Military Review

Winning ruble exchange rate

53
Winning ruble exchange rate


In the rear, too, there was enough space for feats. And they were. We won 70 years ago also because our industry was stronger than the German one. Although Hitler worked all occupied Europe.

So how was the economy of war organized? How did it differ from the German one? What role did money play then? How did the evacuation of enterprises actually take place? And what was the main trump card in the struggle of factories for personnel?

Arseny Yermolov, a military historian and associate professor of the Higher School of Economics National Research University, told Rossiyskaya Gazeta about this.

What is the Soviet economy was stronger than the German, Arseny Yurevich? In Germany, too, they knew how to cast guns instead of butter.


Arseny Yermolov: You know, you can't make a gun out of butter. Here works another thesis: "a gun instead of a butter factory."

In the USSR, engineering, metalworking almost completely reoriented to military needs, from the production of ammunition to tank building. It was a big loan from the future. One can imagine what growth the economy would show in 40-50's, if not for the war.

And in Germany, such a mobilization of the economy was carried out far from immediately. And that is why, even despite the successful launch of 1941 and 1942 campaigns, she did not have the strength and resources to “crush” the USSR.

Summed up overconfidence?


Arseny Yermolov: Yes. The Germans had a no less powerful economy than ours, in many respects even better. But Hitler and the German generals, up to 1942, retained the conviction that Russia could be defeated in a short time. So, they thought, no need to turn to the methods of economic warfare. Therefore, before the Battle of Stalingrad, Hitler continued to create an industrial base for the future economic spurt of Germany. And, for example, the Germans increased the production of metalworking machines.

It didn’t help them win, but it helped a lot after the war, because even after paying reparations, they had more machines and other equipment left than they did in 1939.

Money does not matter


What did money mean in war economy?


Arseny Yermolov: In many ways, it was an economy without money. Of course, they did not disappear, the tank was not simply transferred to the troops, it was paid. But financial issues have faded into the background. The enterprises understood that, if necessary, the state would cover any losses, because it has no other way out.

So, nobody thought about cost reduction?


Arseny Yermolov: They just took care of this, but it was called otherwise: reducing labor intensity and material intensity. After all, if money was easy to get from the state, then people, equipment, raw materials are much more difficult.

If we look at the documents of those years, we see that the disputes go for the distribution of materials, fuel, equipment and labor. And the decisions of the State Defense Committee were devoted to this, and not to financing.

By the way, at first the financial position of enterprises was very favorable. Many began to receive excess profits. She, however, was taken from them. But then, in 1943, selling prices were lowered, and then many businesses became unprofitable.

Behind Beria

An episode was described in the Clergyless Notes of the former Prince Sergei Golitsyn, when the military construction part, which during the entire war had to make boards with a hand saw, stole the power-saw bench from another Soviet part. And the commander presented the case so that it was destroyed as a result of an airstrike. But then the deception was revealed, and the real owners of the machine returned it by force. Such anarchic methods of fighting for resources in the rear was not practiced?


Arseny Yermolov: Similar cases were during the evacuation at the beginning of the war, partly in 1942 year.

Many business executives sought somehow to intercept and accommodate the cargo that went in trains to the east. All this was submitted under the guise of the use of "undocumented" cargo - they say it is impossible to establish whose direction they are going to and where.

Raider seizure?


Arseny Yermolov: Yes, we can say that it was a raider seizure of equipment. And the staff at many evacuated enterprises was scattered for a large number of industries, but this happened for a variety of reasons.

And in relatively stable periods of war, how were resources distributed?


Arseny Yermolov: Centrally. There were conflicts between departments about this, and usually they were resolved by someone from Stalin's inner circle - Molotov, Beria, Malenkov, sometimes the head of the State Planning Board Voznesensky was connected to this.

In fact, they were both intermediaries and lobbyists, and from this point of view, Lavrenty Pavlovich Beria, of course, showed himself the most successful. By the end of the war, he became the chief arbiter, and this largely explains the growth of his influence. Despite the fact that he was heavily pushed away from the leadership of the internal affairs bodies.

Was there a competition for personnel, too, or were the workers and engineers attached to the factories?


Arseny Yermolov: Competition for people, of course, was, like for any other scarce resource. It was impossible to apply for resignation and switch to another company.

But transitions happened. And the main trump card in the fight for personnel was the fact that the enterprise had a subsidiary farm, either from the pre-war times or from the 1942 year, when there was a massive distribution of state farms to subsidiary farms. By the end of the war, such subsidiary farms used 5 of millions of hectares of agricultural land.

That is, not all food was distributed on the cards?


Arseny Yermolov: No, of course. On one card it was impossible to live. Subsidiary farm meant additional rations, dining room with enhanced nutrition.

