Military Review

Top-5 aircraft Tupolev Design Bureau

48
May 20, 2015 marks the 90th anniversary of the birth of Alexei Tupolev, a famous Soviet aircraft designer who continued the work of his father Andrei Tupolev, founder of the design bureau of the same name. The creation of a world-famous design bureau was preceded by rapid growth in our country of interest in aviation and ballooning. In total, more than 100 different aircraft were designed under the leadership of Andrei Tupolev. At the same time, 78 world records were set on Tupolev's planes and about 30 outstanding flights were completed.


His son also worked shoulder to shoulder with his father. In the 1942 year, after graduating from secondary school in Omsk in evacuation, Alexey began working in the design office (TsKB-29 of the NKVD of the USSR) under the guidance of his father. In 1943, Tupolev Jr. entered the Moscow Aviation Institute named after Sergo Ordzhonikidze (today it is the Moscow Aviation Institute - National Research University), which he graduated from in 1949 year. After that, he returned to Andrei Tupolev's design bureau to the position of designer. For more than 90 years of existence within the walls of this design bureau, more than 300 various aircraft, snowmobiles and small vessels have been developed. Approximately 100 projects were then built in metal, and more than 50 were mass-produced. In total, more than 18 thousands of aircraft under the brand Tu. Below is the 5 of the most prominent aircraft of the KB, three combat and two civilian. All five models are still in operation.

Tu-22M3

At the beginning of the 1960s, the Tupolev Design Bureau and the entire aviation industry of the country faced the question of which development path should be followed when creating a long-range bomber. The dilemma consisted in the following: it is necessary to create a single-mode, ultrahigh-speed aircraft, of course, very expensive; or make a multi-mode machine that would have a moderate cruising speed and a moderate price, but at the same time it had the ability to break through the enemy’s air defense at high supersonic speeds. After a detailed study of several projects in Tupolev Design Bureau, it was decided that for a number of technical and economic indicators it was rational to create a multi-mode aircraft that would take into account the latest technological advances in the field of aircraft construction, in particular, it was planned to use a wing-variable sweep and powerful and cost-effective dual-circuit turbofans. So in the middle of the 1960-s, the design of the 145 aircraft was born in the design bureau, which eventually became the Tu-22M and was originally a deep modernization of the mass-produced missile-carrier Tu-22K.



In the course of further work on the project, it was possible to speak of any modernization very conditionally. By the time of the first flight, the created bomber was a fundamentally new machine, which had little in common with the prototype and the original project. After a period of improvements that took 5 years, this most complicated at the time of time aviation-missile system in the version of the Tu-22М2 was adopted by the Soviet Air Force. And after 5 years, the first missile carriers Tu-22МЗ went to the front-line units. At the same time, the tactical flight characteristics of the Tu-22М3 were substantially superior to those of the first versions of the Tu-22М.

It is worth noting that the Tu-22M series of bombers became advanced machines for their time, technical developments on these aircraft were used in the future to create both passenger and combat vehicles, along with all the aviation design bureaus of the Soviet Union (4 generation aircraft). For the first time in the Soviet Union, the aircraft received a complex and fairly effective set of interrelated both analog and digital crucial systems of aviation and radio electronic equipment.

The Tu-22M series aircraft were built according to the normal aerodynamic configuration and had a low-wing variable swept wing. When creating the aircraft, aluminum alloys were widely used, as well as heat-resistant and high-strength steels, magnesium and titanium alloys. The wing of the aircraft consisted of a fixed part and swivel consoles. The sweep angle of the rotary consoles implemented in the wing was in the range from 20 ° to 65 °. The fuselage of the aircraft was made of semi-monocoque type, the aircraft had a tricycle retractable landing gear with a nose strut. The power plant of the machine consisted of two TRDDF (a turbojet dual-circuit engine with a compression chamber) NK-25. An auxiliary power unit TA-6А was mounted in the forkil of the aircraft.



His first flight of the aircraft under the symbol Tu-22М0 made 30 August 1969 of the year. The test pilot VP Borisov raised the car to the sky. The first prototype of the missile carrier Tu-22М3 first rose into the sky 20 June 1977. After performing an extensive flight test program, the Tu-22М3 was put into mass production in 1978 in the year, but in final form the aircraft was adopted by the Soviet Air Force only in March 1989.

Tu-22M aircraft took an active part in the hostilities in Afghanistan, as well as at the initial stage of the antiterrorist operation in the Chechen Republic. Currently, Tu-22М3 airplanes are still successfully serving as part of the aviation forces of the Russian Air Force. Tupolev Design Bureau is working on further options for upgrading this bomber in accordance with the new requirements that are being put forward today to this aviation strike complex. In total for the entire time of production at the Kazan Aviation Production Association approximately 500 Tu-22M aircraft of various modifications were produced.

