Fig. 1. If the Germans had won, we all would have driven such Mercedes
The Great Patriotic War became a severe test for all Soviet peoples. Many of them have put the war before a difficult choice. And the Hitler regime made quite successful attempts to use a certain part of these peoples (including the Cossacks) in the interests of fascism. Forming military units from foreign volunteers, Hitler always protested against the creation of Russian units in the structure of the Wehrmacht. He did not trust Russians. Looking ahead, we can say that he was right: in 1945, the 1 Division KONR (Vlasovites) voluntarily withdrew from positions and went west to surrender to the Anglo-Americans, exposing the German front. But many generals of the Wehrmacht did not share the position of the Fuhrer. The German army, moving through the territory of the USSR, suffered huge losses. Against the background of the Russian 1941 campaign, the Western campaigns turned out to be an easy walk. Lost German divisions. Their qualitative composition has changed. On the endless expanses of the East European plain, landsknechts were placed in the ground, knowing the hop of victories and the sweetness of European triumph. Replaced by the dead-fledged militants came replenishment, which no longer had a sparkle in his eyes. Field generals, in contrast to the "parquet", did not disdain the Russians. Many of them by hook or by crook contributed to the formation of "native units" in their rear areas. Collaborators preferred to keep away from the front line, entrusting them with the protection of objects, communications and "dirty work" - the fight against guerrillas, saboteurs, encircling and carrying out punitive actions against the civilian population. They were called "hiwi" (from the German word Hilfswilliger, willing to help). Appeared in the Wehrmacht and the units formed from the Cossacks.
The first Cossack units appeared already in 1941 year. There were several reasons for this. Huge Russian open spaces, lack of roads, loss of vehicles, problems with the supply of fuel and lubricants simply pushed the Germans to the massive use of horses. In the German chronicle you rarely see a German soldier on a horse or a horse-drawn cannon: for propaganda purposes, the operators were instructed to remove the motorized units. In fact, the Hitlerites massively used horses in both the 1941 year and the 1945. Cavalry units were simply indispensable in the fight against partisans. In the woods, in the swamps, they outnumbered vehicles and armored personnel carriers, and moreover, they did not need gasoline. Therefore, the appearance of the Khivi detachments of the Cossacks who were able to handle horses was not obstructed. In addition, Hitler did not attribute the Cossacks to the Russians, considered them to be a separate people, descendants of the Ostrogoths, therefore the formation of the Cossack units did not meet with opposition from the NSDAP functionaries. Yes, there were a lot of those displeased with the Bolsheviks among the Cossacks, and the rasstaking policy conducted by the Soviet authorities for a long time made itself felt. One of the first in the Wehrmacht appeared Cossack part under the command of Ivan Kononov. August 22 1941 Commander 436 Regiment 155 Rifle Division Major Red Army Kononov I.N. built the personnel, announced his decision to move to the enemy and invited everyone to join him. So Kononov, the officers of his staff and several dozen Red Army regiments were taken prisoner. There Kononov "remembered" that he was the son of a Cossack есsaula, hanged by the Bolsheviks, that his three older brothers were killed in the struggle against the Soviet power, and yesterday’s member of the CPSU (B) and the military officer-order bearer became a convinced anti-communist. He declared himself a Cossack, an opponent of the Bolsheviks, and offered his services to the Germans in forming a military unit of the Cossacks who were ready to fight the communist regime. In the autumn of 1941, the counterintelligence officer of the 18 Army of the Reich, Baron von Kleist, made a proposal to form Cossack units that would fight the red partisans. October 6 Quartermaster General of the General Staff Lieutenant General E. Wagner, having studied his proposal, allowed the commanders of the rear areas of Army Groups North, Center and South to form Cossack units of prisoners of war for use in the fight against partisans. The first of these units was organized in accordance with the order of the commander of the rear area of Army Group "Center" General von Schenkendorf from October 28 of October 1941. Originally a squadron was formed, the basis of which consisted of the soldiers of the 436 regiment. The squadron commander Kononov with the aim of recruiting made a voyage to the nearby camps for prisoners of war. The squadron that received reinforcements was later transformed into a Cossack division (1, 2, 3 th cavalry squadrons, 4, 5, 6 th plastiun companies, mortar and artillery batteries). The number of the division was 1799 people. The arsenal consisted of 6 field guns (76,2 mm), 6 anti-tank guns (45 mm), 12 mortars (82 mm), 16 heavy machine guns and a large number of light machine guns, rifles and machine guns. Not all captured Red Army men who declared themselves Cossacks were such, but the Germans tried not to delve into such subtleties. Kononov himself admitted that in addition to the Cossacks, who made up 60% of the personnel, under his command were representatives of all nationalities, including the Greeks and French. During 1941-1943, the division fought against partisans and rioters in the areas of Bobruisk, Mogilyov, Smolensk, Nevel and Polotsk. The division was given the designation Kosacken Abteilung 102, then it was changed to Ost.Kos.Abt.600. General von Shenkendorf was pleased with the “Kononists”, in his diary he described them as follows: “The mood of the Cossacks is good.
Fig. 2. Kazak collaborator Kononov I.N.
