Military Review

Development and role of air defense missile systems in the air defense system. Part 1

15
Development and role of air defense missile systems in the air defense system. Part 1



The first guided anti-aircraft missiles (missiles) were created during the Second World War in Germany. Work on anti-aircraft missiles intensified in the 1943 year, after the leadership of the Reich came to the realization that only fighters and anti-aircraft artillery are not able to effectively resist the destructive raids of Allied bombers.

One of the most advanced developments was ZSAS Wasserfall (Waterfall), in many respects it was a reduced copy of the A-4 (V-2) ballistic missile. In an anti-aircraft missile, a mixture of butyl ether and aniline was used as fuel, and concentrated nitric acid was used as an oxidizing agent. Another difference was the small trapezoidal wings with swept along the leading edge 30 hail.

Targeting missiles at the target was carried out using radio commands using two radar stations (radar). In this case, one radar was used to track the target, and in the radio beam the other radar was moving a rocket. The marks from the target and the rocket were displayed on one screen of the cathode ray tube, and the operator of the ground point of the missile’s guidance using a special control knob, the so-called joystick, sought to combine both marks.


Wasserfall anti-aircraft missile


In March 1945, missile test launches took place, at which Wasserfall reached a speed of 650 m / s, an altitude of 17 km and a range of 50 km. Wasserfall successfully passed the tests and in the event of the establishment of mass production could take part in repelling the allied raids aviation. However, preparations for the mass production of the rocket and the elimination of "childhood diseases" took too much time - the technical complexity of fundamentally new control systems, the shortage of necessary materials and raw materials, and the overload of German industry with other orders affected it. Therefore, the Wasserfall serial missiles did not appear before the war ended.

Another German Zour, brought to the stage of readiness for mass production, was the anti-aircraft guided missile Hs-117 Schmetterling ("Butterfly"). This rocket was created by Henschel using a liquid-jet engine (LRE), which worked on a two-component auto-igniting fuel. Tonka-250 composition (50% xylidine and 50% triethylamine) was used as a fuel, nitric acid, simultaneously used for cooling the engine, was used as an oxidizing agent.


Hs-117 Schmetterling anti-aircraft missile


A relatively simple radio command guidance system with optical observation of the rocket was used to target the missile at the target. For this purpose, a tracer was equipped in the rear part of the tail section, followed by an operator through a special device and using a control stick to point a missile at the target.

A missile with a warhead weighing about 40 kg could hit targets at altitudes up to 5 km and horizontal range up to 12 km. At the same time, the flight of the missile defense system was about 4-s minutes, which was quite enough. The flaw of the rocket was the possibility of using it only in the daytime, in conditions of good visibility, which was caused by the need to visually guide the rocket by the operator.

Fortunately for the pilots of the Allied bomber, the Schmetterling, like the Wasserfal, could not be brought to mass production, although some Germans attempted to use the anti-aircraft missiles in combat.


Anti-aircraft guided missile R-1 Rheintochter


In addition to these projects, anti-aircraft missiles, which have reached a high degree of readiness for mass production, in Germany, work was underway on solid-propellant missiles R-1 Rheintochter (Daughter of the Rhine) and liquid Enzian (Gorechavka).


Enzian anti-aircraft missile


After the capitulation of Germany, a significant number of ready-made rockets, as well as documentation and technical personnel, fell into the United States and the USSR. Despite the fact that German engineers and designers did not succeed in introducing a guided anti-aircraft missile ready for combat use into serial production, many technical and technological solutions found by German scientists were embodied in post-war developments in the USA, USSR and other countries.

Tests of captured German missiles in the postwar period showed that they are unpromising against modern combat aircraft. This was due to the fact that in the several years that have passed since the end of World War II, combat aircraft made a giant leap in terms of increasing speed and altitude.

In different countries, primarily in the USSR and the United States, the development of advanced anti-aircraft systems began, primarily designed to protect industrial and administrative centers from long-range bombers. Of particular relevance to these works was the fact that at that time bomber aircraft was the only means of delivering nuclear weapons. weapons.

Soon, the developers of new anti-aircraft missiles developed an understanding that the creation of effective anti-aircraft missile weapons is possible only in the complex at the same time as developing new and improving existing enemy air reconnaissance tools, requesters of the system for determining state ownership of the air target, missile control devices, means of transporting and loading SAM, etc. d. Thus, it was already talking about the creation of an anti-aircraft missile system (SAM).

