Military Review

Counterbattery radar "Zoo-1"

"Zoo-1" (index GRAU 1Л219М) - radar reconnaissance and fire control (counter-battery radar). The radar complex is designed for reconnaissance of the firing positions of enemy missile-artillery weapons (mortar positions, artillery positions, positions of the MLRS, launchers of tactical missiles and air defense systems). "Zoo-1" performs the calculation of the trajectories of missiles and shells, is able to adjust the fire of their artillery, monitor the airspace and monitor unmanned aerial vehicles.

The complex began to be designed in the USSR in the 1980-s for the replacement of the ARC-1 complex in the artillery troops (GRAU index 1RL239, “Lynx”), which was developed at the end of the 1970-s. The new complex was placed on the base of the MT-LBu chassis, thanks to which it has an external similarity with ARC-1. 2 enterprises, the research institute Strela and NPK Iskra, were involved in the creation of the Zoo. The collapse of the USSR that followed soon led to the fact that these two enterprises turned out to be in different countries, where they independently continued to work, being now competitors. NPK Iskra, which turned out to be on the territory of Ukraine, continued to work on the creation and modernization of the 1L220-U Zoo 2 complex, based on a different chassis with a greater target detection range, but lower bandwidth and other software and hardware solutions.

FSUE SRI "Strela" from the city of Tula continued work on the modernization of the complex "Zoo-1" (in particular, work was carried out to improve the communication system and the software and hardware of this complex). The new complex, developed by the company, received the index 1Л219М (modernized) and was first presented to the media in 2002 year. Most likely in 2004, a number of these complexes in single copies were transferred to troop tests in the Armed Forces of Russia. The end of military tests of the complex officially ended on February 19 of the year 2008, the complex had already been adopted by the Russian army a year earlier. It is assumed that several such complexes could take part in the August 2008 events of the year in South Ossetia. As part of the modern Russian brigades, the complex is part of the battery of command and control and artillery reconnaissance, which, according to the state, must have 3 of such complex.

Counterbattery radar "Zoo-1"

Zoo 1

The purpose of the Zoo-1 automated radar complex is to determine the coordinates of enemy fire weapons (leading mortars, artillery guns, multiple rocket launchers, and tactical missile launchers) by firing or firing. Fixing a shot and tracing the trajectory of the projectile / missile, the complex issues target designation to its own fire weapons and controls the effectiveness of their firing.

Zoo-1 is able to simultaneously detect up to 70 different artillery positions per minute and issue their coordinates until the shells fall (during the first 20 seconds after the salvo), conduct simultaneous tracking of 12 targets, and carry out automated exchange of incoming information from the control unit. Zoo-1 is able to provide reconnaissance / control of firing positions of mortars of caliber 81-120 mm at a distance of 20 km / 22 km, firing positions of artillery of caliber 105-155 mm at a distance of 15 km / 20 km, firing positions of caliber -NNXX mm NNXX mm / 122 km, 240 km, 30 km, 35 km of 40 mm / 40 km, XNUMX mm / XNUMX km, XNUMX mm -NNXX mm / XNUMX km mm at a distance of XNUMX km / XNUMX km, firing positions of tactical missiles XNUMX km / XNUMX km. The complex has high noise immunity and modular design.

If necessary, this complex can be used to control the flight of the UAV, as well as monitor the control of their movement or the control of the flight of other aircraft in the area of ​​responsibility. When staying at the aerodrome, maintenance and precise determination of the coordinates of the aircraft can be provided with the subsequent transfer of data to the control center online.

"Zoo-1" has a sufficiently high survivability, which is achieved by using a short time radar for radiation, the use of countermeasures for unintended and deliberate radio-electronic interference, rapid carrier frequency tuning. Calculation of the complex - human 3 - is protected by anti-bullet and fragmentation armor.

ZLK-1 in camouflage coloring

Structure of the complex

ZLK-1 RLC is located on one transport unit - an armored high-passable tracked tractor MT-LBU. Radar equipment, autonomous means of orientation and navigation, communication devices, input devices and processing of digital terrain maps, as well as power sources, which gives the complex high mobility, are deployed at its base.

The complex includes a radar station 1L259М radar on the basis of the MT-LPP crawler tractor, a maintenance vehicle (MTO) of the complex for 1 and 30 repair and maintenance works based on the Ural-43203 vehicle, an ED30-T230P-1PXPXPXPPP electric power station. PN-1 for carrying out routine and educational work, as well as autonomous means of topographic targeting and orientation.

