Military Review

Unusual tanks of Russia and the USSR. Tank Dyrenkova DR-4

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Unusual tanks of Russia and the USSR. Tank Dyrenkova DR-4



In the late 20s and early 30s, tank building developed rapidly in the USSR. tank The Red Army fleet was replenished with new machines of both domestic design and those created on the basis of foreign models. Understanding the need to equip armored units with combat vehicles only of their own production, the government of young Soviet Russia created favorable conditions for promoting projects of talented engineers and designers. One of these self-taught engineers was Nikolai Ivanovich Dyrenkov (1898 - 1937), the creator of a large number of models of armored cars, armored cars and tanks. Many of his creations remained only on paper, some were released only in the form of prototypes and prototypes, but among them were those that were accepted and put into small-scale production. He also took a direct part in creating the hull for the light tank A-20. In this article, we will talk about one of his projects, known as D-4, also called “Dyrenkova tank”, DRS, or simply “tank D”.



In the RVS of the USSR 5 in October 1929, N. I. Dyrenkovov presented the project of an average wheeled-tracked maneuvering tank. Already on November 18, the commission heard a report on the features of this project, on the basis of which the decision was made: "It is advisable to test the tank of system D, with the aim of giving an urgent order to Izhora plant for 6 prototypes of the tank with a deadline of the first tank no later than April 1 1930 of the year. " In December 1929 of the year N. I. Dyrenkov creates an experimental design bureau at the Izhora plant, becomes its head and starts to implement his original project, which received the designation D-1930 in 4. According to the designer’s calculations, the tank should have a combat mass of 12 tons, with armor thickness from 15 to 20 mm. Armament - two 45-mm cannons of the Sokolov system and four 7,62-mm DT machine guns (Degtyarev Tank) - located in two towers located in the front part of the body with a slight diagonal offset. Although initially it was assumed that the tank would have three towers, but the particulars of the undercarriage did not allow to increase the mass of the car, so it was decided to abandon the three-tower scheme. Chassis of the car deserves special attention, it was a wheel-track, covered with an outside armored screen.



The tracked propulsion unit, on board, consisted of a leading sprocket, a sloth, and two large-diameter rollers. As an option, the use of three pairs of small-diameter support rollers supported on horizontal lamellar springs, which were mounted on a steel box located between the screen and the tank armor, was considered. On the outside of the screen, on the axles of the driving and driving rollers, there were fastened automobile wheels, the rear pair of which was the driving one. If necessary, with the help of jacks driven by the engine, a box with pairs of support rollers attached to it was lowered or raised, thereby lowering the car onto wheels or lifting it onto a tracked vehicle. Equipped with a reverse system, the tank could move both forward and backward at the same speed. Also, the design provided the opportunity to move under water and move independently by rail, for which railways were installed under the bottom of the hull.

The power plant consisted of two engines "Hercules" hp power 105. For various reasons, the project was delayed, and only in March 1931, the “Dyrenkov tank” made its first exit. The tank did not justify the hopes placed on it, the actual weight was more than 15-ti, which significantly exceeded the calculated one, the design of the undercarriage was not carefully thought out and did not have a reserve for modernization, the engine power for movement with the estimated speed was no longer enough. The tank could hardly move even on solid ground, the possibility of moving off-road and in combat conditions was out of the question. It turned out that the transmission of the car is unreliable and requires serious improvement. However, the designer by that time was fascinated by the new project, known as the D-5, and the D-4 project was abandoned by him. Soon all work on it was discontinued, the tank was dismantled for scrap. Like the D-4, the D-5 project was not completed; in November 1931 of the year only a tank model was built on the 1: 1 scale, but the 1 of December 1932 was disbanded. From the report of G. Bockes to the Chief of Mechanization and Motorization of the Red Army I. Khalepsky: “You already know the sad experience of making an experimental model of the D-4 tank, as a result we did not receive the car, but only spent about a million rubles of public money.