Flight technical characteristics of the Tu-22М3:
Overall dimensions: the length of the aircraft - 42,46 m, the height of the aircraft - 11,05 meters; wing span with sweep 20 ° - 34,28 m (wing area 183,57 м2), with sweep 65 ° - 27,7 m (wing area 175,8 м2).
Maximum take-off weight - tons of 124.
The power plant - 2TRDDF NK-25, power 2х14500 kgf (without boost), 2XXNNUMX kgf (fast and the furious).
The maximum flight speed is 2000 km / h.
Tactical range - 2200 km.
Practical ceiling - 14 000 km.
Crew - 4 person.
Armament - one 23-mm gun GSH-23L, combat load - up to 24 000 kg (maximum) and 12 000 kg (normal).

Tu-95MS

Already in 1950-ies, it was clear that the future belongs to the aircraft turbojet or equipped with turboprop engines. In the first half of the 50-s, working in this direction, the Tupolev design bureau created a strategic intercontinental bomber and cruise missile carrier Tu-95, which is still in service with the Russian Air Force. Equipped with the four most powerful turboprop engines in the world, the Tu-95, according to the technical solutions used, still has no analogues in the world. Beginning with 1955, this aircraft is being built in series and remains in service with long-range aviation in the country. Along with the “Myasishchevsky” M-4 and 3M, the Tu-95 until the adoption of the first Soviet intercontinental ballistic missiles was a real deterrent in the nuclear confrontation between Moscow and Washington.



The aircraft was produced in the following versions - Tu-95 bomber, Tu-95K missile carrier, Tu-95MR strategic scout and reconnaissance and target designation aircraft for the Tu-95RC RC. In the late 1960s, through deep modernization of the machine, the long-range Tu-142 anti-submarine defense aircraft was developed, which has passed a difficult development path and is still in service with Russian aviation fleet. In the late 1970s and early 1980s, the Tupolev Design Bureau based on the design of the Tu-142M aircraft designed a strategic bomber-carrier rocket carrier - carrier of long-range cruise missiles, which received the designation Tu-95MS. At the moment, it is this aircraft that forms the basis of the Russian nuclear deterrence aviation. In total, up to the beginning of the 90s of the last century, approximately 400 Tu-95 and Tu-142 aircraft were produced in our country.

It is worth noting that the design of the Tu-95 has become the basis for the first domestic passenger aircraft capable of intercontinental flights - the Tu-114. Also on the basis of this machine, Tupolev residents created a specialized DRLO complex - Tu-126, which had unique characteristics. This aircraft almost 20 years successfully flew off in the domestic air defense system.

The Tu-95MS rocket carrier is an all-metal monoplane with a mid-swept wing and one-fin tail. The use of this aerodynamic layout allows to achieve high aerodynamic characteristics at high flight speeds of the machine. Improvements in performance characteristics have also been achieved due to the large elongation of the wing, as well as the appropriate choice of the angle of its sweep and the set of profiles used along its span. Tu-95MS aircraft are equipped with a powerful power plant of four ND-12MP turboproads with coaxial four-blade propellers. Fuel stock is stored in 8 hermetic compartments of the wing box (so-called caissons), as well as in three soft tanks located in the center section and the rear part of the aircraft fuselage. The aircraft has a “boom” that allows you to refuel the car in the air.



At this point in time, the Tu-95MS remain one of the significant elements of the Russian strategic forces. The aircraft has a large modernization potential, which allows the aviation and missile system to remain in service. This mainly concerns the installation of new equipment and adaptation to the use of more effective missiles.

Flight technical characteristics of the Tu-95MS:
Overall dimensions: length - 49,13 m, height - 13,3 m, wing span - 50,4 m, wing area - 295 square. m
Maximum take-off weight - 185 tons.
The power plant - 4HKH-12MP, power 15 000 hp each.
The maximum flight speed is 830 km / h.
Fighting range - 6500 km.
Practical ceiling - 10 500 km.
Crew - 7 man.
Armament - two 23-mm guns GSH-23 or GSH-23L, normal combat load - 9000 kg, maximum - 20 000 kg.

Tu-160

As in the case of the Tu-22M long-range supersonic bomber, the general course of design work and the analysis of foreign and domestic experience led the design bureau to the idea of ​​creating a multi-mode intercontinental "strategist". The designers have chosen the path to create a four-engine strategic bomber equipped with a variable sweep wing with an integrated fuselage and wing layout. When creating the new Tu-160, the Tupolev team made the most of the accumulated experience that was available in design offices by the 1970 years and was obtained during the creation of the Tu-22M and the supersonic passenger aircraft Tu-144. In particular, in the field of power plants, aerodynamics, weapons and equipment. An experienced copy of the new machine began flying in the 1981 year, and in 1987, the first Tu-160 began to arrive in combat units. In total, more than 30-like aircraft were built, of which 15 are currently in service with the Russian Air Force.



The Tu-160 strategic bomber, armed with long-range cruise missiles, is a system capable of delivering powerful blows at enemy targets located at intercontinental distances from the bomber's base. In this case, the aircraft has great potential for development. In particular, in the Tupolev Design Bureau together with other enterprises and organizations, work is underway to develop an aerospace system based on the Tu-160, as well as to expand the tactical capabilities of the strategic bomber. In the 1980-ies in the Tupolev Design Bureau considered the possibility of developing several target versions of aircraft for different purposes.

