Military Review

Trilinek and all its family

Trilinek and all its family
The main samples of small weapons Red Army during the Great Patriotic War

The most popular military profession during the Second World War remained the traditional infantry specialty shooter. The Workers 'and Peasants' Red Army was no exception. The shooter with a conventional rifle pulled out the main burden of the battlefield. And because the fate of his weapons is particularly interesting.

According to its nomenclature, the pre-war system of small arms of the Red Army was modern and fairly balanced. But since it was formed mainly in 1939-1941, this led to the emergence of numerous samples in the redistribution of one type. So, in the role of individual weapons, the shooter turned out to be a magazine rifle arr. 1891 / 30 g., And self-loading rifle arr. 1940 g. (SVT-40), made under one 7,62-mm rifle cartridge. In addition, each of them had a sniper version, and for ordinary soldiers of special forces - telecom operators, sappers, etc. - a carbine mod. 1938


Rifle arr. 1891 / 30 g. And carbine arr. 1938 were the direct descendants of the Russian "trilinea" or, more precisely, "3-linear rifle arr. 1891, created by S. I. Mosin, an officer of the Tula Arms Plant (although elements designed by the Belgian gunsmith L. Nagan and members of the Commission Major-General N. I. Chagin were also used in its design). The definition of “trilinear” simply meant the caliber measured in the inch system: the 3 lines corresponded to the 0,3 inch, that is, the 7,62 mm. The Russian army then received three variants of the rifle - infantry, dragoon and Cossack. Since 1907, the serial production of carbines for gunners and special forces began. And in the 1908-m was adopted 7,62-mm rifle cartridge with a pointed bullet.

The modernization of the 1930 of the year included the installation of a new aiming device on the dragoon rifle (infantry and Cossack by that time) and introduction of some other changes to the design. Rifle arr. 1891 / 30 with a needle four-sided bayonet (rifles even led to normal combat with a bayonet in a combat position) was considered a temporary solution - the main weapon of the Red Army was to be a self-loading rifle.

Order Plan The People's Commissariat of Weapons for the 1940 year provided for the release of 1 222 820 rifles mod. 1891 / 30 g., 163 000 carbines arr. 1938 g. And 600 000 self-loading rifles arr. 1938 (SVT-38). At 1941, in connection with the production of the modification SVT-40, the order for self-loading rifles was reduced. But already at the start of the 1941, the People's Commissariat of Defense substantially adjusted its requests, deciding to increase the number of self-loading rifles from the 200 000 to a million, even if it was completely denied access to magazine rifles.

The question was considered by a special commission, and in order to understand its importance, it’s enough to look at its composition: Chairman - V. M. Molotov, members - G. M. Malenkov, N. A. Voznesensky, People's Commissar of Internal Affairs L. P. Beria, People's Commissar of Defense S. K. Tymoshenko, Chief of General Staff G. K. Zhukov. They spoke in favor of an urgent increase in the issue of LTS The then People's Commissar of Weapons B. L. Vannikov recalled later that he had to personally contact JV Stalin. He took into account the objections Commissariat and reversed the decision of the commission. The February 7 1941 1 800 000 1 100 000 700 000 314 74 XNUMX XNUMX XNUMX XNUMX XNUMX XNUMX XNUMX XNUMX XNUMX XNUMX XNUMX XNUMX XNUMX rifles. Production of “trehlineek” at the Tula Arms (No. XNUMX) and Izhevsk (No. XNUMX) plants remained.

Shop rifles and carbines belonged to those types of small arms, which the Red Army by June 1941 of the year was provided even above the staff. But the difficult events of the initial period of the war: retreat, heavy combat losses, the loss of weapons depots sharply raised the question of the urgent increase in the production of rifles. The good old “trilinea” in production was cheaper in 2,5 than the new and still insufficiently mastered SVT, besides it was quickly and easily comprehended by the soldiers. It is not surprising that the rifle arr. 1891 / 30 became the main weapon of the Red Army in battles with the Germans and their allies. It is worth noting that the magazine rifles and carbines throughout the Second World War were the most popular weapons in other armies.

