Military Review

Cossacks in World War II

59
In previous articles on the participation of the Cossacks in the Civil War, it was shown how much the revolution cost the Cossacks. During the brutal, fratricidal war, the Cossacks suffered huge losses: human, material and spiritual and moral. Only on the Don, where 1 1917 4 people of different classes lived on 428 January 846, did 1 1921 2 people stay on 252 January 973 of the year. In fact, every second was cut out. Of course, not everyone was “cut out” in the literal sense, many simply left their native Cossack districts, fleeing from the terror and arbitrariness of local combos and komchyacheek. The same picture was in all other territories of the Cossack troops.


In February 1920, the 1 th All-Russian Congress of Labor Cossacks took place. He adopted a resolution on the abolition of the Cossacks as a special class. Cossack ranks and titles were eliminated, awards and insignia were abolished. Separate Cossack troops were liquidated and the Cossacks merged with the entire people of Russia. In the resolution "On the construction of Soviet power in the Cossack regions, the" congress "recognized the inexpedient existence of separate Cossack authorities (military executive committees), stipulated by the decree of the Council of People's Commissars of June 1 of 1918. In accordance with this decision, the Cossack regions were abolished, their territories were redistributed among the gubernias, and the Cossack villages and hamlets were part of the provinces in which they were located. The Cossacks of Russia suffered a severe defeat. After a few years, the Cossack villages will be renamed the parish, and the very word "Cossack" will begin to disappear from everyday life. Only on the Don and Kuban Cossack traditions and orders still existed, and dashing and detached, sad and intimate Cossack songs were sung. From official documents disappeared indications of Cossack affiliation. At best, the term "former estate" was used, everywhere there is a biased and cautious attitude towards the Cossacks. The Cossacks themselves answer the same and perceive the Soviet power as alien to them from other cities. But with the introduction of NEP, the open resistance of the peasant and Cossack masses of the Soviet government gradually collapsed and ceased, and the Cossack regions were pacified. Along with this, the twenties, the "NEP" years, it is also the time of the inevitable "erosion" of the Cossack mentality. The Cossack customs and customs, the religious, military and defense consciousness of the Cossacks, the traditions of the Cossack people's democracy, were shattered and destroyed by the Cossack work ethic by communist and Komsomol cells. The Cossacks also seriously experienced their social and political powerlessness. They said: "what they want, they do with the Cossack".

Plotting was facilitated by land management, in which political (land leveling), rather than economic and agronomical tasks came to the fore. Land management, conceived as a measure of streamlining land relations, in the Cossack regions became a form of peaceful raskazachivaniya through the "dubbing" Cossack farms. Resistance to such land management by the Cossacks was explained not only by the reluctance to give land to non-residents, but also by the struggle against the squandering of the land, the shredding of farms. And the latest trend was threatening - in the Kuban the number of farms grew from 1916 to 1926. more than one third. Some of these "owners" did not even think of a peasantry and independent farming, because the majority of the poor simply did not know how to efficiently manage the peasant economy.

The decisions of the April 1926 of the year of the plenum of the Central Committee of the RCP (b) occupy a special place in the policy of disclosure. Some historians regarded the decisions of this plenum as a turn towards the revival of the Cossacks. In reality, things were different. Yes, among the party leadership there were people who understood the importance of changing the Cossack policy (NI Bukharin, G.Ya. Sokolnikov, and others). They were among the initiators of raising the Cossack question in the framework of the "face to the village" new policy. But this did not cancel the course of rasskazachivanie, giving it only a more "soft", camouflaged form. It was extremely clear on this topic that the Secretary of the Regional Committee A.I.I spoke at the III plenum of the North Caucasus Regional Committee of the RKP (b). Mikoyan: “Our main task in relation to the Cossacks is the involvement of poor Cossacks and middle peasants in the Soviet public. Undoubtedly, this task is very difficult. We will have to deal with specific household and psychological features that had been artificially cultivated by tsarism that had been rooted for many decades. traits to overcome and grow new, our Soviet. From the Cossack, you need to make a Soviet social activist ... ". It was a two-faced line, on the one hand legalizing the Cossack question, and on the other hand strengthening the class line and the ideological struggle with the Cossacks. And two years later, party leaders reported on successes in this struggle. Secretary of the Kuban Regional Committee of the CPSU (b) V. Cherny concluded: "... Neutralism and passivity show reconciliation of the main Cossack mass with the existing Soviet regime and suggest that there is no force that would now raise the majority of Cossacks to fight this regime ". First of all, Cossack youth went to the Soviet power. Her first managed to tear off the land, family, service, church and traditions. The surviving representatives of the older generation reconciled with the new order. As a result of the system of measures in the economic and socio-political spheres, the Cossacks ceased to exist as a socio-economic group. Cultural and ethnic foundations were also greatly shaken.

Thus, we can say that the process of liquidation of the Cossacks took place in several stages. First, by abolishing the estates, the Bolsheviks led an open war with the Cossacks, and then, retreating to the NEP, they conducted a policy of turning the Cossacks into peasants - "Soviet Cossacks". But the peasants, as independent commodity producers, were perceived by the communist authorities as the last exploiting class, the petty bourgeoisie, which gave rise to "daily and hourly" capitalism. Therefore, at the turn of the 30-s, the Bolsheviks carried out a "great turning point", "having discovered" peasant Russia. The “great breakthrough,” in which the regions of the Don and the Kuban became an experimental field, only completed the storytelling process. Together with millions of peasants, the already rasskazachennye Cossacks died or became collective farmers. So, the path of the Cossacks from the estate to the classlessness, which ran through differentiation, stratacid, dubbing to the "socialist class" - the collective farmers, and then to the state farmers - the state peasants - turned out to be a truly godfather.

The remnants of their ethnic culture, dear to every Cossack, they hid deeper in the soul. Having thus built socialism, the Bolsheviks, led by Stalin, returned some of the external attributes of the Cossack culture, mainly those that could work for sovereignty. A similar reformatting happened with the church. Thus ended the process of revelation, in which various factors intertwined, turning it into a complex socialhistorical a problem requiring careful study.

The situation in the Cossack emigration was no better. For evacuated White Guard troops, genuine torment began in Europe. Hunger, cold, illness, cynical indifference - all this was answered by ungrateful Europe to the sufferings of tens of thousands of people, to whom she owed much during the First World War. "In Gallipoli and on Lemnos 50, thousands of Russians, abandoned by all, appeared before the eyes of the whole world a living reproach to those who used their power and blood when they were needed, and left them when they fell into misfortune," the white emigrants angrily resented in the book "Russian army in a foreign land". The island of Lemnos was rightly called the "island of death." And in Gallipoli, life, according to the opinions of its inhabitants, "seemed at times hopeless horror." Since May 1921, the emigrants began to move to Slavic countries, but even there their life turned out to be bitter. In the masses of white immigrants came the epiphany. The movement among the Cossack émigrés for breaking with the corrupt top of the generals and for returning to their homeland was truly massive. The patriotic forces of this movement created their own organization, the Union of Return to Homeland in Bulgaria, and established the publication of the newspapers To the Homeland and New Russia. Their campaigning was a great success. In 10 years (from 1921 to 1931 year) almost 200 thousand Cossacks, soldiers and refugees returned to their homeland from Bulgaria. The desire to return to their homeland among the ordinary mass of the Cossacks and the soldiers was so strong that it captured some of the white generals and officers. The appeal of a group of generals and officers "To the White Army troops" in which they declared the collapse of the aggressive plans of the White Guards, the recognition of the Soviet government and their readiness to serve in the Red Army caused a big resonance. The appeal was signed by generals A.S. Secrets (former commander of the Don Corps, breaking the blockade of the Veshensky Uprising), Y. Gravitsky, I. Klochkov, E. Zelenin, as well as 19 colonels, 12 military officers and other officers. Their message said: "Soldiers, Cossacks and officers of the white armies! We, your old chiefs and comrades of the former service in the white army, call upon you to honestly and openly break with the leaders of the white ideology and, recognizing the Government of the USSR existing in the homeland, boldly go to their homeland ... Every extra day of our living abroad tears us away from our homeland and gives international adventurers a reason to build their treacherous adventures on our heads. We must decisively dissociate ourselves from this low and mean betrayal of our homeland and all Yakoi, who has not lost his sense of love for his fatherland, will sooner join the working people of Russia ... " Tens of thousands of Cossacks once again believed the Soviet government and returned. Nothing good came of it. Later, many of them were repressed.

After the end of the civil war in the USSR, Cossacks were imposed restrictions on military service in the Red Army, although many Cossacks, primarily “red” participants of the civil war, served in the command personnel of the Red Army. However, after the fascists, militarists and revanchists came to power in a number of countries, the world smelled thickly of a new war, and positive changes in the Cossack question began to occur in the USSR. USSR Central Executive Committee 20 April 1936 adopted a decision on the abolition of restrictions on the service of the Cossacks in the Red Army. This decision received great support in the Cossack circles. In accordance with the order of the People's Commissar of Defense K.E. Voroshilov N 061 from April 21 1936, 5 cavalry divisions (4,6,10,12,13) received the status of Cossack. Territorial Cossack cavalry divisions were created on the Don and the North Caucasus. Among others in February 1937 in the North Caucasus Military District, the Combined Cavalry Division was formed as part of the Don, Kuban, Terek-Stavropol Cossack regiments and a regiment of the mountaineers. This division participated in a military parade on Red Square in Moscow 1 May 1937. A special act restored the wearing of previously forbidden Cossack uniforms in everyday life, and for regular Cossack units, by order of the USSR People's Commissar of Defense No. 67 of 23.04.1936, a special daily and ceremonial uniform was introduced, largely coinciding with the historical one, but without shoulder straps. The casual uniform for the Don Cossacks consisted of a hat, cap or cap, overcoat, gray hood, khaki beshmet, dark blue trousers with red stripes, all-army boots and all-caviar equipment. The casual uniform for the Terek and Kuban Cossacks consisted of a Kuban, a cap or cap, an overcoat, a colored hood, a khaki beshmet, and blue all-army trousers with edges, light blue for the terts, and red for the Kuban. Army boots, all-cavalier outfit. The parade uniform of the Don Cossacks consisted of a hat or a cap, an overcoat, a gray bashlyka, a Cossack, a sharovar with stripes, army boots, a general cavalier outfit, a sword. The ceremonial form of the Terek and Kuban Cossacks consisted of a Kuban, a colored beshmet (Kuban’s red, a light blue for the Tertians), a Circassian (dark blue for the Kuban, a steel-gray Tertiy), a burqa, Caucasian boots, a Caucasian outfit, a colored hat ( the Kuban people are red, the Tertians are light blue) and Caucasian checkers. The cap at the Donets had a red band, the crown and bottom were dark-blue, the edges along the top of the band and the crown was red. The cap for the Terek and Kuban Cossacks had a blue band, a crown and a khaki bottom, and black edging. The coat for donts is black, the bottom is red, a black soutache is sewed crosswise over two rows, and for the commanding staff a yellow golden soutache or a braid. In this dress uniform, the Cossacks marched on the 1 May Parade in May 1937, and after the war and on the Victory Parade 24 in June 1945 on Red Square. All those present at the 1 parade on May 1937 of the year were struck by the high skill of the Cossacks, who galloped twice through the wet paving of the square. The Cossacks have shown that they are ready, as before, to stand up with their chests to defend the Motherland.


