Military Review

Lithuania: a difficult path to and from Russia

Two hundred and twenty years ago, on April 15, 1795, Empress Catherine II signed the Manifesto on the accession to the Russian Empire of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and the Duchy of Courland and Semigal. Thus ended the famous Third Section of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, as a result of which most of the lands of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and Courland became part of the Russian Empire. As a result of the Third Section of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, practically the entire Baltic region became part of the Russian Empire. The process of joining the Baltic lands began under Peter I. As a result of the Northern War, Estland and Livonia became part of Russia. However, the Duchy of Courland maintained its independence and formal vassalage in relation to the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. Equally, the Grand Duchy of Lithuania remained an independent state in union with Poland.

Accession of Courland and Lithuania

However, formally maintaining liable obligations to Poland, the Duchy of Courland, also since the end of the Northern War, has been in the sphere of influence of Russia. Back in 1710, Anna - the daughter of the Russian Tsar John V, brother of Peter I, became the Duchess of Courland through marriage with the Duke Frederick William Kettler. In 1730, Anna Ivanovna ascended the Russian throne. The power of the Biron dynasty reigned in Kurland. In 1737, Ernst-Johann Biron became the duke - the closest ally and favorite of Anna Ivanovna, later transferring the reigns to the duchy to his son. Since then, the Russian Empire has actually provided full support to the Dukes of Courland, protecting their power from encroachments from the disaffected part of the local nobility. The inclusion of the Duchy of Courland into Russia was voluntary - the aristocratic surnames of the duchy, fearing the destabilization of the system in Kurland after the invasion of 1794 by the troops of Tadeusz Kosciuszko, a Polish general who was inspired by the ideas of the French Revolution, turned to Russia for military help. Commanded the suppression of the Polish detachments himself Alexander Vasilyevich Suvorov. After the suppression of the uprising, the Courland nobility turned to the Russian empress with a request to include the duchy in the empire. In the place of the Duchy of Courland, the province of the same name was formed, and the local aristocracy largely retained its position. Moreover, the Courland and Livonian German nobility became one of the most prominent groups of the Russian nobility, playing a huge role in the political life of the Russian empire until the beginning of the twentieth century.

But even more important than the adoption of Courland, for the Russian Empire was the annexation of the lands of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. And not only in the strategic and economic terms, but also in terms of the preservation of the Russian language and the Orthodox faith in the lands formerly under the authority of the principality. Indeed, besides Lithuania itself, the Grand Duchy included vast territories of modern Ukraine and Belarus with the Russian population (at that time there was no artificial separation of the Russian people), most of them professing Orthodoxy. For centuries, the Orthodox population of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, subjected to oppression by the Catholic gentry, appealed for help to the Russian state. The inclusion of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania into Russia largely resolved the problem of discrimination of the Russian and Orthodox population by the Catholic gentry. Actually, the Lithuanian part of the Grand Duchy, that is, its Baltic lands, became part of the Vilna and Kovno provinces of the Russian Empire. The population of the provinces were not only Lithuanians, who were mostly peasants who lived in farms, but also Germans and Jews, who made up the majority of the urban population, and Poles, who were competing for Lithuanians in agriculture.

Anti-Russian uprisings - attempts to revive the Rzeczpospolita

The Lithuanian nobility and peasantry, in contrast to the Baltic Germans, turned out to be less loyal to the Russian Empire. Although at first the Lithuanian population did not show its protest activity, but it cost in 1830-1831. flared up the first Polish uprising, as the unrest began in Lithuania. The uprising against the Russian authorities acquired the character of real hostilities, covering not only the territory of Poland, but also of Lithuania and Volyn. The rebels seized the territory of practically the entire Vilna province, except for the city of Vilna itself and several other large cities. The insurgents achieved sympathy from the nobility and the peasantry, declaring the restoration of the Statute 1588 of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, which guaranteed the rights and freedoms to the population.

It should be noted that during the uprising 1830-1831. the actions of the Lithuanian rebels created significant obstacles to the actions of the Russian troops in suppressing unrest in Poland. Therefore, on the territory of Vilna province in 20 in April 1831, a punitive operation was launched under the general leadership of General Matthew Hrapovitsky - the Vilna governor and Grodno governor. By May 1831, control was restored over virtually the entire territory of Vilna province. However, the relative order in the Vilna province was established only for three decades. In 1863-1864 the next Polish uprising broke out, no less large-scale and bloody than the 1830-1831 uprising. The uprising was organized by an extensive network of Polish gentry organizations led by Yaroslav Dombrovsky. The activities of the Central National Committee extended not only to the Polish, but also to the Lithuanian and Belarusian lands. In Lithuania and Belarus the committee was headed by Konstantin Kalinovsky. The uprising against the Russian government in Poland, Lithuania and Belarus was actively supported from abroad. Foreign volunteers from European countries flocked to the ranks of the Polish insurgents, who considered it their duty to "fight the tyranny of the Russian empire." In Belarus, the Catholic gentry, who formed the backbone of the insurgent movement, unleashed terror against the Orthodox peasantry, who did not support the rebellion alien to his interests. The victims of the rebels were at least two thousand people (according to the Brockhaus and Efron Encyclopedic Dictionary).