The bomber was made according to the scheme of the integral nizkoplan, having a variable sweep wing. The aircraft is equipped with a full turning stabilizer and a keel and three-bearing landing gear. The mechanization of the Tu-160 wing consists of slats, double-slotted flaps, flaperons and spoilers are used for roll control. Four engines were mounted in pairs in nacelles located at the bottom of the fuselage. As an autonomous unit on the plane used APU TA-12.

The aircraft has two compartments for placing the payload, which are located in tandem (one after the other). The main materials of the airframe are titanium, heat-treated aluminum alloys, steel alloys, and composite materials. Given the range, the bomber got a toilet, a kitchen, and a sleeper. To implement the refueling of the Tu-160 in the air on it was mounted a refueling system of the “hose-cone” type. When organizing the mass production of the machine, the fuselage, center section and turning units of the wing consoles were produced by the Kazan aircraft plant, the tail assembly and air intakes - the Irkutsk aircraft plant, wings and the engine compartments - the Voronezh aircraft plant, the chassis - the Kuibyshev plant.



In the design of the wing of the aircraft, monoblock caissons were widely used, which were assembled from monolithic profiles and panels with a length of 20 meters. The aircraft fuselage was assembled from large sheets, stampings and profiles using special riveting. Mechanization of the wing and control units (keel, stabilizer, flaps, flaperones, etc.) were carried out with extensive use of composite and metal glued panels with honeycomb core. According to the official site of the Tupolev Design Bureau, the Tu-160 is the largest in stories military aircraft supersonic aircraft, as well as aircraft with variable geometry of the wing. In addition, it is the heaviest combat aircraft in the world, with the highest take-off weight among all bombers.

Flight technical characteristics of the Tu-160:
Overall dimensions: length - 54,1 m, height - 13,2 m, wing span (sweep 20 °) - 55,7 m, wing span (sweep 65 °) - 13,6 m, wing area - 360 square. m
Maximum take-off weight - 275 tons.
The power plant - 4 TRDDF NK-32, power 4х18000 kgf, 4х25000 kgf (afterburner).
The maximum flight speed is 1800 km / h.
Practical range with normal bomb load - 14 000 km.
Practical ceiling - 15 000 m.
Crew - 4 person.
Armament: various target loads with a total mass of standard - 22 500 kg, maximum - 40 000 kg (strategic and tactical cruise missiles, short-range SD with nuclear and non-nuclear warheads, various types of CAB and conventional bombs).

Tu-154

The Tu-154 aircraft along with the Tu-134 became one of the most successful projects of the Tupolev design bureau in the field of creating passenger airliners. Work on the creation of this medium-haul passenger aircraft began in 1963 year. The design was aimed at creating the most economical and efficient machine in its class. The first flight of the passenger liner made 3 October 1968 of the year. A test pilot Yu. V. Sukhov raised the car into the sky. The first production aircraft took to the skies in the 1970 year.



Soon after, the usual Tu-154 was followed by a Tu-154, featuring more powerful engines and an increased flight range. The maximum take-off weight of this machine was 94 tons. The first regular flight with passengers aboard the Tu-154 made 9 February 1972 of the year. At the end of 1975, a new version of the Tu-154B was created at the Tupolev Design Bureau, which had a maximum take-off weight of 98 tons. The Tu-154B received a reinforced airframe design, a refined control system and fuel system, as well as improved equipment. In addition to the base model, Tu-154B-1 and Tu-154Б-2 aircraft were designed for the 160 and 180 passengers, respectively. In the 1980-ies, a small series produced a cargo version of the Tu-154С aircraft, also produced “cabin” versions of the airliner and flying laboratories created for the “Buran” project.

The Tu-154М aircraft became the most advanced and popular among all Tu-154 variants, in which the designers managed to significantly increase the aircraft’s economic performance and improve the competitiveness of the aircraft on the world by using new, more economical engines and improving the aerodynamics of the aircraft’s glider and its power plant. civil aviation market. The manufacturer of the Tu-154 aircraft was the Kuibyshev Aviation Plant, now called Aviacor-Aviation Plant OJSC (Samara). In total, 930 Tu-154 airplanes of various types were assembled, of which 166 airplanes were sold abroad, mainly a modification of the Tu-154M. Currently, hundreds of aircraft of this type are still being used in civil aviation of Russia and other countries.

With this in mind, Tupolev citizens continue to pay attention to this aircraft, working to maintain the Tu-154 fleet, as well as possible ways to modernize the aircraft. These works today are more than justified. In the modern realities of Russia and the state of the aviation industry, the Tu-154 for at least another ten years will be in active use in one form or another until it is completely replaced by new machines.



In general, the aerobatic complex installed on the Tu-154M meets not only all applicable, but also promising requirements of ICAO and EUROCONTROL. The complex includes a TCAS airborne collision warning system, a satellite navigation system interlinked with ABSU, a TAWS early warning system and other modern equipment.

Flight technical characteristics of the Tu-154M:
Overall dimensions: length - 47,9 m, height - 11,4 m, wing span - 37,55 m, wing area - 202 square. m
Maximum take-off weight - tons of 104.
The power plant is 3XD-30CU-154, thrust 3x11000 kgf.
Cruising flight speed - 900 km / h.
Practical range - 3900 km.
Practical ceiling - 12 100 m.
Crew - 3 person.
The number of passengers is 164-175.

