.



3. In the non-oxidizing environment of pure argon, the welding of titanium structures begins.



4. The controlled composition of impurities in argon makes it possible to obtain high-quality welds and increase the fatigue strength of welded structures, provides the possibility of welding in the most inaccessible places due to the use of welding torches without using a protective nozzle.



5. In full vestments, the welder really looks like an astronaut. In order to get access to work in a habitable cell, workers undergo a course of study, first they are fully equipped in the equipment and trained on the air. Usually two weeks is enough to understand whether a person is suitable for such work or not - not everyone can withstand the load.



6. Always in touch with the welders - a specialist, watching what is happening from the control panel. The operator controls the welding current, monitors the gas analysis system and the general condition of the chamber and the worker.



7. No other method of manual welding gives such a result as welding in a habitable chamber. The quality of the seam speaks for itself.



8. Electron beam welding. Electron-beam welding in a vacuum is a fully automated process. In UMPO it is carried out on Ebokam installations. At the same time, two or three welds are welded, moreover, with a minimum level of deformation and a change in the geometry of the part.



9. One specialist works simultaneously on several installations of electron-beam welding.



10. The parts of the combustion chamber, the rotary nozzle and the blocks of nozzle vanes require the application of heat-shielding coatings by the plasma method. For these purposes, the TSZP-MF-P-1000 robotic complex is used.



11. Tool production. The UMP 5 tool shops total number of about 2 500 people. They are engaged in the manufacture of technological equipment. Here they create machine tools, dies for hot and cold processing of metals, cutting tools, measuring tools, molds for casting non-ferrous and ferrous alloys.



12. The production of molds for blade casting is carried out on CNC machines.



13. Now it takes only two to three months to create molds, but earlier this process took six months or longer.



14. An automated measurement tool catches the smallest abnormalities. Details of the modern engine and tool must be made with extremely precise observance of all sizes.



15. Vacuum grouting. Automation of processes always involves reducing costs and improving the quality of work performed. This also applies to vacuum cementation. For cementation - saturating the surface of parts with carbon and increasing their strength - Ipsen vacuum furnaces are used.

For maintenance of the furnace is enough one employee. Parts undergo chemical and heat treatment for several hours, after which they become ideally durable. UMPO specialists have created their own program, which allows cementing with increased accuracy.



16. Foundry. Production in the foundry begins with the production of models. From a special mass, models are pressed for parts of different sizes and configurations, followed by hand finishing.



17. At the site of the production of the melted models, mostly women work.



18. Facing the model blocks and obtaining ceramic forms is an important part of the technological process of the foundry.



19. Before pouring, ceramic molds are roasted in furnaces.



20. The ceramic form is calcined - then it is waiting for you to fill the alloy.



21. This is the ceramic form poured in with alloy.



22. “Worth its weight in gold” is about a blade with a single-crystal structure. The production technology of such a blade is complicated, but this expensive item in all respects works much longer. Each blade is “grown” using a special seed from a nickel-tungsten alloy.



23. The processing area of ​​the hollow wide chord fan blade. For the production of hollow wide-chord fan blades of the engine PD-14 - the driving unit of the promising civil aircraft MC-21 - a special section was created where cutting and mechanical processing of blanks from titanium plates, the final mechanical processing of the lock and the blade feather profile, including its mechanical grinding and polishing, are carried out .



24. Final treatment of the end face of the blade blade.



25. The complex for the production of turbine rotors and a compressor (KPRTK) is the localization of the available capacity to create the main components of the jet drive.



26. Assembling turbine rotors is a time consuming process that requires special qualifications of the performers. High precision machining of the shaft-disk-toe connection is a guarantee of long-term and reliable engine operation.



27. Multistage rotor is assembled into a single unit.



28. The rotor is balanced by representatives of a unique profession, which can be fully mastered only within the factory walls.



29. Production of pipelines and tubes. In order for all engine units to function smoothly - the compressor pumped, the turbine spun, the nozzle was covered or opened, you need to give them commands. The “blood vessels” of the aircraft’s heart are considered to be pipelines - it is through them that the most different information is transmitted. In UMPO there is a shop that specializes in the manufacture of these "vessels" - variegated pipelines and tubes.