Belarusian historian Yevgeny Novik believes that in many respects история Polish uprising 1863-1864's. It was falsified, not only by Polish researchers, but also by Soviet authors ( In the USSR, the uprising was considered solely through the prism of its national liberation character, on the basis of which its progressive nature was recognized. At the same time, it was forgotten that the actual uprising was not a popular one. The overwhelming majority of its participants were represented by the Polish and Lithuanian gentry, the peasantry made up no more than 20-30% in the West Belarusian lands and no more than 5% in Eastern Belorussia. This was explained by the fact that most of the peasants spoke Russian and professed Orthodoxy, and the uprising was raised by representatives of the Polish and Polonized gentry who professed Catholicism. That is, in the ethnic sense they were alien to the Belarusian population, and this explained the insignificant nature of the support of the uprising by the peasantry. The fact that the peasants supported the Russian Empire in this confrontation was recognized in their reports by army and gendarme chiefs, who were directly involved in establishing order in the Lithuanian and Belarusian provinces.

When in the Dinaburg district the Old Believers peasants captured a whole detachment of rebels, the head officer of the Vilnius gendarmerie A.M. Losev wrote in a memorandum: “The Dinaburg peasants proved where the strength of the Government is - in the mass of the people. Why not use this force everywhere and thereby declare before Europe the present position of our western region? ”(Uprising in Lithuania and Belarus 1863-1864 M., 1965. S. 104). For the Belarusian peasantry, the return of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth did not carry anything good except a rollback to the terrible times of persecution of the Russian language and the Orthodox faith. Therefore, if the uprising was of a national liberation nature, it was only for polonized groups of the population and, above all, for the Catholic gentry, who nostalgic for the times of Rzecz Pospolita and the rights that it enjoyed in the Polish-Lithuanian unitary state.

The tsarist government dealt with the insurgent Poles and Lithuanians extremely humanely. Only 128 people were executed, 8-12 thousand people went into exile. Repressions affected, as a rule, leaders, organizers and real participants of insurgent terror. However, in addition to court sentences, there were also administrative measures. After the uprising, a ban was introduced on the official use of the names of Poland and Lithuania, all Catholic monasteries and parish schools were closed. In the Vilna province, schooling in the Lithuanian language was completely prohibited; in the Kovno province, it was retained only for elementary school. All books and newspapers written in the Lithuanian language by the Latin alphabet were withdrawn, respectively, and a ban was introduced on the use of the Lithuanian Latin alphabet. Through these measures, the tsarist government sought to prevent the preservation and spread of anti-Russian sentiment among the Polish and Lithuanian population, and in the future - to Russify it, integrate Poles and Lithuanians into the Russian nation by affirming the rejection of the Latin alphabet, national languages ​​and a gradual transition to the Orthodox faith.

However, anti-Russian sentiment persisted in Lithuania. This, in many respects, was facilitated by the activity of the Catholic Church and Western states. So, from the territory of East Prussia to Lithuania, smuggled Lithuanian literature printed in Latin in the printing houses of East Prussia and in the United States of America. The delivery of prohibited books was done by a special subspecies of smugglers - the bookseller. As for the Catholic clergy, it created underground schools at parishes, where they taught the Lithuanian language and the Latin alphabet. In addition to the Lithuanian language, which the native Lithuanians certainly had every right to master, anti-Russian, anti-imperial sentiments were also cultivated in the underground schools. Naturally, this activity was supported by both the Vatican and the Polish Catholic hierarchs.

The beginning of a short independence

In Lithuanian professing Catholicism, who negatively perceived their presence under the rule of the Russian Empire, anti-Russian forces in Europe saw natural allies. On the other hand, the Lithuanian population was indeed discriminated against by the short-sighted policy of the royal authorities, who prohibited the use of the national language, which promoted the spread of radical sentiment among the most diverse sections of the population. In the years of the revolution 1905-1907. powerful performances took place in the Vilna and Kovno provinces, both of the revolutionary workers and the peasants.

During World War I, in 1915, the Vilno gubernia was occupied by German troops. When Germany and Austria-Hungary decided to create puppet states on the territory of the western regions of the former Russian empire, on February 16 in Vilna, Vilna announced the re-establishment of a sovereign Lithuanian state. 1918 July 11 was proclaimed the creation of the Kingdom of Lithuania, whose throne was to be taken by the German prince Wilhelm von Urach. However, in early November, the Council of Lithuania (Lithuanian Tariba) decided to abandon plans to create a monarchy. 1918 December 16, after the withdrawal of the occupying German troops, the Lithuanian Soviet Republic was established, and 1918 February 27 announced the creation of the Lithuanian-Belarusian Soviet Socialist Republic. In February-March 1919 began fighting against the Soviet troops, the troops of the Lithuanian Tariba in alliance with the German units, and then with the army of Poland. The territory of the Lithuanian-Belarusian Soviet Socialist Republic was occupied by Polish troops. 1919 to 1920 in the territory of Lithuania and Western Belarus there existed Middle Lithuania, later annexed to Poland. Thus, the territory of modern Lithuania is actually divided into two parts. Former Vilna province was relegated to Poland and from 1922 to 1922. was called Vilenskie voivodship. An independent state of Lithuania with the capital in Kaunas existed on the territory of the Kovno province. Antanas Smyatona (1939-1874) was elected the first president of Lithuania. He headed Lithuania at 1944-1919, then taught philosophy at the University of Lithuania in Kaunas for a while. The re-emergence of Smyaton came to power in 1920, as a result of a coup d'état.

