Military Review

Military dogs

20


The dog is not only a true friend of people, but also one of the most perfect species. weapons. For many centuries and even millennia, people use this animal as a reliable assistant in battle. In the modern army, military dogs do not break through the camp of the enemy and do not rush under Tanks, but even now in many military units it is impossible to do without a sharp eye and the scent of a dog.

So, for example, in the modern border detachment it is practically impossible to do without these animals. At the same time, dogs began to be used relatively recently for this purpose. By the decree of Tsar Alexander III, the transition was made from customs to special troops. In particular, the document stated that the presence of dogs at the border service would not only facilitate the detection of the approach of smugglers, but also help them quickly find their tracks.

In 1908, the St. Petersburg police also began using service dogs in their service.

During the First World War, these animals were actively used by all the opposing sides as medical orderlies, signalmen and watchmen. And the reason for this was extremely simple: from the very beginning of the fighting, almost the entire front line was blocked by minefields and wire obstacles, so conducting reconnaissance raids became extremely dangerous for life.

Historians claim that the Austrian-Hungarian and German armies were the first to use dogs during the war: guard rottweilers and shepherds, sensing an enemy approaching the trench line, raised the alarm. In addition to the functions of guards, the dogs served as a cohesive.

In April, the 1915 of the Year in Lviv established the School of Military Guard and Sanitary Dogs, which was headed by State Councilor Lebedev, who had previously trained police dogs. With the beginning of the offensive of the German-Austrian troops, the school had to be evacuated to Kiev. The staff consisted of 8 instructors and more than 100 lower ranks. The school was engaged in training not only police dogs, but also those animals that were voluntarily handed over to civilians. By September 97 here there were four-legged pets, including 21 belonged to the breed of Belgian shepherds, 37 - were average European Shepherds and Dobermans 12, 19 Airedales, German and Austrian 5 captured shepherds and beagles 3.

The further development of the Soviet service dog breeding is also connected with the name of the canine scientist V. Yazykov, who in 1919 year applied to the Headquarters of the Red Army with a proposal to organize military dog ​​breeding. But it was not until August 1924 in the Red Army that a special organization of military dog ​​breeding was created, which is considered to be the initial page in stories Soviet military cynology. The school nursery was organized at the Higher Shooting and Tactical School "Shot", and N. Yevtushenko was put in charge of it. The center was named the Red Star. By the beginning of 1941, training of dogs in 11 directions was conducted in the kennel school.

During the war, sled and sanitary dogs brought thousands of tons of ammunition to the front line around 3,5, and about 700 thousands of seriously wounded soldiers were taken out of the battlefield. The mine-searching dogs in the service were about 6 thousand, and they were able to neutralize up to millions of land mines, mines and other explosives. Communication dogs delivered more than 120 thousands of reports and helped lay about 8 thousands of kilometers of telephone wires to establish communications. Tank fighter dogs undermined more than 1300 units of enemy armored vehicles during the war years. Subversive dogs were used to undermine railway bridges and trains. And reconnaissance dogs conducted through the enemy advanced positions of fighters, found hidden firing points, ambushes. Watchdogs worked in ambushes, outposts to detect the enemy in inclement weather and at night.

In addition to the eleven areas of training military service dogs - orderlies, sappers, tank destroyers, reconnaissance men, communications men, messengers, saboteurs, demolition men, escorts, guard, sled and investigative - there was another group of animals - these were dogs that were used specifically for military contact with the enemy, his detention.

Representatives of the latter group were erected a monument in the Cherkassy region in Ukraine several years ago. The tragedy that occurred at the very beginning of World War II was the only confrontation between people and animals in the entire history of armed conflicts and world wars.

Everything happened in the very center of Ukraine, on the border of Kirovograd and Cherkasy regions. Here they were surrounded and almost completely destroyed the 6-I and 12-I armies of the South-Western Front, headed by Generals Ponedelin and Muzychenko. At the beginning of August, there were a total of 130 of thousands of military personnel in two armies, and only 11 of thousands of soldiers and officers went to Green Brama. The rest were either captured or killed.