30. At the mini-factory for the production of tubes requires jewelry handmade - some details are true man-made works of art.



31. Many operations on the pipe bender are performed by the machine with numerical programmed control of the Bend Master 42 MRV. It bends a tube of titanium and stainless steel. First, determine the geometry of the pipe by contactless technology using the standard. The received data is sent to the machine, which produces pre-bending, or in the factory language - beaten. After the adjustment is made and the final bending of the tube.



32. So the tubes already look like in the finished engine - they twist it like a web, and each performs its own task.



33. Final assembly. In the assembly shop, individual parts and components become a whole engine. Here work mechanics mechanic assembly works of the highest qualification.



34. The large modules assembled in different parts of the workshop are joined by assemblers into a single whole.



35. The final stage of assembly is the installation of gearboxes with fuel-regulating units, communications and electrical equipment. A mandatory check for alignment (to exclude possible vibration) and centering are performed, since all parts are supplied from different workshops.



36. After the bearer tests, the engine is returned to the assembly shop for disassembly, washing and fault detection. First, the product is disassembled and washed with gasoline. Then - an external inspection, measurements, special methods of control. Part of the parts and assembly units are sent for the same inspection in the workshops. Then the engine is collected again - for acceptance tests.



37. A fitter assembles a large module.



38. MSR locksmiths assemble the twentieth century’s greatest engineering, a turbojet engine, by hand, strictly checking technology.



39. The Technical Control Department is responsible for the impeccable quality of all products. Supervisors work at all sites, including - in the assembly shop.



40. In a separate section, a rotating jet nozzle (PRS) is assembled - an important structural element that distinguishes the AL-31FP engine from its predecessor, the AL-31F.



41. The service life of the ORS is 500 hours, and the engine is 1000, so nozzles need to be made twice as much.



42. On a special mini-stand, check the operation of the nozzle and its individual parts.



43. The engine equipped with ORS provides the aircraft with greater maneuverability. By itself, the nozzle looks pretty impressive.



44. The assembly shop has a site where reference samples of engines that have been manufactured and manufactured over the last 20-25 years are exhibited.



45. Tests of engines. The test of an aircraft engine is the final and very crucial stage in the technological chain. In a specialized workshop, bearer and acceptance tests are carried out on stands equipped with modern automated process control systems.



46. In the course of testing the engine, an automated information-measuring system is used, consisting of three computers combined into one local network. Testers monitor engine parameters and bench systems solely by computer readings. The test results are processed in real time. All information about the tests carried out is stored in a computer database.



47. Assembled engine is tested according to technology. The process can take several days, after which the engine is disassembled, washed, defect-proof. All information about the tests carried out is processed and issued in the form of protocols, graphs, tables, both in electronic form and on paper.



48. Appearance of the test shop: once the rumble of tests roused the whole district, now no sound penetrates.



49. Shop No. 40 is the place from where all the UMPO products are sent to the customer. But not only - here the final acceptance of products, units, input control, preservation, packaging is carried out.

The engine AL-31F is sent to the package.



50. The engine expects a neat wrap in layers of packaging paper and polyethylene, but that's not all.



51. The engines are placed in a special container designed for them, which is marked depending on the type of product. After packaging, the package is supplied with accompanying technical documentation: passports, forms, etc.



52. Engine in action!

Originator:
http://loveopium.ru/texnika/proizvodstvo-aviadvigatelej.html
50 comments
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  1. qwert
    qwert 28 May 2015 07: 03
    +4
    Native UMPO. A plant the size of a town.
    1. Rus2012
      Rus2012 28 May 2015 09: 41
      +6
      Quote: qwert
      Native UMPO. A plant the size of a town.


      Class! :)
      Thanks to the author, for the detailed story about the production of gas turbine engines!
      It’s a pity, I didn’t see my classmates, we’ve already left the case of serious ones :(
      Yes, okay, I’m glad that the youth accepted things!