Lithuanian twenties and thirties nationalism

Antanas Smiaton can be distinguished among the founders of modern Lithuanian nationalism. After leaving the presidency in 1920, he did not leave politics. Moreover, Smyaton was extremely dissatisfied with the activities of the center-left government of Lithuania and began to form a nationalist movement. In 1924, the Union of Lithuanian Farmers and the National Progress Party united into the Union of Lithuanian Nationalists (“tautininki”). When the December 17 1926 in Lithuania, there was a coup d'état, led by a group of nationalist officers led by General Povilas Plekhavicius, the Union of Lithuanian Nationalists actually became the ruling party. A few days after the coup, Antanas Smyatona was elected for the second time as President of Lithuania. The ideology of the Union of Lithuanian Nationalists was mixed on a combination of Catholic values, Lithuanian patriotism and peasant traditionalism. The pledge of strength and independence of Lithuania was seen by the party in preserving the traditional way of life. A militarized organization operated under the Union of Nationalists - the Union of Lithuanian shooters. Formed in 1919 year and incorporating many veterans of the First World War, as well as nationalist youth, the Union of Lithuanian shooters became a mass nationalist militia organization and existed until the fall of the Republic of Lithuania in 1940. By the end of 1930's. in the ranks of the Union of Lithuanian shooters consisted up to 60 000 people.

The Union of Lithuanian Nationalists initially had a rather positive attitude towards Italian fascism, but later began to condemn some actions of Benito Mussolini, apparently trying to maintain friendly relations with the countries of the West - England and France. On the other hand, the middle of the 1920's. became the period of the emergence in Lithuania of more radical nationalistic organizations. Needless to say, they all had a pronounced anti-Soviet character. In 1927, the Fascist organization “Iron Wolf” appeared, which was in positions of extreme Lithuanian nationalism, anti-Semitism and anti-communism. In political terms, the “iron wolves” were guided by German Nazism in the spirit of the Nazi Party and considered the Union of Lithuanian Nationalists insufficiently radical.

At the head of the Iron Wolf was Augustinus Voldemaras (1883-1942). In 1926-1929 This man, who was, by the way, a professor at the University of Lithuania in Kaunas, served as Prime Minister of Lithuania. Initially, he, together with Antanas Smyatona, created and developed the Union of Lithuanian Nationalists, but later divorced his comrade ideologically, considering his understanding of Lithuanian nationalism insufficiently radical and deep. In 1929, the city of Voldemaras was removed from his post as prime minister and sent under police supervision in Zarasai. Despite the failure, Voldemaras did not leave plans to change the policy of Kaunas. In 1934, he attempted a coup d'état by the Iron Wolves, after which he was arrested and sentenced to twelve years in prison. In 1938, Voldemaras was released and expelled from the country.

USSR created Lithuania in modern borders

The end of the Lithuanian nationalist regime came in 1940 year. Although the first thunder for the political sovereignty of Lithuania sounded a little earlier. 22 March 1939. Germany demanded that Lithuania return the Klaipeda area to her (then it was called Memel). Naturally, Lithuania could not refuse to Berlin. At the same time a non-aggression treaty was concluded between Germany and Lithuania. Thus, Lithuania refused to support Poland. 1 September 1939 Germany attacked Poland. September 17 1939, taking advantage of the situation, Soviet troops entered the eastern regions of Poland. 10 October 1939 The Soviet Union transferred the territory of Vilnius and the Vilno Voivodeship of Poland to Lithuania occupied by Soviet troops. Lithuania also agreed to the entry into the country of the 20-thousandth Soviet military contingent. 14 June 1940, the USSR issued an ultimatum to Lithuania, demanding that the government send in resignation and allow additional Soviet troops into the country. The 14-15 July was won by the Labor Bloc in an election held in Lithuania. On July 21, the creation of the Lithuanian SSR was proclaimed, and on August 3, the Supreme Soviet of the USSR granted the request of the Lithuanian SSR to be admitted to the Soviet Union.