In a separate battalion of the border guard detachment of the rear of the South-Western Front, created on the basis of the Separate Kolomiya border commandant's office, there were service dogs. Despite the lack of food and the terrible conditions of detention, the battalion commander, Major Lopatin, refused to let the animals go. On July 12, the battalion took its last battle near the village of Legesino. However, the forces were too unequal, because a whole fascist regiment opposed half a thousand Soviet border guards. The commander gave the order, along with the border guards, to send hand-to-hand fighting and 30 service dogs. It was the last reserve. In that terrible battle, all 150 Soviet border guards died.

Later, when the Germans took the bodies of their dead, the people of Legezino were allowed to bury the Soviet soldiers. The bodies of all the dead border guards were gathered in the center of the village, and then buried along with the dogs.

Only in 1955, did the villagers manage to collect the remains of all five hundred dead soldiers and transfer them to the school where the mass grave is now located. And on the site of that terrible hand-to-hand combat of soldiers and dogs with fascist invaders in May 2003, a monument was erected to a man with a gun and a dog. Such a monument is no longer anywhere in the world. It was installed on charitable donations of war veterans, canine scientists and border guards of Ukraine.

I must say that, in total, during the war, about 170 regiments and battalions of various dog breeding services were formed. In general, there were about half a million dogs at the front in the service.

For the training of dogs that participated in hostilities, a special system was developed. The main emphasis in the preparation was placed on the development of special skills: identifying the trace, distrust of strangers, searching by smell. They were taught to navigate the terrain. Resilient, physically strong animals, with a strong sense of affection and loyalty to man, were selected for military service. In determining the suitability of a particular dog for training to a particular type of service, the type of behavior and breed, level of excitability and reaction were taken into account. So, for the protective-guard and investigative services selected dogs with pronounced active-defensive reactions, good eyesight and hearing. For the preparation of mine detectors selected animals with excellent sense of smell and hearing and low levels of excitability.

Modern technology is in many ways able to replace the four-legged friend. In particular, with the help of special detectors it is possible to quickly find explosives, but to detect and detain a criminal, to find a caches of weapons, to search the goods in search of smuggling can only specially trained service military dogs. To do this, they use their nose, which is several hundred times greater than human, and hearing, which is 7 times sharper than in humans.

Military dogs must be diligent, intelligent and hardy. German shepherds, rottweilers, Dobermans and Collies are most suitable for training. At the same time, experts avoid taking light-colored dogs, because they are much easier to notice.

The raising of animals begins at the age of two months. At first, all puppies undergo a general training course, and by the 10 months they begin adult life and special training begins. As a rule, by this time each dog has its own talents, according to which they begin to learn and develop the best qualities.

All military service dogs in the training school are divided into search, combat, guard and breeding. Accordingly, training takes place according to different programs and principles.

One of the most difficult training specializations is the sapper case, since it is the hardest to teach him. Training is considered complete only when the dog is able to find any type of ammunition for complex smell, located at a depth of one and a half meters. In addition, the dog should be able to detect booby traps, streamers.

Another serious “dog” profession is the border service. After testing, training and testing, only 10 is suitable for border service from 7 dogs.

Service dogs are not aggressive, they love affection and care, but their job is to bite the criminal, attack, look for danger, so you should not joke with them. As a rule, military service dogs serve 7-8 for years, after which they are sent to well-deserved rest. But even after the termination of the service life, dogs live on frontier posts as family members of border guards. All these animals have fulfilled their duty to the state, so they deserved a calm life, care and respect.

