World War II and the creation of a system of neo-colonialism
2 September 1945, the representatives of the Japanese Empire signed a surrender agreement was completed World War II. In the Soviet, Russian public consciousness, World War II was closed by the events of the Great Patriotic War. This separation was quite explicable and fully justified from a psychological point of view, but did not allow people to more broadly view the picture of these events, in its entirety. Our tragedy and victory overshadowed much of the aspects of that war. At present, we can approach the problem of the Second World War and its consequences without the former emotional tension.
Many people know that World War II brought the final line to the era of classical Western colonialism, and created a new geopolitical reality. But in order to properly assess the main geopolitical consequences of the world war, we must remember the situation in which the key players of the world arena were on the eve of the outbreak of war.
The time between the two world wars was characterized by the rapid rise of the United States, which took advantage of the outcome of the First World War. The war increased the national wealth of the States by 40%. Two predators knocked out of the race - the Austro-Hungarian and German empires, France and Great Britain suffered significant losses. The United States pushed its rivals in Western civilization, primarily the former “mistress of the seas”, “the workshop of the world” - the British Empire. The fast-growing US industry needed markets for European colonial empires.
The second half of the 20s of the 20th century is the period of the US economic breakthrough, then the Americans quickly began to crowd the British. The United States increased its share of exports to Latin America, Japan, China, and this happened against the background of a fall in the share of Britain in the global economy. In the Japanese Empire, the share of US exports rose from 16,8% in 1914 to 30% in 1927, and the share of Britain fell from 16,8% to 7%, respectively. In China, the share of US exports increased from 6% in 1913 to 16.4% in 1926, and English decreased from 16,3% to 10,2%. In Latin America, American exports increased from 24% in 1913 to 38% in 1927, and English exports dropped from 25% to 16%, respectively. It got to the point that there was a threat to lose its leadership even in the territories of its own empire. So, in 1929, US exports to Canada increased to 68,6%, while English exports decreased to 15%. By 1928, the UK's foreign trade was lower than the pre-war level, and its share in world exports dropped to 1929 by 10,9 (1924 was 12,9%). England only 1929 year was able to restore the pre-war level of industrial production. By the year 1929, the USA produced up to 43,3% of the global industrial output.
The United States, using its economic power, cramped competitors, trying to spread the Monroe Doctrine to the whole world, to build an economic empire of “open doors and equal opportunities” under an agreement with other industrialized countries.
It would seem that the United Kingdom will finally lose its economic race to its former colony and is doomed to keep falling behind the United States more and more. However, the global economic crisis began. And in 1932, London managed to regain first place in world trade, while American exports to the lands of the British colonies fell noticeably. At the start of the 30, the British government against American products introduced a fairly effective system of protectionist measures. The access of American goods to the vast market of the British Empire was very difficult. In addition, Germany recovered in the 30-ies and began to compete with the United States.
France reached the prewar level of economic development, before England, in 1924 year. But it also gave way to a position in the global market: its share in the global industrial production decreased from 7,2% in 1913 to 7% in 1928. The weak points of the French were low technical level of industry, low labor productivity and concentration of production. The presence of a huge colonial empire helped to maintain its position.
The First World War played a positive role in the development of the Japanese Empire - its national wealth increased by 25%. But further industrial growth limited the narrowness of the country's resource base, the presence of strong competitors that occupied the Asia-Pacific markets.
Thus, before the Second World War, the British Empire still remained the leader of the planet in terms of the aggregate of controlled natural resources, territories, population, economic and political opportunities. It occupied up to a quarter of the planet’s land; there were half a billion people living in it. Although the United States has become one of the leading countries, it has not yet become a superpower, its influence in the world was somewhat inferior to that of the British. Do not forget, and Paris, which had control over the vast spaces in Africa and Asia. In 1930, Germany and the USSR-Russia were rapidly recovering.