Anti-Soviet and anti-Russian historians and political figures claim that Lithuania was occupied and annexed by the Soviet Union. The Soviet period of the history of the republic is today called in Lithuania nothing less than “occupation”. Meanwhile, if Soviet troops had not entered Lithuania, it would have been annexed by Germany with the same success. Only the Nazis would hardly have left autonomy, even if formal, under the name of Lithuania, would develop a national language and culture, translate Lithuanian writers. Lithuania began to receive “bonuses” from the Soviet authorities almost immediately after the alleged “occupation”. The first bonus was the transfer to Vilnius of Vilna and the Vilna voivodship, occupied by Soviet troops in 1939, to Lithuania. Recall that at that time Lithuania remained an independent state and the Soviet Union could not transfer the lands occupied by it to the Vilna voivodeship to Lithuania, but to include them in its composition - say, like the Vilnius Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic, or the Lithuanian Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic. Secondly, in the 1940 year, becoming a union republic, Lithuania received a number of Belarusian territories. In 1941, the Volkovyssky district was included in Lithuania, which the Soviet Union acquired from Germany for 7,5 million dollars in gold. Finally, after the end of the Second World War, the main victory of which was won by the Soviet Union, in accordance with the Potsdam Conference 1945, the USSR received the international port of Klaipeda (Memel), formerly owned by Germany. Klaipeda was also transferred to Lithuania, although Moscow had every reason to make it an enclave modeled on Kaliningrad (Koenigsberg).

Lithuania: a difficult path to and from Russia
- Demonstration in Vilnius in 1940 in support of the Soviet Union and I.V. Stalin

In anti-Soviet journalism, the myth of the "national" resistance of Lithuanians to the establishment of Soviet power traditionally dominates. At the same time, as an example, first of all, the activities of the famous Forest Brothers - the partisan and underground movement in the territory of Lithuania, which began its activities almost immediately after the proclamation of the Lithuanian Soviet Socialist Republic and only a few years after the Victory in the Great Patriotic War, which is suppressed by the Soviet by the troops. Naturally, the inclusion of Lithuania into the Soviet Union was not welcomed by significant sections of the population of the republic. Catholic clergy who received direct instructions from the Vatican, nationalist-minded intelligentsia, yesterday's officers, officials, police of an independent Lithuania, prosperous farmers - they all did not see their future as part of the Soviet state, and therefore were ready to deploy full-fledged resistance to Soviet power immediately after the inclusion of Lithuania in the USSR.

The specifics of the social and political situation in the newly acquired republic were well understood by the Soviet leadership. It was for this purpose that mass deportation of anti-Soviet elements to the deep regions and republics of the USSR was organized. Of course, among the deportees there were many random people who were not Lithuanian nationalists and enemies of the Soviet regime. But when such mass companies are held, this, unfortunately, is inevitable. On the night of June 14 1941, about 34 thousands of people were deported from Lithuania. Nevertheless, the real opponents of the Soviet government were largely able to remain on the territory of the republic - they had long gone underground and were not going to voluntarily go to the exiled echelons.

Lithuanian accomplices of Hitler

Lithuanian anti-Soviet resistance was actively supported by Hitler's Germany, which hatched plans for an attack on the Soviet Union and hoped to enlist the support of Lithuanian nationalists. Back in October, the Lithuanian Front of Activists, led by the former ambassador of the Republic of Lithuania to Germany, Kazis Skirpa, was established in 1940. Naturally, the position of this person says everything for himself. Kazis Skirpa, a native of the Lithuanian village of Namayunai, lived a long life. He was born in 1895 year, and died in the distant 1979, the last thirty years he lived in the United States of America. When 22 June 1941 of the year Hitlerite Germany attacked the Soviet Union, the Lithuanian front of activists raised an armed anti-Soviet uprising in the territory of the Lithuanian SSR. It began with the killings by Lithuanians who served in local parts of the Red Army, officers - non-members. The 23 of June was formed by the Provisional Government of Lithuania, which was formally headed by Kazis Škirpa, but was actually led by Juozas Ambrazevicius (1903-1974). It was announced the restoration of independence of the Republic of Lithuania. Nationalists began to destroy the Soviet activists - and Russian, and Lithuanians, and people of other nationalities. In Lithuania, mass Jewish pogroms began. It is Lithuanian nationalists who bear the main responsibility for the genocide of the Jewish population in Lithuania during the Nazi occupation. When 24 June 1941 units of the Wehrmacht entered Vilnius and Kaunas, by this time captured by insurgents of the Lithuanian front of activists, the latter managed to carry out bloody Jewish pogroms, whose victims were at least four thousand people.

The provisional government of Lithuania hoped that Germany would help the republic regain its political sovereignty. However, Hitler had completely different plans for Lithuania. The entire region was included in the Reichskommissariat Ostland. In accordance with this decision, the authorities of the “sovereign Lithuanian Republic” created by the Lithuanian front of the activists were dissolved in the same way as the armed formations of the Lithuanian nationalists. A significant part of yesterday’s fiery supporters of Lithuanian independence immediately found their way into the situation and joined the support units of the Wehrmacht and the police. The organization Iron Wolves, once created by former Prime Minister Voldemaras, at the time of the events described was led by a former major of the Lithuanian air force, Jonas Piragus. His subordinates played a major role in the anti-Soviet uprising, and then welcomed the arrival of the Nazis and enlarged the ranks of police units and counterintelligence.