Tu-214PU

In the first half of the 70 of the last century, the Tupolev Design Bureau began to think about a promising comprehensive program for the development of passenger aviation. As part of this program, it was planned to create an open unified basic design of the main aircraft, on the basis of which, over time, you could get the entire line of main passenger airliners: from short-haul to long-haul aircraft of relatively small capacity to giant airbuses intended for transporting hundreds of people. After several years of research in this direction, the Tupolev residents decided to focus on creating the basic concept of the modern medium-haul Tu-204 aircraft. This aircraft had to meet all the requirements that apply to passenger aircraft of the late XX and early XXI century.



Currently, the model Tu-214 (Tu-204-200) is presented on the market, which is a further development of the Tu-204-100, with increased take-off weight and new PS-110А engines to 90, as well as a reinforced fuselage and wing design . This liner is designed to operate on medium and long-haul lines. Aircraft certification was held in 2001 year, currently the machine is in operation and is mass-produced. Tu-214 is a modern, efficient narrow-body long-haul aircraft with two engines. They have a high level of comfort and fuel efficiency. The aircraft, as well as the PS-90A engine, were certified by the IAC AR and fully comply with international requirements for noise on the ground, as well as emissions of harmful substances into the earth's atmosphere.

Of particular interest is the model of the Tu-214PU - a flying command post. It is this special modification of the car that today holds the title of “the personal plane of the Russian president”. This model is significantly different from the serial: special equipment was installed on the aircraft, and the interior was created according to the original design. The Tu-214PU aviation control center is suitable for organizing telephone, telecode and documentary communication channels, as well as providing the most comfortable conditions for rest and work of passengers and crew members throughout the entire flight.



His first flight of the Tu-214PU made 11 May 2010 of the year. Currently, as part of the special flight unit "Russia" there are two such aircraft that can be used to transport the President of the country. The aircraft is used for medium-range flights across Russia and during the overseas visits of the President and Prime Minister of the Russian Federation. For long-distance visits, IL-96-300PU (М1) aircraft are used.

Flight technical characteristics of the Tu-214:
Overall dimensions: length - 46,2 m, height - 13,9 m, wing span - 42 m, wing area - 182,4 square. m
Maximum take-off weight - 110,75 tons.
The power plant - 2 TRD PS-90A, thrust 2x16140 kgf.
Cruising speed - 810-850 km / h.
Practical range - 6500 km.
Practical ceiling - 12 100 m.
Crew - 3 person.
Maximum payload - 25 200 kg.
Passenger capacity - 210 people.

Information sources:
http://tass.ru/armiya-i-opk
http://www.airwar.ru
http://www.tupolev.ru
Materials from free sources
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    3. Scraptor
      Scraptor 26 May 2015 11: 12
      +2
      It’s good that the Tu-160 was not put in the first place, because in fact it was made by Myasishchev. Prizes and everything else was simply renamed to others.
      1. Argon
        Argon 26 May 2015 12: 20
        0
        Yes, the activity of "Deda" is the core of the national design school, the vector line from which each new stage of the Soviet aviation industry began. The introduction of light alloys Tupolev (ANT-3). Struggle for records, in fact, for the status of an aircraft power Tupolev (ANT-25) .SB- in fact, for the entire era of piston aviation, he determined the ratio of operational, resource and cost characteristics of domestic aircraft. I'm sure there are not many people who will name more than five famous domestic designers who would not have been students of Andrei Nikolaevich. I mean that 5 is somehow not enough.
  2. AlNikolaich
    AlNikolaich 26 May 2015 06: 55
    +5
    Thank you for the article, but I would like to see ANT-25, Tu2 and Tu-4, Tu16 and Tu134 in this series!
    Without them, the article seems incomplete!
    1. qwert
      qwert 26 May 2015 07: 10
      +1
      I agree. First of all, about the Tu-16. A good airplane and the whole era of our aviation.
      1. starochkin77
        starochkin77 26 May 2015 12: 35
        0
        He, the civilian Tu-104 from the Tu-16go, did it. hi
    2. Col.
      Col. 26 May 2015 12: 07
      +1
      Quote: AlNikolaich
      Thank you for the article, but I would like to see ANT-25, Tu2 and Tu-4, Tu16 and Tu134 in this series!


      Forgot Tu-114. Chic liner, handsome! Unique features. I was lucky to fly it ... http://www.airwar.ru/enc/aliner/tu114.html
      1. Yuri from Volgograd
        Yuri from Volgograd 29 May 2015 16: 00
        0
        Quote: Colonel
        Quote: AlNikolaich
        Thank you for the article, but I would like to see ANT-25, Tu2 and Tu-4, Tu16 and Tu134 in this series!


        Forgot Tu-114. Chic liner, handsome! Unique features. I was lucky to fly it ... http://www.airwar.ru/enc/aliner/tu114.html

        Do not understand me the article.
        There is no Tu-144 !!!
        At the same time, the Tu-214 is described here, which, alas, has remained piece-wise and, in fact, is not there.
        In general, it is debatable here.
    3. gjv
      gjv 26 May 2015 13: 33
      0
      Quote: AlNikolaich
      I would like to see ANT-25, Tu2 and Tu-4, Tu16 and Tu134 in this series! Without them, the article seems incomplete!