Materials used:
http://www.bagnet.org/news/ukraine/88525
http://newzz.in.ua/ob/1148869387-na-cherkashhine-ustanovili-unikalnyj-pamyatnik-150-pogranichnym-psam-kotorye-porvali-celyj-polk-fashistov-v-rukopashnom-boyu-foto.html
http://animal.ru/
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20 comments
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  1. Igor39
    Igor39 April 17 2015 05: 47
    +8
    Since childhood, I love dogs, because I myself come from rural areas, I understand that in some cases life without dogs is not possible at all. And about the loyalty and devotion of dogs, thousands of works have been written and filmed.
    1. The comment was deleted.
    2. Mahmut
      Mahmut April 17 2015 20: 15
      +2
      A dog is a huge soul in a fur rim. And in love and in hatred sincere.
  2. blizart
    blizart April 17 2015 06: 30
    +12
    As a rule, military service dogs serve 7-8 years, after which they are sent for a well-deserved rest.
    In my unit there is a mounted mountain ranger company (SPN) and a platoon of dog handlers. I look at our four-legged fighters and think: "All that you have as people - for someone the whole life of sitting on a chain, standing in the cost, and for someone" cold, anxiety "of service. At least we can choose the fate, but they are .. ...
  3. Tatar 174
    Tatar 174 April 17 2015 06: 42
    +11
    Dogs, like people, are different. For a dog to become a friend, you need to love her and she will reciprocate. Childhood in the village was not easy, I had to work hard. Our dog helped me and my brother carry water. We harnessed it like a horse specially made by us to a harness, the brother still got up on the sled or cart on the back of the summer and held a 40 liter flask so that it would not fall, and the faithful and strong Bobik dragged them first to the water pump, and then back to the house. Many years passed, and we had a lot of dogs, and I will always remember Bobik.
  4. Moore
    Moore April 17 2015 07: 16
    +3
    Historians claim that the first to use dogs during the war were the military of the Austro-Hungarian and German armies: guard rottweilers and shepherd dogs, sensing the enemy approaching the trench line, raised the alarm.

    If I am not mistaken, even Stepanov's "Port Arthur" described cases when the Japanese used some small dogs for guard duty. Perhaps a literary exaggeration, I don't know.
    As for the dogs in our lives ... For 14 years I have not had a Friend, a Family Member with me. German with OKD, ZKS - all five ... I can’t force myself to make another Friend ...
    Damn, something got to the very liver ...
  5. evgmiz
    evgmiz April 17 2015 08: 17
    +9
    In addition, dogs are much more reliable than humans - they never betray, even if they betray them ...
    1. ROD VDVshny
      ROD VDVshny April 17 2015 09: 47
      +4
      Quote: evgmiz
      On top of that, dogs are much more reliable than humans - they never betray, even if they betray them ..

      +1000000 good
      Moore - they live, unfortunately, not for long, and the new dog is not a repetition of the past ... but you have to step over it. At my place, the third in a row gawk for our lives
      1. alex-cn
        alex-cn April 17 2015 10: 19
        +1
        I’m the fourth now, there were two spaniels, a kurts, and now I’m fighting but apparently the last, getting old ...
    2. 97110
      97110 April 17 2015 11: 27
      +1
      Quote: evgmiz
      In addition, dogs are much more reliable than humans - they never betray, even if they betray them ...

      The dog reacts to the smell of a flowing bitch ... In this case, there are no obstacles for him. You remember which of your friends this business is going ... Your company digs a dig in the company of the same ones, gnaws at the door. About the men, although they say that this breed is a male, it somehow doesn’t go so well with us. The smell is weaker, apparently. Enlighten how service dogs handle this?
      1. alex-cn
        alex-cn April 17 2015 12: 47
        +1
        On this matter in WWI, the French caught a dog carrying a spy report to the Germans through the front. And so, you can recall a trained watchdog, but I don’t know without management. If only to castrate.
    3. The comment was deleted.
  6. Free wind
    Free wind April 17 2015 08: 57
    +5
    The more I get to know people, the more I like dogs. Heinrich Heine.
  7. Hleb
    Hleb April 17 2015 09: 05
    +3
    ____________________
  8. igordok
    igordok April 17 2015 10: 16
    +4
    In the village, grandparents called all of their dogs either a bug or a bug, depending on gender. When he was small, he was perplexed. Then they told me a family legend. In the Bryansk region, before being released, two Germans came up to our house (standing separately from the village) with a canister, drove people out of the house. But a dog named Bug got loose and began to attack the Nazis. As a result, the Germans did not burn the house, perhaps in a hurry, and they killed the dog. Relatives when they buried Bug counted 11 bullet wounds.
  9. alex-cn
    alex-cn April 17 2015 10: 29
    +1
    The combat use of dogs began a long time ago. Still on the Assyrian frescoes there are images of moloss-like dogs in chain-mail blankets, going into battle along with the soldiers.
  10. Alena Frolovna
    Alena Frolovna April 17 2015 12: 09
    +8
    Unknown war. The dog.
    They walked side by side with a man, and in difficult times they stepped forward. They shared a trench and rations with a man. They worked and died instead of man. These are dogs, dogs in war.