On June X, the Archbishop of the Roman Catholic Church in Lithuania, Joseph Skvirekas, publicly declared his full support from the Catholic clergy of Lithuania for the struggle that the Third Reich was waging with Bolshevism and the Soviet Union. By flirting with the Catholic Church, the German administration of Lithuania allowed the restoration of theological faculties in all universities of the country. However, the Nazis allowed activity in the territory of Lithuania and the Orthodox diocese - with the hope that the priests will influence the sympathies and behavior of the Orthodox population.

Nazi bloody trail

In November, 1941, under the leadership of the German administration, was transformed into paramilitary Lithuanian self-defense units. At its base was created the Lithuanian auxiliary police. By 1944, the 22 of the Lithuanian police battalion operated, in aggregate there were 8000 people. The battalions served in the territory of Lithuania, the Leningrad region, Ukraine, Belarus, Poland and even used in Europe - in France, Italy and Yugoslavia. Together with 1941 to 1944 in auxiliary police formations served 20 000 Lithuanians. The consequences of the activities of these formations are impressive and terrifying at the same time. Thus, by October 29, 1941, 71 105 of people of Jewish nationality was destroyed, including 18 223 people were massacred in the Kaunas fortress. In May 1942 in Panevezys, Lithuanian policemen shot 48 members of an exposed underground communist organization. The total number of people killed on the territory of Lithuania during the years of the Nazi occupation reaches 700 000 people. 370 000 citizens of the Lithuanian SSR and 230 000 of Soviet prisoners of war, as well as residents of other republics of the USSR and foreign citizens were killed.

To the credit of the Lithuanian people, it should be noted that the overwhelming majority of Lithuanians remained aloof from the fanatics of the nationalists and Nazi collaborators. Many Lithuanians participated in the anti-fascist and partisan movement. 26. November 1942. By the decision of the USSR State Defense Committee, the Lithuanian headquarters of the partisan movement was established under the direction of Antanas Snečkus. On the territory of Lithuania, by the summer of 1944, at least 10 000 guerrillas and members of underground organizations were operating. Partisan organizations included people of all nationalities - Lithuanians, Poles, Russians, Jews, Belarusians. By the end of 1943, 56 groups of Soviet partisans and underground fighters operated in Lithuania. After the war, the number of partisans and underground fighters operating during the Great Patriotic War in Lithuania was established by name. 9187 guerrillas and underground fighters are known, 62% of whom were Lithuanians, 21% Russians, 7,5% Jews, 3,5% Poles, 2% Ukrainians, 2% Belarusians, and 1,5% people of other nationalities.

During the 1944-1945. Soviet troops liberated the territory of the Lithuanian SSR from the Nazi invaders. However, Lithuanian nationalists almost immediately switched to armed struggle against the return of Soviet power. In 1944-1947 the struggle of the “Lithuanian Freedom Army” and other armed formations, often united under the name “Lithuanian Forest Brothers”, was open-ended. Lithuanian nationalists sought to achieve international recognition and received moral support from the United States and Great Britain, which for a long time did not want to recognize the return of Soviet power in the Baltic States. Therefore, Lithuanian nationalists tried to present themselves not as a partisan movement, but as a regular army. They maintained, albeit formally, the structure of the regular army, with military ranks, headquarters, and even their own officers' school, which was later captured during the operation of the Soviet troops. In 1947, the active operations of the Soviet troops and the state security forces forced the Forest Brothers to move from open confrontation to guerrilla warfare and terrorism.