Former Don Ataman General Krasnov and Kuban Cossack General Shkuro became active conductors among the Cossacks for creating Cossack units in the Wehrmacht. In the summer of 1942, Krasnov published an appeal to the Cossacks of the Don, Kuban and Terek, in which he called them to fight with the Soviet authorities on the side of Germany. Krasnov said that the Cossacks would not fight against Russia, but against the Communists for the liberation of the Cossacks from the "Soviet yoke". A significant number of Cossacks joined the German army when the advancing units of the Wehrmacht entered the territory of the Cossack regions of the Don, the Kuban and the Terek. 25 July 1942 of the year, immediately after the German occupation of Novocherkassk, a group of Cossack collaborators officers appeared to the representatives of the German command and expressed their readiness to "help the valiant German troops in the final defeat of the Stalinist henchmen." In September, in Novocherkassk, with the approval of the occupying authorities, a Cossack gathering gathered at which the headquarters of the Don Army (from November 1942 was called the Headquarters of the Marching Ataman), headed by Colonel S.V. Pavlov, who began organizing Cossack units to fight against the Red Army. Of the volunteers of the Don villages in Novocherkassk, the 1-th Don Regiment under the command of Esaul A.V. Shumkov and the Plastun battalion, which formed the Cossack group of the Marching ataman, Colonel S.V. Pavlova. The 1 Sinegorsky Regiment was also formed on the Don as part of the 1260 Cossacks and officers under the command of the military foreman (former sergeant) Zhuravlev. Thus, despite active propaganda and promises, by the beginning of 1943, Krasnov managed to assemble on the Don only two small regiments. Of the Cossack hundreds, formed in the villages of the Uman department of the Kuban, under the leadership of the military foreman I.I. Salomakhi began the formation of the 1 of the Kuban Cossack Equestrian Regiment, and on the Terek at the initiative of the military foreman N.L. Kulakov 1 Volga Regiment Terek Cossack troops. Cossack regiments organized on the Don and Kuban in January-February 1943 participated in battles against the advancing Soviet troops in the Seversky Donets, near Bataysk, Novocherkassk and Rostov. In 1942, Cossack units began to appear as part of the Nazi troops and on other fronts.
Cossack cavalry regiment "Jungshulz" (Regiment von Jungschulz) was formed in the summer of 1942 as part of the 1st tank army in the area of Achikulak. The regiment consisted of two squadrons (German and Cossack). The regiment was commanded by Lieutenant Colonel I. von Jungshulz. By the time of sending to the front, the regiment was replenished with two Cossack hundreds and a Cossack squadron formed in Simferopol. As of December 25, 1942, the regiment consisted of 1530 people, including 30 officers, 150 non-commissioned officers and 1350 privates, and was armed with 56 light and machine guns, 6 mortars, 42 anti-tank rifles, rifles and machine guns. Since September 1942, the Jungshulz regiment was on the left flank of the 1st Panzer Army in the area of Achikulak - Budennovsk, fighting against the Soviet cavalry. In early January 1943, the regiment retreated northwest in the direction of the village of Yegorlykskaya, where it connected with units of the 4th Panzer Army. Subsequently, the Jungshulz regiment was subordinate to the 454th Security Division and transferred to the rear of Army Group Don.
13 June 1942 of the Cossack Cavalry Platov was formed from the Cossack hundreds of the 17 of the Germanic army. It consisted of 5 cavalry squadrons, a heavy squadron weaponsartillery battery and spare squadron. The commander of the regiment was appointed Wehrmacht Major E. Thomsen. In September 1942, the regiment carried the protection of the Maikop oil fields, and in January 1943 was transferred to Novorossiysk. There, together with German and Romanian troops, he conducted counter-partisan operations. In the spring of 1943, the regiment conducted defensive battles on the "Kuban bridgehead reinforcement," reflecting the attacks of the Soviet amphibious assault force northeast of Temryuk. At the end of May 1943, the regiment was removed from the front and relegated to the Crimea.
In accordance with the order of the German command from 18 June 1942, all the prisoners of war, who were Cossacks by origin and considered themselves as such, were to be sent to the Germans in a camp in the city of Slavuta. By the end of the month, the 5826 man of such a contingent was already concentrated here, and it was decided to form a Cossack corps and organize the appropriate headquarters. Since there was an acute shortage of senior and middle commanders among the Cossacks, they began to recruit ex-commanders of the Red Army, who were not Cossacks, in the Cossack units. Subsequently, at the headquarters of the formation, the 1 Cossack named after the ataman Count Platov opened the Junker School, as well as the noncommissioned officer school. First of all, the 1 Ataman Regiment, commanded by Lieutenant Colonel Baron von Wolf, and a special fifty, designed to perform special tasks in the Soviet rear, were formed from the actual composition of the Cossacks. The Cossacks who fought during the civil war in the detachments of generals Shkuro, Mamantov and other White Guard units were selected. After checking and filtering the arriving replenishment, the formation of the 2-th of the Life-Cossack and 3-th Don Regiments was started, and after them the 4-th and 5-th Kuban, 6-th and 7-th Cossack-single regiments. 6 August 1942 Cossack units were transferred from the Slavutinsky camp in Shepetivka to the barracks specially reserved for them. By the autumn of 1942, the center for the formation of Cossack units in Shepetivka was formed by the 7 Cossack regiments. The last two of them - the 6 and 7 of the combined Cossack regiments were sent to the rear area of the 3 tank army to fight the partisans. In the middle of November, the I and II divisions of the 6 regiment received the designations - 622 and 623 Cossack battalions, and the I and II divisions 7-X - 624 and 625 Cossack battalions. From January 1943, all four battalions were subordinated to the headquarters of the Eastern Special Forces Regiment 703, and later consolidated into the 750 th Eastern Special Purpose Regiment under the command of Major Evert Voldemar von Renteln. A former officer of the Life Guards Horse Regiment of the Russian Imperial Army, an Estonian citizen, he joined the Wehrmacht in 1939. From the beginning of the war, he served as a translator for the headquarters of the 5 armored division, where he formed a company of Russian volunteers. After the appointment of Renteln at the head of the four Cossack battalions, this company under the designation "638-I Cossack" remained in his personal possession. Tank emblems that were worn by some officers and soldiers of Renteln just pointed to their belonging to the 638 th company and were worn in memory of their service in the tank division. Some of its ranks participated in battles at the front as part of tank crews, as evidenced by the signs in the photographs for participation in tank attacks. In December 1942 - January 1943, the 622-625 battalions participated in counter-guerrilla operations in the Dorogobuzh region; in February-June 1943, in the area of Vitebsk-Polotsk-Lepel. In the autumn of 1943 years 750-th regiment was transferred to France and is divided into two parts: 622 and 623 battalions with 638 a company under the command of Rentelna were included in 708-th Infantry Division of the Wehrmacht as a 750-th Cossack Grenadier Regiment (April 1944 years - 360-th), and 624 and 625 battalions - in the 344-th infantry division as the third battalion of the 854-th and 855-th grenadier regiments. Together with the German troops, the battalions were involved in the protection of the French coast from Bordeaux to Ruillon. In January, 1944, the 344 Division, together with the Cossack battalions, was redeployed to the mouth of the Somme. In August-September 1944, the 360 Cossack Regiment retreated to the German border. In the autumn of 1944 in the winter of 1945, the regiment acted against the Americans in the Black Forest area. At the end of January, 1945, along with the 5 Cossack training and reserve regiment, arrived in the city of Tsvetle (Austria).