    There is a beautiful legend about Dzhulbarsa.
    At the historic Victory Parade on July 24, 1945, all the fronts of the Great Patriotic War, all branches of the army were represented. Following the consolidated front regiments, a regiment of the Navy and columns of military equipment along Red Square ... dogs with their guides were walking, write on the "Forum of Russian Dog Breeds", where you can find many unique photographs of dogs in war.

    At that historic parade, the main dog handler of the country, Lt. Col. Mazover, was walking behind the “box” of soldiers with dogs. He was allowed not to mint a step and not salute the Commander-in-Chief, as he carried in his arms a soldier of the 14th assault engineer-sapper brigade - a dog named Dzhulbars.

    The four-legged fighter took part in the battles and mine clearance in Romania, Czechoslovakia, Hungary and Austria. There, Dzhulbars discovered 468 mines and 150 shells, for which he was presented for a military award - the medal "For Military Merit".

    By the day of the historic parade, Djulbars had not yet recovered from his wound. They say that he was carried on a tunic (overcoat) of Stalin himself. Is it true or not, I have no one to ask, but the dog handlers walked by area. It is a fact.

    And the dogs took an active part in the Great Patriotic War. In total, 68 thousand Sharikov, Bobikov and Mukhtar crawled, walked, traveled, and ran along military roads from Moscow to Berlin: pedigree and not very, large and small, smooth and shaggy. All of them have made an invaluable contribution to the great cause.
  11. MahsusNazar
    MahsusNazar April 17 2015 13: 02
    +2
    In our division, during 2001 two dog handlers with dogs died.
    Both times the dogs found a landmine, and he turned out to be on the radio control.
    I treat the IFA with warmth.
  12. Egoza
    Egoza April 17 2015 16: 17
    +2
    Our family adores dogs! And they pay us the same. But in Ukraine, they manage to burn down two animal shelters, deprive the kennel of its livelihood, so well-trained dogs were destroyed ... but on TV they play "Four tankmen and a dog." And they will not remember about our border guards with dogs ... but under the current laws, the monument to them will be demolished. NON-HUMAN !!!
  13. den3080
    den3080 April 17 2015 16: 36
    +1
    Dogs - they are also people, only fur.
    I have two Newfoundlands. Males. These are not dogs - horses smile almost 1,5 centners total weight.
  14. Volodya
    Volodya April 17 2015 16: 42
    +2
    I love dogs, these are really true friends. And if the dog happens to be biting, it is due to the fault of people in most cases. With great pain in my soul I read about 70 animals burned alive in Kiev in a shelter. I believe that these pathetic little creatures will be punished by God . I don’t believe what they find.
  15. den3080
    den3080 April 17 2015 17: 43
    +5
    That's about as fellow I have.
  16. itr
    itr April 17 2015 20: 03
    0
    Military dog) funny)
    What about a military machine gun))) I burn the boys)
  17. allexx83
    allexx83 April 17 2015 22: 22
    +3
    Once upon a time there was a similar article on VO. I will not be lazy to comment on the same demotivator. Dogs are definitely better than many bipeds.