At the beginning of the Great Patriotic War, the "three-line" was modernized, primarily to simplify production. The receiver was made without top edges, the brass parts of the device were replaced with steel ones, the finishing was simplified, the box was not polished. Since the First World War, the rifle belt, to simplify, was fastened to the slot in the butt and the forearm of the rifle that served as the slingings (hence, by the way, the well-known joke: “How much does the rifle's anti-arm weigh?”). But now I had to simplify the design of these slots. The Artillery Museum in St. Petersburg, for example, holds a rifle, made in Izhevsk in the 1942 year. Its metal parts are roughly treated outside, the birch bed is impregnated, but without varnishing, the slots in the belt box do not have reinforcing eyes.

By the way, after the evacuation of Tula Plant No. 314, the main burden of supplying the army with magazine rifles fell on Izhevsk Plant No. 74. He received the task to bring the release of "trehlineyk" to 12 thousands of pieces per day! The implementation of the plan was facilitated by the transition to the execution of rifling in the barrel bore, begun on the eve of the war, by drowning (punching) instead of cutting and organizing production, taking into account the inevitable decline in the average qualifications of workers. So, not only the manufacture of parts and the assembly of rifles, but also the acceptance was broken down into separate, easier to master operations.

Had to resort to old stocks. V.N. Novikov, who was the Deputy Commissar of Arms at that time, said that when a critical situation with receiver boxes arose at the Izhevsk enterprise, the head of the technical control department recalled that since pre-revolutionary times "at least sixty thousand ready-made receiver boxes lie in the old basements of the plant ", Rejected in due time because of deviations in sizes. After testing and fixing these boxes went to the new rifles. Is that the military acceptance requested to grind the stamp with the royal eagle.

For the 1941-1945 years, the Red Army and other military units of the USSR received 12 139 300 magazine rifles and carbines (for comparison: in Germany they made 1939 1945 10 in Germany from 327 to 800). The maximum of production and supplies was already reached in 1942, and in 1943, due to the gradual saturation of troops with weapons, the supply of rifles began to decrease. But it was then that the last combat model appeared in the family of the "trilinea".


Preference for close combat, the need to operate in dugouts, communication trenches, buildings, forests, overcoming obstacles and obstacles, the participation of shooters in tank landings and assault groups demanded lighter and more compact weapons than the "three-line". The same carbine mod. 1938, because the intermediate power cartridge was only being developed and an automatic weapon for it had not yet been designed.

But the carbine did not provide for the attachment of the bayonet. And he gave the soldier greater confidence in the melee, and were not going to abandon him.

In May, 1943 conducted tests on eight bayonets (at the same time carbines with a detachable bayonet were tested). By decree of the State Defense Committee of January 17, 1944 of the year was adopted 7,62-mm carbine mod. 1944 g. With an integral folding bayonet Semin. He became the last mass military weapons in the family of "trilinek". The same decree was removed from production rifle arr. 1891 / 30 d. Major General Rozhkov from the 2 of August 7 said in a report from the Chief of the Artillery Supply Department of the 1944 of the Ukrainian Front: “The accuracy and accuracy of the carbines with integral bayonet fully correspond to the tactical and combat requirements of modern combat ... carbine with integral bayonet arr. 1944 g. At a distance of 300-400 m is the same as that of a rifle mod. 1891 / 30. A few words about why such short distances were mentioned.

The experience of the war forced a significant review of the requirements for small arms. Replaced the trend of conducting aimed shooting at long range came back installation. The 1942 infantry combat regulations of the year, which systematized the experience of the first period of the Great Patriotic War, read: “The rifle is the main weapon of the shooter to hit the enemy with a bullet, bayonet and butt ... Focused aimed fire from a rifle is used to defeat group targets up to 1000. Fire on aircraft and paratroopers are driven up to 500 m, along the inspection slots of tanks and armored vehicles - up to 200 m. ”

The most favorable distance of opening fire according to the charter was equal to 600 m for excellent shooters, and for all others - 400 m, that is, within the range of a direct shot. The definition of these values ​​has contributed to the development of the intermediate power cartridge and weapons for it. And when formulating the requirements for a new cartridge, the indicators of the range of a direct shot of a carbine mod. 1944 g. So the "three-line" contributed to the formation of a new generation of small arms.