      Another Tu-114 and Tu-126. However, the author sees the top 5 in this way, otherwise the top 10 would have turned out (15, 20, etc.). Separately, articles about these aircraft were already (I do not remember only about the Tu-126). hi
  3. Volga Cossack
    Volga Cossack 26 May 2015 07: 05
    0
    beautiful cars - they fly well - Tupolev always had very beautiful cars.
    1. Basarev
      Basarev 27 May 2015 14: 19
      +1
      We only fly on Boeing, and domestic cars are essentially prohibited - airlines are ready to buy any junk, if only foreign.
      1. Scraptor
        Scraptor 27 May 2015 14: 48
        +3
        They do not buy them, but they lease them; banks do not give money for leasing Russian airliners.
        those who suddenly for some reason began to help out of ordinary taxpayers' money.
        1. Basarev
          Basarev 27 May 2015 17: 24
          -1
          And after that they still tell me that I am a Maidan and rocking the boat, that the current government is sacred, and they overwhelm me with mountains of minuses, when I say that the good vicious and criminal situation cannot be changed and only revolution will save Russia.
  4. VostSib
    VostSib 26 May 2015 07: 17
    0
    ... handsome ...
  5. fa2998
    fa2998 26 May 2015 07: 25
    +2
    I respect the work of the "Tupolevs", but the article was written-Tupolev today. Of course, worthy Tu-160,95,22m planes got into the TOP. But Tupolev had really advanced planes for half a century. That Tupolev did not fight in WWII, but record planes, all forgotten? And I want to note that the Tu-22 and Tu 22M are different aircraft, not a modification. The whole fuselage, wing, engines are all different. At that time, they recently adopted the Tu-22 in emergency mode (time The characteristics did not suit the military and the designers themselves. It was necessary to make a new plane. And the financing? Just made the Tu-22! Knocked out, said they are working on the modification-Tu-22M. And the plane turned out to be wonderful! hi
    1. aleks 62
      aleks 62 26 May 2015 12: 37
      +1
      ..... The characteristics did not suit the military and the designers themselves. It was necessary to make a new aircraft. And the financing? We just made the Tu-22! We knocked out, they said they are working on the modification of the Tu-22M. And the plane turned out wonderful! ....


      ... I will correct .... They did not knock out, but beat Sukhoi with his "weaving" .... By the way, using administrative resources ..... As for the "wonderful" - I can argue .... But what we have, we have. ... hi
  6. 0255
    0255 26 May 2015 08: 11
    +3
    It would be better if the author wrote about the Myasishchev aircraft, the developments on which were in the Tupolev Design Bureau. For example, the M-50, the project of the supersonic passenger aircraft M-53, the project M-18, which went into series as the Tu-160
    1. Engineer
      Engineer 26 May 2015 11: 13
      +1
      Quote: 0255
      project M-18, which went into series as the Tu-160

      Following your logic, you also need to braid the Sukhoi T-4, or even Rockwell B-1. If you didn’t know, and since you wrote, you didn’t know, then Sukhoi won the SMS competition with his T-4MS, but he was not given this program due to the workload of the design bureau with work on the Su-27 and not having his own factory for this aircraft. Kazan plant, of course, no one was going to give to Sukhoi. Myasishchev had a very interesting project, but again he was conceived for a speed of M = 3, which would require the use of a large amount of titanium in the aircraft structure, i.e. the same rake as with the T-4 Sukhoi. Well, the design bureau was just beginning to work (it was formed again) and did not have the necessary experimental and production base in general. Therefore, even having rejected the project MMZ "Experience" based on the Tu-144, the military still gave the project to them, with the transfer of all documentation on the Sukhoi and Myasishchev vehicles. BUT! MMZ "Experience" refused this. Pride leaped. And the fact that the Tu-160, M-18 (20) and Rockwell B-1 are similar is thanks to the laws of aerodynamics, because at that time it was possible to obtain such a range with such flight characteristics only by using an aircraft and variable wing geometry. Well, or Rockwell also handed over the documentation for the M-18, if you really want to)))
      1. Scraptor
        Scraptor 26 May 2015 11: 36
        +2
        Following the Truth, the Tu-160 was made by Myasishchev. The Tupolev Design Bureau "simply" handed over this car. To prepare for serial production. That is, only to put signatures, because the plant was ready for its serial production.
      2. aleks 62
        aleks 62 26 May 2015 12: 45
        +1
        ... which would require the use of a large amount of titanium in the aircraft structure, i.e. the same rake as with the T-4 Sukhoi ....