Since people were on the verge of starvation, this increase very often meant the difference between life and death. Many of these farms simply saved.

How did people go to another job if it was prohibited?


Arseny Yermolov: They took, for example, a passport for registering relations in the registry office or for receiving money in a savings bank. And disappeared. The authorities tried to fight this, but the departmental interest ultimately prevailed. And the new leadership of such "defectors" in different ways cover.

Great resettlement to the rear

Let's return to the evacuation. Provided that it can be so big?


Arseny Yermolov: Of course, evacuation plans were not designed for catastrophic defeats of the Red Army.

They covered a small area. Moreover, their goal was not the rescue of production, but the unloading of transport hubs for military goods: the evacuation of only civilian enterprises was assumed. Therefore, for example, the tractor shop was first taken out of the Kirov factory of Stalingrad.

The first attempt to formulate a real plan is the July decision of the State Defense Committee N99. It affected the border zone, Dnieper, Leningrad and Moscow. Interestingly, in Moscow this plan included enterprises aviation industry, and tank industry - no. So it was in other regions.

What is the reason?


Arseny Yermolov: Apparently, this was determined by the position of the departments. In July, 1941, no one had imagined that the Germans would reach Moscow. Just someone worried about airstrikes, and someone not.

But the July plan was short-lived. Then every major failure at the front led to a wave of orders for evacuation. Often decisions were delayed, as a result, the very "undocumented" goods appeared.

How were the sites for evacuated enterprises chosen?


Arseny Yermolov: For example, in the Urals there were many empty workshops, almost built, but not yet commissioned. Of course, a serious enterprise cannot be transported to a clean field, as it is sometimes presented.

During the war, 1,5 evacuated thousands of large enterprises. This required 1,5 million cars

How long did it take to dismantle before starting production at a new location?

Arseny Yermolov: An interesting question. You can bring a stock of parts, clear the place for the poster assembly, collect several units and declare the beginning of work. But to reach the pre-evacuation level of production required six months from the start of the evacuation.

Due to the effect of scale, continuous improvement of technology, these indicators quickly overlapped.

Return to the citizen

When did you think about conversion and was there a general plan?


Arseny Yermolov: It all began in many ways spontaneously, in 1944. By this time we had a very large complex, one and a half thousand enterprises for the production of ammunition. It was already redundant.

Let's say, obviously it was not necessary to have such a number of 82-mm min or 76-mm projectiles. Here it was possible not only to save and reduce production, but not to increase it. And by increasing efficiency, increasing output in some enterprises, transfer others to civilian products.

And 1944 year - is a series of liberation of Soviet cities, which had to be restored from the ruins. Huge demand for building materials, for products for public utilities. And I must say that the majority of these 1,5 thousands of enterprises retained their branch subordination, that is, they worked for the People's Commissariat of Ammunition, but were not under its jurisdiction. And they were interested in getting rid of this dependence.

So the Commissariat of ammunition, probably, was against?


Arseny Yermolov: Of course. As a result, the matter fell to the same Lawrence Pavlovich. In some cases, the People's Commissariat of Ammunition was able to defend production, in others it was not, and slowly production facilities began to be withdrawn from him.

And spontaneous conversion went ...

Arseny Yermolov: Yes, in many respects the initiative came from the “bottom” - from local party and economic leaders, from departments, sometimes directly from directors of enterprises. Especially Moscow was different in this respect.

Everyone knows that war always begins suddenly, but I have the impression that the world was also sudden. Because the victory took place, and there was no plan to transfer the economy to a peaceful regime.

Instead, in May, after the capitulation of Germany, two resolutions of the State Defense Committee on the reduction of the production of ammunition and armaments were issued. Very strong, several times. At the same time, they still did not touch the tank and aviation industry.

And the question arose: what should they do? Apparently, it was assumed that they would return to the release of their pre-war products. But here's the problem: some of these enterprises were already engaged in military production before 1941, equipment changed on others. Many enterprises had nothing to return to.

So that they themselves were asked to choose their new specialization?


Arseny Yermolov: In fact, they were forced to do it themselves.

And where is the planned economy, over-centralization? Where was Gosplan?


Arseny Ermolov: Gosplan just sat down at the plan. But while he is compiling it, enterprises already had to do something. And there were ideas to fire workers on vacation and give them housing loans. But not everyone could afford such maneuvers to do. As a result, they began to look for themselves.

Actually, even the most prudent directors during the war assumed such an incident and thought through what they would do after the victory.

So after all, there was little to think about; it was also necessary to ensure our own production with design developments ...


Arseny Yermolov: Absolutely. Some enterprises still in 44 created at their own risk and risk special design offices that worked on civilian developments. For example, Uralvagonzavod in Nizhny Tagil, Uralmash in Sverdlovsk.

It turns out that planning in a planned economy turned out to be a weak link ...