The first to adopt the mass air defense system was the American MIM-3 Nike Ajax. Production of serial missiles of the complex began with the 1952 year. In the 1953 year, the first Nike-Ajax batteries were put into service and the complex took up combat duty.


SAM MIM-3 Nike Ajax


The Nike-Ajax system used a radio command guidance system. Target detection was performed by a separate radar station, the data from which was used to target the target radar. The launched rocket was continuously tracked by the beam of another radar.

The data supplied by radars, the position in the air of the target and the rocket were processed by a counter-decal device operating on vacuum tubes, and broadcast over the radio to the rocket board. The device calculated the calculated meeting point of the rocket and the target, and automatically corrected the course. Undermining of the warhead (BC) of the rocket was made by a radio signal from the ground at the calculated point of the trajectory. For a successful attack, the rocket usually rose above the target, and then swooped into the calculated interception point.

MIM-3 Nike Ajax - a supersonic, two-stage, with a separating body of the starting tandemly located solid-propellant engine (RDTT) and sustainer LRE (fuel - kerosene or aniline, oxidizer - nitric acid).

A unique feature of the Nike-Ajax anti-aircraft missile was the presence of three high-explosive fragmentation warheads. The first, weighing 5,44 kg, was placed in the nasal section, the second - 81,2 kg - in the middle, and the third - 55,3 kg - in the tail. It was assumed that this rather controversial technical solution would increase the probability of hitting the target, due to a longer cloud of fragments.

The effective range of the complex was about 48 kilometers. The rocket could hit the target at an altitude of up to 21300 meters, while moving at a speed of 2,3 M.

Initially, the Nike-Ajax launchers were deployed on the surface. Subsequently, with the increasing need to protect the complexes from the damaging factors of a nuclear explosion, underground rocket storage facilities were developed. Each in-depth bunker stored 12 rockets, fed horizontally through the drop-down roof with hydraulic tools. Raised to the surface of the rocket on a rail carriage was transported to the horizontally lying launch. After fixing the rocket, the launcher was set at an angle of 85 degrees.

The Nike-Ajax complex was deployed by the US Army from 1954 to 1958 a year. By the year 1958, around the 200 batteries were deployed in the United States as part of 40 "defensive areas". The complexes were deployed near major cities, strategic military bases, industrial centers to protect them from air attack. Most of the Nike-Ajax air defense system was deployed on the East Coast of the United States. The number of batteries in the “defense area” varied depending on the value of the object: for example, two batteries covered the Barksdale air base, while the Chicago area was protected by 22 Nike-Ajax batteries.

On May 7, by decree of the Central Committee of the CPSU and the Council of Ministers of the USSR, the Soviet air defense system C-1955 was adopted ( 1000 targets in one C-25 salvo ("BERKUT") (SA-1 Guild) ). This complex was the first to be adopted in the USSR, the first operational-strategic air defense system in the world and the first multi-channel air defense system with vertically launched missiles.


S-25


C-25 was a purely stationary complex, to create the infrastructure for the deployment of this air defense system required a large amount of construction work. The missiles were mounted vertically on the launching table - a metal frame with a conical flame divider, which in turn was based on a massive concrete base. Radar stations of the sector review and guidance of missiles B-200 were also stationary.


Central guidance radar B-200


The air defense system of the capital included 56 anti-aircraft missile regiments of the near and far echelons. Each 14 regiment formed a corps with its own sector of responsibility. Four corps made up a special purpose 1 Army. Due to the excessive cost of living and the complexity of the construction of capital structures, the C-25 air defense system was deployed only around Moscow.


The layout of the C-25 SAMs around Moscow


Comparing the first American Nike-Ajax air defense system and the Soviet C-25, one can note the superiority of the Soviet air defense system in terms of the number of simultaneously fired targets. The Nike-Ajax complex had only single-channel guidance, but it was structurally much simpler and cheaper and due to this it was deployed in much larger quantities.

The real mass became the Soviet air defense system of the C-75 family (The first Soviet mass ZRK C-75). Its creation began when it became clear that C-25 could not become truly massive. The Soviet military leadership saw a solution in creating a highly mobile air defense system, albeit inferior in its capabilities to a stationary system, but allowing in a short time to regroup and concentrate air defense forces and weapons in threatened areas.

Taking into account the fact that in the USSR then there was no effective recipe for solid fuels, it was decided to use an engine that runs on liquid fuel and an oxidizer as the main one. The rocket was created on the basis of the normal aerodynamic scheme, it had two stages - the starting one with a solid-fuel engine and the cruise one - with a liquid one. They also deliberately abandoned homing, using a developed radio command guidance system based on the theoretical half-flattening method, which allows them to build and select the most optimal rocket flight trajectories.