Revised and training system shooters. A number of commanders noted the excessive fascination of the best Red Army men on the eve of the war with "accurate" fire on targets, which was more of a sporting interest. When training a mass shooter in the war years, they began to pay attention not only to the basics of accurate firing, but also to the skill of equipping the store and sending the patron to the chamber “blindly” - without looking at the target, at the ability to recognize and eliminate (if possible) the causes delays in shooting, choose a position.

Lieutenant-General N. I. Biryukov wrote in his memoirs “Difficult science to win” in his memoirs about how the shooters had to teach the shooters to conduct aimed fire: “Any front commander knows how much trouble young soldiers bring who are afraid of the sound of a shot. Here is a fighter lying on the firing line. He was well versed in the theory of shooting: it is necessary to combine the sight slot and the front sight, hold your breath, gently pull the trigger. But as soon as he got used to it, a neighbor’s rifle slammed to the right, he started, the target went away. Now imagine the same fighter when artillery shells are whistling and breaking somewhere ahead of him, when tanks, rolling over the trench, rush to the attack ... Nothing brings the soldier closer to the situation at the front like tactical exercises with live firing. I have often seen people in battle who were previously “baptized” in the rear. A huge difference compared with those who did not go through such teachings. "

“Trilinek” became the basis of a sniper rifle, rifle grenade launchers using muzzle or a pistol grenade, as well as one of the first massively used samples of special-purpose weapons. More precisely, "the weapons of silent and flameless shooting." For this purpose, a removable muzzle device “Bramit” was used (MITINA'S BRIATING - on behalf of the developers of the device) in combination with a special cartridge with a reduced powder charge more than five times, which made it possible to reduce the initial velocity of the bullet, which now did not exceed the speed of sound. "Bramit" was a silencer with two expansion chambers, a cut-off valve and openings for the release of gases. It was used by partisans, groups, and special forces of the GRU and the NKVD / NKGB. A carabiner with a “Bramit” device, for example, was considered as an option of eliminating Belarus's Gauleiter Wilhelm Kuba in 1943, although the one with the time mine was implemented.

After the war, the sniper rifle remained in the military service the longest of the “trehliniek” family - up to the appearance of the Dragunov sniper rifle in the army.


Although the trilinek in various versions was the most massive rifle, it was not the only one left. In the summer and autumn of 1941, a large number of rifles of various calibers and systems turned out, for example, in parts of the people's militia. Sometimes they are classified as captured, which is true if we talk about Austrian 8-mm rifles and Mannicher carbines of the 1895 system of the year, which were really able to beat off the enemy during the First World War, or 7,92-mm Mausers, wz.1929, captured autumn 1939 of the year in Western Ukraine and Western Belarus.

Let me remind you that while Russia participated in the First World War, it bought a large number of different rifles and cartridges from its allies at that time. Russian troops received French rifles Lebel, Gra, Gra-Kropachek, Italian Vetterli-Vitali, Japanese Arisaka. Much of them remained in warehouses and in the summer and autumn 1941 of the year was removed from there.

Therefore, it is not surprising that the departmental formations of the People's Commissariat of the Fuel Industry had rifles of Lee-Enfield 1914 systems, Arisaka 1905 years, Lebel 1907 / 1915 / 1916 years, Mannicher 1893 years, Vetterli-Vitali 1870 / 1884 years, Graf 1874 years, Graf 1885 / 1885, Manliher 1878, 1884 of the year, 1905 / XNUMX of the year. Rifles Arisaka system arr. XNUMX, along with other foreign weapons, was received by fighters of the fighter battalion of the Leningrad Baltic plant, Lebel rifles - the militia of the Krasnogvardeysky district of Moscow.