Arseny Yermolov: Yes. But this was partially offset by a local initiative. By the way, the Americans, oddly enough, it was the opposite: before the end of the war there was a careful plan, but still after the victory many military manufactures were sold at the price of scrap metal. There were no enterprising people who would buy them at a price slightly higher than scrap metal and tried to use it in some other way.

So when did the general plan of conversion in the USSR appear?


Arseny Yermolov: It was laid down in the first post-war five-year plan, which began to operate from 46. Six months it was the heads of enterprises to determine their own destiny. Someone, of course, just waited for the decision from above.

After the war, those who figured out how to make toys did not fail: for children there’s no money

With a huge demand it was impossible to miscalculate, for whatever you take ...

Arseny Ermolov: Well, why. After the war, money regained its value, suddenly became a critically important resource.

For some directors, this was a completely new experience; not everyone was able and were willing to count money. And someone produced pans and furniture with such prime cost that it was impossible to sell them. Those who guessed to make toys did not lose: the children didn’t feel sorry for any money.

But the best was the position of those who managed to set up the production of investment goods - the first post-war decade was the time of the fastest economic growth in stories THE USSR. And this growth was provided primarily by conversion.

It was very hard for the aviation industry. After the war, civil aircraft did not need such a number of aircraft, aircraft factories turned out to be completely unprepared for the release of something else. By and large, they were saved only by remilitarization with the start of the jet aviation race.

** In the 1942, in the USSR, 24,7 produced thousands of tanks and self-propelled guns and 21,6 thousands of combat aircraft, while in Germany thousands of 5,5 tanks and SAUs and 11,4 thousands of aircraft.

** At the Ural tank factory N 183 in Nizhny Tagil, the labor intensity of the production of the T-34 tank decreased from 6,9 to 3 in thousands of hours in 1942-1945.

** 1,5 evacuated thousands of large enterprises during the war. But to understand the scale of what was happening more gives another figure: 1,5 million cars with evacuated goods.

** Where were large enterprises evacuated from? From Ukraine - 550 plants, from Belarus - 109, from Estonia - 62, from Moscow and the Moscow region - 496, from Leningrad - 92. From other places - 212.

** In terms of value, industrial production in the USSR already in 1945 was higher than in 1940, by 15 percent.

But this is if you apply pre-war prices. In fact, the level of production of basic industrial products of the year 1940 was achieved much later.

Electricity - in 1946, in coal - in 1947, in steel - in 1948, in oil production and smelting of iron - in 1949, in sugar sand - in 1950, and in leather shoes - in 1951.
Author:
Originator:
http://www.rg.ru/2015/04/20/ermolov.html
53 comments
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  1. mig31
    mig31 2 May 2015 15: 03
    +31
    No country in the world could resist, survive and be reborn from the ashes as it was done in the USSR with the quality mark !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! ........
    1. prosto_rgb
      prosto_rgb 2 May 2015 15: 38
      +34
      Could anyone besides the Stalinist USSR in such conditions defeat the world's strongest enemy?
      Bitter irony:
      1. lelikas
        lelikas 2 May 2015 16: 28
        -5
        Quote: prosto_rgb
        Bitter irony:

        Points 1 and 4 are very controversial - Nikolai did not conclude a shameful peace, and how long did the "victorious" Germany hold out?
        Is it also correct to compare "bloody resurrection" with what began after?
        1. prosto_rgb
          prosto_rgb 3 May 2015 01: 29
          +1
          You can discuss here until the end of time ...
          Quote: lelikas
          Paragraphs 1 and 4 are highly controversial

          The illustration was not made by me.
          Quote: lelikas
          the shameful world did not make Nikolai

          You can’t argue here, but nevertheless the 1st World Russian Empire lost, although, objectively, it should have been among the countries of winners.
          Quote: lelikas
          and how long did the "victorious" Germany hold out?

          Not long, but that was enough for the "Bendera" people until the 1950s. in the western part of the Ukrainian SSR they fought.
          Quote: lelikas
          Is it also correct to compare "bloody resurrection" with what began after?

          NO!
          This phenomenon is of a completely different order, but nevertheless it was. I generally doubt that it is known to the general public most of the generation of those born and raised after 1991.
          PS
          "-" I didn't bet you.
          Always for a constructive dialogue. hi
          1. lelikas
            lelikas 3 May 2015 11: 56
            0
            Quote: prosto_rgb
            PS
            "-" I didn't bet you.
            Always for a constructive dialogue. hi

            Yes, everything is fine! A lot of people have enough of the information that they received at school, even the presence of the Internet at hand does not push them to "deeds" to delve into their history
            countries. as they said in a history lesson - it is.
      2. Roman 11
        Roman 11 2 May 2015 19: 20
        +3
        Quote: prosto_rgb
        Could anyone besides the Stalinist USSR in such conditions defeat the world's strongest enemy?