Fig. 1. Cossacks on the parade 1 May 1937 of the year

Cossacks in World War II

Fig. 2. Cossacks in the Red Army

It seemed to the enemies that the talk of the Bolsheviks took place abruptly, completely and irrevocably, and the Cossacks could never forget and forgive this. However, they miscalculated. Despite all the insults and atrocities of the Bolsheviks, the vast majority of Cossacks during the Great Patriotic War resisted patriotic positions and took part in the war on the side of the Red Army during hard times. Millions of Soviet people during the years of World War II defended their homeland and there were Cossacks in the forefront of these patriots. By June 1941, as a result of the reforms carried out following the results of the Soviet-Finnish and the first period of the Second World War, the Red Army left 4 cavalry corps of 2-3 cavalry divisions in each, a total of 13 cavalry divisions (including 4 mountain cavalry divisions ) Over the state, the corps had over 19 thousand people, 16 thousand horses, 128 light tanks, 44 armored vehicles, 64 field, 32 anti-tank and 40 anti-aircraft guns, 128 mortars, although the actual combat strength was less than the regular one. Most of the cavalry personnel were manned from the Cossack regions of the country and the republics of the Caucasus. In the very first hours of the war, the Don, Kuban and Terek Cossacks of the 6th Cossack Cavalry Corps, the 2nd and 5th Cavalry Corps and a separate cavalry division located in the border districts entered into battle with the enemy. The 6th Cavalry Corps was considered one of the most trained formations of the Red Army. G.K. wrote in his memoirs about the level of preparation of the corps. Zhukov, who commanded him until 1938: “The 6th Cavalry Corps was much better than other units in its combat readiness. In addition to the 4th Donskoy, the 6th Chongar Kuban-Tersk Cossack Division stood out, which was well prepared, especially in the field of tactics, horse and fire business. "

With the declaration of war in the Cossack regions, the formation of new cavalry divisions began at a rapid pace. The main burden on the formation of cavalry divisions in the North Caucasus Military District fell on the Kuban. In July, 1941, there were formed from the Cossacks of draft age five, and in August, four more Kuban cavalry divisions. The system of training cavalry units in territorial formations in the pre-war period, especially in the regions densely populated by the Cossack population, made it possible, without additional training in a short time and with minimal expenditure of forces and means, to put well-prepared combat units to the front. The North Caucasus turned out to be the leader in this matter. In a short period of time (July-August 1941), seventeen cavalry divisions were sent to the active armies, representing more than 60% of the number of cavalings formed in the Cossack regions of the entire Soviet Union. However, Kuban mobresursy on persons of military age, suitable for performing combat missions in the cavalry, were almost completely exhausted already in the summer of 1941. As part of the cavalry units, about 27 thousands of people were sent to the front, who had received training in Cossack territorial cavalry formations before the war. In the whole of the North Caucasus, in July-August, seventeen Kavdivisits were formed and sent into the army, more than 50 thousands of people of military age. At the same time, the Kuban sent more sons to the ranks of the defenders of the Fatherland during this period of the hardest battles than all the other administrative units of the North Caucasus combined. Already from the end of July they fought on the Western and Southern fronts. From September in the Krasnodar Territory there was an opportunity to form only volunteer divisions, conducting the selection of soldiers suitable for service in cavalry, mainly from people of non-conscript age. Already in October, the formation of three such volunteer Kuban cavalry divisions began, which then formed the basis of the 17 Cavalry Corps. All in all, by the end of 1941, about 30 new cavalry divisions were formed on the Don, Kuban, Terek and Stavropol regions. Also, a large number of Cossacks joined by volunteers in the national parts of the North Caucasus. Such units were created in the autumn of 1941, following the example of the experience of the First World War. These cavalry units in the people were also called "Wild Divisions".

In the Urals Military District, more than 10 cavalry divisions were formed, the backbone of which was the Urals and Orenburg Cossacks. In the Cossack regions of Siberia, Transbaikalia, Amur and Ussuri, 7 created new cavalry divisions from local Cossacks. Of these, the cavalry corps was formed (later the 6 of the Order of Suvorov Guards), which was fought over 7 thousand km. Its parts and compounds were awarded the 39-th orders, received the honorary title of the Rivne and Debrecen. 15-ti Cossacks and corps officers were awarded the title Hero of the Soviet Union. The corps established close patronage ties with the workers of Orenburg and the Urals, the Terek and the Kuban, the Transbaikalia and the Far East. From these Cossack districts went replenishment, letters, gifts. All this allowed Corps Commander S.V. Sokolov turn 31 in May 1943 to Marshal of the Soviet Union S.M. Budyonny with a petition for the name of the cavalry corps divisions Cossack. In particular, the 8 Far East was supposed to be called the cavalry division of the Ussuri Cossacks. Unfortunately, this petition was not granted, as were the petitions of many other corps commanders. The official name of the Cossacks received only 4 th Kuban and 5 th Don Guards Cavalry Corps. However, the absence of the name "Cossack" does not change the main thing. The Cossacks made their heroic contribution to the glorious victory of the Red Army over fascism.

Thus, at the beginning of the war, dozens of Cossack cavalry divisions fought on the side of the Red Army, they had 40 Cossack cavalry regiments, 5 tank regiments, 8 mortar regiments and divisions, 2 anti-aircraft regiments and a number of other units fully equipped with Cossacks of various troops. By February 1, 1942, 17 cavalry corps were operating on the front. However, due to the great vulnerability of cavalry from artillery fire, strikes aviation and the number of tanks by September 1, 1943 was reduced to 8. The combat strength of the remaining cavalry corps was significantly strengthened, it included: 3 cavalry divisions, self-propelled artillery, fighter-anti-tank artillery and anti-aircraft artillery regiments, guards mortar regiment rocket artillery, mine and separate anti-tank fighter divisions.

In addition, among the famous people during the Great Patriotic War there were a lot of Cossacks who fought not in "branded" Cossack cavalry or Plastun units, but in other parts of the Red Army or distinguished themselves in military production. Among them:
- tank ace number 1, Hero of the Soviet Union D.F. Lavrinenko - Kuban Cossack, a native of the village of Fearless;
- Lieutenant-General of the engineering troops, Hero of the Soviet Union D.M. Karbyshev - natural Cossack Kryashen, born in Omsk;
- commander of the North fleet Admiral A.A. Golovko - Terek Cossack, a native of the village of Prokhladnoy;
- designer gunsmith F.V. Tokarev - Don Cossack, a native of the village of Egorlyk Region of the Don Cossacks;
- Commander of the Bryansk and 2 Baltic Front, Army General, Hero of the Soviet Union MM. Popov - Don Cossack, a native of the village of Ust-Medveditsk Region of the Don Army.

At the initial stage of the war, the Cossack cavalry units participated in heavy border and Smolensk battles, in battles in the Ukraine, in the Crimea and in the Moscow battle. In the Battle of Moscow, the 2 Cavalry (Major General PA Belov) and 3 Cavalry (Colonel, then Major General LM Dovator) of the corps distinguished themselves. The Cossacks of these compounds successfully used the traditional Cossack tactics: ambush, hinterland, raid, detour, reach and penetration. 50-th and 53-th cavalry division, from the 3-th cavalry corps of Colonel Dovator, from 18 to 26 in November 1941, raided the rear of the 9-th German army, having passed 300 km fights. During the week, a cavalry group destroyed over 2500 enemy soldiers and officers, knocked out 9 tanks and more than 20 vehicles, defeated dozens of military garrisons. By order of the People's Commissar of Defense of the USSR from November 26 1941, the 3 th cavalry corps was transformed into the 2 th Guards, and the 50 th and 53 th cavalry divisions were among the first to be converted into the 3 th division and 4 th guards cavalry divisions, respectively. 2-th Guards Corps, in which the Cossacks of Kuban and Stavropol fought, fought as part of the 5-th army. This is how the German military historian Paul Karel recalled the actions of this corps: “The Russians in this wooded area acted bravely, with great skill and cunning. This is not surprising: parts were part of the elite Soviet 20 Cavalry Division, assault force of the famous Cossack Corps, General -Mayor Dovator. Having made a breakthrough, the Cossack regiments concentrated in various key points, formed into militant groups and began to attack the headquarters and warehouses in the German rear. They blocked the roads, destroyed the lines communications, blew up bridges, and then attacked rear support columns, destroying them mercilessly. Thus, on December 13 squadrons of the Cossack regiment 22 of the Cossack regiment defeated the artillery group 78 of the infantry division in 20 kilometers behind the front line. and transport hub. Other squadrons carried out a throw to the north between the 78 and 87 divisions, resulting in the entire front of the 9 corps literally floating in the air. The forward positions of the divisions remained intact, but the lines of communication, the routes of communication with the rear, were cut. Ammunition and food stopped flowing. Nowhere to put a few thousand wounded, accumulated on the front line. "


Fig. 3. General Dovator and his Cossacks

During the border battles, our troops suffered significant losses. The capabilities of rifle divisions in combat terms declined 1,5 times. Due to heavy losses and a shortage of tanks, the mechanized corps were disbanded as early as July 1941. For the same reason, separate tank divisions were also disbanded. Losses in manpower, equine composition and technology led to the fact that the main tactical formation of armored troops was the brigade, and the cavalry division. In connection with this, the General Headquarters of 5 July 1941 of the year approved a decree on the formation of 100 cavalry light-weight divisions of 3000 each. In total, 1941 light cavalry divisions were formed in 82. The combat strength of all light-duty cavalry divisions was the same: three cavalry regiments and a chemical protection squadron. The 1941 events of the year make it possible to conclude that the decision was of great importance, since cavalry formations had an active influence on the course and outcome of large-scale operations in the first period of the war, if they were given combat missions inherent to cavalry. They were able to unexpectedly attack the enemy at a given time and in the right place and with their fast and accurate exits to the flanks and to the rear of the German troops to restrain the advance of their motorized infantry and tank divisions. In off-road conditions, mudslides and large snow cavalry remained the most effective mobile combat force, especially with a shortage of mechanized means of high maneuverability. For the right to possess it in 1941, one could say a struggle between the commanders of the fronts. The record of negotiations between the Deputy Chief of the General Staff, General A.M., testifies to what place the cavalry assigned to the Supreme Command Headquarters during the defense of Moscow. Vasilevsky and Chief of Staff of the Southwestern Front, General P.I. Vodin in the night from 27 to October 28. The first one outlined the decision of the Stavka to transfer cavalry to the troops defending the capital. The second tried to evade the order, said that the 2-th cavalry corps of Belov, which is at the disposal of the South-Western Front, conducts continuous battles for 17 days and needs replenishment of the fighting composition, that the Commander-in-Chief of the South-West direction is Marshal of the Soviet Union S.K. Tymoshenko does not consider it possible to lose this corps. Supreme Commander I.V. Stalin first correctly demanded through A.M. Vasilevsky agreed with the proposal of the Supreme Command Headquarters, and then simply ordered to inform the front command that the trains for the transfer of the 2 th corps corps had already been filed, and recalled the need to give the command to load it. The commander of the 43 Army, Major General KD Golubev in the report of I.V. Stalin from 8 November 1941 of the year, among other requests, pointed out the following: "... You need a cavalry, at least one regiment. With their own forces formed only a squadron. " The fight between the commanders for the Cossack cavalry was not in vain. The 2 th cavalry corps of Belov, deployed near Moscow from the South-Western Front, reinforced by other units and the Tula militia, defeated Guderian’s tank army under Tula. This phenomenal case (the defeat of a tank army by a corps) was the first in history and recorded in the Guinness Book of Records. Hitler wanted Guderian to be shot for this defeat, but his comrades arms interceded and saved him from the wall. Thus, not having sufficiently powerful tank and mechanized formations in the Moscow area, the Supreme Command headquarters effectively used cavalry to repel enemy strikes.