In 1957, the first simplified version of the CA-75 Dvina, operating in the 10-cm frequency range, was adopted. Further emphasis was placed on the development and improvement of more advanced C-75 versions operating in the 6-cm frequency range, which were produced in the USSR before the beginning of the 80-s.


SNR-75 missile guidance station


The first combat complexes deployed on the western border near Brest. In the 1960 year, the air defense force already had 80 C-75 regiments of various modifications - one and a half times more than part of the C-25 grouping.

The C-75 complexes defined a whole epoch in the development of the country's national air defense forces. With their creation, rocket weapons went beyond the Moscow region, providing cover for the most important objects and industrial areas throughout almost the entire territory of the USSR.

The C-75 SAM systems of various modifications were widely shipped abroad and used in many local conflicts (Combat use of C-75 anti-aircraft missile system).

In 1958, the MIM-3 Nike Ajax in the United States was adopted by the MIM-14 "Nike-Hercules" complex (American anti-aircraft missile system MIM-14 "Nike-Hercules"). A big step forward with respect to Nike-Ajax was the successful development for a short time of solid-propellant missiles with high characteristics at that time.


MIM-14 Nike-Hercules SAM


Unlike its predecessor, the Nike-Hercules has an increased combat range (130 instead of 48 km) and height (30 instead of 18 km), which is achieved by using new missiles and more powerful radar stations. However, the schematic diagram of the construction and combat work of the complex remained the same as in the Nike-Ajax system. Unlike the stationary Soviet C-25 air defense system of Moscow, the new American air defense system was single-channel, which significantly limited its ability to repel a massive raid, the probability of which, however, given the relative small number of Soviet long-range aviation, was low.

Later, the complex was upgraded, which allowed it to be applied to the air defense of military units (by imparting mobility to military means). And also for missile defense from tactical ballistic missiles with flight speeds up to 1000 m / s (mainly due to the use of more powerful radar).

Since 1958, the MIM-14 Nike-Hercules missiles have been deployed in the Nike system to replace the MIM-3 Nike Ajax. A total of 1964 Nike-Hercules batteries (145 was built anew and 35 re-equipped from Nike-Ajax batteries) were deployed in 110 US air defense systems, which made it possible for all major industrial areas to provide effective cover from Soviet strategic bombers.


Position Map of Nike in the USA


Most of the positions of the US air defense missile systems were deployed in the northeastern United States, on the most likely path of breakthrough Soviet long-range bombers. All the missiles deployed in the US carried nuclear warheads. This was due to the desire to make the Nike-Hercules anti-missile system anti-missile, as well as the desire to increase the probability of hitting the target in terms of jamming.

In the US, the Nike-Hercules air defense system was produced before the 1965 year, they were in service in the 11 countries of Europe and Asia. In Japan, licensed production was organized.

The deployment of the American MIM-3 Nike Ajax and MIM-14 Nike-Hercules SAMs was carried out in accordance with the concept of object defense. The implication was that the objects of air defense: cities, military bases, industry, each must hide behind their own batteries of anti-aircraft missiles, tied to a common control system. The same concept of building air defense was adopted in the USSR.

Air Force representatives insisted that the “anti-aircraft object” in the age of atomic weapons was not reliable, and suggested an ultra-long-range air defense system capable of carrying out “territorial defense” - preventing enemy aircraft from being even close to the defended objects. Given the size of the United States, such a task was perceived as extremely important.

The economic evaluation of the draft proposed by the Air Force showed that it is more expedient, and will be released approximately 2,5 times cheaper with the same probability of defeat. At the same time, fewer staff were required, and a large area was protected. However, the Congress, wanting to get the most powerful air defense, approved both options.

Lobbied by the Air Force representatives of the new air defense system CIM-10 Bomark (American CIM-10 "Bomark" anti-aircraft missile system of extra long range) was an unmanned interceptor integrated with existing early-warning radars as part of NORAD. The SAM was guided by the commands of the SAGE system (English Semi Automatic Ground Environment) - a system of semi-automatic coordination of interceptors by programming their autopilots on the radio using computers on the ground. Which led interceptors to the approaching enemy bombers. The SAGE system, which worked according to the NORAD radars, ensured the interception of the interceptor to the target area without the participation of the pilot. Thus, the Air Force needed to develop only a missile integrated into the already existing interceptor targeting system. At the final leg of the flight, the radar homing was switched on when entering the target area.