        The question can be posed differently ?? thank hi Could besides Nicholas 2, any other king, not counting, of course, Peter 3 and others, lose 1 world ?? Both Alexandra 1st and 2nd would have won unambiguously, the 3rd almost no doubt. Catherine the Great would level Kaiser in half, and Peter the 1st, it’s even inconvenient to somehow suggest laughing But the Lord was pleased that it was this creation that appeared on the throne during the historical and tectonic faults, most of which apparently occurred due to his fault ........ I doubt that Kaiser so boldly started the war, especially on 2 fronts . And the fact that the Germans hoped for Schlieffen’s plan, nonsense. Wilhelm was reporting who is sitting on the throne in Russia!
        1. prosto_rgb
          prosto_rgb 3 May 2015 00: 44
          0
          Quote: Novel 11
          The question can be posed differently ??

          Of course yes!!! soldier
          I am always for a constructive discussion!
        2. lelikas
          lelikas 3 May 2015 12: 13
          0
          Quote: Novel 11
          Could besides Nicholas 2, any other king, not counting, of course, Peter 3 and others, lose 1 world ??

          Its main drawback (purely subjective opinion) is indecision.
          I would be tougher and more resolute with the same revolutionaries (with all, and not just with the Bolsheviks, as the majority of the people mistakenly think).
          On the fronts, the situation was not as catastrophic as it was after the first and especially after the second revolution, in all the years the RIA lost less territory than the Red Army in the first 4 months of the war.
          Well, okay, about who made a shameful world, everyone probably knows that. (in a whisper - not Nikolay)
        3. your1970
          your1970 3 May 2015 16: 40
          0
          I suspect that Catherine would go to Voltaire's neighborly tea France and Russia would border lol
    2. sent-onere
      sent-onere 2 May 2015 16: 00
      +8
      The main question has not been asked. The question of the conditions for mobilization. Is mobilization possible in a "market economy", i.e. under capitalism. Is it quite? Then, is shock work possible, practically seven days a week and 10-12 hours a day? I think no. Is it possible to force shock labor? Absolutely not. What's left? Only the system of Soviet economic management (precisely of that time), based on the ideological conviction of people in the need for sacrifice to almost everyone, the introduction into life of the national ownership of the main means of production, could create conditions for mobilization. And were there any other options ???
    3. SAXA.SHURA
      SAXA.SHURA 2 May 2015 17: 11
      +7
      If America bordered on the land border with Germany, then the Americans would have lifted their paws in a month, or the Germans would have simply gouged them, otherwise you would go sour across the ocean when they couldn’t get you.
  2. reut.sib
    reut.sib 2 May 2015 15: 04
    +19
    Honestly, I thought the article would be about the modern ruble. We must respect history and be proud of it, but we cannot live on past victories forever, we must move forward and not stand still. Unfortunately, there are few successes in industry (not defense), but there are a lot of conversations and promises.
    1. Tribuns
      Tribuns 2 May 2015 15: 47
      +8
      For many years now, the Patriots of Russia have been urging us to think about the future of today's Russia, in which the raw material, liberal economy, and the country's leadership does not want a transition to the Stalinist model of the industrial-mobilization economy, which created a powerful industry to withstand the Wehrmacht’s military machine ...
      The Prime Minister, relying on his Gaidar-Yasinsky economic bloc in the Government, said bluntly - "allegations that we must change everything, adjust everything, live by a different model are wrong." So they will not change anything. The whole formula of failure and helplessness is maintained. He did not recognize that it was time to move away from liberal dogmas and a commodity economy, but stated that everything would remain at the same level - “all our priorities, our strategic goals should remain the same,” and “even the crisis conditions will not change our intentions should". Despite the change in conditions, no action will be taken to save the country ... And this is surprising and scary with the tacit consent of the guarantor ...
      1. Tribuns
        Tribuns 2 May 2015 16: 11
        +5
        "The Premier Liberal, relying on his Gaidar-Yasin economic bloc in the Government, said bluntly -" the statements that we must change everything, correct everything, live according to a different model, are wrong "

        “Upstairs, we continue to talk about the liberal economy. A liberal economy in a country with rich natural resources means that the economy will remain raw. Because extracting oil, gas and other raw materials and selling them abroad, and using the proceeds to buy Chinese consumer goods and sell them in hypermarkets built on the site of factories is much more profitable than building and rebuilding the very factories.
        The profitability of trade in consumer goods and capital turnover is much higher. No plants will bring such a quick profit as from the export of raw materials and imports of consumer goods.
        And while people are in power who do not want to carry out reindustrialization, do not want to transfer the economy to a mobilization regime, do not want to put bankers on the wall (even conditionally), do not want to carry out nationalization and introduce a progressive tax, until then, Russia will have a commodity economy and a very high dependence on imported goods ” [http://narodedin.com/post/menjaem--russkij-mir-na-neftnasos-i-iphone/]
    2. ksv1973
      ksv1973 2 May 2015 16: 09
      +2
      Quote: reut.sib
      ... one cannot live on past victories forever; one must move forward and not stand still.