In 1942, the Cossack cavalry units fought heroically in the bloody Rzhev-Vyazma and Kharkov offensive operations. In the Battle of the Caucasus, during the intense defensive battles in the Kuban and in the Stavropol region, the 4 Guards Kuban Cossack Cavalry Corps (Lieutenant General N.Ya. Kirichenko) and 5 Guards Don Cossack Cavalry Corps (Major General A .G. Selivanov). These corps were composed mainly of Cossack volunteers. More 19 July 1941, the Krasnodar Regional Committee of the CPSU (b) and the regional executive committee decided to organize cavalry Cossack hundreds to assist fighter battalions to fight possible enemy parachute assault forces. In the cavalry Cossack hundreds of collective farmers enrolled without age limit, able to control a horse and own firearms and cold arms. Horse equipment he was satisfied at the expense of collective and state farms, Cossack uniform at the expense of each soldier. In coordination with the Central Committee of the CPSU (b), the formation of three Cossack cavalry divisions began voluntarily from the number of Cossacks and Adygei without any age restriction from October 22. Each district of the Kuban formed a hundred volunteers, 75% of the Cossacks and commanders were participants in the civil war. In November, 1941 of the year hundreds were brought to the regiments, and the Kuban Cossack cavalry divisions made up the regiments that formed the basis of the 17 Cavalry Corps, which was included in the personnel of the Red Army 4 January 1942. The newly created connections became known as 10, 12 and 13-I Cavalry Division. The 30.04.1942 Corps came under the command of the North Caucasian Front. In May, 1942 (XCNUMX (Colonel S.I. Gorshkov) and 17 (YS. Sharaburno) Don Cossack Divisions) were infused on the orders of the Supreme Command Headquarters in 15. In July, 116, Lieutenant-General Nikolay Yakovlevich Kirichenko was appointed corps commander. The basis of all cavalry corps units was Cossack volunteers, whose age ranged from fourteen to sixty-four years. Cossacks sometimes came families with their children.

Fig. 4 Kuban Cossacks volunteers at the front

In the history of the first period of the Great Patriotic War, the process of forming volunteer Cossack cavalry formations occupies a special place. Tens of thousands of Cossacks, including those who were exempted from service due to age or health, voluntarily went to the formed Cossack regiments of the national militia and other parts. So, the Cossack of the Don village Morozovskaya I.A. Khoshutov, being very old, volunteered to join the militia Cossack regiment with two sons - sixteen-year-old Andrey and fourteen-year-old Alexander. There were many such examples. It was from such volunteer Cossacks that the 116-th Don Cossack Volunteer Division, the 15-th Don Volunteer Cavalry Division, the 11-th Orenburg Cavalry Division, the 17-th Kuban Cavalry Corps were formed.

From the very first fights in June-July of 1942, the press and radio reported on the heroic exploits of the Cossacks of the 17-th cavalcore. In reports from the front, their actions were taken as an example to others. During the battles with the Nazi invaders, the Cossack corps detached from their positions only by order. In August 1942 of the year, the German command aimed to break through our defenses in the area of ​​the Kushchevskaya stanitsa: one mining division, two SS groups, a large number of tanks, artillery and mortars. Parts of the corps in the equestrian force attacked the concentration of enemy troops on the approaches and in Kuschevskaya itself. As a result of the rapid cavalry attack, German soldiers and officers were hacked up to 1800, 300 was captured, and great damage was inflicted in the material and combat equipment. For this and for the subsequent active defensive battles in the North Caucasus, the corps was transformed into the 4 Guards Kuban Cossack Cavalry Corps (order NKO number 259 from 27.8.42). 02.08.42 near Kushchyovsky Cossack 13 cavalry division (2 Reciprocating shelf, 1 artillery battalion) made for this unprecedented war mental attack on horseback of up to 2,5 kilometers wide at 101-th infantry division "green rose" and two SS regiment. 03.08.42 The 12-I cavalry division in the area of ​​the village of Shkurinskaya repeated this attack and caused heavy damage to the German 4-Mountain Division and the White Lily SS regiment.


Fig. 5. Saber attack Cossacks under Kushchevskaya

In the battles of Kushchevskaya, the Don Cossack hundred from Beryozovskaya stanitsa, commanded by Senior Lieutenant K.I., especially distinguished themselves. Nedorubova. 2 August 1942 of the year in hand-to-hand fighting a hundred destroyed more than 200 enemy soldiers, of whom 70 was destroyed personally by Nedorubov, who received the title of Hero of the Soviet Union. In World War I, the Cossack Nedorubov fought on the South-Western and Romanian fronts. During the war he became a full George Knight. In the Civil War, he first fought on the side of the whites in the 18 Don Cossack Regiment of the Don Army. In 1918, he was captured and went over to the Reds. 7 July 1933 was convicted under the 109 article of the Criminal Code of the RSFSR on 10 years ITL for "abuse of power or official position" (allowed the collective farmers to use the grain remaining after sowing). For three years he worked in Volgolag on the construction of the Moscow-Volga Canal, for the shock work he was prematurely released and awarded the Soviet Order. In the Great Patriotic War, the non-conscript 52-year-old Cossack, senior lieutenant K.I. Nedorubov, in October 1941, he formed in the village of Berezovsky (now Volgograd region) Don Cossack hundred of volunteers and became its commander. Together with him in the hundred served his son Nikolay. On the front since July 1942. His squadron (one hundred), composed of 41-th Guards Cavalry Regiment, during raids on enemy 28 and 29 July 1942 years in the area of ​​farms victory and Biruchiy, 2 August 1942 years under stanitsa Kushchevskaya, 5 September 1942 years near the village of Kura and 16 October 1942, near the village of Maratuki, destroyed a large number of enemy personnel and equipment. Until the end of his life, this inflexible warrior openly and proudly wore Soviet orders and crosses of St. George.


Fig. 6. Kazak Nedorubov K.I.

August and September 1942 years passed in heavy defensive battles on the territory of the Krasnodar Territory. In the second half of September, two Kuban divisions of the corps, by order of the higher command from the Tuapse region, were transferred by rail through Georgia and Azerbaijan to the Gudermes-Shelkovskaya region in order to prevent the Germans from advancing into the South Caucasus. As a result of heavy defensive battles, this task was completed. Here Cossacks got not only Germans, but also Arabs. Hoping to break through to the Middle East through the Caucasus, the Germans in early October 1942 introduced the Arab Volunteer Corps "F" into Army Group "A" under the control of the 1 Panzer Army. Already on October 15 Corps "F" in the area of ​​the village of Achikulak in the Nogai Steppe (Stavropol) attacked the 4 Guards Kuban Cossack Cavalry Corps under the command of Lieutenant General Kirichenko. Until the end of November, Cossack cavalrymen successfully resisted the Nazi Arab mercenaries. At the end of January 1943, the Corps "F" was placed at the disposal of Army Group "Don", Field Marshal Manstein. During the fighting in the Caucasus, this German-Arab corps lost more than half of its composition, among which a significant part were Arabs. After that, the beaten Cossacks Arabs were transferred to northern Africa and more did not appear on the Russian-German front.

Cossacks from various connections heroically fought in the Battle of Stalingrad. The 3 Guards (Major General IA Pliev, Major General NS Oslikovsky 1942 from the end of December, 8 X (from February 1943 7 Guards; Major General M. D Borisov) and 4 (Lieutenant General TT Shapkin) cavalry corps. Horses were used to a greater extent to organize the rapid movement, in battle the Cossacks were used as infantry, although attacks in the equestrian system also took place. In November 1942 of the year during the Battle of Stalingrad, one of the last instances of cavalry combat in cavalry occurred. The 4 Cavalry Corps of the Red Army, formed in Central Asia and carrying occupation service in Iran, became a participant in this event. The corps of the Don Cossack commander, Lieutenant-General Timofey Timofeevich Shapkin, commanded.


Fig. 7. Lieutenant-General Shapkin T.T. on the Stalingrad front

In the civil war podsailsul Shapkin fought on the side of the whites and, commanding the Cossack squadron, participated in the raid on Mamantov red rear. After the defeat of the Don army and the Bolsheviks conquered the area of ​​the Don Army, in March 1920, Shapkin and his Cossacks moved their hundreds to the Red Army to participate in the Soviet-Polish war. During this war, he grew from a commander hundreds to a brigade commander and earned two orders of the Red Banner. In the 1921 year, after the death of the famous commander of the 14 Cavalry Division, Alexander Parkhomenko, in battle with the Makhnovists, he took command of his division. The third Order of the Red Banner Shapkin received for fights with basmachis. Shapkin, who wore twisted whiskers, the ancestors of the current migrant workers took for Budyonny, and one of his appearance in some village caused panic among the Basmachis of the whole neighborhood. For the elimination of the last Basmachi gang and the capture of the organizer of the Basmachi movement Imbragim-Bek, Shapkin was awarded the Order of the Red Banner of Labor of the Tajik SSR. Despite his white officer past, Shapkin was accepted into the ranks of the CPSU (B.) In 1938, and in 1940, Commander Shapkin was promoted to the rank of lieutenant general. 4-th cavalcourse was to participate in the breakthrough of the Romanian defense south of Stalingrad. Initially, it was assumed that horse breeders, as usual, would take horses to shelter, and cavalry on foot would attack the Romanian trenches. However, the artillery preparation had such an effect on the Romanians that immediately after it ended, the Romanians got out of the dugouts and ran in the panic to the rear. It was then that it was decided to pursue the Romanians in equestrian ranks. Romanians managed not only to catch up, but also to overtake, capturing a huge number of prisoners. Without encountering resistance, the cavalrymen took the Abganerovo station, where large trophies were captured: more than 100 guns, warehouses with food, fuel and ammunition.


Fig. 8. Romanian prisoners at Stalingrad

A very curious incident occurred in August 1943 of the year during the Taganrog operation. The 38 th cavalry regiment under the command of lieutenant colonel IK was especially distinguished there. Minakov. Rushing ahead, he met one-on-one with the German Infantry Division and, dismounting, joined the battle with her. This division was at one time thoroughly battered in the Caucasus by the 38 of the Don Cavalry Division, and just before the meeting with the Minakov regiment came under the heavy blow of our aviation. However, in this state, she represented an even greater force. It is difficult to say how this unequal battle would end if the regiment of Minakov had a different number. By mistakenly accepting the 38-th cavalry regiment as the 38-th Don division, the Germans were horrified. But Minakov, having learned about it, immediately sent parliamentarians to the enemy with a brief but categorical message: "I propose to surrender. The commander of the 38 Cossack Division." The Nazis conferred all night and nevertheless decided to accept an ultimatum. In the morning two German officers arrived at Minakov with an answer. And hours in the 12 of the day, the division commander himself, accompanied by 44 officers, reported. And what a confusion the Hitler general had survived when he learned that, together with his division, he had surrendered to the Soviet cavalry regiment! In the notebook of German officer Alfred Kurtz, then picked up on the battlefield, the following entry was found: “Everything I heard about the Cossacks, the 1914 war, pales before the horrors that we experience when meeting them now. One memory of a Cossack attack It horrifies me, and I shiver ... Even at night in a dream, the Cossacks pursue me. It’s a black whirlwind sweeping away everything in its path. We fear the Cossacks, like the punishment of the Almighty ... Yesterday my company lost all the officers, 92 soldiers, three tanks and all machine guns. "

From 1943, the Cossack cavalry divisions began to unite with mechanized and tank units, in connection with which horse-mechanized groups and shock armies were formed. The horse-mechanized group of the 1 of the Byelorussian Front initially consisted of the 4-th Guards Cavalry and 1-th mechanized corps. Later on, the 9 tank corps was included in the unification. The group was attached to the 299-I assault aviation division, and its actions in different periods supported from one to two air corps. In terms of the number of troops, the group exceeded the ordinary army, its strike force was large. A similar structure and tasks had a shock army, consisting of cavalry, mechanized and tank corps. The front commanders used them at the point of impact.