The activity of the “Forest Brothers” is a topic of a separate and interesting research. Suffice it to say that the armed detachments of the Lithuanian nationalists operated on the territory of the republic until the end of the 1950s, and in the 1960s. there were separate forays of the Forest Brothers. During the years of the anti-Soviet terror they unleashed, 25 thousands died at the hands of the so-called “patriots of Lithuania”. 23 thousands of them - ethnic Lithuanians, who were killed (often with children) for cooperation with the Soviet authorities, and even on imaginary suspicions of sympathy for the Communists. In turn, the Soviet troops managed to destroy up to thirty thousand members of the gangs of the "forest brothers". In modern Lithuania, the “forest brothers” are glorified, they are given monuments and are considered to be fighters for the “independence” of the country from the “Soviet occupation”.
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  1. viktorrymar
    viktorrymar April 15 2015 06: 33
    Throughout history, small nations have been a bargaining chip in the game of empires, and the struggle for independence, under the strict guidance of special services, results in a sharp aggravation of nationalism and fascism, nothing, as a rule, these peoples win, but lose their population, ruin their souls ... It’s a pity.
    1. Petergut
      Petergut April 15 2015 20: 51
      By the way.
      Over the 20th century, the Baltic states have acquired very well.
      The author only casually touched upon one very delicate topic.
      As it was correctly noted, while being in the Republic of Ingushetia, the national proportions were completely different than they are now.
      This is less true for ON because it included many territories inhabited by Russians (these are modern Belarus, Ukraine and part of Russia). So consider the modern Baltic states.
      But actually in historical Estonia, Livonia and Courland (the modern Baltic) it was very interesting. There were a lot of ethnic Germans, Jews and Russians. There were really a lot of Germans. In those days, nationality did not have such a fundamental value, citizenship was important. And, as was rightly noted, the ruling circles consisted of Germans. Although the Balts made up the majority of the population (in Courland, by the way, there were only about 30% of them, in the remaining provinces there were more), they were actually powerless peasants, and their languages ​​were considered the language of the farmers.
      Neither Prussia, nor Sweden (Estonia-Estonia was under the Swedish crown all north), nor Russia subsequently regarded these regions as national. Here, for example, Kalmyks, Tatars, Armenians, the same Finns and a number of other peoples considered and gave them special rights. And the Baltic states were not very considered. In the same Prussia and Sweden, the question of nationality did not stand in principle, it was the empire of one titular people and grief was the one who doubts this. And they were not considered equal.
      And then came the 20th century with all its wars, revolutions, cataclysms, etc. etc.
      So, almost all the Jews, these lovely Narodniks were slaughtered during the Nazi occupation. Well, seized the opportunity, Th. And after the war, the Jews did not go there, as shyly, suddenly something will change and again suffer the Jewish pop.
      It was more complicated with the Germans. After the Great October Revolution, the ruling class, which, as we remember, consisted of Germans, was conscientiously cut out of class motives. Someone will say "but they were independent?" until 1940. Yes, that's right, for 1940 and early 1941, and cut out. Then it was real to get a bullet for being a priest or, for example, serving kings. How correct it was not for me to assess. After the Great Patriotic War, being a German was considered, as it were, not very suitable. And they began to be recorded in the second generation by Latvians, Lithuanians, Russians and all sorts of Finns. Roughly the same thing that is happening there with the Russians. And quietly they assimilated the Germans. Now they are practically not there.
      And only the Balts and Russians remained there. Now set to the Russians.
      It is with such multi-paths that the Baltic states created national states. Now they are there at 70% in each. Not so, huh?
      Plus territory. After all, until the 20th century they were only provinces. Like Orlovskaya, or Yekaterinoslav. And then opa, and his own country. And the Prussians gave them a trochach, and Pskov. And they are still unhappy.
      At the moment, I’m not ready to operate with statistics, because I got acquainted with this topic for a long time. But overall, the numbers are consistent. I agree to accept constructive criticism.
      Will it help them if a serious temptation begins? I give no. With 6 and a small population of lyamas at all and their whore character, their Leningrad Military District will kneel in a week. And not even tense.
      The most curious thing is that, apparently, they are being prepared for slaughter. Friends from behind puddles and cook. There is a goal to provoke Russia into an invasion, or at least a blow to military facilities. The Baltic states are NATO members and sworn partners because of the puddle will be a great reason for the escalation of the conflict. But while they are on the alert, the Russian army is on top. Plus, the army in Novorossia is not bad.
      It’s bad that everything is right next to me. From the west of Poland, from the north of the Baltic states, from the south, incomprehensible Ukraine (100 km. In all, the tornado gets with a margin). And my mom and dad are very old, and my mother-in-law with a father-in-law and the kids go to school ...

      Sorry for the many letters.
      1. Sdriver
        Sdriver April 16 2015 04: 40
        I absolutely agree with my colleague, as I have lived in Lithuania for over 16 years. The Balts are specifically prepared for slaughter. The first thing that was done after the arrival of the American puppet rulers was total deindustrialization (and despite the obvious damage to national interests), the second was the severing of all possible economic and tourist ties with Russia (where and how it is possible), and now this militant rhetoric of squeamish mongrels ... All this reminds me very much of Ukraine. The Ukrainians did not understand the most important thing - their own owners are cleaning the living space from them. I think this is part of the so-called Secret Resettlement Plan. The essence of which is the cleansing of living spaces in Eurasia from all indigenous peoples and their settlement by the Anglo-Saxons. Lithuania is actively bought up by Americans and Europeans, and the majority of the economically active Lithuanian population works as slaves in England, Ireland, the states and Canada. Lithuania is empty. There is a complete ales now.
  2. ps-1972
    ps-1972 April 15 2015 06: 37
    If Joseph Vissarionovich knew how it would end, he would have cut Europe differently.
  3. semirek
    semirek April 15 2015 07: 00
    A very necessary article at the moment, thank you to the author for a detailed excursion into history. With regard to Lithuania itself, I think that time will put everything in its place - the EU will fall apart in the near future, one way or another, the rhetoric of the Baltic states will change, but is it necessary Lithuania, Russia and the rest of the Baltic States for us? We will not have any strategic benefits, except perhaps additional problems: upkeep to the detriment of the Russian people (he himself saw a difference of 85 when he served in Estonia) --- heaven and earth, compared to the rest of Russia, chocolate in your own words.
  4. lao_tsy
    lao_tsy April 15 2015 08: 44
    The "Soviet occupation" gave them education, factories, free medicine, etc. Today, after gaining independence, they are engaged in their direct (primordial) business - cleaning outhouses and licking the backs of overseas owners.
    1. asadov
      asadov April 15 2015 18: 07
      as they say, we got to shit democracy.
  5. kombin23
    kombin23 April 15 2015 10: 15
    It is unlikely that there will be great love between Russia and Lithuania, but the main thing is that there should not be much hatred that now comes from the top leaders of this state.
    1. xan
      xan April 15 2015 13: 55
      Quote: kombin23
      It is unlikely that there will be great love between Russia and Lithuania, but the main thing is that there should not be much hatred that now comes from the top leaders of this state.