      "Without the past, there is no present and future. History is a witness to the past, the light of truth, living memory, a teacher of life, a messenger of antiquity."
      Mark Tullius Cicero.
    3. The comment was deleted.
    4. The comment was deleted.
    5. siberalt
      siberalt 2 May 2015 16: 51
      +6
      You can not build a serious production in the open field? Oh well. Yes, hundreds of such factories were built. The same Altai tractor, evacuated from Kharkov, issued one and a half million agricultural tractors and exported them to 17 countries of the world. And then Yeltsin came and there is no factory.
  3. tanit
    tanit 2 May 2015 15: 04
    +3
    I would not say that the winner ... Well, stepped on the ruble. Thanks again to the Alma-Ata Division?
  4. Uncle lee
    Uncle lee 2 May 2015 15: 06
    +10
    Rear to the front! All for Victory! hi
  5. serg1970
    serg1970 2 May 2015 15: 10
    +11
    Informative. An interesting line about post-war conversion, I did not even think about it. Thank.

    And yes, to the workers of the rear - a deep bow.
  6. Sasha75
    Sasha75 2 May 2015 15: 15
    +5
    Just as capitalism lost the First World War, so Socialism won the Second World War, and it’s a matter of breaking conversations to break the tongue.
  7. avvg
    avvg 2 May 2015 15: 28
    +2
    The State Defense Committee, led by Stalin, successfully organized the logistical support of the Red Army during WWII and upon the liberation of the occupied land by the Germans, immediately took steps to restore the liberated territory. The role and significance of T-bills during the Great Patriotic War will be studied for a long time by historians.
    1. VALERIK_097
      VALERIK_097 2 May 2015 15: 57
      +3
      They themselves wrote, or the translator is not important, it disturbs from the illiteracy of the written
  8. Tatar 174
    Tatar 174 2 May 2015 15: 30
    +4
    That's all right, good article! However, without our truly heroic ancestors, none of this would have happened. Here in Europe, France, Italy, as it were, there have always been weak states, but they lost outright to the Germans and "in the first round" by knockout, and all because there people are not at all like ours. Who can argue with that? The most important wealth of Russia is the people of Russia, and in order for us, the people to remain the same, we need to understand this, this is the first thing. And secondly, our leaders, both present and future, should always remember what the "People of Russia" is and should not do anything to weaken the People and to the detriment of the People. The people will be literate, strong, confident and united - the ruble will be strong and the country will be too. We will roll the mountains and put them back in place, if necessary.
    1. basal
      basal 2 May 2015 20: 06
      +4
      What did you see good in the article?
      The author is a grantee from the HSE. This is a diagnosis. To unravel the deeds of our ancestors and condescendingly explain that we did not accidentally rest, contrary to all US economic laws?
      1. alicante11
        alicante11 3 May 2015 12: 16
        +1
        The author is a grantee from the HSE. This is a diagnosis. To unravel the deeds of our ancestors and condescendingly explain that we did not accidentally rest, contrary to all US economic laws?


        Have you read the article after the word "HSE"? To be honest, I got a little fiddled with the article, for the HSE the article is really adequate and without liberal crap. Not only the temporary detention facility, but even comrade Beria was not kicked by the author. And even an interesting fact is revealed about empty workshops in the Urals. This is actually an important point that can completely overturn the thesis that they were going to fight with extremely little blood and on foreign territory. And translate it into the category of Khrushchev-liberal nonsense. It would be interesting to link to this information. Because, of course, these could be buildings for new enterprises, which were planned to open according to five-year plans.
  9. moskowit
    moskowit 2 May 2015 15: 42
    +4
    ,