Usually, Pliyev's horse-mechanized group entered battle after breaking through enemy defenses. The task of the cavalry-mechanized group was to, after the breakthrough of the enemy defense by the combined-arms units, enter the battle through the breach they had created. Entering a breakthrough and escaping into operational space, developing a rapid offensive in a large separation from the main forces of the front, KMG with sudden and daring blows destroyed the enemy’s manpower and equipment, smashed its deep reserves, disrupted communications. The Nazis from different directions threw operational reserves against KMG. Fierce fighting ensued. The enemy sometimes managed to surround our union of troops, and gradually the ring of encirclement was strongly compressed. Since the main forces of the front were far behind, one could not count on their help until the beginning of the general offensive of the front. Nevertheless, KMG managed to form a mobile external front even at a considerable distance from the main forces and to bind all the reserves of the enemy. Such deep raids by KMG and the shock armies were usually carried out several days before the general offensive of the front. After unblocking, the front commanders threw the remnants of a cavalry-mechanized group or strike armies from one direction to another. And they had time wherever it was hot.

In addition to the cavalry Cossack units during the war, so-called "Plastun" formations were formed from the Kuban and Terek Cossacks. Plastun is a Cossack infantryman. Initially, the best Cossacks from those who performed a number of specific functions in combat (reconnaissance, sniper fire, assault actions), which were not characteristic for use in equestrian formation, were called plasters. The Cossacks-squadrons, as a rule, were transferred to the place of fighting on steam-comb warriors, which ensured high mobility of the foot units. In addition, certain military traditions, as well as the cohesiveness of Cossack units, provided the latter with the best combat, moral and psychological training. On the initiative of I.V. Stalin began the formation of the Plastun Cossack Division. The 9-I Mountain Division, previously formed from the Kuban Cossacks, was transformed into a Cossack.

The division was now so saturated with the means of thrust that it could independently make combined marches along 100-150 kilometers per day. The number of personnel increased by more than one and a half times and reached 14,5 thousand people. It should be emphasized that the division was reformed by special states and with a special purpose. This emphasized the new name, which, as stated in the order of the Supreme Commander from 3 of September, she received "for defeating the German fascist invaders in the Kuban, the liberation of the Kuban and its regional center - the city of Krasnodar." Fully division now was called so: 9-I Plastunskaya Krasnodar Red Banner Order of the Red Star Division. Kuban took care of the supply of food and uniforms to the Cossack divisions. Everywhere in Krasnodar and the surrounding villages, workshops were urgently created in which Cossacks sewed thousands of sets of Cossack and Plastunian forms — Kubankas, Circassians, Beshmets, and Towers. Sewed for their husbands, fathers, sons.

Since 1943, the Cossack cavalry divisions took part in the liberation of Ukraine. In 1944, they successfully acted in the Korsun-Shevchenko and Iasi-Kishinev offensive operations. The Cossacks of the 4 of Kuban, 2, 3 and 7 of the Guards Corps corps liberated Belarus. The Ural, Orenburg and Trans-Baikal Cossacks of the 6 Guards Cavalry Corps attacked right-bank Ukraine and the territory of Poland. 5 th Don Cossack Guard Corps successfully fought in Romania. The 1 th Guards Corps entered Czechoslovakia, and the 4 Th and 6 th Guards Corps entered Hungary. Later here, in the important Debrecen operation, units of the 5-th Don and 4-th Kuban Cossack cavalcards especially distinguished themselves. Then these corps, together with the 6 Guards Corps, fought valiantly in the Budapest region and at Lake Balaton.


Fig. 9. Cossack part on the march

In the spring of 1945, the 4 and 6 Guards cavalry corps liberated Czechoslovakia and smashed the Prague enemy grouping. 5-th Don Cavalry Corps entered Austria and reached Vienna. 1, 2, 3 and 7 of the Corps participated in the Berlin operation. At the end of the war, the Red Army had 7 Guards cavalry corps and 1 "simple" cavalry corps. Two of them were purely “Cossack”: the 4 Guards Cavalry Kuban Cossack Corps and the 5 Guards Cavalry Don Cossack Corps. Hundreds of thousands of Cossacks fought heroically not only in cavalry, but also in many infantry, artillery and tank units, in partisan detachments. They all contributed to the victory. During the war, tens of thousands of Cossacks fell to the death of brave battlefields. For their accomplishments and heroism shown in battles with the enemy, many thousands of Cossacks were awarded military orders and medals, and 262 Cossacks became Heroes of the Soviet Union, 7 cavalces and 17 cavalry divisions received the Guards titles. Only in the 5-th Don Guards Corps corpus, more than 32 thousands of soldiers and commanders were awarded high government awards.


Fig. 10. Meeting the Cossacks with the Allies

Peaceful Cossack population selflessly worked in the rear. On the labor savings of the Cossacks, voluntarily transferred to the Defense Fund, tanks and aircraft were built. With the money of the Don Cossacks, several tank columns were built — the Don Cooperator, the Don Cossack, and the Don Osoaviakhimovts ”; and the Kuban Soviet tank column was used for the funds of the Kuban Cossacks.

In August, the 1945 of the Trans-Baikal Cossacks of the 59 Cavalry Division, operating as a part of the Soviet-Mongolian cavalry-mechanized group of General Pliev, participated in the lightning-quick rout of the Kwantung Japanese army.

As we can see, during the Great Patriotic War, Stalin was forced to recall the Cossacks, their fearlessness, love of country and the ability to fight. In the Red Army there were Cossack cavalry and Plastun units and formations, which made the heroic journey from the Volga and the Caucasus to Berlin and Prague, deserved many military awards and the names of Heroes. Admittedly, cavalry corps and horse-mechanized groups showed themselves well during the war with German fascism, but already 24 June 1945, right after the Victory Parade, I.V. Stalin ordered Marshal S.M. Budyonny proceed to disband the cavalry formations, since cavalry as a branch of the Armed Forces abolished.


Fig. 11. Cossacks on the Victory Parade 24 June 1945 of the year

The main reason for this, the Supreme Commander called the urgent need for the national economy in the power of the colony. 1946 summer, only the best Cavalry Corps were reorganized into cavalry division with the same numbers, and a part of the cavalry remained: 4-Cavalry Guards Kuban Cossack Lenin Order of the Red Banner Order of Suvorov and Kutuzov division (Stavropol) and 5-Guards Cavalry Don Cossack Budapest Red Banner Division (Novocherkassk). But they, as cavalry, did not live long. In October 1954 of the Year, the 5-I Guard Cossack Cavalry Division was transformed by the Directive of the General Staff of the USSR Armed Forces into the 18-th Guards Heavy Tank Division. By order of the Minister of Defense of the USSR from 11 January 1965, 18-i Guards. ttd was renamed to 5-yu gv. so on In September 1955 of the year 4-I Guards. Cd of the North Caucasian Military District was disbanded. On the territory of the military camps of the disbanded 4 Guards Cavalry Division, the Stavropol Radio Engineering School of the Air Defense Forces of the country was formed. Thus, despite the merits, soon after the war, the Cossack units were disbanded. Cossacks were invited to live out their age in the form of folklore ensembles (with a strictly defined theme), and in films like "Kuban Cossacks." But that's another story.

Materials used:
Gordeev A.A. History of the Cossacks.
Mamonov V.F. and others. The history of the Cossacks of the Urals. Orenburg - Chelyabinsk, 1992.
Shibanov N.S. Orenburg Cossacks of the XX century.
Ryzhkova N.V. Don Cossacks in the wars of the early twentieth century, 2008.
Pliev I.A. Roads of war. M., 1985.
Author:
Articles from this series:
Siberian Cossack Epic
Old Cossack ancestors
Cossacks and the annexation of Turkestan
Education Volga and Yaitsky Cossack Troops
Cossacks in Time of Troubles
Seniority (education) and the formation of the Don Cossack troops in the Moscow service
Azov seat and the transition of the Don troops in the Moscow service
Formation of the Dnieper and Zaporizhia troops and their service to the Polish-Lithuanian state
The transfer of the Cossack army hetman to the Moscow service
Treason of Mazepa and the pogrom of Cossack liberties by Tsar Peter
The uprising of Pugachev and the elimination of the Dnieper Cossacks by Empress Catherine
Cossacks in World War 1812 of the year. Part I, pre-war
Cossacks in World War 1812 of the year. Part II, the invasion and expulsion of Napoleon
Cossacks in World War 1812 of the year. Part III, foreign campaign
Formation of the Kuban Army
The feat of the young Platov (Battle of the Kalalah on the third of April, 1774)
Education Orenburg Cossack troops
Cossacks before the World War
Cossacks and the First World War. Part I, pre-war
Cossacks and the First World War. Part II, 1914 year
Cossacks and the First World War. Part III, 1915 year
Cossacks and the First World War. Part IV. 1916 year
Cossacks and the First World War. Part V. The Caucasian Front
Cossacks and the February Revolution
Cossacks and the October Revolution
Cossacks in the Civil War. Part I. 1918 year. The origin of the white movement
Cossacks in the Civil War. Part II. 1918 year. In the fire of fratricidal Troubles
Cossacks in the Civil War. Part III. 1919 year. Russian Vendée
Cossacks in the Civil War. Part IV. And for what they fought?
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  1. Volga Cossack
    Volga Cossack 6 May 2015 08: 09 New
    +12
    ANYWHERE! KAZAKI - THE FORCE OF PRIDE AND GLORY OF RUSSIA! EARTH DOWN IN FUR. GLORY ALIVE. YES MEMORY IS OUR. BOW OF THE LOW BROTHER!
    1. EngineerP
      EngineerP 6 May 2015 11: 20 New
      +5
      I absolutely agree, read, guys, about Belov Pavel Alekseevich commander of the 2nd cavalry corps, friend Zhukov Georgy Konstantinovich, a very interesting story!
      1. The comment was deleted.
      2. The comment was deleted.
      3. Asily 50
        Asily 50 9 May 2015 14: 43 New
        +4
        It seems to me that the whole discord in comprehending and accepting the history of RUSSIA comes from the denial of facts that cannot be refuted: 1st. The tsar, and all the great princely pack, were thrown off by the industrialists and nobles of RUSSIA, they also destroyed the entire army and state apparatus. 2nd It was IN AND LENIN and the Bolsheviks who recreated the STATE and defended from intervention. 3rd It was IN STALIN - DZHUGASHVILI and the Bolsheviks who rebuilt the Soviet Union from scratch and survived in the most terrible war, having recreated the country, the backlog of the rebuilt is still in use. And the whole * tear * fits into a reluctance to be thankful to those who created our homeland.
        1. vladkavkaz
          vladkavkaz 10 May 2015 11: 48 New
          +2
          Asily 50
          Bravo!
          An excellent commentary, with a complete and honest analysis of the current situation.