Launch of CIM-10 Bomark


According to the design of the missile "Bomark" was a projectile (cruise missile) of the normal aerodynamic configuration, with the placement of the steering surfaces in the tail section. The launch was carried out vertically, with the help of a launch accelerator, which accelerated the rocket to the speed of 2M.

The flight characteristics of the Bomarka remain unique to this day. The effective range of the modification “A” was 320 kilometers at speed 2,8 M. The modification “B” could accelerate to 3,1 M, and had a radius 780 kilometers.

The complex entered service in 1957 year. Serially, rockets were manufactured by Boeing from 1957 to 1961. Total manufactured 269 missiles modification "A" and 301 modification "B". Most of the deployed missiles were equipped with nuclear warheads.

The missiles were launched from block-shaped reinforced concrete shelters located on well-protected bases, each of which was equipped with a large number of installations. There were several types of launch hangars for the Bomark air-defense system: with a sliding roof, with sliding walls, etc.



The initial deployment plan for the system, adopted in 1955, provided for the deployment of 52 missile bases with 160 missiles on each. This was supposed to completely cover the territory of the United States from any type of air attack. 1960 deployed the entire 10 positions - 8 in the USA and 2 in Canada. Deploying launchers in Canada is associated with the desire of the US military as far as possible to move the line of interception from its borders. This was especially true in connection with the use of nuclear warheads at the Bomark missile defense system. The first squadron "Bomark" was deployed in Canada 31 December 1963 of the year. The missiles remained in the Canadian Air Force arsenal, although they were considered US property and were on alert under the supervision of American officers.


The layout of the air defense system "Bomark" in the United States and Canada


However, it took a little more than 10 years, and the Bomark air defense system began to be removed from service. First of all, this was due to the fact that at first 70-x the main threat to objects in the United States were not bombers, but the Soviet ICBM deployed by that time in a significant amount. Against the ballistic missiles, the Bomarki were absolutely useless. In addition, in the event of a global conflict, the effectiveness of the use of this air defense system against bombers was highly questionable.

In the case of a real nuclear attack on the USA, the Bomark air defense missile system could function effectively until the SAGE interceptor’s global targeting system was alive (which is very doubtful if a full-scale nuclear war began). Partial or total loss of performance of even one link of this system, consisting of radar guidance, computer centers, communication lines or command transmission stations, inevitably led to the impossibility of withdrawing CIM-10 anti-aircraft missiles to the target area.

To be continued ...

Based on:
http://www.army-technology.com
http://rbase.new-factoria.ru
http://geimint.blogspot.ru/
http://www.designation-systems.net/
Author:
15 comments
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  1. Arktidianets
    Arktidianets April 24 2015 07: 05
    +9
    Article plus, I look forward to continuing.
    1. prosto_rgb
      prosto_rgb April 24 2015 22: 17
      +4
      I support with both hands !!!
      1. Throw
        Throw April 24 2015 23: 12
        +1
        "The role of the SAM in the air defense system" is of the type "the role of the CANNON in the TANK system" laughing
        1. Bongo
          April 26 2015 07: 52
          +1
          Quote: Lance
          "The role of the SAM in the air defense system" is of the type "the role of the CANNON in the TANK system"

          Yes, of course, this is very funny ... Unless, of course, you don’t remember that once purely machine gun and chemical tanks were built in series without artillery weapons. And also miss the fact that in addition to air defense systems in the air defense system used IA and FOR.
          1. Throw
            Throw April 26 2015 08: 31
            0
            And if you remember that when they built battle chariots, and there was no fact, IA and ZA, then you need to use Chew! laughing
            1. Bongo
              April 26 2015 09: 10
              +5
              Quote: Lance
              And if you remember that when war chariots were built, and there was no fact, IA and ZA, then you need to apply

              When chariots were built, only the Serpent-Gorynych could be a potential target for air defense.
              1. Throw
                Throw April 26 2015 12: 24
                +3
                Not only, guidance and delivery of the damaging factor (sword) to the flying target on the principle of reflected radiation was used even by Medusa-Gorgon.
  2. zyablik.olga
    zyablik.olga April 24 2015 07: 25
    +6
    It is clear that history does not tolerate subjunctive moods request But still, if the war lasted several months longer, would the Germans be able to organize mass serial production of air defense systems, and what influence would they have on the course of the war? what After all, by and large, missiles for them were more necessary than ballistic FAU-2.
    1. Nayhas
      Nayhas April 24 2015 07: 50
      +8
      Quote: zyablik.olga
      Germans would be able to organize mass serial production of air defense systems

      In the context of constant air raids, the US and UK air forces do not.
      Quote: zyablik.olga
      and what influence would they have on the course of the war?