    "Everything for the front! Everything for the Victory!" This capacious slogan expressed the whole essence of being in those years. They were preparing for war, for the fight against fascism, the industry switched to the production of defense products, from the end of the 30s in the Urals and Siberia, backup factories were created. In these difficult times, the Soviet people displayed mass heroism at the front and in the rear. All this can be expressed in the words of the warrior and poet Bulat Okudzhava:
    "And we need one Victory for all!
    One for all, we will not stand for the price ... "
    And did not stand! The Soviet people paid a huge price!
  10. midshipman
    midshipman 2 May 2015 15: 50
    +15
    The article is devoted to the feat of the Soviet people and the Government of the country in the fight against fascism. I was 4 years old when my mother took us to Siberia for evacuation. Later in the 80s, when I was the Head of the 6GU of the USSR Ministry of Radio Industry, I had to conduct headquarters exercises in industry. The headquarters was located in Chelyabinsk at PO Polet. Before the exercises, on the instructions of the Government, I had to analyze a lot about the activities of the evacuated enterprises. Later I appeared in "VO" I published the essay "Staff Doctrine in Industry". I can say that the trains, these 1,5 million wagons with equipment, were to be covered by specialists for 500 km per day. If this was not ensured, the heads of the stations were shot. And everyone did it. This is what organization means. A number of ministries were relocated to Siberia, closer to their subordinate enterprises. There was no theft.
    And if this would have to be done now? It is hard to imagine what it would be. I have the honor.
    1. basal
      basal 2 May 2015 20: 10
      +1
      military historian, associate professor at the Higher School of Economics Arseny Ermolov.

      Read the article. People, are you blind? You slipped liberal propaganda! Not visible at all?
  11. Dudu
    Dudu 2 May 2015 16: 02
    +3
    The transition of one type of industrial production to another as soon as possible and with the transfer of enormous material and human resources is a very little studied topic, instructive and instructive. There were practically three stages of the conversion of production capacities in time pressure. And the state did not fall apart, and the economy rose, and production grew. How everything is strikingly different from the current crises with the groans of economists, bankers and other organizers of the economy!
  12. Mountain shooter
    Mountain shooter 2 May 2015 16: 09
    +5
    Our people paid the price for the Victory! And Europe is for defeat. And the hands on this were heated - the USA. Now they do not even hide their gloating over this matter. Nobleness was never their skate.
  13. gromhal
    gromhal 2 May 2015 16: 11
    +3
    Another convincing evidence that a great victory was achieved by the greatest exertion of the forces of the whole people.
    The defeat of the 41st, which is hidden, is caused by miscalculations of the leadership of the troops and banal cowardice. When a third of the troops showed miracles of heroism, the rest fled without looking back. For which the commander of the western front, Pavlov, was shot - on the seventh day of the war he fled 500km from the front line. And the evil Stalin has nothing to do with it.
    1. alicante11
      alicante11 3 May 2015 12: 39
      0
      For which the commander of the Western Front Pavlov was shot


      Mainly because he was not ready for the position of front commander, trying to personally command the divisions. Of course, in this he seems to be. well versed. But it was not for nothing that army and corps levels of command were invented. Also, probably, for being overconfident. As for 500 km, I would look at you if such military power as GA Center with two tank groups and two air fleets were thrown against you.

      On June 22, 1941 the total number of 1.453.200 soldiers and officers (50 divisions)