          Sending all talkers back to the past, such as Volgin, the author of the opus, only confirms what you said. Such authors like him and others like him insist on continuing to tear apart people in society and clash among themselves.

          The victory of 1945, contrary to the whoop of the Bely camp and all kinds of liberals trying to dress up as Russian patriots, was won by the Reds, under the leadership of I. Stalin.
  2. rkkasa xnumx
    rkkasa xnumx 6 May 2015 08: 53 New
    -2
    - the revolution cost the Cossacks dearly
    Yes, expensive. But the hell was not the Soviet government’s machinations.

    - In fact, every second was "cut out"
    Just so every second? Cut out? And of course for nothing?

    - land management, in which political (land leveling), rather than economic and agronomic tasks, came to the fore.
    Of course it would be fairer that the Cossacks would own the land, while the rest would be hired by them.

    - Along with millions of peasants, already spoken Cossacks died or became collective farmers
    Apparently, the author believes that dying and joining the collective farm is about the same thing.

    - Despite the merits, shortly after the war, Cossack units were disbanded
    Disbanded, killed and ate !!!

    Very "objective and truthful" article.
    1. Shornikov
      Shornikov 6 May 2015 09: 16 New
      +14
      An article with a desire to please both this and that.
      Something in the article is not a word about those geeks who fought on the side of the Nazis.
      It would be nice for the author to stop dividing the Russian people into red and white. And on this and on the other hand there were mistakes. Only those mistakes are free to judge only God.
      1. captain
        captain 6 May 2015 10: 48 New
        +2
        I do not agree with you. The geeks who fought in the army of Vlasov’s ROA were many times more. Here the author writes about that tragedy. which happened with the Cossacks in 17-20gg. You will show interest and find out why the White Army, consisting of 4,5 thousand people, left the Don in 1918. Find out why initially the Cossacks did not support the whites, and then suddenly provided support. Take an interest in what the Bolshevik Mironov wrote to Lenin in the 1917 about the dribbling and what this policy might lead to. He writes directly to Lenin in his letter that this will lead to the Civil War. He condemned the methods of rhetoric that Sentsov planted on the Don. The civil war was arranged by the leadership of the Bolsheviks, with their indefatigable desire to shed the blood of part of the Russian people. Read Trotsky, his work, speech, telegram. Solzhenitsyn in his book "200 Years Together" very well and intelligibly described the actions of Trotsky and other influential Bolsheviks in relation to peasants and Cossacks. I want to offer all the malicious commentaries writing here for a moment that, for example, the inhabitants of Birabejan came to their house and shot your father and brother for serving in the Soviet Army. What would you do?
        1. MrK
          MrK 6 May 2015 15: 50 New
          +4
          The geeks, as you talked about as captain, weren’t as many as Cossacks. Vlasov was a little more than 50 000. But at the front they did not fight, like the Cossacks ssovtsy.

          Quote: captain
          The civil war was arranged by the leadership of the Bolsheviks, with their indefatigable desire to shed the blood of part of the Russian people.


          These are the bloodthirsty Bolsheviks.

          Before the start of foreign intervention and civil war, that is, before the deployment of MASSIVE WHITE TERROR, the repressive measures of the Soviet regime were limited and very liberal.

          So, the arrested members of the Provisional Government were soon released, the cadets who defended the Winter Palace and organized resistance in Moscow were released under the promise that they would no longer oppose the Soviet government.
          Krasnov, who organized a trip to St. Petersburg, escaped with house arrest. Purishkevich, who organized a conspiracy in support of General Kaledin, was amnestied on the occasion of the 1 of May. By March 1918, all activists of the sabotage “Union of Employees of State Institutions” and so on were released from custody.

          But gentlemen, the generals and officers with honest eyes gave the floor, after which they made their way south and without much delay - and without the slightest remorse - began to form detachments for the war with the Bolsheviks.
          The civil war began very quickly - and, in my deep conviction, blaming the Bolsheviks on it is purely wrong.
          General Kornilov began to form his troops in southern Russia as early as January eighteenth! And then he gave the order: do not take prisoners! The Cheka then existed unless in the bud, the Red Army simply did not exist. As well as systematic, declared from above red terror. But prisoners have already been ordered not to take.
          It’s enough to bring down from a sick head to a healthy one, well, a captain.

          Yes, the Bolsheviks needed a civil war. They are because of her a little owls. power is not lost.
          [Lines from A. Kurlandchik’s book “Damned Soviet Power ...” on YaPishu.net. or Proza.ru.]
          1. captain
            captain 6 May 2015 16: 40 New
            0
            Dear Mrark, you say that Krasnov moved the corps to Petrograd? And the power in Petrograd was the Bolsheviks as received? Maybe the popular elections were held or all the same its Bolsheviks captured? And Krasnov complied with the order of a legally elected government. So in your opinion, in Kiev, the right sector to power led the junta lawfully? If there was no Red Army, then with whom did Kornilov fight in the Kuban? And that holy spirit from the cannon killed him? I am not a fan of Kornilov, but your desire to attribute everything bad to the White Guards kills me. You have a flag why Russian? You need yellow-black, those gentlemen also believe that Yanukovych was legally dropped.
            1. MrK
              MrK 6 May 2015 20: 47 New
              +3
              Mr. captain. Any social revolution sweeps away the previous power and, therefore, violates the laws of that power established. Or maybe the EBN shot the Russian parliament under the laws of the USSR or the RSFSR?
              Never was a supporter of the Maidan. Because what happened on the Maidan fits perfectly into the classic scenario of the “color” revolution.
              I’ll explain right away how the color revolution differs from the classical one - during the color revolution, NOTHING changes, only the muzzle on the TV. The socio-political system remains the same, the oligarchs are the same, but the people who exercise power are changing. Nothing changes for the people.
              So, do not take the conversation aside and put an equal sign between the Great OCP and the Maidan.
              It is important to understand the main thing - in whose interests the revolution is taking place. Most of the Russian people supported October 1917. Otherwise, the Bolsheviks would have lost the Civil. And then the Great State was built, in which there was a place for the Cossacks. I bow low to the feat and memory of those simple Cossacks who gave their lives for the victory over Germany. But I will never bow to the former Cossack thieving Petty Officer.
              Sincerely.
        2. Alexey RA
          Alexey RA 6 May 2015 16: 38 New
          +4
          Quote: captain
          Here the author writes about that tragedy. which occurred with the Cossacks in 17-20gg. You will show interest and find out why the White Army, consisting of 4,5 people, left the Don in 1918. Find out why initially the Cossacks did not support the whites, and then suddenly provided support. Take an interest in what the Bolshevik Mironov wrote to Lenin in 1917 about the dribbling and what this policy might lead to.

          But it’s interesting: if, purely hypothetically, the Whites had won, then what would have awaited Mr. Krasnov according to the laws of the Empire / Republic? Behind him, separatism, intercourse with the enemy during the war, sabotage of the White movement, and much more were listed.
          For one letter to Wilhelm, VMN already relies - especially if you read what Krasnov proposed to Germany and what he wanted to receive.
      2. RUSS
        RUSS 6 May 2015 11: 56 New
        +3
        Quote: Shornikov
        An article with a desire to please both this and that.
        Something in the article is not a word about those geeks who fought on the side of the Nazis.
        It would be nice for the author to stop dividing the Russian people into red and white. And on this and on the other hand there were mistakes. Only those mistakes are free to judge only God.

        On the side of the Nazis, not only how do you say the geeks of the Cossacks, who were a minority in contrast to the Cossacks in the Red Army, fought, but the fugitive (captured) Red Army soldiers led by General Vlasov and Tatars and Azerbaijanis, etc., also fought for the Nazis.
      3. skymit
        skymit 6 May 2015 18: 15 New
        -1
        You contradict yourself. The only way to realize and overcome the tragedy that befell our people in the 20th century is the path of national reconciliation. And this means that it is not necessary to divide the Russians not only into red and white, but also into those who fought on one or the other side in World War II. If it is still possible to somehow ignore separation from the civil war, then we are far from trying to understand those Russian emigre people who collaborated with Hitler. Too early yet. However, this should happen ...
        1. MrK
          MrK 6 May 2015 21: 13 New
          +3
          Skymit colleague. I am ready for national reconciliation. But tell me - on what basis?. White heirs who came to power, and sometimes just thieves, spit constantly even what was good in my life in Soviet times. I, a kid from the outskirts of a small district town, became a doctor of technical sciences, a professor. Today, for someone like me, getting a job as a loader in the market is problematic.
          Once again I ask - what do you put in the basis of national reconciliation?. It seems that NATIONAL RECONCILIATION IS A SCREEN,
          for ongoing theft, lawlessness of corruption,
          ongoing cuts and kickbacks.
          Thank. I do not want to be reconciled with thieves and lawless people.

          I will say it again: I bow low to the feat and memory of those simple Cossacks who gave their lives for the victory over Germany.
          Thank you.
          1. skymit
            skymit 10 May 2015 16: 36 New
            -1
            To begin with, the heirs of the whites died in exile. And their main mistake was that they (especially some) decided at a certain moment that "even with the devil, but against the Bolsheviks." And in your reasoning, for some reason, you are intertwining contemporary problems that arose after the collapse of the Union with the division of the people after the revolution and civil war. What division led to the fact that the Russian people, it happened, fought on different sides in the Second World War. Do not interfere with "theft and lawlessness of corruption."
            Theft and chaos of corruption are human vices. Which were and will always be. They somewhat inhibit the movement of the state in the chosen direction, but are completely unable to stop it. Talking about theft and corruption is bad form, in fact. Obviously, this must be fought, but this cannot be the main goal. Only demagogues who need to shake more air raise this theme for banners. Let's fight against deadly diseases, earthquakes and floods. Around the same topic ...
      4. Aleksandr72
        Aleksandr72 7 May 2015 06: 57 New
        +1
        According to estimates in the Wehrmacht, parts of the Waffen-SS and auxiliary police during the Great Patriotic War, there were about 70 Cossacks, most of whom were former Soviet citizens who sided with Germany after the occupation. Quite a few military units were formed from the Cossacks, who later fought both on the Soviet-German front and against the Western allies - in France, Italy and especially against the partisans in the Balkans. The most famous Cossack unit in the service of Nazi Germany is the 000st Cossack Cavalry Division:
        On April 21, 1943, the German command ordered the organization of the 1st Cossack Cavalry Division, in connection with which the formed regiments were transferred to the Milau training ground (Mlawa), where, from the pre-war times, there were warehouses for equipment of the Polish cavalry. The best of the front-line Cossack units arrived here, such as the Platov and Yungshultz regiments, the 1st Ataman Wolf regiment, and Kononov’s 600th division. Created without taking into account the military principle, these units disbanded, and their personnel were reduced to regiments for belonging to the Don, Kuban and Terek Cossack troops. The exception was Kononov’s division, which was included in the division as a separate regiment. The creation of the division was completed on July 1, 1943, when Major General von Pannwitz was approved by its commander.
        The finally formed division had a headquarters with a hundred convoys, a field gendarmerie group, a motorcycle communications platoon, a propaganda platoon and a brass band, two Cossack cavalry brigades - the 1st Don (1st Don, 2nd Siberian and 4th Cuban regiments) and 2 South Caucasus (3rd Kuban, 5th Donskoy and 6th Tersky regiments), two horse artillery divisions (Donskoy and Kuban), reconnaissance squad, combat engineer battalion, communications department, rear services units (all division units were numbered 55).
        On November 1, 1943, the number of the division was 18 555 people, including 3S27 German lower ranks and 222 officers, 14 Cossacks and 315 Cossack officers. German staffs were equipped with all the headquarters, special and rear units. All regiment commanders (except I.N. Kononov) and divisions (except two) were also Germans, and each squadron consisted of 191-12 German soldiers and non-commissioned officers in economic positions. At the same time, the division was considered the most “Russified” of the regular units of the Wehrmacht: the commanders of the mounted cavalry units - squadrons and platoons - were Cossacks, and all the teams were given in Russian.
        This division fought very actively both against units of the Red Army and against Yugoslav partisans in the Balkans. By order of November 4, 1944, the 1st Cossack Division was transferred to the SS General Staff during the war.
        By order of February 25, 1945, the division was transformed into the 15th Cossack Cavalry Corps of the SS troops. 1st and 2nd brigades were renamed into divisions without changing their numbers and organizational structure. On the basis of the 5th Don Regiment of Kononov, the formation of the Plastun Brigade of a two-regiment structure began with the prospect of deployment to the 3rd Cossack Division. Horse artillery divisions in divisions were reorganized into regiments. The total number of corps reached 25 soldiers and officers, including from 000 to 3000 Germans. In addition, at the final stage of the war, along with the 5000th Cossack Corps, such formations as the Kalmyk Regiment (up to 15 people), the Caucasian Horse Division, the Ukrainian SS Battalion and a group of ROA tankers, taking into account which under the command of the Groupführer and Lieutenant General of the SS troops ( from February 5000, 1) G. von Pannwitz was 1945 - 30 thousand people.
        The end of this formation of traitors is known - at the end of hostilities, the British, to whom the Cossacks surrendered, gave them to the Soviet Union.
        In the figure, these "Cossacks" and special awards for them from the German owners:
    2. avt
      avt 6 May 2015 10: 26 New
      +4
      Quote: rkkasa 81
      - despite the merits, shortly after the war, Cossack units were disbanded
      Disbanded, killed and ate !!!