      Scanty. After the first losses (if they were critical), the allies would begin to use interference more often. Germany spent a lot of money and time on useless things like FAA rockets and anti-aircraft missiles instead of concentrating on jet aircraft, so the first flight with the Me-262 turbojet engine was completed already in 1942. and the most massive Jumo 004 turbojet engines began to be designed back in 1937. (in the Stalinist sharashka, the gentlemen from Junkers would have brought Jumo 004 to mass production by 1939 already, had they not gone to a fortuneteller)
      1. oldkap22
        oldkap22 April 24 2015 12: 43
        +5
        Germans had big problems with strategically important materials ...
      2. opus
        opus April 24 2015 22: 49
        +1
        Quote: Nayhas
        In the context of constant air raids, the US and UK air forces do not.

        Your opinion contradicts the facts







        / I recommend statistics-Germany under the bombing of the Allies /
        Quote: Nayhas
        Scanty. After the first losses (if they were critical), the allies would begin to use interference more often.

        What are the "interference" in LJ for radio command guidance and visual tracking of the missile by the operator?
        What?
        Quote: Nayhas
        Germany spent a ton of money and time on useless things like FAU rockets and anti-aircraft missiles instead of concentrating on jet aircraft,

        ?
        The cost and production time of Me-262 are not comparable with analog parameters for SAM !!!
        1. You are aware that the FAU -2 has been plastered with 4300 pieces, and the FAU-1: 30 000 !!!
        and fighters? and Me-262 including?
        (note the number BY YEAR. under the "bombing")


        And what about the PILOTS? And "teach"? And "experience" (remember ours in 1941-1942)
        -----------------
        Nonsense.
        The Germans were let down by the elementary base, theory and electronics have not yet "reached".
        And how "got" so the competitors of missiles and no.
        Moreover, Germany lagged behind the "allies" in terms of radar and computers.
        Otherwise .... Otherwise, if Adolf were not a corporal, but WOULD have a technical education at the technical school level, everything would have turned out differently.
        1. Elk
          Elk April 25 2015 06: 36
          +1
          What are the "interference" in LJ for radio command guidance and visual tracking of the missile by the operator?
          What?

          There were jamming stations and quite efficient. It was the presence of such installations that significantly reduced the effectiveness of guided bombs.
          1. opus
            opus April 25 2015 11: 15
            +2
            Quote: Elk
            It was the presence of such installations that significantly reduced the effectiveness of guided bombs.

            1. Speech about missiles. What jamming stations on bombers of those times?
            2. Great Britain actively used interference to disrupt the work of the German Knickenbein radio navigation systems. This was for the bomber to reach the target, but not against "guided bombs
            3. They write: Air units of long-range bomber aviation of the Red Army Air Force, flying to objects and Nazi troops, during the operation created passive interference with enemy air defense radars (radars). To create radio interference in each air regiment of the air armies, three aircraft were loaded with stanola tape. Following in the echelon of strike aircraft, they dropped ribbons over the front line and in the
            not goals. Such passive radio interference seriously disrupted the operation of the enemy’s air defense radar and facilitated the fulfillment of the combat missions of bomber aircraft.
            1. Elk
              Elk April 25 2015 13: 12
              +1
              1. Speech about missiles. What jamming stations on bombers of those times?

              EW was also quite effective for those times the system of creating passive (Window) and active (Carpet) interference.
              Great Britain actively used interference to disrupt the work of the German Knickenbein radio navigation systems. This was for the bomber to reach the target, but not against "guided bombs

              There were. Installed on ships. According to the Allies, the efficiency was very good. In principle, drowning out a simple unmodulated signal is quite simple - just clog the frequency with noise.
              1. opus
                opus April 25 2015 13: 53
                +2
                Quote: Elk
                Installed on ships. P

                We are talking about missiles and La interference on missiles and radar. We’ll miss the ships, there was still Port Arthur.
                BUT THIS IS A SHIP
                Quote: Elk
                In principle, drowning out a simple unmodulated signal is quite simple - just clog the frequency with noise.

                Seriously?
                but what about

                A rough drop in signal power is inversely proportional to the square (4 degree for the host).
                How can a putskalka on an aircraft jam an 800kW radar with an 115 m web, being behind 200km
                ?
                And the power of ground-based radars and fintiflyushki that stood on the aircraft?