The prerequisites for the beginning of the new world war were laid by the Versailles system. There was no clear leader (the United States could not establish itself in this role), and the offended great powers, with significant military and economic potential, ambitious plans, were enough.
The Japanese were the first to start a military redistribution of spheres of influence, markets and commodity regions in their favor. Back in 1931, the Japanese Empire invaded Manchuria (North China), and the puppet state of Manchukuo was created there. It became the springboard of Japan for the movement to the north - Mongolia, the USSR and to the south - to China. In general, the actions of Japan coincided with the plans of the then “world behind the scenes,” so the West did not protest in particular and did not take energetic actions to “smoke out” the Japanese from China. Paris, London and Washington followed a similar policy regarding the aggressive actions of Rome and Berlin. They were "pacified", allowing them to expand their zone of influence, and did not stop their actions. Although at that time, the aggressors were weak and concerted actions by the countries of the West and the USSR could prevent the possibility of a world war in the bud.
Japan, Italy and Germany became a kind of “cannon fodder”, which was supposed to provoke a world war by their actions, clear the way for the future owners of the planet. The elites of these countries (except for a few dedicated ones) believed that they were playing their own game, but in reality the superpowers (USA and Great Britain) played them like chessboard pieces. Therefore, the results for these powers and nations were very sad. American troops still stand in their territories, Germany has long been divided and has not fully healed this wound. Huge human losses reduced their drive. The powers were off for decades from the Great Game, becoming obedient pawns of the Anglo-Saxons. Although they were allowed to rise economically, to counter the USSR, Japan and Germany did not become an independent military-political force. Only in recent years have signs of imperial ambitions begun to appear in Berlin.
The USSR received much from Victory, but apparently, if it were not for the war, the achievements could have been even more significant. We became a superpower, but in the war we lost millions of "Stalin's falcons", most of the passionaries, the USSR-Russia inflicted a severe demographic wound. Although the West was not able to fully realize the goals in relation to the Russian civilization. It was planned, after the war, to build a “New World Order”, already without our state, but failed.
The United States fully recovered from the Great Depression, firmly embarked in Europe, having received all of Western Europe in its sphere of influence, consolidated in the APR - bases in Japan and South Korea. They forced the British to put American goods in their possession. They have become a superpower, an empire, with dozens of military bases all over the planet, the only owners of nuclear weapons (up to 1949 of the year) and with a good handicap for its development.
Interestingly, Paris and London also largely retained their positions: the French with their capitulation saved the human and economic potential without burning it in the war (although under the unlikely scenario of the Victory of the Third Reich they would have to become French-Germans). The British also actually stayed on their islands, without suffering significant human and material losses, for example, hundreds and thousands of destroyed settlements. Maintain independence with little blood. Although, the British had to give first place in the Western world - the Americans.
It is believed that World War II buried the colonial empires, but this is only part of the truth. Truly classic colonial empires are gone, their collapse has led to a host of wars and conflicts that have claimed and claimed millions of lives now. This system was replaced by another, more modern - neo-colonialism.
The colonial systems were created due to the huge inequality of countries and peoples, especially in the field of technological, economic, military development. The West was in the lead in these areas, although it could concede in a common culture before the ancient civilizations of the East. And these reasons persisted after the Second World War. The presence of the flag and anthem, its president, the government - this is not yet independence. Now, if the country itself disposes of its natural resources - this is already independence. And this can not be achieved without a strong economy and armed forces.
Are there many such countries, former colonies and semi-colonies, on the planets? You can count on the fingers. The overwhelming majority of countries remained under the enormous influence of the former metropolises, continuing to maintain a high standard of living for Europeans and Americans with their natural resources.
De facto, the neocolonial empire of France, Great Britain (British Commonwealth of Nations) still exists on the planet, the United States created its empire. China is following this path.
It turns out that Great Britain and the United States are not only winners in the Second World War, but also its direct organizers, the instigators, who were able to knock together the main world competitors, burn their forces in the world massacre and then subdue their will.
- Alexander Samsonov
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