The designer Dyrenkov himself, apparently, decided that nothing would come of this car, and therefore he abandoned the D-4 design and proceeded to redesign the tank in the D-5 type. I have big doubts that something will come out of this car, and whether millions of rubles will not be spent again, and as a result we will again receive a box with different inoperative mechanisms. The fact that the D-5 machine retains the basic D-4 mechanisms convinces me of this. ”Later, in 1937, N. I. Dyrenkov was arrested on charges of participating in a terrorist organization and 9 of December 1939 was shot.
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  1. makarov
    makarov 23 November 2013 08: 27 New
    +6
    Yes, in those days the designer was fully responsible for the failure of the project, and often the VMN was responsible, but for some reason it was not shared by the officials giving the "go-ahead" to the project. A person who has the necessary knowledge on the topic could immediately weed out the unnecessary. That's what it turns out ... and so far, the system has not been changed much
    1. Stinger
      Stinger 23 November 2013 09: 48 New
      +6
      Not certainly in that way. Dyrenkov experimented with Stalin’s personal permission, writing a letter to him that he, self-taught, had better ideas than design engineers. Having received the go-ahead, he launched a vigorous activity, up to casting of tank towers from cast iron. V.A. Malyshev called this period in tank building Dyrenkovschina.
      1. Hudo
        Hudo 23 November 2013 11: 24 New
        +1
        From the memo by G. Bokes to the Head of Mechanization and Motorization of the Red Army I. Khalepsky: “You already know the sad experience in manufacturing a prototype of the D-4 tank, as a result, we did not receive the car, but only spent about a million rubles of national money.

        For the meaningless implementation of their crazy ideas, holes N.V. He was arrested on October 13, 1937. Sentenced by the VKVS of the USSR on December 9, 1937 on charges of "participation in a sabotage and terrorist organization."
        On the same day he was shot at the Kommunarka training ground (Moscow region), where he was buried. It would seem that a Chekist bullet put an end to the career of a pest-Trotskyist wasting money on a menacing pre-war hour ... But no, a bald Trotskyist-corn expert Khrushchev rehabilitated an accomplice by the decision of the USSR Supreme Council of High Command in December 1956.
        1. ruslan207
          ruslan207 23 November 2013 19: 17 New
          +2
          Hudo-He’s such a Trotskyist like you, the Queen also wanted to shoot, but it didn’t work out for the peasant, he didn’t take up his own business, but how many denunciations he shot and quarreled with his neighbor as an alcoholic, and all of you are already a Trotskyist, etc.
          1. Hudo
            Hudo 24 November 2013 01: 31 New
            +1
            Quote: ruslan207
            Ensign
            ruslan207 IL Yesterday, 19:17 ↑ New

            Hudo-He is such a Trotskyist like you


            Well yes? To rivet open refuge, spend money and resources on it and not understand what he is doing? Well, excuse me - the Trotskyist is the most real reptile and wrecker, and he and the one who gave the nod to such indecency at such a time.

            And there is no need to lump everything into one heap Korolev, denunciations, repression, blood, g'owno sand and granulated sugar.
            1. alex86
              alex86 24 November 2013 20: 03 New
              +1
              You have probably made mistakes in the performance of your work duties - after all, only the one who does nothing does not commit them. So remember some one and imagine that for it you will not be deprived of the bonus (reprimand, winter vacation, a portrait in a wall newspaper under the heading "They pull the team back", etc.), but a "Chekist bullet" (in your expression) ... I foresee an objection - your actions did not require such financial costs of the state. But firstly, it is possible to attract costs of any size to any action, and secondly, it is impossible to assess your sincerity, i.e., perhaps you caused much more harm to the state, but the "Chekist's bullet" passed you (remember, "no criminal record your merit, but our flaw "). Therefore, it would be better to be careful with cannibalistic conclusions ...
              1. Hudo
                Hudo 24 November 2013 21: 15 New
                +1
                Quote: alex86
                You have probably made mistakes in the performance of your work duties - after all, only the one who does nothing does not commit them. So remember some one and imagine that for it you will not be deprived of a bonus (reprimand, winter vacation, a portrait in a wall newspaper under the heading "They pull the team back", etc.), but a "Chekist bullet" (in your expression) ...


                Do you notice the difference between the improper performance of official duties and the INTENTIONAL erosion of financial, human and material resources of the koi in shortage for the realization of a frankly idiotic and extremely expensive project in the pre-war time? I personally doubt it. Read from Shirokorad about the same empty bell by the name of Bekauri - for many years he was engaged in unrealizable projects, he didn’t bring a penny, one huge cost - well, like a well-deserved prize, a bullet in his neck. For because of such waters, durenkovy durenkovy and kurchevskih were not thwarted really promising developments, and for this was paid a lot of blood in the war.
                These are facts, and on your part, just a set of phrases.
                1. alex86
                  alex86 24 November 2013 21: 36 New
                  +1
                  Quote: Hudo
                  on your part just a bunch of phrases.