                Radars operated at frequencies of 20-30 MHz (wavelength 10-13 m). The pulse power was initially 200 kW, later it was increased to 800 kW. Transmitting antenna consisting of horizontal vibrators and reflectors hung on metal masts 115 m high. The antenna was stationary and had a wide radiation pattern - the aircraft could be detected in 120 ° sector. Reception antennas were placed on 80 meter wooden towers. They consisted of two crossed vibrators for determining the azimuth and two vibrators located at different heights for measuring elevation angles.

                This plop in the B-29 is even hard NOT to push (abandoning everything else)


                and this?
                1. Elk
                  Elk April 25 2015 14: 17
                  0
                  Have you completely tried to read my post?
                  By the way, here is the Carpet jammer
                  [img] http://www.google.com/url?sa=i&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=images&cd=&cad=rja&ua
                  ct = 8 & ved = 0CAcQjRw & url = http: //prowars.ru/ALL_OUT/TiVOut0507/SuREB/SuREB003.htm&ei
                  =sXo7Vf35IsqqsAGKmoDQDg&bvm=bv.91665533,d.bGg&psig=AFQjCNHJKYfnN7wFW1YLydimhG3dn
                  3GrKw & ust = 1430047785183594 [/ img]
                  1. Elk
                    Elk April 25 2015 14: 33
                    0
                    Damn, dropped the post.
                    Here is a picture

                    Z.Y. It’s not very convenient that you can’t get in a little later to fix the post.
                  2. opus
                    opus April 26 2015 17: 02
                    +1
                    Quote: Elk
                    Have you completely tried to read my post?

                    1. I didn’t "try" but read it.
                    2.
                    Quote: Elk
                    EW was also quite effective for those times the system of creating passive (Window) and active (Carpet) interference.

                    Passive da-foil, about active ones, has nothing to SPEAK on the elemental base of that time, I brought it.
                    Yes, and now it’s difficult:
                    the principle is simple: there is a MORE antenna on the ground, Unlimited by electric power, personnel, computing
                    capacities, diversity and so on.
                    This is an axiom
                    3.
                    Quote: Elk
                    There were. Installed on ships

                    And where are the ships?
                    It's about aviation
                    Quote: Elk
                    It was the presence of such installations that significantly reduced the effectiveness of guided bombs.

                    - Was there a lot of UB at that time?
                    -on the effectiveness of Henschel Hs 293, Kawasaki Ki-147 I-Go, etc. REP: did not affect. The English say let's get a xnumx mile
                    especially Fritz-X:the Germans immediately took into account the possibility of this kind of counteraction and created an alternative guidance system for UAB - by wire. Coils with a wire were mounted on the wingtips of the carrier aircraft and the bomb, moreover the total length of the wire was 30 km. The aircraft was equipped with a FuG207 Dormund transmitter and a bomb with a FuG237 Duisburg receiver. In general, the system functioned similarly to the Kiel-Strasbourg system.

                    Historians of the British (!) Navy indicate that radio interference was a very effective means of protection against guided bombs.
                    Oh well. and confirmation?
                    1. Elk
                      Elk April 26 2015 18: 47
                      0
                      about active, on the elemental base of that time there is Nothing SPEAKING, I brought it.
                      Yes, and now it’s difficult:

                      I gave you an example of such a device, and it was put on airplanes. Now the signal is modulated and processed by powerful computers. Then everything was much simpler. By the way, the Americans quickly learned how to jam the control signal of the S-75 air defense system in Vietnam.
                      the principle is simple: there is a MORE antenna on earth,

                      So what? What does this give you in terms of filtering out a false signal?
                      computing power

                      You can talk about computing capacities of the 40s for a long time, only I can tell you one thing: your mobile phone has more computing power than in the world in the 40s, and if you include all the arithmometers and accounts that were used at that time, time.
                      This is an axiom

                      Extremely bold statement.
                      And where are the ships? It's about aviation

                      Despite the fact that the Germans used guided weapons against the enemy’s ships, they were not able to create an air defense system.
                      - Was there a lot of UB at that time?

                      Quite enough.
                      all the more so Fritz-X: the Germans immediately took into account the possibility of this kind of opposition and created an alternative guidance system for the UAB - by wire. Coils of wire were attached to the wingtips of the carrier aircraft and the bomb, and the total length of the wire was 30 km. The aircraft was equipped with a FuG207 Dormund transmitter and a bomb with a FuG237 Duisburg receiver. In general, the system functioned similarly to the Kiel-Strasbourg system.

                      Done. But this option did not go into the series.
                      Oh well. and confirmation?