By the middle of 1943, the Wehrmacht had already before the 20 Cossack regiments of different numbers and a solid number of small units, the total number of which amounted to 25 thousands of people. In total, according to experts, in the Wehrmacht, parts of the Waffen-SS and in the auxiliary police during the years of World War II served around 70 000 Cossacks, most of whom are former Soviet citizens who went over to Germany during the occupation. Military units were formed from the Cossacks, which later fought both on the Soviet-German front and against the Western allies - in France, in Italy and especially against the partisans in the Balkans. Most of these units carried guard and convoy service, participated in the suppression of the resistance movement of the Wehrmacht units in the rear, in the destruction of partisan detachments and "disloyal" to the Third Reich members of the civilian population, but there were Cossack units that the Nazis tried to use against the Red Cossacks with the goal so that the latter also went over to the side of the Reich. But it was a counterproductive idea. According to numerous testimonies, the Cossacks in the Wehrmacht tried to avoid direct confrontations with their blood brothers, they also went over to the Red Army.
Yielding to the pressure of the generals, Hitler in November 1942 of the year finally agreed to the formation of the 1 Cossack Cavalry Division. The German cavalry colonel von Pannwitz was instructed to form it from the Kuban and Terek Cossacks to protect the communications of the German army and the fight against partisans. Initially, the division was formed from prisoners of Red Army Cossacks, mainly from camps located in the Kuban. In connection with the Soviet offensive near Stalingrad, the formation of the division halted and continued only in the spring of 1943, after the withdrawal of German troops to the Taman Peninsula. Four regiments were formed: the 1 of Don, the 2 of Terek, the 3 of Cossack and 4 of Kuban, with a total of up to 6000 people. At the end of April, 1943, the regiments were sent to Poland at the Milau training ground in the city of Mława, where, since before the war, large stores of equipment for the Polish cavalry were located. Cossack regiments and police battalions, volunteers from the Cossack regions occupied by the Nazis, began to arrive there. The best of the front-line Cossack units, such as the Platov and Yunshultz regiments, the 1 and Ataman Wolf Regiment, and the 600 and Kononov Division, arrived. All arrived units were disbanded, and their personnel were reduced to the regiments of belonging to the Don, Kuban, Siberian and Terek Cossack troops. The commanders of the regiments, the chiefs of staff were the Germans. All senior command and economic positions were also occupied by Germans (222 officer, 3 827 soldiers and non-commissioned officers). The exception was the division of Kononov. Under the threat of rebellion, the 600 Division retained its composition and was transformed into the 5 Division of the Don Cossack Regiment. Kononov was appointed commander, all the officers remained in their posts. The division was the most "Russified" part of the Wehrmacht collaborationist formations. The junior officers, the commanders of equestrian units - squadrons and platoons - were Cossacks, the teams were given in Russian. After the formation of 1 on July 1943 was completed, Major General von Pannwitz was appointed commander of the 1 Cossack Cavalry Division. Language does not turn to call Helmut von Pannwitz "Cossack". A natural German, moreover, 100% Prussian, coming from a family of professional military men. In World War I fought for the Kaiser on the Western Front. Member of the Polish campaign 1939 year. Participated in the storming of Brest, for which he received the Knight's Cross. He was a supporter of attracting the Cossacks to the Reich service. Having become a Cossack general, defiantly wore a Cossack uniform: a hat and a Circassian with gaschroes, adopted the son of the regiment Boris Nabokov, learned Russian.
Fig. 3. Helmut von Pannwitz
At the same time, the 5 Cossack Training and Reserve Regiment under the command of Colonel von Bosse was formed not far from the Milau landfill. The regiment did not have a permanent composition, consisted of Cossacks, who arrived from the Eastern Front and the occupied territories and after training were distributed along the regiments of the division. With the 5 training reserve, a non-commissioned officer school was created, which trained personnel for the combatant units. Also, the School of Young Cossacks was organized - a cadet corps for teenagers who lost their parents (several hundreds of cadets).
The finally formed division consisted of: a headquarters with a convoy of hundreds, a feld gendarmerie unit, a motorcycle communications platoon, a propaganda platoon and a brass band. Two Cossack cavalry brigades: 1-th Don (1-th Don, 2-th Siberian and 4-th Kuban regiments) and 2-th Caucasian (3-th Kuban, 5-th Don and 6-th Terek regiments). Two cavalry-artillery battalions (Donskoy and Kuban), reconnaissance unit, demining battalion, communications battalion, divisional divisions of the medical service, veterinary service and supply. The regiments consisted of two equestrian divisions of a three-squadron squadron (in the 2-m Siberian regiment, the 2nd division was self-propelled, and in the 5-th Don regiment of Plastunsky), machine-gun, mortar and anti-tank squadrons. The regiment had 5 anti-tank guns (50-mm), 14 battalion (81-mm) and 54 rotary (50-mm) mortars, 8 machine guns and 60 light machine guns MG-42, German carbines and machine guns. The division counted 18 555 people, including 4049 Germans, 14315 Cossacks of the lower ranks and 191 Cossack officer.