      They didn’t even spare horses - they ate it with a harness.
      Quote: rkkasa 81
      Very "objective and truthful" article.
      Yeah. It seems that everything is correct, but the sediment remained. Something reminiscent of no? Well, the epic with the penalty companies that fought under the NKVD machine guns, and the rest followed the victorious march to Berlin.
      Quote: Shornikov
      Something in the article is not a word about those geeks who fought on the side of the Nazis.

      And here the author’s big catch is obtained request
      Quote: Shornikov
      It would be nice for the author to stop dividing the Russian people into red and white.

      So after all, in previous articles, he already determined everyone by ranking and all true Cossacks left with Wrangel, and the rest seemed to be repressed, but then the big mistake went out - World War II and the author had a question. Which Cossacks are the most that Cossacks eat? Those or these? Particularly acute is the question after the installation of the monuments, it seems two, those who, with Krasnov, personally gave the oath to Hitler and the remnants of which the Britons gave to Stalin, well, those under-SSs, despite the oath in 1943 that were never accepted as SS, but only attributed to the tank SS case as foreign. Well, the author decided, unlike the previous description, quietly lower the brakes. You can certainly say - you are angry if the Cossacks were on Hitler’s side. I’ll answer - not only. The numbers are different, do not exceed 800 people. BUT! Firstly, liberal historians and Bro Chubais writes ALL here including “heavis” - prisoners of domestic work and other policemen on the ground, secondly - Panvitsa’s corps was, whatever one may say, twist and turn, a Cossack. But this verse is a song about light, white naturally the author wasn’t inserted in the image of the Cossacks, well, no way .. Again - what’s the malignant they say ?? And look at Ukraine where the UPA already fought heroes not only with the Red Army, but also with the Hitlerites and read Chubais, not a voucher, with Popov like that already the first trial balloon in the wake of ,, democracy "rolled and - Vlasov de not stupidly surrendered, but finds himself in the light of their new research, breaking into Leningrad in order to lead the resistance against Stalin! Do you think - complete nonsense!? No way to ride? And how many descendants of the blockade in Petersburg were screaming hail to a specific address screaming, has the little calf now calmed down after several violent landings? That protrusion of the Cossacks, especially if the entire cycle of articles by the author on this topic have been read, lubricates the described feat of real heroes of the Patriotic War. That, in fact, the ending ala sufferer, the author again oiled about the infamous and ruthless disbandment of Cossack units.
      1. MrK
        MrK 6 May 2015 16: 17 New
        +3
        Thanks avt. I will add. The author is an ardent anti-adviser. Like almost all modern historians who have to look back at the academician - the historian Chubais (brother of the first).
        And how he writes through his teeth about the exploits of the Red Cossacks during the Great Patriotic War.
        Obviously the heir to the notorious Cossack foreman, who lost everything after the revolution.
        Here is a document of the era: Speech in one of the Ural newspapers in December of the seventeenth year of an ordinary Cossack, a delegate from his hundreds. He told interesting things ... "The first Army Circle in May of the seventeenth passed, if without the separative lusts of our military bureaucrats, but then every officer and official who appeared appeared to have a passionate desire to get into this or that post on self-government by the army. Each tried to find the guilt of the former servants of the army and sit in their place, i.e. get salaries, and there even though the grass does not grow. The elected revision commission discovered enormous thefts of military capital, which was used exclusively to improve the welfare of our officers: for example, in the suburb of Orenburg “Forstadt”, populated exclusively by Cossack generals, officers and officials, piped water was installed and the best fire convoy was launched.
        The children of these ranks studied in secondary and higher educational institutions at the expense of the same capital. "Estimates were deliberately annually drawn up with balances, and these balances were distributed by ranks as a reward and allowance only to oneself, etc."
        .
        Now it’s clear what the stakes were in the game and why the elite of all three of the above-mentioned Cossack troops sought, spitting on Russia's troubles, to carve out a cozy, independent power for themselves?
        «In a word, our military bureaucracy lived no worse than the landowners, and therefore it is not easy to part with such a fat piece as military capital. The latter was mainly made up of the lease for plowing of the army’s free lands ... Having uncontrolled possession of about 400 000 tithes (I remind: tithes - about a hectare) of free military land, 437 487 of military harrows and forest dachas, the bureaucracy had a huge income and spent at his own discretion ... ".
        [Lines from Alexander Kurlandchik’s book “Damned Soviet Power ...” on YaPishu.net. or Proza.ru.]
        1. MrK
          MrK 6 May 2015 20: 29 New
          +2
          See how the former Cossack foreman was indignant. Already three minuses set. One can see the opinion of a simple Cossack, a delegate from his own hundred, they are not convinced. Still, with the help of EBN, the same notorious and thieving foreman came to power in Russia.
    3. Nrsimha42
      Nrsimha42 7 May 2015 01: 35 New
      -1
      rkkasa 81, the author of the article is right - the Ziono-Talmudic gang of Leibi Davidovich Bronstein (Trotsky) set itself the task of destroying the Cossacks as the most patriotic part of our society and has advanced far in this endeavor.

      And it would have completed what had begun, if Joseph Vissarionovich Stalin had not stood in their way.
  3. DimonD
    DimonD 6 May 2015 09: 12 New
    +7
    With a victory! An article about my great-grandfather! Everlasting memory.
  4. Russian Uzbek
    Russian Uzbek 6 May 2015 09: 29 New
    -6
    and how many Cossacks fought on the side of the Germans? announce
    1. rkkasa xnumx
      rkkasa xnumx 6 May 2015 09: 44 New
      -2
      Quote: Russian Uzbek
      and how many Cossacks fought on the side of the Germans? announce


      I apologize - I wanted to put a plus, and I made a mistake
      I'll try to fix it
    2. Asily 50
      Asily 50 6 May 2015 10: 29 New
      +3
      And how many Uzbeks, huh? do not do like this.
      1. Russian Uzbek
        Russian Uzbek 6 May 2015 13: 40 New
        -1
        for any less
        1. Asily 50
          Asily 50 6 May 2015 14: 39 New
          0
          Junaid Khan and others. Remember? And AFGHANISTAN? Anything more than a million typed.
          1. Russian Uzbek
            Russian Uzbek 6 May 2015 15: 53 New
            -2
            Well, yes, yes, Dzhunaid Khan and the SS troops ... still emir of Bukhara drag here
            1. Asily 50
              Asily 50 7 May 2015 14: 36 New
              +1
              The Emir of Bukhara, amid the modern power of Uzbekistan, is even somewhere a democrat.
        2. The comment was deleted.
    3. The comment was deleted.
  5. ivan.ru
    ivan.ru 6 May 2015 10: 27 New
    +3
    Russian Uzbek SU  Today, 09:29


    and how many Cossacks fought on the side of the Germans? announce

    Yes, there were also the Cossacks. traitors, especially ideological ones, were everywhere and always. but it’s not about them. an article about those Cossacks who fought with the Germans, if someone did not understand.
    1. MrK
      MrK 6 May 2015 15: 22 New
      -1
      The Germans formed the 7th Volunteer Cossack Division of the SS, and the 15th Cavalry Cossack Corps of the SS. About 70 of thousands of Cossacks - were listed as part of these German formations. The German command painfully dragged on with the sending of the first Cossack division to the Eastern Front, as a result, nevertheless decided not to tease the geese, and it ended up in the Balkans. And in Yugoslavia they turned around ...
      To guide the Cossacks from exile came real White Guards. Including the heroes of the Civil War, Shkuro, Naumenko, Krasnov and others. General Krasnov turned to the people - to “native Cossacks and brothers from other cities and Russians who came from the Soviet Union, with whom it was possible for Cossacks to live together and to suffer 23 of the year of hard bondage under the Jewish Soviet fifth on blood was drenched in the Tykh Don, on the freedom-loving Kuban and the stormy Terek "...
      1. captain
        captain 6 May 2015 16: 18 New
        0
        At least when you write, take an interest in when and how the 7 SS division was formed, and also find out when and how the Cossack corps became SS.
        1. avt
          avt 6 May 2015 17: 49 New
          +4
          Quote: captain
          when and how was the 7th SS division formed,

          The 7th SS Volunteer Mountain Division Prince Eugene, the beginning of formation in 1942, was transferred to the subordination of the Wehrmacht in 1943. In general, there was no smell of Cossacks there, more and more Hungarians, Croats and other Balkans.
          Quote: captain
          , and also find out when and how the Cossack corps became SS.