                      At least the fact that there are only six lines in the plate you quoted.
                      1. opus
                        opus April 27 2015 21: 32
                        +1
                        Quote: Elk
                        Now the signal is modulated and

                        what difference does it make now (I can talk about it above the roof), and the C-75.
                        Question / Topic / Discussion about what?

                        О
                        Quote: Elk
                        There were jamming stations and quite efficient. It was the presence of such installations that significantly reduced the effectiveness of guided bombs.

                        1.Not been
                        2. Not effective.
                        1 and 2 already explained on the fingers.

                        А
                        Quote: Elk
                        I gave you an example of such a device,
                        So what?
                        If not mistaken, the power of the ashtray of this was 0,7-1 kW.
                        Hammer in
                        Quote: opus
                        The pulse power was initially 200 kW, later it was increased to 800 kW.


                        Quote: Elk
                        So what? What does this give you in terms of filtering out a false signal?

                        Are you familiar with the principle of REP? With filtering of noise, interference, do you know about the bundle in 4 returned?

                        well and so on

                        Quote: Elk
                        your mobile phone has more processing power

                        I'm more pinned by the software for landing Apollo on the Moon, 16,8kV, in Assembler. To send?
                        No need to tell me, I started to calculate on SM-4 TNA
                        Quote: Elk
                        but they didn’t get the chance to create an air defense system.

                        Yes?
                        SAM, it may not have been able to. But the SAM was produced in batches
                        By the beginning of the 1944 of the year, a rather harmonious system of such a combination of artillery and anti-aircraft missile defense was created in Germany to combat enemy aircraft both at small and medium (from 200 meters to 5 kilometers) and at high altitudes (up to 10 – 12 kilometers) . The largest German arms companies (Rheinmetall-Borsig, Hugo Schneider A. G. (HASAG), Westphaflisch-Anhaltische Sprengstoff A. G. (WASAG), connected to these developments, created more than 20 anti-aircraft guided and unguided caliber missiles from 20 to XNUM mm.
                        -73-mm unguided anti-aircraft missile RZ.65 Fohn / Spr.Gr.4609 and multiple launch rocket launcher, first 35-barrel, and later 48-barrel.
                        -Zour Wasserfall
                        -Zour Schmetterling
                        -Zour Rheintochter
                        -Zour Enzian
                        ZUR Feuerlilie

                        Even MANPADS was:

                        Luftfaust-B with an 20 mm RSpr.Gr rocket
                        On the 1944 of the year, the Wehrmacht's weapons department signed a production contract with the HASAG directorate for the ground forces 10 000 man-portable anti-aircraft missile systems Luftfaust-B and 4 000 000 missiles to them.
                        100 managed to make
                        Quote: Elk
                        At least the fact that there are only six lines in the plate you quoted.

                        Translate this "at least" into gross register tons, everything will become clear.
                        And more closely to the class of ships. Kopecky scored mastadons.
                      2. Elk
                        Elk April 28 2015 06: 47
                        0
                        I’m more fun with the software for landing Apollo on the Moon, 16,8 kV, in Assembler.

                        What amazes me most is that the Apollo digital computer had physical programming. And the assembler has nothing to do with it. There was a case, I myself wrote programs in assembler. So what?
                        1 and 2 already explained on the fingers.

                        That's exactly what they did not explain. For you do not understand how it works.
                        If not mistaken, the power of the ashtray of this was 0,7-1 kW.
                        Hammer in

                        And what is the power of the reflected signal?
                        Are you familiar with the principle of REP? With filtering of noise, interference, do you know about the bundle in 4 returned?

                        well and so on

                        Familiar, and apparently, much better than you.
                        SAM, it may not have been able to. But the SAM was produced in batches

                        Are you raving?
                        Translate this "at least" into gross register tons,

                        And for what the hell? Six lines are six targets hit, no more and no less.
      3. sivuch
        sivuch April 26 2015 13: 57
        +2
        To organize missile defense against V-1, the Allies had to spend four times more effort and money than the Germans to produce and use the missiles themselves. So that was the point.
        And Yumo was exactly what they could not bring. As far as I remember, the engine life in the 45th year left much to be desired
  3. ICT
    ICT April 24 2015 07: 47
    +3
    Quote: zyablik.olga
    But still, if the war lasted several months longer,


    Well then let’s say more precisely, they stay on all fronts by the 1945 year on the lines of the beginning of the 1944 year, then it may still be that something happened (WOULD)
  4. inkass_98
    inkass_98 April 24 2015 07: 50
    +5
    Quote: zyablik.olga
    nevertheless, if the war lasted several months longer, would the Germans manage to organize mass serial production of air defense systems and what influence would they have on the course of the war?

