Military Air Defense: problems of transformation


The creation of the aerospace defense of Russia will require not only new modern means of defeating an air enemy, automated control systems, but also structural transformations of the existing air defense system. How will all this affect the Ground Forces? Major General Alexander Leonov, the head of the Air Defense Forces of the Ground Forces, reflects on this.

Military Air Defense: problems of transformationIn order to sustain the main directions of the construction of the air defense forces of the air defense forces, it will be necessary to maintain at a sufficient level the quality parameters and the combat potential of the air defense forces until 2015 and further prospects.

Photo: Vadim Savitsky

The main purpose of the construction of air defense troops SV on 2011 – 2015. - the creation of highly mobile units, military units and air defense units in a rational organizational structure, equipped with modern weapons, military and special equipment, with high field training and combat coherence. However, this will have to solve several fundamentally important tasks.
NEXT PROSPECTS First of all, it will be necessary to improve the command and control system of the air defense forces of the SV in strategic areas. A military units and units to re-equip with modern models of weapons, military and special equipment that meets the requirements of the time. Under the formed air defense compounds to create the necessary stocks of material resources. Now taking into account the solution of such tasks, seven anti-aircraft missile brigades have been formed.

In addition, it is imperative to increase the ability to combat promising means of air attack and to integrate groups of troops (forces) in theaters of action into a single system of non-strategic missile defense. To sustain the main directions of the construction of the air defense forces of the air defense forces, it will be necessary to maintain at a sufficient level the quality parameters and the combat potential of the air defense forces until 2015 and for the future.

In connection with the transition of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation to a new combat force, a change in the administrative-territorial division and a significant spatial increase in the boundaries of military districts, the main actions for the construction of air defense forces of the NE are the formation of new anti-aircraft missile units for new organizational and staff structures. It will be necessary to carry out measures for recruiting contract servicemen, which, given the recent changes, is not so simple. Naturally, all this will be tied to the modern system of training specialists of military air defense of all categories. To this end, it is planned to create a new generation combat training center on the basis of the 167 training center for combat use of troops.

We can not do without building up the combat capabilities of air defense forces of the grouping of air defense forces in strategic areas by re-equipping brigades and air defense divisions with new (modernized) weapons and military equipment that will be combined with a single automated control system and armed with modern means of active and passive reconnaissance (in the long term - EW and REP).

All this, in turn, will entail the need to create command posts of AUV air defense military districts and armies, unified in terms of equipment and associated with all KP and PU types and types of troops, able to control the forces and means involved in solving the tasks of air defense. Our plans include the provision of modern (modernized) weapons and military equipment models capable of responding adequately to threats from the aerospace sphere with 2012. It is necessary not only to preserve the existing echeloned structure of the air defense forces of the SV, but also to switch from the traditional four-level division of anti-aircraft systems (complexes) to three-level division, depending on the tasks assigned to them.

Specific requirements for the fulfillment of the state defense order (GOZ) at 2011. Within its framework, over 400 rocket and artillery weapons and automated control systems will be purchased, including the KSA Polyana-D4М1, radar, radio equipment intelligence and electronic warfare (zrbr, ombsbr), a new portable anti-aircraft missile system, anti-aircraft guided missiles and target missiles. Although in some areas, of course, it is easier to overhaul with the modernization of existing equipment. For example, the modernization is underway (during the overhaul) of the Osa air defense missile system and the Tunguska air defense missile system.

Without increasing the combat capabilities of air defense forces of the air defense forces in strategic areas by re-equipping brigades and air defense divisions with new (modernized) weapons and military equipment that will be united by a single automated control system and armed with modern means of active and passive reconnaissance (in the future - EW and REB), can not do
Photo: Vadim Savitsky

What will the performance of GOZ-2011? There are specific numbers. This will allow equipping three command posts of anti-aircraft missile brigades with automated control systems and one omsbar of the Barnaul-T KSA. To supply modern air defense systems to re-equip air defense units of the Eastern Military District. Retrofit modern weapons and military equipment zrbr complexes of the family "Beech" of the Central Military District. As well as equip air defense units with promising MANPADS.

A special conversation about R & D. The air defense forces should be equipped with modern armament up to 2015 percent by 30, and no less than 2020 by 70. But for this, during the period of the HPV-2020, it is necessary to additionally carry out a number of basic measures. In particular, conduct R & D in 2011 – 2014. - on the improvement of operational management tools and unified training facilities of the zrbr level, in 2011 – 2015. - on the development of a mobile short-range anti-aircraft complex with passive reconnaissance and tracking equipment for air defense subdivisions of the Ground Forces, in 2012 – 2015. - on the further modernization of the ZRS at the operational and operational-strategic level, in 2012 – 2016. - on the development of promising mobile multi-range multi-position means of reconnaissance of air targets.