The Germans allowed the Cossacks to wear the traditional form. As headdresses, the Cossacks used hats and cubes. The hat was a high fur hat made of black fur with a red bottom (at the Don Cossacks) or white fur with a yellow bottom (at the Siberian Cossacks). Kubanka, introduced in 1936 year and in the Red Army, was lower than the papakh and was used by the Kuban (red bottom) and Terek (light blue bottom) Cossacks. The bottom of the papas and the cubanes was additionally trimmed with silver or white galloon, located crosswise. In addition to fathers and cubanes, the Cossacks wore German-style headgear. Among the traditional clothing of the Cossacks can be called burka, bashlyk and Circassian. Burka - a fur cape of black camel or goat wool. Bashlyk - a deep hood with two long panels, wound like a scarf. Circassian - outerwear decorated with gas-holes on the chest. The Cossacks wore German gray breeches or breeches of traditional dark blue. The color of the stripes determined the belonging to one or another shelf. The Don Cossacks wore red 5 cm stripes, Kuban Cossacks had red 2,5 cm stripes, Siberian Cossacks had yellow 5 cm stripes, and Terek Cossacks had black 5 cm stripes with a narrow blue edging. At first, the Cossacks wore round cockades with two crossed white peaks on a red background. Later, large and small oval cockades appeared (respectively for officers and soldiers), painted in military colors.
There are several variants of the sleeve patches. The first time used stripes in the form of a shield. Along the top edge of the shield was an inscription (Terek, Kuban, Don), and under the inscription were horizontal color stripes: black, green, and red; yellow and green; yellow light blue and red; respectively. Later, simplified stripes appeared. On them, belonging to one or another Cossack army was denoted by two Russian letters, and below, instead of strips, was a square divided by four diagonals into four parts. The color of the top and bottom as well as the left and right sides is the same. The Don Cossacks had parts red and blue, the Terek ones had blue and black, and the Kuban ones had red and black. The patch of the Siberian Cossack army appeared later. The Siberian Cossacks had yellow and blue segments. Many Cossacks used German cockades. Cossacks who served in tank units wore “dead heads”. Standard German buttonholes, Cossack buttonholes, and also buttonholes of the Eastern legions were used. The shoulder straps were also varied. The elements of the Soviet uniform were widely used.
Fig. 4. Cossacks of the 1 Cossack Cavalry Division of the Wehrmacht
At the end of the formation of the division, the Germans faced the question: "What to do with it further?" Despite the repeated wishes of the personnel as soon as possible to get to the front, the Nazis did not strive for this. Even in the exemplary Kononov regiment there were cases of the transfer of the Cossacks to the Soviet side. And in other collaborationist units, they passed not only by singles, but also by whole groups, after interrupting the German and their officers. In August, the multinational team of collaborators Gil-Rodionova (1943 thousands of people) transferred to the partisans of Belarus in full 2 in Belarus. It was a state of emergency with large organizational conclusions. If the Cossack division rises to the side of the enemy, there will be much more problems. Moreover, already in the first days of the formation of the division, the Germans recognized the violent temper of the Cossacks. In the 3-th Kuban regiment, one of the cavalry officers sent from the Wehrmacht, making a review of "his" hundreds, caused a Cossack he didn’t like. At first he sternly scolded him, and then hit him in the face. He struck purely symbolically, in German, with a glove strapped from his hand. The insulted Cossack silently took out his sword ... and in the division one German officer became smaller. The rushed German authorities built a hundred: "Russish Schwein! Who did it, step forward!" Stepped all hundred. The Germans scratched their heads and ... the officer was "written off" to the partisans. And send these to the Eastern Front ?! The case of the Gil-Rodionov Brigade finally dotted the "i". In September, 1943, instead of the Eastern Front, the division was sent to Yugoslavia to fight with Tito's partisan army. There, in the territory of the Independent State of Croatia, the Cossacks fought against the Yugoslav People's Liberation Army. The German command in Croatia very quickly became convinced that the cavalry Cossack units in the fight against the partisans were much more effective than their motorized police battalions and Ustash troops. The division conducted five independent operations in the mountainous regions of Croatia and Bosnia, during which it destroyed many partisan strongholds and seized the initiative of offensive action. Among the local population, the Cossacks gained notoriety. In accordance with the orders of the command of self-sufficiency, they resorted to requisitioning horses, food and fodder from the peasants, which often resulted in mass robbery and violence. The villages, whose population was suspected of complicity with the partisans, were compared to the land by Cossacks. The fight against the partisans in the Balkans, as in all the occupied territories, was waged with great cruelty - on both sides. The guerrilla movement in the areas of responsibility of the division von Pannwitz quickly faded out and disappeared. This was achieved by a combination of well-conducted anti-partisan operations and cruelty against the partisans and the local population. Serbs, Bosnians and Croats Cossacks hated and feared.