    Everything rests on resources. If the war lasted in conditions when our and allied forces were on German territory, then there would be no particular sense. There would be nothing to produce, nothing to collect, nothing to process materials - mass production would not work.
    Now, if these technologies were in the 40-41 year, then yes, all the industry and resources of Europe would be at the service of the Germans, they would give a light to everyone.
    1. Nayhas
      Nayhas April 24 2015 07: 53
      +2
      Quote: inkass_98
      Now, if these technologies were in the 40-41 year, then yes, all the industry and resources of Europe would be at the service of the Germans, they would give a light to everyone.

      All they had ... there was no desire for Hitler to take a sober look at things.
      1. oldkap22
        oldkap22 April 24 2015 12: 45
        +1
        e everything is so simple ....
      2. UNFAMILIAR
        UNFAMILIAR April 24 2015 13: 01
        +1
        Quote: Nayhas
        Quote: inkass_98
        Now, if these technologies were in the 40-41 year, then yes, all the industry and resources of Europe would be at the service of the Germans, they would give a light to everyone.

        All they had ... there was no desire for Hitler to take a sober look at things.

        So let's drink to the fact that some soberly did not look at things. And the article, despite the roughness of an unprofessional author (there are few photos, the space in the article is unequally distributed by "manufacturers"), is definitely a plus.
        1. Bongo
          April 24 2015 13: 14
          +5
          Quote: UNKNOWN
          And the article, despite the roughness of an unprofessional author (there are few photos, the space in the article is unequally distributed by "manufacturers"), is definitely a plus.

          Thank you of course for the plus and for the kind words, but I can not agree with you. You apparently did not read carefully. request SAMs are distributed not "by manufacturers", but by the chronology of creation. All models are shown in the photo, in addition to those who are interested are given active links to more detailed publications. The minus that someone "slapped" you, I corrected. hi
  5. STALGRAD76
    STALGRAD76 April 24 2015 11: 18
    +3
    Definitely looking forward to continuing.
    The only question is presented by the air defense systems of the USSR and the USA and European ???
    1. Bongo
      April 24 2015 13: 01
      +1
      Quote: STALGRAD76
      The only question is presented by the air defense systems of the USSR and the USA and European ???

      They will, but later ... hi
    2. UNFAMILIAR
      UNFAMILIAR April 24 2015 13: 08
      +1
      Quote: STALGRAD76
      Definitely looking forward to continuing.
      The only question is presented by the air defense systems of the USSR and the USA and European ???

      I subscribe to wait for the continuation, in the continuation (s) and there will be an answer about the Europeans (as we were taught: deep 60s and short range)
    3. opus
      opus April 24 2015 23: 42
      +1
      Quote: STALGRAD76
      and European ???

      Europe, in those years, was not up to the air defense system.
      I wouldn’t put my teeth on the shelf
      And then .... The territories of European countries (and the external border) can not be compared to the USSR, the USA. The fighter took off, 20 minutes already in foreign airspace (if you do not take Belgium, Monaco, Luxembourg and Liechtenstein).

      "Roland" (fd) appeared in 1977
      ------------------------

      MIM-3 Nike Ajax Was in service
      - Greece
      - Italy
      - Turkey
      - Germany

      MIM-14 Nike-Hercules Armed in the countries
      - Belgium
      - Germany
      - Greece
      - Italy
      - Japan
      - Norway
      - Republic of China
      -The Republic of Korea
      - Spain
      - Turkey

      CIM-10 Bomark, ANYWHERE except the USA.
      Canada wanted, but the BCH on the CIM-10 Bomark led to the collapse of the government of John Diefenbaker ... Although then EVERYTHING IS EQUAL PLACED (position), 60PU, in my opinion
  6. sivuch
    sivuch April 26 2015 14: 01
    0
    U. Sergey
    I correctly understood from your previous posts that you had anything to do with the Hangar?
  7. xomaNN
    xomaNN April 26 2015 16: 17
    +1
    The theme is deeply plowed by the author. I look forward to continuing. Own micro-mite: photo of an air defense system from the Munich German Technical Museum.
    1. BV330
      BV330 20 July 2015 23: 34
      0
      On the left, not an air defense system, but a disposable vertical take-off missile interceptor with missile weapons "Nutter".
  8. A1845
    A1845 April 3 2017 17: 17
    +1
    Here was the time for VO!
    real encyclopedia good