For the further development of the weapons system of the air defense troops of the Soviet Air Forces in 2011 – 2015. the discovery, conduct, and completion of a number of research and development works have been planned. In particular, in the 2011, six OCDs will be completed, work on the creation of a promising medium-range air defense system and a promising short-range air defense system, as well as a new portable air defense system. Work is also under way on a system for ensuring security requirements during combat work at anti-aircraft complexes of short-range (for landfills and firing sectors).


Taking into account the rate of procurement of weapons and military equipment of the nomenclature of air defense forces in the volumes planned and planned for the GVV-2020, the formation of anti-aircraft missile brigades seems possible in 2017. Next, before the 2020, it is planned to re-equip the existing air defense units with modern types of air defense missiles (SAM).
"ASTRA", "ORLAN" AND OTHERS All these problems were raised at the XVIII military-scientific conference "Problems of the theory and practice of the development of air defense forces of the air defense forces in modern conditions", which was held at the Marshal of the Soviet Union A. M. Vasilevsky Military Air Defense Academy (Smolensk) and where I had the opportunity to make a report. The participants raised and considered the development of formations and military units of the air defense forces of the Ground Forces to maintain their combat potential at the most modern level, strengthening administrative and scientific ties with research institutions and universities of the Russian Defense Ministry, organizations and enterprises developing and producing weapons and military equipment.

In the long-term plans - providing with 2012 of the air defense forces of the SV air defense with modern (modernized) weapons and military equipment models capable of adequately responding to threats from the aerospace sphere
Photo: Vadim Savitsky

A total of 400 people attended the conference, including representatives of the Ministry of Defense, the General Staff of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation, the Main Command of the Ground Forces, Airborne Command Commanders and Military Districts, Federal State Unitary Enterprise Rosoboronexport, leading designers and leaders of defense industry enterprises, representatives of scientific organizations and higher educational institutions of the Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation.

Great interest was aroused by the reports of representatives of industry who spoke at the plenary session: Vladimir Cheremisinov, General Director of OBORONSOFT CJSC, Vladimir Shremisov, General Director, NIIDAR-RESONANCE Chief Designer, Efir Shustov, Deputy Director General for Scientific Work, Federal State Unitary Enterprise Federal Scientific and Practical Center Nizhny Novgorod Research Institute of radio engineering "Alexander Blyakhman, representative of the State Corporation" Russian Technologies "in the Smolensk region Nikolai Tsarev, general director of JSC" NPP "Rusbal" Alexander Talan ova.

During the conference, an exhibition of product samples of more than 30 defense companies from various regions of the Russian Federation was held. In particular, OAO NPO Lianozovo Electromechanical Plant, which is part of the Almaz-Antey Air Defense Concern, demonstrated VIP-117М, a remote indicator post with information points from local radar stations and operator workplaces. The product accepts, processes, accumulates data and transfers the processed information to higher points. Up to three analog sources and up to 16 digital interfaces can be paired with this modification. At the exhibition, the product was exhibited in a stationary version, currently a mobile version is being developed. The software developed for the point allows you to make a computer model of the combat situation simulated during training, including with the participation of real aircraft in the air, extrapolation of target position, conflict prediction, identification mode management, solving guidance tasks (interception), analysis and display of meteorological information, statistical evaluation of radar operation, etc. All control is carried out using a keyboard and mouse type manipulator using a window menu.

Another leading enterprise of the Almaz-Antey Air Defense Concern, OJSC Izhevsk Electromechanical Plant Kupol, displayed the Tor-М2Е SAM system. In particular, the export version of the upgraded short-range anti-aircraft missile system. From its prototype - Tor-M1, a new modification is distinguished by a whole range of changes. A new software was created, the design of the antenna of the detection station was changed, the use of a phased phased antenna made it possible to increase the detection range to 32 – 35 km. Introduced new signal processing algorithms. It is planned to use a thermal imaging electron-optical system of its own design and production.

The automatic recognition system "friend-foe" using liquid crystal indicators was integrated into the Tor-М2E SAM system, which made it possible to reduce the calculation to three people. The boundaries of the affected area are expanded: in height (up to 10 km) and a course parameter. If Tor-M1 could fire only two targets at a time, then Tor-M2E could fly four targets from one angular direction. The complex uses anti-aircraft guided missiles manufactured by the Vyatka machine-building enterprise Avitek.