      Only one moment, only 5 years ago there were problems with molds - there was nobody to do and count. Designed in Moscow (on Saturn) ... And so on all Great Russia, there were only a few people ...
      But in 80xx-the whole unit was only on KB UMPO! And so on all MAP factories.

      We are recovering, Russia!
      Soon for NK-32 (Tu-160) - the chains will be restored!
    2. prosto_rgb
      prosto_rgb 28 May 2015 10: 17
      +2
      Article class !!! good
      Technology is just space.
      1. The comment was deleted.
      2. 16112014nk
        16112014nk 28 May 2015 14: 58
        0
        Such technologies - argon-arc welding - were used back in the 60s in Tashkent, when Antei-An22 was produced, and the cameras were much larger!
    3. insafufa
      insafufa 28 May 2015 11: 02
      +5
      Quote: qwert
      Native UMPO. A plant the size of a town.

      No, it’s not like a town, but rather a village

      Yes UMPO develops and pride overwhelms for him
      Small salaries spoil the whole picture
      35 for argon chamber welders

      Leading design engineer from 15 to 000 rubles.
      Ufa Engine-Building Production Association (UMPO), Ufa
      Design engineer from 20 000 rub.
      Technological engineer from 14 to 000 rubles.
      1. shonsu
        shonsu 28 May 2015 18: 37
        +1
        and really not enough. weird. In Moscow, teachers and educators receive more.
      2. shonsu
        shonsu 28 May 2015 18: 37
        0
        and really not enough. weird. In Moscow, teachers and educators receive more.
  2. Cosmos1987
    Cosmos1987 28 May 2015 07: 24
    0
    It seems like a slipway assembly, not a converter assembly, no?
    1. prosto_rgb
      prosto_rgb 28 May 2015 10: 12
      0
      Quote: Cosmos1987
      converter

      Perhaps meant conveyor belt ?
  3. Professor
    Professor 28 May 2015 07: 29
    -4
    Good story. A lot of interesting. good
    It's nice to see Walter’s native CNC grinder. What about import substitution? Where is Rogozin looking. bully
    1. La-5
      La-5 28 May 2015 07: 43
      -1
      Quote: Professor
      Good story. A lot of interesting. good
      It's nice to see Walter’s native CNC grinder. What about import substitution? Where is Rogozin looking. bully

      Poor with import substitution, Russia does not produce modern technological machines, even the USSR bought machines abroad.
      1. inkass_98
        inkass_98 28 May 2015 07: 58
        +4
        Quote: Professor
        Where is Rogozin looking.

        Professor hi and where will Israel sell machine tools if there will be a complete import substitution in Russia?
        The classics are immortal! laughing
        And yes, the article is great!
        1. Professor
          Professor 28 May 2015 08: 01
          -1
          Quote: inkass_98
          But where is Israel going to sell machine tools, if there is a complete import substitution in Russia?

          Israel sells very few machine tools to Russia. Literally drops.
          1. Alexander Romanov
            Alexander Romanov 28 May 2015 08: 05
            +3
            Quote: Professor

            Israel sells very few machine tools to Russia. Literally drops.

            Looks like the quality is not very good, China is better.
            1. Professor
              Professor 28 May 2015 08: 29
              0
              Quote: Alexander Romanov
              Looks like the quality is not very good, China is better.

              The country is small, hands do not reach.
              1. Alexander Romanov
                Alexander Romanov 28 May 2015 08: 46
                +2
                Quote: Professor
                The country is small, hands do not reach.

                Well, nothing, join the TS-doidut lol
          2. V.ic
            V.ic 28 May 2015 09: 24
            +3
            Quote: Professor
            Israel sells very few machine tools

            This testifies to the underdevelopment of machine-tool production in the "promised land".
            Quote: Professor
            Literally drops

            The dosage is alarming ... Morphine?
            1. Professor
              Professor 28 May 2015 09: 27
              -1
              Quote: V.ic
              This testifies to the underdevelopment of machine-tool production in the "promised land".