                  Generally speaking, we all communicate here with a set of phrases.
                  And under the "intentional dilution of resources" can be summed up any project - both realized (a lot of money was spent) and unrealized. For example, you can call the "Buran" project "openly idiotic" - it didn’t work, they repeated the Americans - so, to all the developers, "Chekist's bullet"? Any project can be evaluated this way. And the fact that they were engaged in frankly failed ideas - so we can see today which of them was a failure. And then who could see what? - the technique was developing from scratch, there were enough "pig-driven devices". Now some of the powers that be, Petrik is a genius, and the majority is an adventurer and a sharper. And in 20 years they will say with bewilderment - "dilution of resources" (do not get attached to Petrik, this is me for an example).
                  1. Hudo
                    Hudo 24 November 2013 22: 05 New
                    +1
                    Quote: alex86
                    And under the "intentional dilution of resources" can be summed up any project


                    Alexey, do not be offended, but I am too lazy to explain common truths to you. Read at least the first chapter Alexander Shirokorad "MIRACLE WEAPONS of the USSR Secrets of Soviet weapons." Shirokorad is more talented, and he explains in a very accessible form the harm done by such fools.

                    And on my own I would add that Academician Charomsky, who was warmed up with the beast, the creator of the tank two-stroke 5tdf by trial and error (!!!) without scientific substantiation (!!!) for more than 10 (!!!) years, it would also be useful to work for a year -other on the construction of some kind of canal or on logging, like Korolev. After all, the result of his "work" is very deplorable - colossal resources were spent, and there is a lack of a modern tank diesel engine (some variations on the B-2 theme) and a slaughterhouse he created (it could not work as a point). Satisfying the scientific ambitions of Comrade Charomsky and a combination of five fingers , popularly referred to as fmga, that's fsё.
                    1. sapran
                      sapran 24 November 2013 23: 36 New
                      0
                      Charomsky had previously worked on the topic of diesel engineering (in aviation). The same B-2 (BDD) had created a lot of blood (by the way, TTX was still under Tukhachevsky), and with 5TDF they expected that the adaptation of Junkers' achievements would be successful. German tank diesel engines to our trophy teams they didn’t catch my eye. and here is such a temptation ...
                      1. Hudo
                        Hudo 25 November 2013 00: 33 New
                        +1
                        Quote: sapran
                        and with 5TDF they expected that the adaptation of Junkers' achievements would be successful. German tank diesel engines didn’t catch our eye. and here is such a temptation ...


                        Not a ride ... For such a temptation and for such a price, you have to hit the skull with a candelabrum on the skull. If this is not sabotage, then what is it then?
                2. sapran
                  sapran 24 November 2013 23: 30 New
                  0
                  First, tell me the book where it is described. Since I have other information about Bekauri with his developments, (remote control systems, radio-controlled mines) that were used during the Second World War, the same exploded Khreshchatyk in Kiev as an example) A number of works were clearly an adventure for that state of industry, but someone should try it out.
                  1. Hudo
                    Hudo 25 November 2013 00: 29 New
                    0
                    Quote: sapran
                    Alexander Shirokorad "MIRACLE-WEAPON of the USSR Secrets of Soviet weapons."

                    Alexander Shirokorad "MIRACLE-WEAPON of the USSR Secrets of Soviet weapons." http://www.litmir.net
                    In the first chapter, Shirokorad writes extensively about this.
                    1. sapran
                      sapran 25 November 2013 00: 38 New
                      0
                      Thank. try to enlighten ...
            2. demo
              demo 28 June 2017 21: 53 New
              0
              "No need to get excited, comrade."
              That is what Comrade Stalin said.
              First.
              The designer or offers his vision of a product. Or they set a task for him.
              Upstream.
              The task was set personally by I.V. Stalin.
              The question is not whether one of this could have come out or could not.
              The question is not whether a million rubles was spent idle or was it useful.
              The question is not whether this Dyrenkov (well, last name, God forgive me) belonged to the Trotskyists.
              The question is different.
              And why on earth did we need WHEEL tanks?
              And where are we going to ride them?
              Asphalt was only in large cities, but not on all streets.
              And tanks, in general, are not designed for the city.
              And for more unpretentious and difficult places.
              So what kind of scum did Stalin and the Soviet government agree to build such a tank?
              Who will answer?
              1. Navigator Basov
                Navigator Basov 7 October 2017 18: 25 New
                0
                At that time, wheel-tracked (not wheel-mounted) propulsors were considered as a solution to the problems of increasing the operational mobility of tanks and a very low resource of tracked tracks. Wheel-tracked tanks were put on wheels on the march (not necessarily on roads with asphalt concrete pavement, and even more so not exclusively within the city limits), but they went into battle on the tracks. Given the serial production and adoption of such tanks, at least BT, it’s a shame not to know this and to carry on the absurdity of the city.
      2. rexby63
        rexby63 23 November 2013 13: 46 New
        +1
        experimented with personal permission of Stalin