        ... With titanium just in those years, everything was in order ... (the annual output is up to 30 thousand tons, as far as I remember) ... And there were not so many titanium structures on the plane as you think ... they already wrote about the "weave" .... The plane was completely ready for serial production and was very satisfied with the performance characteristics of the military (preliminary order of 250 pieces) .... But the "genius" of aviation through the Central Committee pushed its "modernization" of Tu-22 (in short all to ... l), under the threat of expulsion from the Kazan plant due to the closure of their topic ... hi
    2. Alexey RA
      Alexey RA 26 May 2015 12: 13
      0
      Quote: 0255
      It would be better if the author wrote about the Myasishchev aircraft, the developments on which were in the Tupolev Design Bureau. For example, M-50

      Better not. And then on the M-50 it suddenly turns out that breakthrough car ahead of time in fact, it turned out to be a heavy aircraft that did not correspond to any of the TK points.
      Unfortunately, breakthrough design solutions were applied without taking into account the capabilities of industry. As a result, re-sealing the tanks alone ate a few tons.
      1. aleks 62
        aleks 62 26 May 2015 12: 48
        0
        .... breakthrough design solutions were applied without regard to industry ...

        ... We have always caught up with the industry .... The same SU-27 was brought to mind for 7 years precisely for this reason .... And nothing, they did .... It still serves as the basis for all modifications .... . hi
        1. Alexey RA
          Alexey RA 26 May 2015 14: 43
          0
          Quote: aleks 62
          .The same SU-27 was brought to mind for 7 years precisely for this reason .... And nothing, they did .... It still serves as the basis for all modifications ....

          Hmm .. it is unlikely that the Su-27, even in a prototype, had a 30% excess of the mass of an empty vehicle over the project. In "AiV" there was an article on the M-50 - the car was really too overloaded, which is why it did not give the required range and speed, and at the same time demanded epic dimensions of the runway.
  7. FID
    FID 26 May 2015 10: 23
    +5
    The article describes the aircraft from the 60s to 90s. Tu-16 and Tu-4 are earlier ... Missed Tu-144 and Tu-134, but the article is about the top five aircraft. It is a pity our design bureaus, NAMES are lost, faceless developments remain, FIRMS are lost, faceless associations remain ....
    1. ZVEROBOY
      ZVEROBOY 26 May 2015 10: 43
      +5
      Quote: SSI
      It is a pity our design bureaus, NAMES are lost, faceless developments remain, FIRMS are lost, faceless associations remain ....

      Hello, dear Sergey! hi
      The whole tragedy of the situation lies in the fact that there are developments and there are projects and even cars ready for production, but after all, we do not build airplanes anymore, it is easier for them to buy Boeing and Airbus, and our civil aircraft industry is oblivious and desolate ...
      1. FID
        FID 26 May 2015 11: 41
        +5
        Totally agree with you! They screwed up with our "Super" in full, but since the money has been enormous (there are no more expensive aircraft in the world, serial, non-experimental), it is impossible to stop. Therefore, we have to push it to China, Vietnam, Egypt ... And domestic a / k this product is in no hurry to take it. The maintenance of a flight hour for this aircraft is about $ 1000, and the maintenance of watermelons and beans is about $ 450-500, conclusions are self-evident. And due to the fact that the domestic aircraft industry is in full ..., our planes are produced piece by piece - the price is appropriate, since factories have to pay for electricity, gas, etc. + also payment for kindergartens and all infrastructure. The smartest people in our government are ... A country without aviation, but we will super build and a similar MS-21 (Yak-242). The example of astronautics does not give anything, but maybe on the contrary, astronautics rushing along the path of aviation, who knows ...
        1. aleks 62
          aleks 62 26 May 2015 12: 51
          0
          ... Maintenance of the flight hour of this aircraft is about $ 1000, and maintenance of watermelons and bobiks is approximately $ 450-500, the conclusions themselves suggest themselves ...

          ..... The cost of a flight hour depends on the number (series) of aircraft and their raid .... The more, the less costs .... hi
          1. FID
            FID 26 May 2015 13: 03
            +2
            Quote: aleks 62
            ..... The cost of a flight hour depends on the number (series) of aircraft and their raid .... The more, the less costs ...

            And accessories and spare parts ??? SJJ produced just over 100 aircraft - the largest series of domestic aircraft construction, the current one, and so ...?
            1. aleks 62
              aleks 62 26 May 2015 13: 56
              0
              .... SSJ produced just over 100 aircraft ...

              .... For such an aircraft (class) - this is not a series .... But rather a very small-scale production ..... How many of the same bobs and basses have been produced ????? .... That's it ... I will repeat: the larger the series, the cheaper the unit and, accordingly, the operation is a monumental law of economics ... And the SSJ is a good plane in its class, my classmate flies on it (FAC), praises it ... And he has something to compare with (about a dozen types of mastered, including the "superliner" Tu-154 ..... wink ) ..... hi
              1. FID
                FID 26 May 2015 14: 17
                +1
                Quote: aleks 62
                A SJ is a good plane in its class

                Where are the crowds of operators seeking this good plane? Why is the Embraers and Bombardier (classmates with a super, by the way) a queue, but super forcibly? Why are some 50 of these good planes crushing concrete in different places? And many more, many different why ... I flew on it. On several sides ... On almost all (yes, except for one), the flaps do not fit into the wing profile after cleaning, a trifle, but this is aerodynamic drag, with all that it implies ...
                1. aleks 62
                  aleks 62 26 May 2015 15: 45
                  +2
                  ..... For almost everyone (yes, except for one), the flaps do not fit into the wing profile after cleaning, a trifle ....