1Л259М is a 3-x single-axis mono-pulse radar with a phased-array antenna (PAR), which provides combat work with a high-speed digital distribution system - a digital computing system with advanced software. An overview of the area of ​​responsibility in the target search mode or firing control is implemented by the radar station using discrete electric beam scanning in the sector up to 90 degrees in the horizontal and up to 1,8 degrees in the vertical planes with a constant elevation angle of 40 degrees. The radar is able to automatically detect flying mines, shells and rockets, accompany them and conduct trajectory measurements.

Based on the results of these measurements, an assessment of the movement of the projectile flight is carried out, the class of shooting systems is determined, the coordinates of the enemy’s firing positions are calculated with an accuracy sufficient to carry out an effective counter-battery struggle (in the target intelligence mode). It also calculates the points of incidence of own means of destruction (in the control mode). At the same time, the formation and transmission of messages with data on the enemy’s firing positions, as well as the results of firing of their own weapons at the command post of automated missile systems and artillery battalion, is carried out.

1L259M radar

The 1L259M radar contains autonomous means of topographic location, orientation and navigation, which provide, while driving or stationary, the definition of the azimuth and coordinates of the station location in a single coordinate system. The radar is equipped with an interface to work in the command and control system.

The CWS of this complex provides high automation of the whole process of combat work and allows detecting and tracking simultaneously up to 12 targets, as well as revealing the coordinates of enemy firing positions from which simultaneous, intense fire is fired.

MTO based on the "Ural" is designed to perform repair and maintenance work aimed at maintaining radar equipment in combat condition and has all the necessary equipment for this.

The power supply of the complex is carried out using a mobile power station EDZO-T230P-1RPM with a power of 30 kW (during the calculation exercise and maintenance work) or from a generator that takes power from the propulsion engine (under the conditions of the complex’s combat operation).

ZLK-1 provides

1. Mobility

The time of deployment and collapse of the RLC without leaving the crew takes no more than 5 minutes.
Driving speed over land - up to 60 km / h.
The complex is able to overcome water obstacles by swimming.
The complex has a cross on the roads of any type.
The power reserve with full refueling is 500 km.
The complex is able to work at altitudes up to 3000 m. Above sea level
Work at influence of all types of an atmospheric precipitation, dust and strong wind to 30 m / s is possible.
Work at ambient temperatures from -45 to + 50 degrees Celsius.
The possibility of transportation by all modes of transport: rail, air, road, water.
Autonomous toporavizka and orientation.

2. Vitality

Frequent change of carrier frequency.
Short duration of radiation.
Protection against electromagnetic pulses.
High noise immunity.

3. Crew protection

From small arms weapons and shell fragments
From the defeat of bacteriological and chemical weapons.
From exposure to low and high ambient temperatures.

4. Convenience management

Full automation radar control.
Ensuring comfortable conditions for the crew (ventilation, heating, air conditioning).
Built-in automated control of the complex.
The complex is transferred from the marching position to the combat position and vice versa without leaving the settlement of MT-LBu.
Power autonomy.

Workplace commander RLC "Zoo-1"

Modes of operation of the RLC "Zoo-1"

1. Intelligence service

In the "Intelligence" mode, the coordinates of the firing positions of the shooting artillery systems of the enemy are determined. The product sequentially scans the space above the terrain, overlapping the sector width 90 degrees. In this case, the probe beam, carrying out electronic scanning over the masking surface, forms the so-called “potential search barrier”.

At the time the projectile crosses the specified barrier, it is detected, captured and accompanied, followed by extrapolating the trajectory to the point of departure of the projectile.

2. Control

In the “Control” mode, the coordinates of the points of falling of the shells of their shooting means are determined. According to the initial data entered into the computing control unit (WUU), the coordinates of the points of the beginning of the tracking of shells, the appearance of which is carried out in the working sector, are calculated. VUU sets the probe beam in the direction of the proposed meeting point and organizes an electronic search for the expected projectile. When a projectile is detected in the zone of the meeting point, it is captured, accompanied and extrapolated to the point of its fall.

3. Functional control

In the “Functional control” mode, the complex equipment is diagnosed (up to the module of the lowest level) using a digital computing control device (CCD). "Functional control" is carried out both before the start and in the process of combat work.