Curious are the memories of one of the veterans of the Great Patriotic War, who began his combat career in the Moscow militia, about issued French rifles: “We almost didn’t cling to the wires”. Indeed, the French needle bayonets-stilettos differed a great length.

Despite the saturation of the troops with weapons, they had to resort to the use of new trophies at the front. Mainly for the armament of parts of the engineering troops, communications troops, that is, “support units”. Thus, in the documents of the 123-th separate motorized pontoon-bridge battalion, it is indicated that in repulsing the enemy 17 raid on July 1943 of the year, “Italian rounds - 1291 units” were spent. The use of Italian rifles (obviously, it concerns the captured Manliher-Carcano) is not surprising - back in March of the 1943, this battalion had about half of the rifles put to it by the 318 staff.

The use of captured weapons in the presence of ammunition was not uncommon. It is not by chance that the Order of the NCO No. 6 of 5 in January 1943 of the year indicated: “... captured weapons and property taken by the troops during the battle and immediately used in battles against the enemy remain in the troops”.


This inevitably raises the question of comparing the domestic rifle with the most massive weapon of the enemy. Such, contrary to the stereotype that has taken root in the majority consciousness, were shop rifles and Mauser 1898 carbines of the year, and not the MP38 submachine guns at all.

In most parts of the Wehrmacht, there were rifles (or shortened rifles) Mauser K1935k adopted by the 98, although old infantry rifles and Mausers of Czech, Belgian, Polish, Austrian production were used. According to the combat characteristics of the rifle arr. 1891 / 30 and K98k were equivalent. And yet, each had its own characteristics.

For the Russian “trilinear” remained her remarkable ease of handling and high reliability. But without detracting from the merits of the domestic sample, it must be admitted that it was the 1898 Mauser of the year that is considered a classic of military store rifles.

Its positive qualities include features of the device shutter, trigger, magazine and boxes. In the back of the bolt, a non-automatic safety lever is mounted on three positions: locking the firing pin with the trigger and bolt, locking the trigger with the firing pin (used only when disassembling a rifle) and “fire”. In the "three-line" fuse is missing. True, pulling back the trigger, screwed on the back of the drummer, with a quarter turn, can be considered setting the weapon "on the fuse", but this operation required a lot of effort and contributed to the weakening of the mainspring.

The Mauser trigger provides a “warning” descent, which contributes to more accurate shooting than a three-way descent without warning, although this does not play a significant role for the mass shooter in battle. The advantages of the two-row Mauser store are obvious. Its appearance was facilitated by a German cartridge without a protruding rim and with a sleeve in front of the cartridge in the chamber. The Russian three-line cartridge was fixed with a protruding rim, which determined the use of a single-row magazine and the appearance of a cut-off reflector in the trilinear, one of the key elements of the Mosin system. The K98k box with a semi-pistol projection of the neck of the butt provides a comfortable aiming, the neck of the butt is somewhat stronger than that of the three-lane.

The advantages of the Mauser design K98k - the result is not so much the talent of the creators, as stories development. The Mauser system was formed prior to its adoption for ten years. The three-line system was created earlier and in a shorter time. The end of the 19th century, when both systems appeared, was the beginning of a new era in the history of small arms - an era of cartridges with smokeless powder and new ballistics, an increase in the rate of fire. And even seven years of difference in such turbulent periods mean a lot. The “trilinek” was subsequently modified slightly, mainly in connection with the adoption of a new version of the cartridge or to simplify production. Moreover, on the eve of both world wars in our country, they soon intended to replace it with a self-loading rifle.