      The number of troops of the district (625 thousand people) and part of the Pinsk military flotilla subordinate to it (2300 people) was 627 300 people
  14. ksv1973
    ksv1973 2 May 2015 16: 11
    +2
    Very informative article! Thanks to the Author for the reminder of such a page of our glorious History! hi
    1. basal
      basal 2 May 2015 20: 20
      +2
      Do not read the "economists" produced in the USA (oh ... HSE), you look and history will become more glorious!
  15. 34 region
    34 region 2 May 2015 16: 16
    +3
    Interesting article. It goes against modern dogmas about an effective market economy. I can’t imagine how such an operation would take place in a market environment. Although if our partners sold plants at the price of scrap metal, then the efficiency of a market economy is understandable. Our enterprises remained to work and breed, and they went to the scrap. What (in capital efficiency) we were successfully convinced of in the 90s.
  16. Svetovod
    Svetovod 2 May 2015 16: 17
    +3
    Russia needs a dictator, and a dictatorship of order with executions and executions of violators.
    1. TOR2
      TOR2 2 May 2015 23: 11
      +2
      The most interesting thing is that the democratic device does not abolish the death penalty. In ancient Greece, for a useless draft law, one could "thunder" from a cliff.
  17. Zomanus
    Zomanus 2 May 2015 16: 21
    +1
    You need to understand that there is a government of peacetime and there is the supreme headquarters of the Commander-in-Chief. In the first case, you can not strain much. try not to let the main indicators fall. In the second case, all the work comes from the worksheet, with constantly changing introductory notes. And now, only recently they began to work in war mode. We cleanse the traitors on the ground, we move the industry into a privileged position for support and support. All of course with the conditions of the present time.
  18. bubla5
    bubla5 2 May 2015 16: 53
    +2
    Many business executives sought in one way or another to intercept and accommodate goods traveling in trains to the east.
    Dreamer and storyteller damn, in order to do this, it is necessary to send requests to coordinate, and they could also shoot under the hot hand, while if it is written where it was going, that's why, thanks to the order, the plants quickly restored
    1. basal
      basal 2 May 2015 20: 19
      +2
      So the liar from the HSE wrote it, as the people were led belay
      1. alicante11
        alicante11 3 May 2015 12: 44
        0
        There was more than enough mess on the railways in 41st. And this is not surprising. All transportation plans were violated, a bunch of rolling stock fell into the clutches of the fascists or were destroyed. So they could have "lost" something. But the most important thing is that what was lost and seized by effective Stalinist managers did not end up in their pockets and on foreign accounts, unlike modern effective managers.
  19. Guntruck
    Guntruck 2 May 2015 17: 38
    +3
    You read such articles about the great time and great people, and it’s somehow difficult to return to the current reality after that - you feel like a dwarf standing on the shoulders of giants.
  20. starshina pv
    starshina pv 2 May 2015 17: 55
    0
    the people survived, the army won !!!!! eternal glory to the fallen !!!! Well, we will try not to forget and pass on to another generation how to fight and work !!!!
  21. Roman 11
    Roman 11 2 May 2015 17: 58
    +1
    In the USSR, machine building and metalworking were almost completely reoriented to military needs, from the production of ammunition to tank building. Yes, it was during the industrialization of the People’s Commissariat of Defense and the General Staff of the Red Army planned all the weapons production schemes. There were almost no clean peaceful enterprises, at least large ones !! At least 90% closed loop plants, i.e. completely producing military products from A to Z, and factories partially producing ....... this large part of the industrial, can be called the guild economy of the country. So, in the event of war, these paramilitary factories were immediately transferred to military rails - moreover, in the literal and figurative sense. Those. if the plant was in danger of capture, or the threat of destruction from the air, or by front-line artillery, they could decide to evacuate it far to the rear. The remainder of the fully peaceful production of -10% + - also stood up, but they produced by-products - felt boots, belts, duffel bags, parachutes, uniforms, masks. bathrobes etc. They initially had a plan on the points of what and how to do in the event of a major war. So it was nonsense that they say they threw them into the echelons no matter what later and evacuated thousands of kilometers into bare fields laughing Some still argue that there was no such thing, the whole doctrine was reduced to a total-shock-offensive system, according to Voroshilov’s, to the territory of the aggressor. Tukhachevsky also adhered to this line officially, but the plan of industrialization itself was substantially reworked in the form in which it was embodied during the mobilization of the economy in 1941. And at the beginning of industrialization there was a heated debate, Stalin even accused him of fantasizing and militarism (though he later apologized) - they say he issued a plan for 100 thousand tanks !! And all and semi-tractors too. Of course, at that time the quantity was prohibitive, but during the war of the USSR, tractor plants (Kharkov, Chelyabinsk, Stalingrad were officially called tractor laughing) Only the T-34 was released more than 50 thousand !!!! The most massive tank ??
  22. Anisim1977
    Anisim1977 2 May 2015 18: 16
    +7
    After the death of Stalin - he still has one overcoat and the smallest rudders on the passbook.
    In my opinion - this explains a lot - the country was everything for him !!!!
    He was a great man! A worthy leader!
    And who hangs all the dogs on him, think about the deeds of Dvorkovich, Vasilyeva, the governor of Sakhalin, etc. - We are about Putin, we are not forming an opinion.
  23. samarin1969
    samarin1969 2 May 2015 18: 18
    0
    The feat of the home front workers is unprecedented in history ... to withstand competition with the united European economy is worthy of a comparison of heroism at the front. I note that the leadership in the 40s was at its best ... now, except for oil export duties, chicken legs and bread export, no achievements in the economy can be seen ...
  24. Volga Cossack
    Volga Cossack 2 May 2015 18: 22
    +1
    Yes, it was precisely the feat of the people - rubles immeasurable!
  25. Volga Cossack
    Volga Cossack 2 May 2015 18: 22
    0
    Yes, it was precisely the feat of the people - rubles immeasurable!
  26. individual
    individual 2 May 2015 18: 35
    +1
    In those war years, everything was decided by the will of Stalin.
    Now the International Monetary Fund and its proteges are deciding. No matter what they call him or them.
    Task: "How can Russia get out of this quagmire"?
  27. basal
    basal 2 May 2015 20: 27
    +3
    I do not like to write, but infuriated!

    People, yes you read the article, think about the content! HSE provocateur wrote it!
    By the way, thanks to the Site Administration for such stuffing - they do not allow you to relax. And then we’re used to approving, feel
    If you want to argue about the article - Welcome! If not, Happy Holidays!
    1. alicante11
      alicante11 3 May 2015 12: 46
      -1
      Dear, you yourself read the article, and not just the abbreviation "HSE". The article is really good and not liberal at all.
      1. basal
        basal 3 May 2015 14: 20
        0
        Article is real ruleznaya

        Well, well, rushen lenguich rulez foreva? Do not be offended, but judging by the "rules" we are from different eras. I learned to analyze information and think back in the USSR, you, apparently, much later. This is not a reproach, it is a statement of the decline in the level of modern education.
        1. alicante11
          alicante11 4 May 2015 02: 52
          -1
          Well, well, rushen lenguich rulez foreva? Do not be offended, but judging by the "rules" we are from different eras.