Fig. 5. Cossack officer in the forests of Croatia
In March, the 1944 of the year as a special administrative and political body to attract the Cossacks to their side and control the Cossack units by the Germans formed the "Main Directorate of Cossack Troops" led by Krasnov. In August 1944, the Reichsführer SS Himmler, who was appointed commander-in-chief of the reserve army after the assassination attempt on Hitler, secured the transfer of all foreign military formations to the SS. A reserve of Cossack troops was created, recruiting volunteers to the Cossack units among prisoners of war and eastern workers, at the head of this structure was General Shkuro. It was decided to deploy a very effective Cossack division into the corps. Thus arose the 15 Cossack Cavalry Corps of the SS. The corps was completed on the basis of the already existing 1 Cossack cavalry division with the addition of Cossack units sent from other fronts. Two Cossack battalions from Krakow, the 69 police battalion from Warsaw, which took an active part in suppressing the Warsaw Uprising in August 1944, the factory guard battalion from Hanover, the 360 Cossack regiment von Renteln from the Western Front arrived. Through the recruiting staffs created by the Cossack Forces Reserve, more than 2 000 Cossacks from among the emigrants, prisoners of war, and Eastern workers were assembled, who were sent to recruit 1 Cossack Division. After the unification of most of the Cossack detachments, the total number of corps reached up to 25 000 soldiers and officers, including up to 5000 Germans. General Krasnov took an active part in the formation of the corps. The oath of 15 of the Cossack Cavalry Corps of the SS developed by Krasnov almost literally reproduced the text of the pre-revolutionary military oath, only "His Imperial Majesty" was replaced by the "Fuhrer of the German people Adolf Hitler", and "Russia" by "New Europe". General Krasnov himself took the military oath of the Russian Empire, but in 1941, he altered this oath and prompted many thousands of Cossacks to this. Thus, the oath of allegiance to the Russian Empire was replaced by Krasnov with the oath of allegiance to the Third Reich. This is a direct and undoubted betrayal of the motherland.
All this time, the corps continued to conduct combat operations with the Yugoslav partisans, and in December 1944 of the year entered into direct contact with the Red Army units on the Drava River. Contrary to the fears of the Germans, the Cossacks did not scatter, they fought hard and bitterly. During these battles, the Cossacks completely destroyed the 703 th rifle regiment of the 233 th Soviet rifle division, and the division itself inflicted a heavy defeat. In March, 1945, the 1 I Cossack Division, as part of the 15 Corps, fought hard battles at Lake Balaton, successfully operating against Bulgarian units. By order of 25.02.1945, the division was already officially transformed into the XV Cossack Cavalry Corps of the SS. It had little effect on the division itself, practically nothing. The form remained the same, the skull with bones did not appear on the fur hats, the Cossacks continued to wear their old buttonholes, the soldiers' books did not even change. But organizationally the corps was part of the "black order" military structure, SS liaison officers appeared in the units. However, the Cossacks were not for long the fighters of Himmler. April 20 Corps was transferred to the armed forces of the Committee for the Liberation of the Peoples of Russia (CONR) General Vlasov. In addition to all their previous sins and labels: "enemies of the people", "traitors to the Motherland", "punitive" and "SS", the corps Cossacks received in the appendage also "Vlasov".
Fig. 6. Cossacks XV Cavalry Corps of the SS
At the final stage of the war, the Kalmyk regiment (up to 15 people), the Caucasian Equestrian Division, the Ukrainian SS battalion and the ROA tank group also operated as part of the KNP 5000 Cossack Corps. Taking into account these formations under the command of Lieutenant General, and from 1 February 1945, the group of the SS troops, G. von Panwitz was 30-35 thousands of people.
Of the other Cossack units of the Wehrmacht, the Cossacks, united in the so-called Cossack Stan, under the command of the marching ataman Colonel S.V. Pavlova. After the Germans retreated, Don, Kuban, and Terek, along with the Cossack detachments, left part of the civilian population who believed in fascist propaganda and feared reprisals from the Soviet government. Cossack Stan counted up to 11 Cossack foot regiments, just under the command of the Marching Ataman Pavlov was up to 18 000 Cossacks. After some Cossack units were sent to Poland to form the 1 Cossack Cavalry Division, the main center of Cossack refugees who left their lands along with the retreating German troops became the headquarters of the Ataman of the Don Cossack Army in Kirovograd. Pavlova. By the autumn of 1943, two new regiments, 8 and 9, were formed here. For the training of commanders, it was planned to open an officer’s school, as well as a school of tankers, but these projects could not be implemented because of the new Soviet offensive. Due to the danger of the Soviet environment in March 1944, Cossack Stan (including women and children) began to move west to Sandomir, and then was transported to Belarus. Here, the Wehrmacht command provided for the Cossacks 180 thousands of hectares of land in the area of the cities of Baranovichi, Slonim, Novogrudok, Yelnya, Stolitsy. The refugees settled in the new place were grouped by belonging to different troops, districts and divisions, which outwardly reproduced the traditional system of Cossack settlements. At the same time, a broad reorganization of Cossack combat units was undertaken, united in the 10 foot regiments of each of the 1200 bayonets. The 1 and 2 Don regiments comprised the 1 brigade of Colonel Silkin; 3 th Don, 4 th Cossack, 5 th and 6 th Kuban and 7 th Tersky - 2 brigade of Colonel Vertepov; 8 th Don, 9 th Kuban and 10 th Terek-Stavropol - 3 brigade of Colonel Medynsky (later the composition of the brigades changed several times). Each regiment had a 3 Plastun battalion, a mortar and anti-tank batteries. For their weapons was used Soviet captured weapons provided by the German field arsenals.