German industry during the war also faced the need to reduce the cost of weapons production. In particular, on the K98k, the walnut tree of the lodge was replaced with cheaper wood or plywood, a number of parts were stamped, the shop boxes were made of tin, the box rings were simplified, and ers-bayonets were inserted.
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  1. Explore
    Explore 8 June 2013 09: 36
    Video is just nonsense.
    SVT-40 is not an automatic rifle ... SVT-38/40 is a self-loading Tokarev Rifle! And over 1,6 million units were released!
    As for the AUTOMATIC rifles, they were the ABC-36 (Simonov automatic rifle arr. 1936) and the AVT-40 (converted to automatic firing SVT-40). And of course, after the war, Dragunov created an excellent self-loading SVD sniper rifle.
    1. Regis
      Regis 8 June 2013 12: 55
      Quote: Explorar
      Video is just nonsense.

      Here it is) I liked it at the beginning.
      At first they said that after one first shot the sniper always changed position.
      Then, because of the optical sight, it was impossible to charge the rifle properly - with a clip. And this greatly affected the rate of fire.
      A change of position after one shot, probably did not affect the rate of fire at all))
      1. Apostle
        Apostle 8 June 2013 14: 03
        Ha ha ha laughing , thanks, excellent koment, laughed at the glory ... by the way very accurately noticed (video nonsense)
        1. 755962
          755962 8 June 2013 17: 52
          No comm ..
          1. Gahprom
            Gahprom 8 June 2013 21: 24
            nonsense - the knife has been akulen for several thousand years, and your rifle will become obsolete in 200
            1. 755962
              755962 8 June 2013 23: 08
              Quote: Gahpro
              nonsense - the knife has been akulen for several thousand years, and your rifle will become obsolete in 200

              At the end of World War II, the production of Mosin rifles in the USSR continued until the end of the 2s, after which part of the machine park and equipment were transferred to Poland (there the 'three-line' was produced until 1965)... In addition to Russia / USSR, the Mosin system rifle was in service in a number of other countries: Poland, Yugoslavia, Hungary, China, North Korea and Finland. Moreover, Finland not only received a certain supply of rifles of the 1891-10 model during the collapse of the Russian Empire in 1917, but also captured a fairly large number of rifles arr. 1891-30 during the 'northern' war between the USSR and Finland in 1940. In addition, Finland itself produced Mosin rifles. In just 70 years of production, more than 9,3 million 'three-rulers' have been produced.

              And today the old 'three-line' does not leave the scene. Moreover, not only in our country, but also abroad. Accordingly, the modernization of the Mosin rifle continues to this day. So, in the 90s, the Finns presented a new version of the Mosin rifle - the SSG-96 sniper rifle. Today this rifle is considered the best in the West.
              Until now, Mosin rifles are popular among hunters in Russia and other countries because of the low cost, good ballistic data and the availability of cheap and widespread cartridges.

              From century to century: the 'three-line' in the hands of the soldiers of the early 20th and early 21st centuries!

  2. MAG
    MAG 8 June 2013 10: 25
    In our regiment, sniper mosquitoes were used instead of linear carabiners when all kinds of commissions arrived. 2 times shot at the power range and as I imagine it as a butt in the jaw and there the butt plate of the butt iron
  3. anomalocaris
    anomalocaris 8 June 2013 11: 36
    gfiXFyIbOZw & v = 2Bzls73WH7w
    To this topic.
    1. loft79
      loft79 8 June 2013 12: 07
      I like the Hickok45 reviewer more
  4. omsbon
    omsbon 8 June 2013 12: 18
    I happened to shoot two times from the Mosin rifle and once from a carbine. I liked it, although the feedback is sensitive compared to AKM.
    1. EXA-2
      EXA-2 18 June 2013 15: 18
      Quote: omsbon
      I happened to shoot twice from the Mosin rifle and once from a carbine. I liked it, although the feedback is sensitive compared to AKM