              And there is. You can not be experts in everything. For this, there is an international division of labor.
      2. Vadim237
        Vadim237 28 May 2015 11: 51
        +1
        And abroad bought the machines from us.
        1. EGOrkka
          EGOrkka 28 May 2015 18: 07
          0
          I heard that the Germans somehow took, but only the fur. part...
    2. Gamdlislyam
      Gamdlislyam 28 May 2015 08: 03
      +3
      Quote: Professor
      What about import substitution? Where is Rogozin looking.

      It's not evening yet, professor. lol

      But the photo story is wonderful. Thanks to the author.
    3. Alexander Romanov
      Alexander Romanov 28 May 2015 08: 04
      +1
      Quote: Professor
      What about import substitution? Where does Rogozin look

      What import substitution, when it comes to the Israeli machine tool. Israel and so consider Russia. Read Russia, write Israel. Around all your wink
      1. Professor
        Professor 28 May 2015 08: 28
        0
        Quote: Alexander Romanov
        What is import substitution when it comes to the Israeli machine tool.

        And show us at least one Israeli machine. wink
        1. Alexander Romanov
          Alexander Romanov 28 May 2015 08: 48
          +2
          Quote: Professor
          And show us at least one Israeli machine.

          Well, I say, everything was done by Russian hands who left for Israel wassat
          Quote: Professor
          And you

          You’re Oleg, I’ve switched to you again, but quit. I’m not a supporter of conservatism. laughing
          1. Professor
            Professor 28 May 2015 08: 54
            -1
            Quote: Alexander Romanov
            Well, I say, everything was done by Russian hands who left for Israel

            I discuss the homeland of elephants on another branch. In fact, I can show a couple of machines that Israel sells to Russia. I do not think that the technology for their manufacture was exported from Russia.

            1. Alexander Romanov
              Alexander Romanov 28 May 2015 09: 03
              +3
              Quote: Professor
              I do not think that the technology for their manufacture was exported from Russia.

              And what does the technology have to do with it? I tell you that the Russians collect them and develop these technologies in Israel, also Russians. How many Jews I don’t know, everyone came from Russia. And I must say they work for the good of both countries. Including you, a consultant for Russian site wink
    4. gispanec
      gispanec 28 May 2015 08: 57
      +6
      Quote: Professor
      It's nice to see Walter’s native CNC grinder. What about import substitution? Where is Rogozin looking.

      you, as always, in your repertoire .... without a fly in the ointment you can’t .... what is it? ... envy? or hatred? .... somewhere a worm of greed and envy gnaws you? !!!! ... well, what about import substitution, you don’t know when it was delivered ... or you think you need to take all the imports and throw them in a landfill ..... your attitude towards you has changed .... you’re petty and somehow evil ...
      1. Professor
        Professor 28 May 2015 09: 23
        -2
        Quote: gispanec
        somewhere a worm of greed and envy gnaws you? !!!!.

        Very greedy and very envious. I envy you before losing sleep. I don’t know what I envy, but I envy.

        Quote: gispanec
        ..What about import substitution?

        You do not keep up with the course of your government? It only speaks of import substitution ...

        Quote: gispanec
        attitude towards you has changed.

        I will not survive.

        Quote: gispanec
        .... petty, you are somehow angry ...

        Yes, I am like this.
    5. cosmos111
      cosmos111 28 May 2015 09: 20
      +3
      Quote: Professor
      It's nice to see Walter’s native CNC grinder. What about import substitution? Where is Rogozin looking.

      You prof is nice to see ...
      but to me that there are so many YOUNG WORKERS AND ENGINEERS at the enterprise ...

      Liberals will leave the people / the people will drive out ... and the CNC grinding machines will be of Russian production !!!

      although now a lot is being done ... I have a friend as a manager at the Astrakhan Machine-Tool Plant (АЗЗ)..000 kopecks from the state ... but machine tools are made and world-class ...

      CNC lathe with tailstock - AC16K25F3, CNC lathe with tailstock - AC16М20Ф3 ..

      here is the link: http: //msd.com.ua/texnologicheskoe-oborudovanie-mashinostroitelnyx-proiz-vodstv



      / shlifovalnye-stanki-s-chpu /
      1. cosmos111
        cosmos111 28 May 2015 09: 40
        +2
        Quote: cosmos111
        friend manager


        PS: incorrectly put it-the PROGRAMMER, paired with a simple RUSSIAN guy named ABRAMOVICH ...
    6. cosmos111
      cosmos111 28 May 2015 09: 58
      +1
      Quote: Professor
      It's nice to see Walter’s native CNC grinder.