In Belarus, the March Ataman group ensured the security of the rear areas of the Army Group Center and fought against the partisans. 17 June 1944 of the year, during one of the anti-partisan operations, the Camp Ataman of the Cossack Camp S.V. was killed. Pavlov (according to other sources, because of poor coordination of actions, fell under the "friendly" fire of policemen). A military sergeant T.I. was assigned to his place. Domanov. In July, 1944, due to the threat of a new Soviet offensive, Cossack Stan was withdrawn from Belarus and concentrated in the area of Zdunska Wola in northern Poland. From here began its transfer to Northern Italy, where the territory adjacent to the Carnic Alps with the cities of Tolmezzo, Gemon and Ozoppo was allocated to accommodate the Cossacks. Here the Cossacks formed a special settlement "Cossack Stan", which came under the command of the SS commander and police of the Adriatic coastal zone of the Ober Ober Gruppenführer SS. Globocnik, who instructed the Cossacks to provide security on the lands granted to them. On the territory of Northern Italy, the combat units of the Cossack Mill underwent another reorganization and formed the Group of Marching Ataman (also called the Corps) within two divisions. The 1 Cossack Foot Division (Cossacks from 19 to 40 years) included the 1 and 2 of the Don, 3 of the Kuban and 4 of the Terek-Stavropol Regiment, consolidated into the 1 of the Don and 2 of the Combined Plastun brigades, as well as headquarters and transport companies, equestrian and gendarme squadrons, a communications company and an armored squadron. The 2 Cossack Foot Division (Cossacks from 40 to 52 years) consisted of the 3 Joint Plastun Brigade, including the 5 Joint Cossack and 6 Don Regiment, and the 4 Joint Brigade, and the NNXX Don Regiment, and the 3 Joint Brigade, and unpacked, unpacked, unpacked, and unpacked the squad; the regiment, the three battalions of the stanitsa’s self-defense (Donskoy, Kuban and the Combined Cossack) and the Special Detachment of Colonel Grekov. In addition, the Group had the following parts: the 1 Cossack Horse Regiment (6 squadrons: 1, 2 and 4 Don, 2 Terek-Don, 6 Kuban and 5 Officer), Atamansky convoy horse regiment (5 squadrons), 1-e Cossack Junker School (2 teapots, company of heavy weapons, artillery battery), separate divisions - officer, gendarme and commandant on foot, as well as disguised as a driving school, Special Cossack puppies, I am parashy school teaches. ). According to some data, a separate Cossack group “Savoya”, brought to Italy from the Eastern front together with the remnants of the Italian 8 army back in 1943, was attached to the front lines of the Cossack Mill. Armed parts of the Marching Ataman Group had over 900 light and heavy machine guns of various systems (Soviet Maxim, DP (Degtyarev Infantry) and DT (Degtyarev Tank), German MG-34 and Schwarzlose, Czech Zbroevka, Italian Breda "and" Fiat ", French" Hotchkiss "and" Shosh ", English" Vikkers "and" Lewis ", American" Colt "), 95 of company and battalion mortars (mainly of Soviet and German production), more than 30 of Soviet 45-mm anti-tank guns and 4 field guns (76,2-mm), as well as 2 light armored vehicles repulsed from the party en. On 27 on April 1945, the number of Cossack Mill was 31 463 man. Realizing that the war was lost, the Cossacks developed a plan of salvation. They decided to withdraw from retaliation into the territory of the British occupation zone in East Tyrol with the purpose of "honorable" surrender to the British. In May 1945, the Cossack Mill moved to Austria, in the area of the city of Linz. Later, all of its residents were arrested by the British and transferred to the Soviet counterintelligence agencies. The Cossack Administration, headed by Krasnov and his military units, were also arrested in the area of the city of Judenburg, and then also extradited by the British to Soviet bodies. Nobody was going to conceal punitive and obvious traitors. In early May, the marching chieftain von Pannwitz also led his corps to Austria. With the battle through the mountains, the corps went to Carinthia (southern Austria), where 11-12 May laid down their arms in front of the British. Cossacks were distributed in several camps for prisoners of war in the vicinity of Linz. Pannwitz and other Cossack leaders did not know that these maneuvers did not solve anything. At the Yalta conference, Great Britain and the United States signed an agreement with the USSR, under which they pledged to extradite Soviet citizens who were in their zones of occupation. Now it’s time to fulfill our promises. Illusions about what awaits the deported, neither the British nor the American command did not feed. But if the Americans reacted to this case carelessly, and as a result, a huge number of former Soviet citizens avoided returning to the Soviet homeland, then His Majesty’s citizens precisely fulfilled their obligations. Moreover, the British did even more than the Yalta agreements demanded of them, and even 1,500 Cossack emigrants, who had never been USSR citizens and left their homeland after the defeat in the civil war, were given over to the SMERSH. And just a few weeks after being surrendered, in June 1945 of the year, over 40 thousands of Cossacks, including Cossack commanders General P.N. and S.N. Krasnov, T.I. Domanov, Lieutenant-General Helmut von Pannwitz, Lieutenant-General A.G. Skins were issued to the Soviet Union. In the morning, when the Cossacks gathered to build, the British suddenly appeared. The soldiers began to seize unarmed people and drive them into the lodged trucks. Those who tried to resist were shot on the spot.
Fig. 7. British internment of the Cossacks near Linz
A few hours later, a convoy of trucks with traitors crossed the checkpoint at the border of the Soviet occupation zone. Soviet court punished the Cossacks according to the severity of their sins. They did not shoot them, but the deadlines gave them "non-child". Most of the issued Cossacks received long periods in the Gulag, and the Cossack elite, who acted on the side of Nazi Germany, were sentenced to death by hanging by the Military Collegium of the Supreme Court of the USSR. The sentence began as follows: On the basis of the Decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR No. 39 of 19 on April 1943 of the Year “On penalties for German fascist villains guilty of murders and tortures of Soviet civilians and captured Red Army soldiers, for spies who were traitors from Soviet civilians and for their accomplices "... etc. Simultaneously with the USSR, Yugoslavia was urgently demanding the Cossacks. 15 corps soldiers were accused of numerous crimes against civilians. If the Cossacks were extradited to the Tito government, their fate would have been much sadder. Helmut von Pannwitz was never a Soviet citizen and therefore was not subject to extradition to the Soviet authorities. But when representatives of the USSR arrived at the English prisoner of war camp, Pannwitz went to the camp commandant and demanded that he be included among the repatriated. He said: "I sent the Cossacks to death - and they went. They chose me as chieftain. Now we have a common destiny." Perhaps this is only a legend, and Pannwitz was simply taken along with others. But this story lives about "Father Pannwitz" in certain Cossack circles.
The trial of the Cossack generals of the Wehrmacht took place in the walls of the Lefortovo prison behind closed doors from 15 to 16 in January of 1947. 16 January in 15: 15 judges retired for sentencing. The verdict was announced in 19: 39: “The Military Collegium of the USSR Supreme Court sentenced generals PN PN Krasnov, S.N. Krasnov, SG Shkuro, von Pannwitz G., as well as the leader of Caucasians Sultan Kelec-Girey to the death penalty for conducting, through the groups they formed, armed struggle against the Soviet Union. " On 20: 45 of the same day, the sentence was carried out.