Sources used:
Materials free online encyclopedia "Wikipedia"
Dear reader, to leave comments on the publication, you must sign in.
  1. kafa
    kafa 2 September 2013 08: 10
    everything was modernized and the commander left the TV winked
    1. Alez
      Alez 2 September 2013 12: 58
      So under a telecom, like a VM-12 video recorder
    2. washi
      washi 2 September 2013 15: 23
      It is without modernization
  2. ale-x
    ale-x 2 September 2013 08: 16
    Many thanks to the author for the article, very informative ..
    1. AVV
      AVV 2 September 2013 11: 35
      Who controls the situation on the battlefield controls the situation !!! This system provides an advantage over the enemy!
      1. SkiF_RnD
        SkiF_RnD 20 October 2013 17: 50
        As far as I know, the Americans also have a similar system. The system is useless when firing active rocket projectiles or cruise missiles, whose trajectory is different from ballistic. This greatly reduces the versatility and effectiveness of the Zoo, given the active work in the field of guided missiles even in the PRC.
        The thing is certainly not useless, but how many of these are needed in the troops, what would make any sense? It would be better to order more Tor-M2. This is too highly specialized complex, it is completely replaceable with more universal light UAVs, as it seems to me.
  3. 31231
    31231 2 September 2013 08: 34
    Definitely a good thing. The opinion of Lopatov is interesting.
    1. Lopatov
      Lopatov 2 September 2013 09: 57
      Great stuff. However, overtaking the capabilities of its own artillery. It requires a powerful artillery ACS plus divisions equipped with ASUNO systems. Otherwise, all its meaning is lost.
      She not only discovers shooting mortars, art. guns, MLRS and PU tactical missiles, it can adjust the fire of its own artillery.

      And so, the modernized "Zoo-1M" ​​will be supplemented with "Aistenoks", and so far there will be no problems in this area.
  4. Nayhas
    Nayhas 2 September 2013 08: 48
    On account of whether the Zoo was used in South Ossetia in 2008. it is not known, but our gunners did not work very well. At least Georgian artillerymen left their positions under the threat of Chechens seizing the Vostok battalion (their Georgians were afraid), and not because as a result of counter-battery fighting they were suppressed by Russian artillery. And in the photo of those events the Zoo was not seen ...
    1. Lopatov
      Lopatov 2 September 2013 09: 50
      There were no "Zoos"
      1. Jin
        Jin 3 September 2013 16: 18
        Quote: Spade
        There were no "Zoos"

        Greetings! For some reason there was a circus ... not so funny, rather, on the contrary, such a black humor came out.
    2. leon-iv
      leon-iv 2 September 2013 11: 59
      Just the same, Georgians successfully acted on prepared positions already having shooting tables. As soon as our artel there turned around, the Georgians were quickly crushed. As a result, they switched to the tactics of nomadic batteries and individual gun mounts. By the way, in this situation the only right decision.
      1. Nayhas
        Nayhas 2 September 2013 19: 13
        Quote: leon-iv
        Just the same, Georgians successfully acted on prepared positions already having shooting tables.

        Well, it’s all, everything was shot ... But I can’t say for sure about the success of our artillerymen, there was a report during the events on Vesti, a journalist traveled with our self-propelled guns, they just deployed the equipment, they said a few words and right away how our Georgians were being smashed and immediately began to curtail, the journalist explained that ours were leaving because Georgians spotted them and will soon cover. Well, the Czechs boasted as Georgian gunners drove.
  5. hohryakov066
    hohryakov066 2 September 2013 08: 48
    He served urgent on the ARK-1. Externally, the commander’s workplace has not changed much. The performance has certainly improved tremendously. Judging by the absence of a hitch of a top loader between the hatches, this creepy car has been replaced by something newer.
  6. tilovaykrisa
    tilovaykrisa 2 September 2013 11: 27
    Love our designers to give Interesting names to your creations.
  7. Sarmat1972
    Sarmat1972 2 September 2013 12: 48
    Now it is better to shoot enemy artillery "on the move" :). With such a system, legs need to be done ..... I wonder if potential friends have something similar and with what characteristics
    1. alone
      alone 2 September 2013 16: 41
      Well, I don’t know about potential, we have it. We bought it together with art divisions
  8. Alligator_S
    Alligator_S 2 September 2013 13: 26
    To Syria, urgently!
  9. rudolff
    rudolff 2 September 2013 13: 51
    Lopatov, and in the 58th as of 2008, were there any zoos in service at all? Immediately after the conflict with Georgia, somewhere I came across an article in the newspaper, which stated that neither the Zoo nor the Krasnopol and Kitolov-controlled ones in South Ossetia were used. We fought in the old fashioned way.
    1. Tartary
      Tartary 2 September 2013 16: 05
      And — to the gunners for us — he tied the battery to the ground with a compass, each gun separately, put a milestone with reflectors ...
      - received the coordinates from the division’s NP, the calculator at the PUO-9 worked and issued the direction, range ...
      - the platoon counted all the corrections according to the booklet, gave out the type of fuse, charge number, fire intensity, which scope, dodge, if necessary ...
      - the gunner aimed back (!) fool
      - the loader took the bags out of the sleeve, unscrewed the cap on the shell, one after the other (without confusing priority stop), using the dowsel crammed Eto all in the breech, shutter shutter ...

      and-and-and-and-and it started: - Battery !!!!!! The gun !!!!! Shot!!!!!!! wassat

      jerk shutter - the sleeve flew out ...