The Tor-M2E SAM system is offered to both foreign customers and the Russian Ministry of Defense. A number of countries are already preparing a rearmament program, taking into account Tor-M2E. Replacement of Tor-М1 in the air defense system with new Tor-М2-type air defense systems is provided for by the State armaments program for the period up to 2020.
SEC ELINS JSC presented portable monoblock computers and laptops for wearable equipment, mainly for ground-based radar detection equipment. A full-scale sample was exhibited that passed state tests as part of ground-based radar reconnaissance stations. A number of computers manufactured by STC ELINS have already been adopted. In particular, they were used in the Iskander operational-tactical missile system and the Topol strategic missile systems. At the same time, the computer of STC ELINS is well adapted for use in modernized or newly developed equipment. Laptops STC "ELINS" differs from foreign analogues possibility of upgrade, which reduces the cost of their operation over the period of the life cycle in the troops. The element base used is both Russian, including its own design, and imported.

It is necessary not only to preserve the existing echeloned structure of the air defense forces of the SV, but also to move from the traditional four-level division of anti-aircraft systems (complexes) to three-level division, depending on the tasks assigned to them
Photo: Vadim Savitsky

OJSC Research and Development Institute of Modern Telecommunications Technologies (Smolensk), which develops radio receivers, radio transmitters, navigation devices, car equipment, presented a gyro-stabilized camera for installation on unmanned aerial vehicles, including Orlan UAVs, which are being developed in the enterprise . The Research Institute has created a large reserve of navigation devices, a number of samples of which received a certificate of military measuring instruments. Various modifications of the Astra signal simulator are presented, including in a protected version, for use in training troops. Radio receivers are shown in the widest range - from several megahertz to 18 gigahertz and the developed 40-gigahertz set. These devices are designed to receive both analog and digital signals, including GSM, Wi-Max, satellite standards.

A number of other enterprises and organizations showed their achievements and novelties at the exhibition: CJSC OBORONSOFT Corporation, CJSC Engineering Center Electroluch, CJSC NPP Gran, OJSC Smolensk Radio Components OJSC, Bryansk Automobile Plant CJSC, OJSC Safonovsky plant "Gidrometpribor".

A number of departments of the Military Academy of Troops Air Defense of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation presented their achievements in the field of information technology and radar facilities. For example, a computer model was shown that simulates the air situation and allows for mathematical analysis of the super-relay resolution algorithms for echo signals from group concentrated air targets that are unresolved in range and speed. This method, which allows to determine the exact number of targets and conduct aimed fire, was proposed by an employee of the Smolensk Academy A. Chizhov in a doctoral dissertation and tested on the basis of the Smolensk Academy test site by flying real-air targets.

SMOLENSK ACADEMY BE The exhibitors noted that the Smolensk Academy is still one of the most important centers, on the basis of which the new and modernized models of weapons and military equipment of military air defense are being developed and tested. Joint work at the exhibition of representatives of industry and scientific schools of the Academy allowed to determine the direction of their future cooperation.
The Marshal of the Soviet Union military academy of military air defense named after A. M. Vasilevsky is a unified educational and scientific technical center that provides multilevel training for officers with the highest operational-tactical and full military-special training for government agencies, formations and military units of military air defense and others. departments, as well as the training of qualified scientific and scientific-pedagogical personnel in the system of postgraduate education, namely in military doctoral studies, adjuncture and job hunting degrees.
To implement the Concept of aerospace defense up to 2016 and for the future, in terms of increasing the capabilities of air defense force groups to combat promising means of aerospace attack and subsequent functional integration into a single non-strategic ABM system in 2012 – 2015. it is planned to proceed to a three-level division of anti-aircraft missile systems (depending on the tasks assigned to them). It should be noted that while carrying out a number of planned measures, the air defense forces of the SV, while maintaining the mobility qualities of the military system, will be able to possess the characteristics inherent in the short-range interception anti-missile defense systems.

As a result of the implementation of planned activities in the near future, we expect an increase in the combat capabilities of air defense force groups within the boundaries of military districts in a number of indicators from 10 to 40 percent.
A significant contribution to this process will be made by equipping military air defense with new control facilities and air defense missile systems. In particular, the delivery of the Barnaul-T automation equipment produced by Rubin Research and Production Enterprise (Penza) to the troops continues: this year it is planned to purchase up to 250 newest MANPADS, over 2011 is planned to be supplied to 400 units of missile and artillery weapons and carry out major repairs with the modernization of about 100 units of equipment. Prior to 2015, the Almaz-Antey Air Defense Concern OJSC should complete the development of six new air-defense and missile defense systems, some of which are intended to equip the Air Defense Forces of the Ground Forces.

The consistent implementation of the proposed measures with appropriate funding will allow you to create rational in structure and composition of the air defense troops of the Army, with a high level of professionalism of personnel, a solid material and technical base, equipped with modern and promising models of weapons that are able to perform missions for the intended purpose.
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