Least of all, we would like the Cossacks of the Wehrmacht and the SS to be perceived as heroes. No, they are not heroes. And do not judge them on the Cossacks as a whole. In that difficult time, the Cossacks made a completely different choice. While in the Wehrmacht one Cossack division and several other small formations fought, in the Red Army more than seventy Cossack corps, divisions and other formations fought on the Great Patriotic War fronts, and the Soviet command did not bother with the questions: "Are these units reliable?", "Not Is it dangerous to send them to the front? " It was quite the opposite. Hundreds of thousands of Cossacks selflessly and heroically defended, albeit not the regime, but their homeland. Modes come and go, but the motherland remains. Here they are - really heroes.
But life is striped, the strip is white, the strip is black, the strip is colored. And for state patriotism and heroism, there are also black stripes, which is not surprising for Russia. In this regard, three centuries ago, Field Marshal Saltykov said at a reception at the Empress Elizaveta Petrovna about the Russian society the classic phrase: "With patriotism in Russia it was always hrenovat. Every fifth ready patriot, every fifth ready traitor, and three out of five like something in a hole hanging out depending on what kind of king. If the king is a patriot, then they seem to be patriots, if the king is a traitor, then they are always ready. Therefore, the main thing, Sir, is for Russia to be, and then we will manage. " For three centuries, nothing has changed, and now the same thing. Following the tsar-traitor Gorbachev, the collaborator-king Yeltsin came. And in 1996, many of the executed Cossack generals of the Wehrmacht were rehabilitated by the collaborationist government of Russia according to the decision of the Chief Military Prosecutor's Office, with the tacit consent of the masses, and some also clapped their hands. However, the patriotic part of society was outraged by this, and soon the decision to rehabilitate was canceled as unreasonable, and in 2001, already under a different power, the same Main Military Prosecutor's Office decided that the Cossack commanders of the Wehrmacht were not subject to rehabilitation. But collaborators are not appeased. In 1998, in Moscow, in the area of the Sokol metro station, a memorial plate was installed. Skins, G. von Pannwitz and other Cossack generals of the Third Reich. The liquidation of this monument was undertaken on legal terms, but the neo-Nazi and collaborationist lobby in every way impeded the destruction of this monument. Then, on the eve of Victory Day 2007, the slab with the names of collaborators from the Great Patriotic War, carved on it, was simply broken by unidentified persons. A criminal case was initiated, which did not reach completion. Today in Russia there is a monument to the very Cossack units that were part of the army of the Third Reich. The memorial was opened in 2007 year in the village Elanskaya Rostov region.
Diagnosis and preparation of causes, effects, sources, sources and stories Russian collaborationism is not only theoretical, but also of great practical interest. Not a single significant event in Russian history has been done without the pernicious influence and active participation of defectors, traitors, defeatists, capitulators and collaborators. The position quoted above, formulated by Field Marshal Saltykov regarding the peculiarities of Russian patriotism, provides the key to the explanation of many mysterious and incredible events in Russian history and life. Moreover, it is easily extrapolated and extended to other key areas of our public consciousness: politics, ideology, the state idea, morality, morality, religion, etc. There are no spheres in our social, cultural and political life where militant activists of certain extreme currents and points of view would not be represented, but the stability of society and the situation are not given by them, but by the very "three of five" who are oriented toward power, and above all to the king. And in this connection, the words of Saltykov highlight the colossal role of the Russian tsar (the secretary general, the president, the leader — no matter what his name is) in all spheres and events of our life. In some articles of this series many of such incredible, at first glance, events of our history were shown. In them, our people, led by the "right" kings, turned out to be capable of an incredible rise, feats and sacrifices for the sake of the Motherland in 1812 and in 1941-1945. But with the useless, worthless, and corrupt kings, this same people turned out to be able to upset and rape their own country and plunge it into the bloody orgy of the 1594-1613 of the Troubles or the revolution and the subsequent civil war of 1917-1921. Moreover, the God-bearing people under the satanic power proved capable of crushing a thousand-year-old religion and outraging temples and its own spirit. The monstrous triad of our time already: perestroika — shootout — restoration of the national economy — also fits into this vile series. Adherents of evil and good beginnings are always present in our lives, these very “every fifth” people who constitute the active lobby of patriotism and collaborationism, religion and atheism, morality and depravity, order and anarchy, law and crime, etc. But even under these conditions, the unruly king, under whose influence these same “three of the five” join the adherents of disorder, depravity, anarchy and ruin, can lead to excesses and bacchanalia the people and the country. A completely different result is achieved with the “journey” king, who will indicate the correct Path, and then besides adherents of order and creation, these same “three of five” will also join them. Our current president has long been showing an enviable example of political dexterity and agility in countering the various challenges of his contemporary world. He managed to curb the entropy and orgy of 80-90's collaborationist board, successfully intercept and ride the social and national-patriotic part of the rhetoric and ideology of the Communist Party of the Russian Federation and the LDPR, attract the electorate and achieve stability and high rating. But under other circumstances, these very “three of five” will easily go over to another “king”, even if it be a devil with horns, which has happened more than once in our history. In these seemingly perfectly clear conditions, the most important of the questions of our modern life is the question of the continuity of the "royal" power, more precisely the power of the first person, with the aim of continuing the course towards sustainable development. At the same time, with all the importance of this issue, one of the biggest mysteries of Russian history is that so far it has not been completely resolved positively and constructively in relation to our conditions.