      He shot 5 at a time. After 10 pieces, the shoulder falls off. After that, between the shoulder and the butt, I installed a plastic bottle of water. In two years he shot about 100 guns. After that I do not like this weapon. I get closer Kalash 7,62
      1. def89
        def89 April 20 2014 11: 40
        He worked with SVD, and when he received "mosinki" as an experiment, he fell in love with his without memory. And she was of the 43rd issue, received zero in the lubricant.
  5. xomaNN
    xomaNN 8 June 2013 17: 04
    More than 12 million pcs. rifles - this is strong! In the 70s, in the river near Leningrad, at the scene of the fighting, the guys and I found a couple of rifles at the bottom, despite the years spent in the water and rust, they did not look like rubbish. The wooden parts, of course, came to naught, and the iron was still hoo ..
  6. spanchbob
    spanchbob 8 June 2013 18: 26
    I also had to shoot from the "Mosin" - after 12-15 shots it starts to "spit". By the way, the name "Mosin" was given in 1930. And L. Nagan received from Ross for winning the competition in 1991. government 200 rubles.
    1. Russ69
      Russ69 8 June 2013 18: 30
      Quote: spanchbob
      I also had to shoot from the "Mosin" - after 12-15 shots it starts to "spit".

      I don’t know what you shot from and how safe it was. People with her have gone through several wars and have never heard such complaints.
      1. spanchbob
        spanchbob 8 June 2013 18: 44
        FOR RUSS69
        I shot, personally, from a "Mosin" model 1930 with a telescopic sight, in excellent condition, and not discussing other people's complaints.
        1. Russ69
          Russ69 8 June 2013 18: 48
          Quote: spanchbob
          I shot, personally, from a "Mosin" model 1930 with a telescopic sight, in excellent condition, and not discussing other people's complaints.

          "I don't believe", as Stanislavsky used to say
          1. spanchbob
            spanchbob 8 June 2013 19: 02
            Believe it or not, it’s your right. To suspect whoever is, in a lie, without reason, is a sign of deceit.
    2. Gahprom
      Gahprom 8 June 2013 21: 28
      Quote: spanchbob
      And L. Nagan for winning the competition in 1991 received from Ross. government 200 000 rubles.

      and how did he get the prize in 1991? "))))
    3. воронов
      воронов 9 June 2013 21: 18
      Quote: spanchbob
      I also had to shoot from the "Mosin" - after 12-15 shots it starts to "spit". By the way, the name "Mosin" was given in 1930. And L. Nagan received from Ross for winning the competition in 1991. government 200 rubles.

      You shot from a Chinese craft laughing
    4. dustycat
      dustycat 23 June 2013 13: 08
      You tell the Kazakh poachers who half-barrel mosquitoes without a chamber for 1000 rubles of the USSR bought.
      For half-barrel with a chamber they paid 3000.
  7. rumpeljschtizhen
    rumpeljschtizhen 8 June 2013 19: 13
    held and fired, and Stogo and another Mauser tale! mosinka ..... no comments whatsoever good
    All ye .... ny cartridge with the edge of the trouble of our gunsmiths.
    the eternal problem of ekonymy is not where it is necessary
  8. kirpich
    kirpich 8 June 2013 19: 57
    After the war, the sniper rifle remained in the military service the longest of the “trehliniek” family - up to the appearance of the Dragunov sniper rifle in the army.

    Ah, here you lie. The carbine is still serving in the Russian Army (I won’t speak for the rest of the States).
    1. svp67
      svp67 9 June 2013 21: 20
      Quote: kirpich
      The carbine still stands in the service of the Russian Army
      And in what units?
  9. kirpich
    kirpich 8 June 2013 20: 07
    Quote: rumpeljschtizhen
    held and fired, and Stogo and another Mauser tale! mosinka ..... no comments whatsoever good

    And, having shot "Mosinka" and "MAUSER" did not try to disassemble them for cleaning?