        At this stage, Nikolai Ivanovich worked under the auspices of Halepsky, not Stalin
    2. sapran
      sapran 24 November 2013 23: 21 New
      0
      The spirit of the era under the symbol of Faforitism + is for some reason silent about protectionism. has both positive and sharply negative characteristics, with the first case there can be luck, for example, Shpitalny. Even if in single samples protectionism multiplied by a fanatical vision of one's genius can be 100 times worse, for example, Nikolay Fedorovich Tsyganov or Leonid Vasilievich Kurchevsky
  2. avt
    avt 23 November 2013 08: 53 New
    +3
    Quote: makarov
    So it turns out that it turns out ... and so far the system has been little changed

    Well, not quite so, although the system debugged after Tukhachevsky was cool. Dyrenkov, after all, is a “child” of the time when Tukhachevsky's artistic nature grabbed at any outwardly attractive idea, even if the project was really good and promising, but there was no physical opportunity to do it. The example with helicopters is very indicative. production, but Stalin, according to the memoirs of Tupolev, said that there was no physical opportunity, and if we start, they will overtake us without fail. But the topic at TsAGI did not close and Kamov and Mil worked on it.
  3. pv1005
    pv1005 23 November 2013 10: 02 New
    +7
    It looks like SKOLKOVO arr. 1930
  4. Klim
    Klim 23 November 2013 12: 29 New
    +2
    Now would be such a responsibility to our defense industry
    1. rexby63
      rexby63 23 November 2013 14: 07 New
      +2
      C'mon, then the mess was decent too. Even the executions did not help.
  5. starhina01
    starhina01 23 November 2013 13: 39 New
    +2
    at the time, for each development, the designer was personally responsible and it was just that the loot was not washed hi from each to whom financing was allocated, demanded in full hi
  6. xomaNN
    xomaNN 23 November 2013 17: 34 New
    0
    The death date of the tank designer - 1937 - is very alarming.
    1. Hudo
      Hudo 24 November 2013 11: 31 New
      0
      Quote: xomaNN
      The death date of the tank designer - 1937 - is very alarming.


      It is completely unclear what worries you?
      A new replenishment comes. The foreman asks who, what can you do, one paints, the other draws, the third puts the masonry, the fourth - "cooks" and here one says - And I know how to do bulbulators. - Petty Officer - And what is this? - Let's give a bucket, I will show. An elder gives a bucket, a fighter picks up and makes a lot of holes with a nail. Pours water and water flowing out - Bul-Bul. Elder - Here - ruined the bucket. Threw out bucket in the trash. The next day the general arrives with a check and, as usual, immediately to the trash. Yes, the general says, you live well Colonel. I’m looking at a completely new bulbulator.
      And this armored bulbulator costs a lot of money, resource costs, production capacities, KB employees who have a lot of projects urgent for the country are loaded with rubbish ... Here in 1937, comrade Stalin I.V. and for the time being cleared the country of bulbuliners and organizers of bulbulatory surveys in high positions - who are corrected in the camps, and incorrigible ones - at a cost. Dyrenkovs, Bekauri, Kurchevskys and others like them are corrected only by radical means
  7. KEKS44
    KEKS44 23 November 2013 19: 49 New
    0
    Delusional tank.
  8. Thunderbolt
    Thunderbolt 24 November 2013 00: 19 New
    0
    Glory to the Soviet tank crews! The task was completed soldier I bow to your feat, above the banner!
    1. Thunderbolt
      Thunderbolt 24 November 2013 00: 42 New
      +2
      Yesterday, we walked with my daughter in Victory Park (Samara) there is no limit to enthusiasm, the little one sticks to 34-ke. And the daddies stand aside, smoke darkly .. the crew are thinking.
      1. soldier's grandson
        soldier's grandson 24 November 2013 02: 14 New
        0
        have you cleaned the bottles in the tower?
      2. Thunderbolt
        Thunderbolt 24 November 2013 03: 23 New
        0
        tank crews, forward Eagles, glorious guys of our homeland
  9. bevatec
    bevatec 24 November 2013 06: 36 New
    +3
    He would have gone far, but stopped in time. It is a pity that Chubais did not begin to nanowire his nanoprojects at that time.
  10. Aleks tv
    Aleks tv 24 November 2013 20: 14 New
    0
    Yes, Dyrenkova was adventurous.
    His ideas would be, but in the normal processing of techies ... it would be interesting.

    With tanks, he did not succeed, but armored cars went into series. D-2 was built by 30 pcs.
    Yes, they were not easy to maintain and repair, but they served and fought well.
  11. CastroRuiz
    CastroRuiz 5 June 2017 14: 22 New
    0
    Smotrya na ego "izdelia", polno spravedlivo, shto rozstrelyali. :)
    1. The comment was deleted.