      CNC Grinding Machines

      Quote: La-5
      “Grinding machines are manufactured by Russian enterprises of Voronezh Machine Tool Plant OJSC, Moscow KAMI-STANKOAGREGAT LLC, Lipetsk Machine Tool Plant OJSC, St. Petersburg Precision Machine Tool Plant OJSC, Moscow Coordinate Boring Machine Plant OJSC, Moscow MSZ CJSC -Salut ", Vladimir machine-tool plant" Technics ", JSC" Derbent grinding factory ...


      info from: http: //www.obo.ru/? lang = ru & option = message & mess_id = 1154
      Surface Grinding Machine 3Л741ВФ-10
      The manufacturer of surface grinding machines from Lipetsk, "Atlant-L" manufactures and sells surface grinding machines 3L741VF-10 with a circular magnetic table and a horizontal spindle designed for processing flat, convex and concave, tapered surfaces made of ferromagnetic materials ...
      1. Professor
        Professor 28 May 2015 10: 36
        -1
        Quote: cosmos111
        grinding machines are produced by Russian enterprises

        If they are so good, why did they buy Walter for at least $ 500 000?
        1. cosmos111
          cosmos111 28 May 2015 11: 10
          +3
          Quote: Professor
          If they are so good, why did they buy Walter for at least $ 500 000?


          Prof.ф


          money is not out of pocket, but from the budget of the Russian Federation ((and there are kickbacks cuts and other delights of liberalism)))

          I have a brother, for his PERSONAL enterprise at 250 workers ... he buys mainly St. Petersburg ((, OJSC St. Petersburg Precision Machine Tool Plant))) and Taiwanese ((JINN FA))) CNC machines ... cheap and efficient ...

          he who pays from his pocket does not pursue the brand ...
          1. Professor
            Professor 28 May 2015 11: 29
            +1
            I am now engaged in the selection of these machines. Of all the companies we tested, only three (Walter, Evag and Rolomatic) can theoretically do what we are looking for. It is noteworthy that all these companies are German / Swiss. So understand me correctly, the fact that a Russian company has a world-class machine tool, and not a Chinese one, cannot but rejoice. That is why all the talk about import substitution cannot but cause a smile.
            1. cosmos111
              cosmos111 28 May 2015 13: 04
              0
              Quote: Professor
              It is noteworthy that all these companies are German / Swiss.

              excellent quality, no one argues ...

              but who will sell them to Russia ... only through third countries and at a price ...

              therefore, only Taiwan remains ((Akira-Seiki))) - , they produce copies of almost all famous brands with good / acceptable quality .....

              or South Africa. there is a licensed assembly of well-known companies ((Machine Tool Company TONGTAI TOPPER))), they will sell ... but for expensive ...

              as an example
              Akira-Seiki company sells its equipment in 46 country to such major concerns as: Honda (Japan), BMW (Germany), Harley Davison (USA), Wehon (China), Volkswagen (Germany), Intel (USA), Apple (USA) , KIA (South Korea), Hyundai (South Korea), Daewoo (South Korea), MMI Holding (South Africa), AAI (USA), Lohia (India), KTR Corporation (USA), Neuenkirchen (Germany), Auto Verdi ( Sweden), SABO (Italy), NW Machining (USA), Skyway (China).
              Akira-Seiki company registers patents and receives certificates not only in Taiwan, but also in Germany, USA, Japan, which are their largest sales markets.

              info from: http: //akiraseiki-rus.ru/company/about
              1. Professor
                Professor 28 May 2015 14: 06
                -1
                Quote: cosmos111
                but who will sell them to Russia ... only through third countries and at a price ...