      Charging yells, suh, like crazy: - The trunk is clean, the rollback is normal !!!

      The standard to fulfill on a quick fire, oh, oh, very troublesome task, I’ll inform you guys ... No.

      Damn, it was a long time ago, but I wrote it and just like yesterday ... Already rolled pulled from longing ... Chess word.
    2. Lopatov
      Lopatov 2 September 2013 18: 43
      There were no "zoos", at least in the 19th division. Guided ammunition - they did not have the means to illuminate the target.
  10. Alekseev
    Alekseev 2 September 2013 19: 52
    In our army, the inability to use sophisticated modern weapons is a 100% old big problem.
    I do not think that the situation has become better now.
    Weak training of officers and lack of demand for ignorance and non-use of all the capabilities of technology.
    We checked various "oaks" from combat training, whether the notes were beautifully written, the logbooks of occupations, etc.
    That is where a special mind is not needed.
    So, for example, I don’t remember anyone demanding that TNA (tank navigational equipment) be used on marches. We, young intelligence officers who wanted for the sake of interest, and not because they demanded to use it in the field. Good thing, especially in low visibility conditions.
    I don’t remember training with PSNR (portable ground-based radar)
    In the tank forces, the platoon commander, who knows how to do the elementary: to shoot in the old fashion a coaxial machine gun, a detachable barrel, and a gun for the actual range, was considered an experienced specialist.
    But here the SLA of the tanks - it became different.
    In such a "jungle" how to set the "electrical zero" of the system (to put it simply, TBV correction), the overwhelming majority were simply afraid to adjust the stabilizer because of their weak knowledge and because they did not require it.
    They only kept one drunk captain (assistant to the head of BT for electric special equipment) and almost kissed him just because he could make these, not so complicated, adjustments.
    Few people knew how to prepare for firing ATGMs (they rarely shot them!)request and GTN equipment, conduct the required maintenance.
    That's why they believe (plus conscripts serving less than a year) that our soldiers do not use even half of the capabilities inherent in the technique.
    1. user
      user 3 September 2013 20: 33
      Damn, they served in the same Army!
  11. Yurgens
    Yurgens 2 September 2013 20: 08
    I saw this crap live, she’s healthy!
  12. sergey158-29
    sergey158-29 2 September 2013 22: 39
    The necessary KONTR-radar, but not a complete ART-SYSTEM as a whole ...
  13. AnonimCCCP
    AnonimCCCP 3 September 2013 01: 29
    The right technique soldier
  14. malikszh
    malikszh 3 September 2013 07: 02
    the zoo did not find another name))
  15. Brave
    Brave 3 September 2013 20: 33
    I wonder what units are designed for?
  16. scientist
    scientist 4 September 2013 16: 48
    Of course, the Zoo is the right system, it only works effectively only in the system, and even that is not a fact. Vryatli its mobility allows you to dodge a self-guided missile or a projectile flying at its coordinates. RTR stations will still detect, even if turned on for a couple of seconds. And I also met few gunners in the troops who saw her in working order. Too old and not reliable element base at Z-1. They say that Z-2 is better.
  17. mithridate
    mithridate 10 September 2013 18: 02
    a good thing, especially with proper use, as mentioned above
  18. Amapok
    Amapok 10 September 2013 19: 32
    Work at ambient temperatures from -45 to + 50 degrees Celsius.

    "A real war always starts suddenly" (c) It's unpleasant ...
  19. ilya_oz
    ilya_oz 26 December 2013 15: 01
    Again we are producing a million "varieties" of technology, which then we do not know how to use and coordinate work between different systems. We included this installation even in the art. batteries or how are they going to transmit information?
  20. Woldemar
    Woldemar 27 February 2014 16: 34
    Voice over the radio will transmit the coordinates. Look at the amers, each weapon is equipped with a monitor where all the information goes, at least the new guns are so equipped. I’ve read an article here recently.
  21. ma_shlomha
    ma_shlomha 18 June 2015 16: 07
    There is something similar in the RF Armed Forces - the Tula radar station "Zoo-1" (1L219M).
  22. Phoeniks
    Phoeniks 10 October 2017 12: 26
    This is of course a good machine. BUT you need a more mobile on a wheelbase + smaller size. Like something based on the Tiger,