          Don't be offended either, but I like to provoke such narrow-minded hangmen. It is necessary to look not only at the "slang" (both "rules" and "HSE"), but also at the semantic content. Meanwhile, I wrote you a completely meaningful answer, for the comments of which you did not find words or thoughts. Likewise, they could not argue anything concrete with the author of this article, which in fact was written very professionally and, which is amazing for the HSE, is loyal to the USSR. But you managed to hang a label, both on the author of the article and on me, it's really simple.
  28. Aleksey_K
    Aleksey_K 2 May 2015 22: 21
    +2
    I was very much amused by the analogy with the raider seizures, the fate of the evacuated equipment. The author obviously does not quite understand the spirit of that era, when a deadline was given 5 minutes late. Yes, with one such complaint about the disappearance of equipment, the management of the railway would be shot immediately, because this would be regarded as aiding Nazi Germany - that is, betrayal, and the "raiders" are fascist saboteurs trying to destroy our industry.
  29. midshipman
    midshipman 2 May 2015 23: 14
    +1
    Alexey, you are right. The author, asking questions to the HSE employee, tried to distort the situation that was in the country at the beginning of the Second World War. Especially for the perverse answers. But readers, especially young ones, should know the details. And the perversions are on the conscience of the VO administration. My opinion is not worth publishing such works. I have the honor.
  30. tolancop
    tolancop 2 May 2015 23: 30
    +2
    Ominusovat. But not to the author of the material, but to the person being interviewed (the “defendant”).

    If in 2 words, then in the opinion of the “defendant”:
    1) Finance did not play a role in the war.
    Great !!! But the whole thing is that finance is such a thing that if you forget about them, then they themselves will remind themselves. And very fast and cruel. (It’s even strange to hear from a HSE staff member the statement that finances weren’t given due attention - they either knowingly lie (read - slander) or do not understand a damn thing. In general, HSE has in its repertoire). Our management of finance has given great importance. A small example: the announcement of military loans. Money would not be needed - loans would not be announced with, frankly speaking, the poor population. And the material incentive (finance) worked to its fullest. Also an example: bonuses were paid for destroyed enemy equipment. Moreover, the bonus killed 2 birds with one stone: stimulation and ... the fight against home registry. In the context of the payment of the premium, homeings actually led to theft with all the criminal legal consequences.
    2) Beria was in the role of an arbiter and this allowed him to strengthen his influence. And in general, they began to push him away from internal affairs.
    Again, everything is turned upside down. Let’s say that Beria acted as an arbiter. The catch is that just the person Possessing authority and influence, and not the other way around, is chosen as the arbiter. And it does not occur to the “defendant” that Beria was not pushed away from internal affairs, but put forward in the areas where his organizational skills could be of the greatest benefit.
    3) Plans to transfer the economy to a peaceful track appeared only after the Victory.
    Again a lie. I have long read that planning for the transfer of defense enterprises to peaceful products did not begin any later than the summer of 1944.
    Of course, the planning is approximate, and detailed plans (in the understanding of the State Planning Commission and in the form of a binding document) were formed after the Victory, but it could not be otherwise. For pre-Victory planning, obviously there were no reliable initial data: damage caused, size and composition of trophies, and so on and so forth. And to plan without knowing the situation is, to put it mildly, unprofessional. However, it is possible that the HSE has such an approach to planning in the order of things ....
    1. alicante11
      alicante11 3 May 2015 12: 59
      -1
      1) Finance did not play a role in the war.


      The author does not write this. He says that much more important were real values ​​- resources, production capacity and labor. Since the money could be printed (which, by the way, the article on the military economy was in high school), but there was no place to take real resources. So money as an equivalent meter has faded into the background.

      A small example: the announcement of military loans. Money would not be needed - loans would not be declared with, frankly speaking, the poor population.


      These loans were aimed at choosing money from the population to prevent the depreciation of money and the growth of the black market with a shortage of goods and an excess of cash.

      The catch is that just the person POSSESSING authority and influence, and not the other way around, is chosen to be the arbiter. And it does not occur to the “defendant” that Beria was not pushed away from internal affairs, but put forward in the areas where his organizational skills could be of the greatest benefit.


      I think it "comes". It's just that the size of the article is limited and the person believes that the readers have a sufficient level of knowledge to understand that the person was removed from the work that he ALREADY set up, for the sake of work that still HAVE to be set up. Well, all the "raiding" and "pushing away" is, of course, the "newspeak" of the HSE.