      Russophobia should be very, very expensive (stolen). Let them earn on whom they want, except for Russia.
      The best step on the part of Russia would be to raise the standard of living so that probalts begin to notice their poverty in comparison with the inhabitants of Russia. That would be a tough answer.
      Along the way, everything goes to this.
  6. KBR109
    KBR109 April 15 2015 10: 29
    Lithuania will end with the departure of the last faithful Lithuanians to work around the world. Remains "non-citizens". And the way "Vilenskaya oblast" is going home. To Russia. The main thing is that then already - without any privileges. laughing
  7. avl01
    avl01 April 15 2015 11: 19
    I don’t understand, are there "forest brothers" or "forest sisters" in the group photo for the article?
  8. nord62
    nord62 April 15 2015 11: 38
    The author with the story is rather weak. Do not confuse the Litvinians (Belarusians, as our people began to call under the tsar) with Zhmudins, those whom they began to call Lithuanians. The historical name of the Belarusian people is LITHUANIA, uniting all the nationalities living on the territory of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. Tsarist-Soviet propaganda did not use this name, erased it from all historical research, which allowed Lithuanian nationalists to appropriate the history of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania at the end of the XNUMXth century. And Zhmudin was really barbaric, wild people as a part of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania.
    In fact, the Soviet government nurtured Zhmudin (Lithuanian) nationalists, by squandering Belarusian lands and rewriting history, and now we have what we have. Under-people in a pseudo-state! Their leader, a former communist and KGB informer, is a prime example!
    1. Gorinich
      Gorinich April 15 2015 13: 03
      I agree, the author has everything in a heap. And Poles, and Lithuanians, and Lithuanians. And from a religious point of view, too, everything is in a heap. And Catholics, and Uniates, and Orthodox. Not knowing the history of neighbors gives rise to such a "vinaigrette". The mass of nuances that are inundated with history are washed away by a down-to-earth assessment, a point of view on the world from modern positions.
      1. Victor jnnjdfy
        Victor jnnjdfy April 15 2015 17: 07
        "for the Catholic gentry, nostalgic for the times of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth and the rights that it possessed in the Polish-Lithuanian unitary state."
        Further, I did not read the article. It seems to the author that the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania had their own Laws and Orders ...
        I also noticed, and not only now, that commentators from Belarus do not know History at all. Some continuous fantasies on the origin of Belarus and Belarusians ...
        It occurred to Catherine II (she is not a "tsar" at all) (I do not know myself or who prompted) to name some of the provinces received during the division of the Commonwealth, "Belarusian", and some "Lithuanian". Minsk was at first "Lithuanian", then became "Belarusian". This is how the name Belarus appeared.
    2. prosto_rgb
      prosto_rgb April 16 2015 01: 26
      I fully agree with your explanation of the article.
      In addition, I will add:
      Speech by Comrade Ioffe at a meeting of the Council of People's Commissars of the RSFSR 12.07,1920/XNUMX/XNUMX
      "Comrades, is there anything to talk about. Now we are waging a war with Poland. Yielding Belarusian territory with the city of Vilnia to greedy Lithuanian priests, thanks to this we not only provide our right flank, but in some cases receive help from Lithuania. If we win Poland , then the days of clerical-bourgeois Lithuania will be numbered. If we have to retreat deep into Belarus, then we leave to the priest Lithuania the number of the Belarusian population, which she will never digest. As a result of misunderstandings between the Lithuanians and Belarusians, which we consider irreducible, we will have a revolution which in turn will wipe clerical-bourgeois Lithuania from the face of the earth. "
  9. Leeder
    Leeder April 15 2015 17: 31
    Article "+" I am for knowing the truth, no matter how "bitter" it is.
    And that is, lovers of the "Subjunctive" story will distort them so that their hair stands on end.
    And then on the basis of this "Maydauns" grow ...
  10. Victorio
    Victorio April 15 2015 19: 59
    Quote: KBR109
    Lithuania will end with the departure of the last faithful Lithuanians to work around the world. Remains "non-citizens". And the way "Vilenskaya oblast" is going home. To Russia. The main thing is that then already - without any privileges. laughing