In former centuries, the country was hostage to the feudal system of the succession with its unpredictable dynastic and gerontological twists. Monstrous and tragic examples of the genealogical and genetic mutations of the royal families and the aged schizophrenia of the aged monarchs finally passed the death sentence on the feudal system of power. The situation was aggravated by acute interpersonal and group contradictions. As the historian Karamzin also noted, in Russia, with the rarest exception, each subsequent king began his rule by pouring mud on the previous one, although he was his father or brother. The next bourgeois-democratic system of change and succession of power was built on the laws of political Darwinism. But the long history of multi-party democracy has shown that it is far from being productive for all human populations. In Russia, it lasted only a few months after the February revolution and led to complete paralysis of power and the disintegration of the country. After the overthrow of autocracy and February democracy, neither Lenin, nor Stalin, nor the Communist Party of the Soviet Union solved the problem of the continuity of the “tsarist” power. The monstrous fights for power between the heirs after Lenin and Stalin are a shame of the system they created. A repeated attempt to introduce bourgeois democracy in the USSR during the period of perestroika again led to the paralysis of power and the collapse of the country. Moreover, the phenomenon that gave rise to the CPSU in the form of Gorbachev and his clique, perhaps, has no analogues in world history. The system itself has degenerated the grave diggers for themselves and the country, and they have done their crime almost out of the blue. Legend has it that Socrates, in a drunken state, argued with a drinking companion per liter of white, that he would destroy Athens with his own language. And won. I do not know with whom and what Gorbachev was arguing with, but he even managed to get “better”. He destroyed everything with his own language and created a “catastroika”, and without repressions, with his own language, he obtained a tacit consent to the surrender of 18 to millions of CPSU members, several million employees, officers and employees of the KGB, the Ministry of Internal Affairs and the Soviet Army and approximately so many same non-party activists. Moreover, millions of people did not just silently agree, but also clapped their hands. In this multimillion army there was not a single real guard, who, from past experience, even tried to strangle the traitors with his officer's scarf, although these scarves hung in the wardrobe several million. But it's all so bad, it's a story. The trouble is that the problem has not been solved yet. The story of Medvedev's regency is a clear confirmation of this. But, as the experience of many countries shows, to create a stable and productive system of continuity of the power of the first person with the aim of continuing the course towards sustainable development, democracy is not at all obligatory, although it is desirable. What is needed is responsibility and political will. In China, there is no democracy, and every 10 years there is a planned change of supreme power, there is not waiting for the death of the "king."
In general, it is very alarming for the future. Typical bourgeois democracy in our conditions does not inspire confidence and optimism. After all, the mental characteristics of our people and its leaders are not very different from the mentality of the people and leaders of Ukraine, and, if they are different, for the worse. The unresolved issue of the continuity of power and course will lead the country to a catastrophe, in comparison with which the restructuring is the flowers.
Issues of economic and social injustice have become powerfully layered on the unresolved political processes of late. At present, working people are becoming acutely aware of this problem. Even in the non-profile “VO” for this topic, sharp articles on social injustice have recently appeared (“Gentlemen’s Salaries”, “Ural Worker’s Letter,” etc.). Their rating exceeds the limit, and their comments clearly and unequivocally indicate the beginning of the process of accumulation of social entropy in the working class. Reading these articles and comments to them, one involuntarily recalls the words spoken in the State Duma P.A. Stolypin, that there is no more greedy and shameless gentleman and bourgeois in the world than in Russia, and that it is not for nothing that the expressions “kulak-world-eater” and “bourgeois-world-eater” appeared in Russian. Then Stolypin unsuccessfully urged the gentlemen and the bourgeoisie to moderate their greed and change the type of social behavior, otherwise predicted a catastrophe. They did not change the type of behavior, did not moderate greed, a catastrophe took place, the people cut them up like pigs for greed. Now it is even more interesting. In the 80-90 years, the decayed and reborn partner nomenclature, in addition to unlimited power, wanted to become a bourgeoisie, i.e. under its lifetime, the factories, factories, houses, and steamships made by it are inherited property. A powerful propaganda campaign was launched to criticize socialism and praise capitalism. Our gullible and naive people believed, and suddenly, with some kind of fright, decided that they could not live without the bourgeoisie. After that, he gave out free passes to the bourgeoisie and an unprecedented credit of social and political trust, which was completely democratic, to the nomenclature, liberals and co-operators, which they squandered and continue to squander. Something similar was already in Russian history and is described in more detail in the article “The Last Great Cossack Riot. The Rise of Yemelyan Pugachev”.
It seems that the matter will again end with the cutting of the gentlemen. But God forbid see Russian revolt, senseless and merciless. And the blame for everything again will be the master's and bourgeois greed, just as senseless and merciless. Best of all, if this most odious part of the comprador and criminal bourgeoisie and the nomenklatura Putin will be engaged in a planned manner. But, apparently, not destiny, he has some agreement with them. Such consent breeds permissiveness and impunity, further corrupts the masters and the bourgeoisie, and all this richly nourishes and stimulates corruption. This situation simply infuriates honest people, regardless of social status, standard of living and education. What the working class says and thinks about in the kitchens and over a glass of tea is simply impossible to convey in the language of normative vocabulary. But mankind has accumulated in its history of tremendous experience in the fight against corruption and overdue oligarchy.
At the end of the 20 century, Singapore’s prime minister, Lee Kuan Yew, continued unabated from 1959 to 1990 year. People say that in the last years of his life he was considered an adviser to our president. Although the east is a delicate matter, the recipes of Lee Kuan Yew are disgraceful and simple. He said: “To fight corruption is simple. It is necessary that there is a person upstairs who is not afraid to plant their friends and relatives. Start by planting three of your friends. You know exactly why, and they know exactly what. ”
It was during such a difficult period of our history - Gorbachev's restructuring, the Yeltsin "reforms" and Putin's "managed democracy" - an attempt was made to revive the Cossacks. But, like all the events of this period and our time, this revival takes place quite ambiguously against the general background of economic and political turmoil, often raising more questions than answers. But that's another story.