    ... When, sitting in a trench, you remember that you lost a screwdriver somewhere, then you will understand that Mosinka is more reliable
    1. rumpeljschtizhen
      rumpeljschtizhen 13 June 2013 21: 46
      You see Mosinka and have not seen in your eyes
      its hemorrhagic reflector will deliver a lot. and it’s just when shooting 50 rounds (I give a discount that I’m not quite new, but from the ground)
  10. ant_ey
    ant_ey 8 June 2013 22: 03
    About iPhone pleased
  11. kirpich
    kirpich 8 June 2013 22: 19
    Quote: spanchbob
    I also had to shoot from the "Mosin" - after 12-15 shots it starts to "spit". By the way, the name "Mosin" was given in 1930. And L. Nagan received from Ross for winning the competition in 1991. government 200 rubles.

    Hospidiyayayayayaya ... Dear, did you hold something in your hands?
    1. spanchbob
      spanchbob 9 June 2013 09: 00
      I understand that some people want to hear what they want to hear, not the truth. I fired from a "Mosin" back in Soviet times, as a cadet, in a training center near Ferghana. "Partisans" were brought there for practice shooting, and from their rifle and shot.
  12. old rats
    old rats 9 June 2013 08: 57
    I personally saw a sniper in Chechnya with Mosinka.
    the guy was pleased.
    just got him out, let me see, let me hold it, let me shoot.
  13. Argon
    Argon 9 June 2013 11: 34
    I would like to note that a perfect design is not always a guarantee of the "success" of the sample. An example of this is the rifle of S. I. Mosin, in its way it is a standard of a harmonious combination of many qualities, in terms of genius it deserves a place on a par with the designs of Mikhail Timofeevich. judging by the publications of Kirill Karasik, Mosinka also enjoyed commercial success (it is the leader in sales in the USA).
  14. pinecone
    pinecone 9 June 2013 11: 35
    Quote: spanchbob
    I also had to shoot from the "Mosin" - after 12-15 shots it starts to "spit". By the way, the name "Mosin" was given in 1930. And L. Nagan received from Ross for winning the competition in 1991. government 200 rubles.