          But never, no matter how puffed up, they didn’t take the SS oath in 1943, they didn’t declare the Goths lost - they didn’t fail, so they were foreigners at the SS tank corps and remained, unlike the 29th infantry SS ,, Rona ", which was never formed in 1944m, renamed the brigade, well, and then, after Kaminsky’s elbows killed the Germans in Warsaw in a drunken state, they merged them altogether.
  6. Asily 50
    Asily 50 6 May 2015 10: 27 New
    +4
    There are many relatives in the Don, as well as complaints about * advice *, and they always begin with the simple saying: they stole, robbed, killed, set on fire; and then about suffering * nizakto *, you think someone was robbed or something else, because I * had to suffer * my beloved. And now there are clowns from the Cossacks, now they * wave * sashas, ​​then they hang their orders to the navel, then there are more epaulettes, and also with the monarch’s monogram. The shame. Do not embellish the history of the Cossacks. The Cossacks wrote many glorious pages in the history of RUSSIA, and glory to those statesmen of RUSSIA who were able for almost two hundred years to turn the Cossacks, from enemies and lyudolov, into an army of defenders of RUSSIA.
    1. captain
      captain 6 May 2015 10: 54 New
      0
      I absolutely agree with you that you don’t need to embellish anything. We sing songs to all the Bolsheviks, but at the same time they forget during the deeds of a number of them, for example, Trotsky, Rosalia Zemlyachki. Bela Kuna et al.
      1. Asily 50
        Asily 50 6 May 2015 12: 15 New
        +2
        Rothmistra. Yes, they were not any ideological, but you can call yourself anyone. There Gorbachev as soon as he whistled by anyone just pretending to be. Think his * ideological parents * were different?
      2. The comment was deleted.
      3. MrK
        MrK 6 May 2015 21: 31 New
        +1
        Again captain. Songs always sing about winners.
        It would be better if they were silent about the activities of Trotsky, Rosalia Zemlyachki, Bela Kun. They are certainly not white and fluffy, if viewed from the standpoint of our time, our current morality. And then I will start to give specific examples, with specific links about the activities of your clients. And then all the Bolsheviks you named will quickly cease to be bloody.

        Once again, I turn to my skymit colleague. Well, what could be national reconciliation with Mr. Rotmistr and similar gentlemen.
  7. The comment was deleted.
  8. RUSS
    RUSS 6 May 2015 12: 00 New
    -1
    To the author for the article plus! A wonderful cycle about the Cossacks. This is probably one of the last .....
    1. avt
      avt 6 May 2015 12: 28 New
      +2
      Quote: RUSS
      . This is probably one of the last .....

      But why ? Following the logic by which the author wrote the whole cycle ahead of us, there is a tale about how Surkov and Kadyrov were not allowed to ataman Kozitsyn to revive the “Cossack" - well, Putin merged. wassat
      1. RUSS
        RUSS 6 May 2015 14: 29 New
        -2
        Quote: avt
        Quote: RUSS
        . This is probably one of the last .....

        But why ? Following the logic by which the author wrote the whole cycle ahead of us, there is a tale about how Surkov and Kadyrov were not allowed to ataman Kozitsyn to revive the “Cossack" - well, Putin merged. wassat

        In vain you can laugh you can still talk about Cossacks volunteers who fought in Yugoslavia, Transnistria, Chechnya.
  9. Clone
    Clone 6 May 2015 13: 41 New
    +1
    My minus to the author. A one-sided article bordering on the statement that if it weren’t for “real” Cossacks, then there would be a complete ... end. Unfortunately, this is precisely the point of view that is being introduced into the consciousness of the young generation in the Kuban, one way or another, absorbing frenzied anti-Soviet. The anti-Soviet emanating from those who have previously propagated the loudest than "unfading ideas of Marxism-Leninism." Such is the paradox with squiggle. I won’t rummage through the internet, but I won’t be surprised at the fact that “our historian” belongs precisely to this host of people who have time to see clearly ...
    Cossacks, Cossacks ... probably, it would be better to dwell on the question of who belonged to the Cossacks on the fact of birth in the Great Patriotic War formations and who became absolutely unexpected for themselves, on the agenda.
    For information, my ancestors were Cossacks "from a pedigree," but my grandfather, born in 1902, participated in the Civil War on the side of the "Reds" in the detachment of the legendary I. Kochubey, whom the current "historians" accuse almost of banditry. I believe the stories of my grandfather as something more than what the extollers of the “whites” who somehow forgot at once about the betrayal of Generals Naumenko, Shkuro, Krasnov and other Domanovs had fished out from the “secret documents”. By the way, in the Kuban, it was with the undefeated SS "Cossack" that Naumenko rushed about like "fools with a stupa." Even the portrait of the current leaders of the local "Cossacks" hung ...
    1. captain
      captain 6 May 2015 19: 28 New
      +1
      My grandfather is not a Cossack, he fought in the 1-th Cavalry Army, was awarded the Order of the Red Banner, he believed that the Cossacks were good warriors. He considered the Communists as enemies of the common people. My grandfather told me that the Bolsheviks gave land to the peasants, and the Communists taken away. Despite the fact that the mill was taken from his family (saving the order from eviction), he kept telling me all his life that Stalin was for the people. To explain to him that the communists and the Bolsheviks are one and the same thing was not possible.
  10. alkt
    alkt 6 May 2015 14: 17 New
    +4
    From an interior view with veteran of the Great Patriotic War Yuri Vasilyevich Bondarev.

    On the red banners, under which my comrades and I fought during the Great Patriotic War, were the words: For our Soviet Motherland!
    Now these battle flags have been handed over somewhere to the archive, replacing with variegated, toy
    standards. But I will say that the slogan is not only not canceled by time, but, on the contrary, is becoming increasingly important. Because Soviet values ​​and shrines, even our Great Victory itself, have to be defended.
    Today they say: our country has won. And quite right, of course. Just do not forget that it was a great Soviet Union. And imagine if a country with a different system, a different ideology, less cohesive and less educated were in its place?

    - Did you already feel the significance of what you are talking about now?

    - In many ways. After all, the Soviet country entered a fierce war, which was imposed on it, almost the most educated in the world. And this was achieved after the October Revolution in the shortest time!
    I fought in the battery with the guys from the village. Only one city I had was from Odessa: joker, joker, anecdote. Well, I, a Muscovite. The remaining artillery soldiers are all village. But all, without exception, were literate people. That is, they graduated from the seven-year or ten-year period, and therefore they quickly mastered artillery equipment, compass, maps and digital calculations. And they did not have to explain, say, who is Pushkin or Tolstoy.

    - What was the relationship between you?

    - Friendly. This is the most important thing! I felt that we were all brothers. I felt that they were mine, and I them. We ate from the same pot, lived nearby, shared the trophies equally. It was a great fellowship. There was no high separation wall between the officer and the rank and file.
    Which, apparently, had a great effect on the tsar’s army despite the class and class contradictions.

    You know, the point is not that we have endlessly said: here, they say, we are Soviet people. We did not even talk about this. But it was on a spiritual level, it was our integral spiritual part, which primarily included hope and expectation. The great two pillars are not only for man, but also for humanity! Hope for the best. Waiting for the best and striving for it. And, of course, justice. With this, our generation reached Berlin.
    1. RUSS
      RUSS 6 May 2015 14: 27 New
      -3
      Well, your Bolsheviks replaced the banners, and so now they have been replaced.
      1. Clone
        Clone 6 May 2015 14: 41 New
        0
        Quote: RUSS
        Well, your Bolsheviks replaced the banners, and so now they have been replaced.

        Under the red standards, our fathers and grandfathers reached Berlin. And not all were “Bolsheviks”. And where were "marked" with tricolor?
        1. RUSS
          RUSS 6 May 2015 16: 28 New
          -1
          Quote: Clone
          Quote: RUSS
          Well, your Bolsheviks replaced the banners, and so now they have been replaced.

          Under the red standards, our fathers and grandfathers reached Berlin. And not all were “Bolsheviks”. And where were "marked" with tricolor?

          Tricolor is not a military banner, don’t be too lazy to go to Wikipedia and see what color the current banner of the RF Armed Forces and the banner of the ground forces, I hope you don’t need to tell about the history of St. Andrew’s banner, but the banner of the Russian Air Force almost repeats the banner of the USSR Air Force.
          1. RUSS
            RUSS 6 May 2015 22: 11 New
            0
            Quote: RUSS
            Tricolor is not a military banner, don’t be too lazy to go to Wikipedia and see what color the current banner of the RF Armed Forces and the banner of the ground forces, I hope you don’t need to tell about the history of St. Andrew’s banner, but the banner of the Russian Air Force almost repeats the banner of the USSR Air Force.
      2. MrK
        MrK 6 May 2015 15: 10 New
        +3
        Where are your RUSS banners? They took Berlin under the red banner, And what they took, under your banners, except for the factories from the Owls. people.
        1. RUSS
          RUSS 6 May 2015 16: 24 New
          0
          Quote: mrark
          Where are your RUSS banners? They took Berlin under the red banner, And what they took, under your banners, except for the factories from the Owls. people.

          New banners are stylized as imperial, with these banners beat the Swedes, Turks, French, Poles, continue to continue?
          1. Alexey RA
            Alexey RA 6 May 2015 16: 41 New
            +2
            Quote: RUSS
            New banners are stylized as imperial, with these banners beat the Swedes, Turks, French, Poles, continue to continue?

            And go on, why stop. Under these banners, they lost the second-rate power of Japan. Yes, and PMV also lost.
            1. RUSS
              RUSS 6 May 2015 18: 04 New
              0
              Quote: Alexey RA
              Quote: RUSS
              New banners are stylized as imperial, with these banners beat the Swedes, Turks, French, Poles, continue to continue?

              And go on, why stop. Under these banners, they lost the second-rate power of Japan. Yes, and PMV also lost.

              Yes, and under the red banner, the Poles were blown away in the 20th and in the 39th the Finns ate overpowered, only in the Great Patriotic War they won under the red flag.
          2. MrK
            MrK 6 May 2015 21: 55 New
            +1
            Well, what does RUSS have to do with this?
        2. captain
          captain 6 May 2015 18: 24 New
          0
          Berlin was taken twice and not under the red banners. Or is this not considered to be for you? It’s pleasant to me as a Russian, but to you? You are pleased that under the red banners smashed Tambov peasants? Or maybe the Siberian peasants, who supported the Bolsheviks in 1919, in 21, realized that they had made a mistake. Or an uprising in the Volga region in the Samara province, where everyone was for the Soviet power, and in the 21 they got upset? Although if you are not a peasant and do not belong to the indigenous peoples of Russia, then you are pleased to destroy the indigenous peoples, under the six-star flag you do it with pleasure.
          1. avt
            avt 6 May 2015 18: 42 New
            +1
            Quote: captain
            Berlin was taken twice and not under the red banners. Or is this not considered to be for you? It’s pleasant to me as a Russian, but to you? You are pleased that under the red banners smashed Tambov peasants?

            Yes, calm down, read Sigismund Herberstein, he wrote in his message to his emperor - the Russian pier is revered by the tsar, prayed to the “golden woman” and fighting under the red banner, and this was written when there were no Bolsheviks even in the project in the form of sperm. Yes that there are Bolsheviks - the Decembrists, that Herzen was awakened by drunkenness! What bastard prevented that the child was sleeping!? wassat
            1. Aleksys2
              Aleksys2 6 May 2015 23: 52 New
              +2
              Quote: avt
              in his report to his emperor, he wrote like this - a Russian pier is revered by the tsar, prayed to a “golden woman” and fight under a red banner

              1. Standard-junker of the Cavalry Guard regiment with a standard. St. George's jubilee standard of the 1884 year, granted in the 1899 year. Traditionally, the standards of the guards cuirassier regiments were attached to the pole with the help of a special cross member, like a banner. After the First World War, the standard of the Cavalier Guard regiment was exported to France, where it was stored in the family of the last commander of the regiment, Colonel V.N. Zvegintsov, and then - in the Army Museum in Paris.
              2. The standard of the 7th Lancers of Olviopolsky regiment. Jubilee standard “for distinction” of the 1900 model of the year, granted in the 1912 year. The only standard “for distinction” granted during the described period. In 1917, it was deposited with the chief of the regiment, the Spanish King Alfonso XIII, and in 1921, it was transferred from Spain to the Belgrade Temple. In 1945, he was exported to the USSR and is now in the Hermitage.