                  ...... belay ..... Honestly, she smiled ...... Actually, this is called a technical malfunction .... And with such malfunctions, planes do not fly .... They stand on the ground ... hi
                  ..... Concerning the Embraers and the Bombardiers - I somehow did not observe the NEW cars, all on leasing or through 25 hands with a furious raid - respectively, much cheaper than new planes .... And their quality is not so hot for of our natural conditions - I remember one collapsed in Siberia (the wheels froze in Siberian frost) ..... hi
                  1. FID
                    FID 26 May 2015 16: 02
                    +3
                    Quote: aleks 62
                    .. Honestly, she smiled.

                    And it pleases, but nonetheless ... And why would it be those. malfunction, if the trailer, for sure, show - the flaps are removed, and after landing, the wing profile is complete. And in flight there is a clear gap between the wing and the flap. Regarding embers and scorers, I did not mean domestic operators, although they prefer to take them even after 25 hands, rather than SSJ ...
                    1. aleks 62
                      aleks 62 26 May 2015 17: 06
                      +1
                      1 ...... And why would it be those. malfunction, if the trailer, for sure, show - the flaps are removed, and after landing, the wing profile is complete.

                      . laughing ..... Mirage .... However ... recourse

                      2 ...... And in flight, a clear gap between the wing and the flap ...

                      ..... So it’s so conceived ... lol

                      3..As for embers and scorers, I did not mean domestic operators, although they prefer to take them even after 25 hands, rather than SSJ ...

                      .... In vain .... I personally began to cautiously fly a passenger (alas, already a passenger) on a freshly painted air junk .... On a new one it’s better, and safer, especially in Russian .... hi.... And do not forget that domestic operators want to get the MAXIMUM profit .... Capitalism, you know ..... And safety is secondary to them ..... wink
                      1. FID
                        FID 26 May 2015 17: 32
                        +1
                        Quote: aleks 62
                        .... In vain .... I personally began to cautiously fly a passenger (alas, already a passenger) on a freshly painted air junk ..

                        I, too, prefer domestic, but ... SMka (tu-204SM) seems to be frozen, 300 - too, 214 - only for SLO and military, 96-300 - the same option, 96-400 - salons are molded from trucks ... MS-21, like super, will most likely be stillborn, like such sad things in our state ... Yes, there is also An-148, but AFL are domestic (and in 148th - 80 percent Russian, in addition to assembly) puts it up against the wall: examples are Vladivostok Avia (TU-204-300) and GTK Rossiya (not to be confused with SLO) -An-148 ... Therefore, the An-148 currently being built at VASO for the military are most likely extreme .. ...
                      2. tomket
                        tomket 27 May 2015 10: 47
                        +1
                        Quote: SSI
                        Therefore, currently being built in VASO An-148 for the military, most likely the extreme ...

                        Why didn't An-148 go?
                      3. FID
                        FID 27 May 2015 16: 18
                        +1
                        Quote: tomket
                        Why didn't An-148 go?

                        Ukraine....
    2. NO PASARAN
      NO PASARAN 26 May 2015 16: 08
      +2
      Quote: SSI
      The example of astronautics yields nothing, but on the contrary, astronautics rushing along the path of aviation, who knows ...

      it is obvious that not only aviation and astronautics will soon be in a deep .. crisis, but all industry, science, medicine, and education.
      the "right" liberal path is the powerful "gentlemen"
  • Engineer
    Engineer 26 May 2015 10: 37
    +2
    A strange top, very much, rather, there should be a heading: "5 planes that I know." I would start with ANT-25, then Tu-2, then our first-born jet of civil aviation Tu-104, of course Tu-95. And where is the mention of the Tu-144 !? belay The author did not hear about him or what? In general, I recommend that the author, before writing such articles, nevertheless familiarize himself with the rich and fruitful activities of both Andrei Nikolaevich and his design bureau. This is interesting, informative and then will not be ashamed of the article.
  • POKPAH
    POKPAH 26 May 2015 11: 23
    0
    But is the 154th still exploited in civil aviation? Only Utair exploited Vrodezh and it has already stopped ... although maybe I'm wrong.
    1. FID
      FID 26 May 2015 14: 58
      +2
      Old men fly in a remote province ...
  • POKPAH
    POKPAH 26 May 2015 16: 16
    +2
    I don’t know the truth or not, I’m not a pilot myself)))) But my friend’s father used to work in Kogalymavia, flew 154, after restructuring the company he went to Yuteir and moved to Boeing 737, he said that it’s better that there is no plane, even Boeings According to the barn, compared with 154 Coy.
  • Kalinvagen
    Kalinvagen 26 May 2015 17: 45
    0
    Beautiful cars
  • 52
    52 26 May 2015 18: 21
    +2
    The article is a direct review for the Pioneer magazine. Does it make sense to torture pixels? The article is a well-deserved "minus". Nothing.
  • xomaNN
    xomaNN 26 May 2015 18: 36
    0
    Military bombers at the Tupolev Design Bureau are successful and good in operation. Well done!
    But with civil Tu- clumsy No.
    1. Pushkar
      Pushkar 26 May 2015 19: 36
      -1
      As for civilian Tu, that's right. Tupolev cars (Tu-104, Tu-134, Tu-154) "lowered" Aeroflot, which had been lifted by Ilyushin's cars (Il-14, Il-18, Il-62). Gluttonous, unreliable, uncomfortable. But the "bombers" are also not to hell. During the war, was there at least one Tupolev plane that played a significant role? Yaki, Ila, Lavochkin fought and reached Berlin. Tupolev could only build record machines, on the verge of circus (Through a pole on one engine! Snowflakes in the pipeline are enough and ...). Think about why board number 1 - Il, landing - Il. And compare the same Tu-95 with B-52.
      1. FID
        FID 27 May 2015 09: 28
        +1
        Quote: Pushkar
        Think about why board number 1 - IL