    Nagan received 200 thousand rubles for a license to manufacture his revolver in Russia.
    1. spanchbob
      spanchbob 9 June 2013 15: 38
      I do not know how much they paid for the revolver, but for the "rifle of 1891" (that is what it was called) - 200 rubles. The same was heard on the TV channel "ZVEZDA"
      1. bbss
        bbss 12 December 2014 20: 39
        You are raving. Nagan lost the competition, the design team (commission), which was led by Mosin, applied the design of the store in the domestic rifle similar to the design of Nagan.
  15. uzer 13
    uzer 13 9 June 2013 16: 17
    The Mauser-98 rifle was created after its predecessor, the 1988 model, made under the exact same cartridge cartridge as the Mosin rifle, served in the German army for 10 years and all its advantages and disadvantages were studied. After that, a waferless cartridge appeared with a ring groove, which allowed the rifle to use a more reliable and simple mechanism for feeding the cartridge. Mosin rifles were produced in different lengths, depending on the purpose, and the longest infantry rifle was the most accurate of them, the most widely used of which was during the First World War. shot with a bayonet, in full accordance with the theory of practical shooting. The tendency to reduce barrel length (without taking additional measures) clearly reduced the accuracy of the battle. But the practice of military operations of World War II showed that all of them mainly occur at distances up to 2 meters , therefore, the requirements for the range and accuracy of weapons and ammunition power can be significantly reduced, which was the reason for the appearance of completely different post-war models of small arms.
  16. mark7
    mark7 9 June 2013 16: 24
    I agree with argon, I and PM had misfires, although the machine is trouble-free, maybe the partisans spawned it unclean
  17. motorized rifle
    motorized rifle 9 June 2013 20: 50
    Curious about "12-15 shots." How did it start to spit? Even if the shooting was carried out with equipment from the clip, not aimed, it simply would not be possible to overheat the barrel, the rate of fire is too low, and if you shoot from the sniper version, where the magazine is generally equipped with one cartridge, then you can only heat the barrel for spitting in the forge. Most likely, the rifle had a grinded barrel, this happens on old guns, which were not cleaned from the breech, but in this case, it does not spit, but increases dispersion. In 1982-83 I did a lot of shooting from a mosinka, but I don’t remember spitting, but they fired quite intensively from them.
    1. spanchbob
      spanchbob 9 June 2013 21: 08
      Two people were shooting: me and my partner took turns holding clips on rising targets. I even burned my thumb. I won’t say the rest, I don’t know
    2. dustycat
      dustycat 23 June 2013 13: 32
      The barrel could be leaded if it was not cleaned with an acidic solution.
      But it was her who had not been cleaned for about 50 years and so that they fired at the same time with lead-free lead bullets.
  18. motorized rifle
    motorized rifle 9 June 2013 21: 23
    Well, any weapon heats up when firing. Maybe we just interpret the word "spit" differently? In my practice, it was assumed under it that the barrel of the weapon was so hot that bullets, for example from a machine gun, fly 200 meters.
    1. spanchbob
      spanchbob 10 June 2013 20: 06
      That's it! The last shot at a target of 400m, the aim was set at 1000m (this is approximately how much the memory allows), and the bullet did not reach 100-150 meters.
      1. rumpeljschtizhen
        rumpeljschtizhen 13 June 2013 21: 47
        Yab chose a German
  19. Bobrovsky
    Bobrovsky 16 June 2013 19: 53
    Two carbines, model 1938 and 1944, I had in use for six years. Both are old men, and the users were such that they would kick their ears. I shot them often. Despite the barbaric attitude of their predecessors towards them, both had a very good fight. In terms of shooting performance, AKM was not even close. But, of course, archaic. While you juggle and reload, you will be beaten with machine guns, so you won't even raise your head. I don’t know how it happens that the bullets don’t reach the target. Probably the rifle had a completely killed barrel. I had a friend, since 1928, a former gunsmith, and then the head of a weapons workshop. Once we talked about our and the German rifle. He said that one of the drawbacks of Mosinka was the manufacture of a box from birch. Unlike walnut, birch undergoes deformation when wet. This is not much, but it does affect the quality of shooting. And so, the shooting results are almost the same, with a slight predominance of Mauser. But in the trenches, in the mud and with a barbaric attitude, the German rifle does not pull against ours. You can read AI Shumilin how to shoot rifles in battle in his book "Vanka-Rotny", there is this thing on the Internet.
  20. Bobrovsky
    Bobrovsky 18 June 2013 20: 36
    It is necessary to shoot from a rifle or carbine with a tight pressing of the butt to the shoulder, otherwise the shooter receives a sensitive blow. More than thirty years have passed since I fired from these weapons. But the impression is that shooting with a 12-gauge gun is not very different in terms of the force of a blow to the shoulder.
  21. Robert Nevsky
    Robert Nevsky 20 December 2013 13: 34

    The guys, in the Bulgarian army from 1903 to the 50s of their XXth century, were armed with an Austro-Hungarian rifle and carbine - Manlicher 95M. About her, even songs are sung!
    She performed well in four wars, in the national liberation movement, and in the anti-fascist struggle.
    The Manlicher rifle was created by the weapons designer Manlicher in 1895. It was produced at Schierre arms factories in Austria, as well as in Budapest.
    In the army, I also held in my hands a military carbine Manliher. I was greatly impressed by those cartridges of carbines - the dimensions of the cartridge case + bullet, twice as much as the cartridges of AKM 7,62. With them you can shoot elephants. )
    My grandfather told me that Manlihera was very “ritual” - she had a strong recoil when fired!

    Here are the tactical and technical data of Manlihera M95:

    Dolzhina - 1.272m.
    Barrel - 765 mm.
    All - 3,8 kg.
    Cartridge caliber - 8X50 mm.
    The beginning Bullet speed - 670 m / s
    Long range - 2600 m.

    Dolzhina - 1.050m.
    Barrel - 545 mm.
    All - 3,1 kg.
    Cartridge caliber - 8X50 mm.
    The beginning Bullet speed - 610 m / s
    Long range - 2000 m.

    Robert Nevsky 2013-12-20