              3. Standard Guards Spare Cavalry Regiment. A simple 1900 standard of the year, granted in the 1902 year.

              4. The standard of the Life Guard Dragoon Regiment. St. George anniversary standard of the 1900 model of the year.

              5. The standard of the 13 Dragoon Military Order of the regiment. St. George's jubilee standard of the 1900 year, granted in the 1909 year. With a black instrument cloth, the rim of the rim was laid orange, as an exception to the rule. On the standard are the ribbons granted by Emperor of Germany William I in 1874.

              6. The standard of the 1-th Life-Dragoon Moscow Regiment. St. George's jubilee standard of the 1884 year, granted in the 1900 year. The inscription was originally: "For the rapid advance and capture of Adrianople in the 1878 year"
      3. Alexey RA
        Alexey RA 6 May 2015 16: 43 New
        +1
        Quote: RUSS
        Well, your Bolsheviks replaced the banners, and so now they have been replaced.

        The Bolsheviks did not replace the banner. They replaced the army, forming new units, which received new banners.
        1. RUSS
          RUSS 6 May 2015 16: 59 New
          -3
          Quote: Alexey RA
          Quote: RUSS
          Well, your Bolsheviks replaced the banners, and so now they have been replaced.

          The Bolsheviks did not replace the banner. They replaced the army, forming new units, which received new banners.

          At the same time, replacing all the symbolism, noting succession and traditions, only when it became “hot” did the shoulder straps and the St. George ribbon and the guards units be returned.
          1. MrK
            MrK 8 May 2015 20: 06 New
            +1
            RUSSIA. CONTINUITY is determined not by banners, and people.
            More than 30 thousand Russian officers and generals fought in Civil on the side of the Bolsheviks.
            In total, more than six hundred officers and generals of the General Staff were in the Red Army. Of the twenty commanders of the Red Fronts, seventeen were cadre officers of the tsarist era. All chiefs of staff of the fronts are former officers.
            Of the hundred commanders of the Red Armies, eighty-two are tsarist officers in the past. The Bolsheviks also had a former assistant to the Minister of War, Polivanov, and Admiral Altfater.
            At least four former tsarist generals are known who, having been captured by the white, refused to change the oath of red, and were shot for this: von Taube, Nikolaev, Vostrosablin, Stankevich.
            This is the real continuity.
  11. alicante11
    alicante11 6 May 2015 15: 42 New
    +2
    Still, I wonder why the Cossacks acted so disastrously in the Russo-Japanese War. One of the articles in the cycle refers to the presence of machine guns and artificial obstacles among the Japanese, which prevented the Cossack units from showing themselves. But after all, the Nazis had not only machine guns, but also machine guns and tanks, and in raids on the rear of the Japanese Cossacks had to deal mainly with the second-line troops, covering communications. In many respects, unfortunately, it was the failures of the Cossack troops, which had complete advantage due to the weakness of the Japanese cavalry, that are the cornerstone of the defeat of the Manchurian army. After all, Kuropatkin, in fact, did not make a single mistake during the war. As a staff officer, he was worthy of his former White General commander. But for a proper assessment of the situation, the staff officer needs information. Which the cavalry and the inability of the Cossacks to get reconnaissance had to get, Kuropatkin constantly kept strong reserves in the rear in order to fend off the detours, which he was very afraid of. He did not dare to use these reserves and therefore, after the defeat of the first line, he began to withdraw.
    1. Asily 50
      Asily 50 24 May 2015 18: 29 New
      0
      Under the tsar, the interests of * foreign * business were higher than state. Industrialists of RUSSIA joined the February coup due to the dominance of different * French and Germans *. There are references to the transfer of successful enterprises to foreigners at the direct direction of the king, and with a delay in payments for decades. Those. you built a * candle factory * and suddenly you are ordered to give it, with payment of your labor then and in parts, you also do not determine the cost. Justification is anecdotal, they say RUSSIANs are not capable of ...... And the FAR EAST opened up development opportunities bypassing both England and Szasch.
    2. The comment was deleted.
  12. fomkin
    fomkin 6 May 2015 16: 36 New
    +3
    Once I read "Dauria", the author of Sedykh. In those days it was read in one breath. And indeed there is a series of "Cossack novel." The more you know, the more objective the conclusions.

    And I agree with this statement.
  13. 97110
    97110 6 May 2015 17: 56 New
    0
    I read about most of the described facts before. But like this, summarized in one work, very much perceived. Thanks to the author, plus. Even I almost didn’t notice it.
    Stalin was forced to recall the Cossacks
  14. alkt
    alkt 6 May 2015 19: 17 New
    +2
    Quote: RUSS
    At the same time, replacing all the symbolism, noting succession and traditions, only when it became “hot” did the shoulder straps and the St. George ribbon and the guards units be returned.

    You don’t understand directly, so the continuity was returned - is it bad or when canceled is bad? And the epaulettes were returned in 1943, not because of the heat, and the tape of the times of the Great Patriotic War was and is the Guards.
    1. avt
      avt 6 May 2015 21: 01 New
      +1
      Quote: alkt
      And the epaulettes were returned in 1943, not because of the heat, and the tape of the times of the Great Patriotic War was and is the Guards.

      And the military ranks were even before the war, replacing comkors, divisional commanders, and brigades with generals.
    2. RUSS
      RUSS 6 May 2015 21: 56 New
      -3
      Quote: alkt
      You don’t understand directly, so the continuity was returned - is it bad or when canceled is bad?

      "editor" on the tablet instead canceling "wrote" noting
      Quote: alkt
      and the tape of the times of World War II was and is the Guards.

      For you, the guards, and for me and most of St. George.
  15. alkt
    alkt 6 May 2015 20: 11 New
    +3
    The war against the Nazis was not won by the whiteguards, gentlemen, monsieurs, warrants, and cornets. Gentlemen fought against Vlasov in the ROA. The comrades — the Soviet people, led by the All-Union Communist Party of Bolsheviks — won the great battle of the Nazi European Union. And this Victory was celebrated by the soldiers of the Red Army, who fought under the Red Banners, behind which the Red Stars of the Kremlin shone.
    1. avt
      avt 6 May 2015 20: 57 New
      +3
      Quote: alkt
      The comrades — the Soviet people, led by the All-Union Communist Party of Bolsheviks — won the great battle of the Nazi European Union. And this Victory was celebrated by the soldiers of the Red Army, who fought under the Red Banners, behind which the Red Stars of the Kremlin shone.

      And under the leadership of the Supreme Commander-in-Chief Stalin. request Very much this fact is an eyesore for many, but this is a historical fact, one might say a medical one. It is true that in Livadia the Big Three still put a monument! good It was they, and the generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek who joined them, who signed the documents, who determined the world order after the World War, which some people are now trying to finally bury, redrawing the World for themselves.
    2. RUSS
      RUSS 6 May 2015 21: 58 New
      -1
      Quote: alkt
      Gentlemen fought against Vlasov in the ROA.

      Since when is the Red General Vlasov mister? Or are those Red Army defectors that were also gentlemen with him?
      1. Clone
        Clone 6 May 2015 22: 18 New
        +2
        Quote: RUSS
        Or are those Red Army defectors that were also gentlemen with him?

        The gentlemen were the Cossack generals Naumenko, Shkuro, Krasnov and others, who entered the service of the Nazis. And, as far as I remember, they had the St. Andrew flag on the chevrons.
      2. The comment was deleted.
  16. a housewife
    a housewife 6 May 2015 22: 04 New
    +6
    My husband’s grandfather was a Kuban Cossack. In the Great Patriotic War he was just over thirty. He fought near Stalingrad. Then he was seriously injured somewhere near our western borders. A sanitary train in which he was sent to the rear was bombed. This is the latest information about him. No requests gave anything. His wife remained all her life, raising two children. She worked on an equal basis with men. Before the revolution, her family was very wealthy. They took everything away. That is, they completely expelled them from home. They worked from dawn to dawn. looking at his former home, garden, vegetable garden. they had no laborers before the revolution. A big family, they plowed, like you never dreamed of. At the same time, my mother-in-law always said: we live beautifully - the Soviet government gave us everything! Is that it? Fear? Was it brainwashed? They settled them here in the middle of the 19th century from central Russia, by lot, attributed to the Cossacks. They themselves did not ask here to equip the southern borders. And you sit there and count how many were killed and whether you did it right !!! Or you just judge by the current Cossacks. And the real ones are more silent.
  17. alkt
    alkt 6 May 2015 22: 45 New
    +1
    Quote: RUSS
    Since when is the Red General Vlasov mister? Or are those Red Army defectors that were also gentlemen with him?

    Among the leadership of the ROA were former generals of the civil war in Russia from the White movement: V. I. Angeleev, V. F. Belogortsev, S. K. Borodin, Colonels K. G. Kromiadi, N. A. Shokoli, Lt. Col. A. D Arkhipov, as well as M.V. Tomashevsky, Yu. K. Meyer, V. Melnikov, Skarzhinsky, Dove and others, as well as Colonel I.K. Sakharov (formerly lieutenant of the Spanish army, General F. Franco). Support was also provided by generals A.P. Arkhangelsky, A.A. von Lampe, A.M. Dragomirov, P.N. Krasnov, N.N. Golovin, F.F. Abramov, E.I. Balabin, I. A Polyakov, VV Crater, Donskoy and Kuban chieftains generals G. V. Tatarkin and V. G. Naumenko. One of the adjutants of General A. A. Vlasov was a member of the NTS L. A. Rar.

    And here is an excerpt from the memoirs of Colonel V.M. Dotsenko recorded by E. Raigorodetsky:

    “- Gentlemen! Here is the deputy commander of the Don Cossack Cavalry Corps, Major General Maleev. Please introduce myself, gentlemen.

    - General Krasnov
    - General Shkuro,
    etc.
  18. hollger
    hollger 7 May 2015 19: 07 New
    +3
    In August 1942, in the battles in the Kuban, defending Kushchevka, Pavlovskoye, Tikhoretsk, two volunteer Cossacks died, my grandfathers: Evmenty Dudura and Andrey Chernenko, my mother was born on August 23, 1942, in the station. Staroleushkovskaya, after the death of his father. Eternal memory to all who died defending their homeland!
  19. skeptic31
    skeptic31 8 May 2015 00: 35 New
    +3
    The author's bias is striking. He frankly does not want to see realities, and therefore uses an exclusively descriptive version, excluding from it everything that he does not like and is not suitable for his ideas about what is happening. Therefore, not a word about why in the 36th and 37th years the attitude towards the Cossacks changed. The future war is clearly not to blame. Note that in his story about the Cossacks during the Second World War, for some reason there is no story about the actions of Cossack units on the side of the Nazis. Rather, about their terrible atrocities against the civilian population of individual European countries. At the fronts, this rabble was not particularly distinguished. And then we are all about the OUN and the UPA, and our white Cossacks were no better. Moreover, this did not begin in the years of the 2nd World War, but much earlier. Nature cannot be changed. But the author, like modern Bandera, sees only what he wants to see. All of the above does not mean the denial of the great feat accomplished by the Cossacks during the Second World War. But these were our Cossacks, and not the white Shkuro and Krasnov.
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