        This is a long-range, and if you bother to see the fleet of the Arctic Ocean (a special flight detachment, the former 235th), you will see for the first person both Tu-214 and Tu-204-300. This is only DAM ordered for himself A-319 (2 pcs.) And Falcons (2 pcs.), In addition to these aircraft, he has a couple of August Westland helicopters ...
        1. Pushkar
          Pushkar 27 May 2015 14: 53
          0
          And when and where did the GDP fly on these Tu? Cars are damp and are only needed for safety net. Don't talk about the LADY, there is a whole Vnukovo-3 such "patriots" (I live next to me, the glide path is above me). By the way, I can't understand, there are essentially no serious objections, but they diligently minus. Did I lie somewhere?
          1. FID
            FID 27 May 2015 17: 07
            0
            Quote: Pushkar
            And when and where did the GDP fly to these Tu?

            All medium flights (to the Urals, to the north of the European, yes, any up to 5000-6000 km) on them. This is Yeltsin flew to Leningrad on IL-96. Believe me, I know. And the minuses - be philosophical, for example, I never put them. Better to argue really than express your disagreement like that ...
  • VadimSt
    VadimSt 26 May 2015 21: 00
    0
    All the same, TU-144, also needed to be included in the list, and not just to mention in passing. A beautiful and graceful machine, on the earth, in the sky - I happened to see Alma-Ata in the sky.
    1. Pushkar
      Pushkar 26 May 2015 22: 47
      -1
      Yes, the Tu-144 is beautiful. graceful and ... unreliable machine. Operated on passenger traffic for less than a year - from November 1, 1977 to June 1, 1978 (Moscow-Alma-Ata flight). (Concord flew 27 years!). Discontinued operation after the disaster. In addition, it was absolutely unprofitable.
      1. Scraptor
        Scraptor 27 May 2015 14: 58
        -1
        Quote: Pushkar
        in fact, there are no serious objections, but diligently minus them. Am I lying somewhere?

        Of course I lied ... for example, on the Carcass, something from under the wheel can not be pierced like a tank on Concord - it can.
        1. Pushkar
          Pushkar 27 May 2015 15: 40
          0
          Ah, an old friend. Statistics not impressive? Tu-144 (16 aircraft, total flight time of less than 4500 hours) - 7 months of operation, two disasters (exhibition at Le Bourget and the experimental Tu-144d) and Concord - 27 years of operation (20 vehicles, total flight time of 243845 hours, one disaster per Charles de Gaulle Airport). A raid on 1 Tu-144 crash - 2250 hours, Concord - 243845 hours. More than one in a hundred.
          1. Scraptor
            Scraptor 27 May 2015 16: 38
            0
            not impressive - both disasters were without passengers.
            in Paris because of the Mirage, near Yegoryevsk acceptance room (two crew members were killed)

            she must impress you.
            1. Pushkar
              Pushkar 27 May 2015 19: 28
              0
              Without passengers - as it were. Clear.
              1. Scraptor
                Scraptor 27 May 2015 19: 46
                -1
                Wash - it is not clear.
          2. Scraptor
            Scraptor 27 May 2015 17: 02
            0
            In the USSR it was just
            1. there is no one to fly on them, since there was no wealthy layer.
            2. Passenger routes pass over populated areas, not over the Ocean.
            1. Pushkar
              Pushkar 27 May 2015 19: 28
              -1
              Ticket to Alma-Ata - 80 rubles. On the IL-18 - 62 rubles. There were no millionaires? What does the ocean have to do with flight in the stratosphere?
              1. Scraptor
                Scraptor 27 May 2015 19: 45
                0
                Ticket for IL-18 where and at what time? Concord ticket with B747 compare.
                Chelyabinsk meteorite was also in the stratosphere.
                1. Pushkar
                  Pushkar 27 May 2015 21: 48
                  -1
                  During operation. In Alma-Ata. November 1977 - June 1978. What about the meteorite - subsonic planes, what do not fall? True, 100 times less than the Tu-144. Turn off the fool, Mr. Emigrant.
                  1. Scraptor
                    Scraptor 27 May 2015 22: 24
                    -1
                    During operation - none. And at the expense of a subsonic meteorite - Hasek already ascribed the word "official" to you in vain. lol
  • Aleksiy
    Aleksiy 27 May 2015 05: 28
    0
    It is necessary to produce what is obtained, at least in small quantities, but stably, in order to preserve technology and the school of production.