                Duc in the photo in the article is just his own. So sold.
          2. Vadim237
            Vadim237 28 May 2015 11: 54
            0
            I prefer to buy DMG machines.
        2. cerbuk6155
          cerbuk6155 28 May 2015 12: 59
          +1
          Professor, if my house is made of Finnish wood and Chinese nails, I have to make out what you think and even pull out the nails. Here who is fooling around and looking for fools, you. I personally am not going to change the nails. And about the machines I’ll say, where steel was smelted, whose steel it was, and where the ore was mined, and on which it was transported, and so on. Any machine, the car is not where it was released, but the one who bought it. But whether I will buy a new one and where it’s already my business, but for those who imposed sanctions, we would have been better if they had been longer, but European producers have lost their profits and production and, accordingly, unemployment and so on. And why didn’t Israel impose sanctions and stop selling agricultural products to Russia? It’s not all fools you see. Half of our people, and that means it can all become. soldier
          1. saag
            saag 28 May 2015 13: 48
            0
            Quote: cerbuk6155
            Chinese nails - what should you take it apart and even pull out the nails

            Well, if the nails are not galvanized :-)
          2. fzr1000
            fzr1000 28 May 2015 14: 15
            +2
            All "Finnish" forest is from the Arkhangelsk region.
        3. The comment was deleted.
    7. The point
      The point 28 May 2015 14: 02
      +1
      Professor, consider the equipment captured. soldier
  4. NEXUS
    NEXUS 28 May 2015 08: 37
    +2
    The photo story is interesting and detailed. The author is a definite plus and many thanks. There would be more of such articles so that people would know how the shield of our country is forged. hi
  5. Dragon-y
    Dragon-y 28 May 2015 09: 00
    +2
    That's what you need to sell, not oil-gas-coal-brains ...
  6. alicante11
    alicante11 28 May 2015 09: 00
    +2
    In the photo there are many young workers, which cannot but rejoice.
  7. V.ic
    V.ic 28 May 2015 09: 36
    0
    But what about the engine under the T-50?
  8. Alcoholic
    Alcoholic 28 May 2015 10: 25
    +1
    Good report :)
    Thank you :)
  9. agent
    agent 28 May 2015 11: 31
    +1
    Generally class material, thanks to the author !!!
  10. nnz226
    nnz226 28 May 2015 13: 11
    0
    Interestingly, is NPO Saturn in Rybinsk (Yaroslavl region) just a handicraft shop ?! Or a candle factory ?!
  11. Gunxnumx
    Gunxnumx 28 May 2015 13: 26
    0
    Judging by the given names of the equipment, only "Atmosphere-24" suggests a domestic origin. Although I will be very glad if I am mistaken.
  12. Dima Čalevo
    Dima Čalevo 28 May 2015 14: 34
    +1
    looking at the photo, you understand why the time of development and launch of a modern engine is comparable to that of an entire aircraft
  13. Ostwald
    Ostwald 28 May 2015 20: 31
    -2
    A good article, such as another about Motor Sich, which, during the period of not being left behind, did not sit idly by under Boguslaev's command, and it will probably turn out that they have there, no worse than in Ufa.
    Machine tool construction is of course the basic industry for any economy.
  14. mealnik2005
    mealnik2005 28 May 2015 21: 59
    +1
    "The parts undergo chemical heat treatment (carburizing) for several hours, after which they become ideally durable."

    Idiocy ... immediately obvious, the author does not know the topic. Ideally durable part is very fragile, which means it is unsuitable for operation. Cementation increases the wear resistance of the part, more precisely its surface layer, but the part itself must be moderately flexible, able to survive multidirectional vibrations.
  15. GDV
    GDV 30 May 2015 20: 24
    0
    A little fly in the ointment, - one of these days one acquaintance came and shared the info that a friend works for him at this plant, and so according to his friend, most of the plant is replacing the SHAPED SPICE, and I don’t care,
    The enterprise is in fact regimen, but turned into a hangout of nariks. The question arises if the company has a security service, if it is there then the head of this service, and his deputies must be fired, and hired normal specialists,
    I think that the quality of the product from this will only increase. Such a sad picture, I think, at none of these plants.
    NKVD you freaks do not have any drugs ready to sell their homeland.