    Lithuanians are hardworking and entrepreneurial, their distribution networks dominate neighboring Latvia, so it is unlikely that they will live worse, unless they run into themselves, using the example of their possessed presidency. non-citizens are not there and were not, everyone received citizenship after gaining independence, unlike the neighbors of Latvia and Estonia, the latter are justified by the fact that, they say, the percentage of non-Lithuanians was small, something around 20-25 percent. so they gave all residents a citizenship.
    1. Petergut
      Petergut April 15 2015 21: 59
      I can not disagree with you.
      For business, I visit Lithuania once a couple of months and about half a year in Latvia and Estonia.
      Lithuanians for the better differ from their neighbors. Noticeably different.
      It’s quite possible to make a joke with them, to bargain, to discuss lovers, to get a glass of tea for a couple of days. And they do not grab the gun at the sound of Russian speech.
      Real people, really live, the shit government and the American bedding have in vain closed the Ignalina nuclear power plant.
      They offered a house near Trokai (sorry if I voiced it incorrectly). Your opinion?
      1. prosto_rgb
        prosto_rgb April 16 2015 01: 36
        Quote: Petergut
        They offered a house near Trokai (sorry if I voiced it incorrectly). Your opinion?

        You can take it if you pull a communal apartment + taxes, which are significantly more than in Belarus.
        In general, the advice is this: you need to take several real options to sit down with a calculator and stupidly consider the costs and incomes for each option.
  11. RSA
    RSA April 15 2015 22: 53
    [TO nord62 ne sabirajus sporit :) nu abjesni mnie, a kuda vi dieli aukstaiti,, ix v dva raza bolse zmudov bila, dzuki gdie, jotvingi i tax dali, a Trakai pa vasamu zmudija bila :) nu iscio cevo intap
    A iscio, ne abizai ninisnix ukrainciev, ani toze bili ze litvinami :) teritoriji agromniji pad valstiu bili, ciem ani xuze :) pa logikie vasai
    1. Petergut
      Petergut April 15 2015 23: 11
      Yes, they have not gone anywhere.
      These are all Russian. And these are not national peoples in the modern sense, but territorial toponyms. Well, probably the Urals, Siberians or Transbaikal.
      Well, at the expense of Ukrainians. The Ukrainians themselves a hundred years ago did not know that they were Ukrainians. They considered themselves then malorosy. Funny ones.
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  13. Sdriver
    Sdriver April 16 2015 04: 59
    Unlike their Baltic neighbors, the Lithuanians really have multinational ties and roots, since Lithuania has always been a kind of trade and political reconciliation in this region. There live a lot of Belarusians, Poles, fewer Russians and Jews except the native Lithuanians, who are also divided into Aukstaitians, Zemaitians, Zhmud, etc. etc. In addition, despite its anachronism, the Lithuanian language has a lot in common with Old Slavonic, since they belong to the Indo-European group of languages. I agree that Lithuanians are good traders. This cannot be taken away from them. I agree that the communist scoops nabbalas there problems above the roof with their policies. But at the same time, one must pay tribute to the local residents that they have a good sense of common sense, and with very little support, politically sane politicians can be lobbied instead of the current American mongrel.
  14. Jääkorppi
    Jääkorppi April 16 2015 12: 07
    Thank you for the article. One can agree with the judgments or not, but ON was formerly called Black Russia and the language was Russian and Orthodoxy, but alas .. Drawn to the Poles. Now it is an endangered country with a president who used to work in the Baltic states in Leningrad and knocked on the KGB, and now she is bowing. In the Baltic region, there are no more people left, the toilet bowls are washed in the geyrop.
  15. barass
    barass 25 June 2015 00: 31
    ne ruskij bil jazyk a staro slavianskaja mova GUDOV k kotoruju siuda prinesli zapodno sloviani. i svostokom i tem bolee s rosije slavinizirovanyje plemena baltov teperesnije belorusi nekokoe otnoshenije neimeli i neimejut !!! o zmudov tak vopshe na nebo napisal, s kakimi shliaktami ??? oni vopshe vnachale nebili vsostave VKL., atem bolee spolskoi shliaxtoi. Ne zria kniaz litovskij vytautas ix nemeckomu ordinu podaril :))) ...... I perstante s etimi unitazami, davno ich pribalti nemoet, teper ich moet ili apelsini sobiraet v ispanije emigranti iz tretix stran kotorije rabote des rabot des Vsio perevernulos kogda voshli v sostav evro sajuza, i rabotu mozesh vibirat .. i ja nechego ploxovo nevizu shto ja svobodno mogu peredvigatsa v stranu kotoruju mne zaxochitsa, i shto ja mogu rabu avaato uvat uvatat nevato uvat uvatat uvato uvatatu Pol goda rabotaju pol goda za eti dengi prozivaju doma u sebia litve, i vsio do ushei dostatochno .. V chiom problemi, kazdij vibiraet gde lushe, sami nemci jedet v shvediju narvegiju rabotat potomu shto u nix minimalk dva rava germaniji .. chio vi gonite na eto evropu vam kazitsa shto tam odni gomiki i odni pediki guliaet.jesli ti sam ne gomik ti imi neintiresujesha i ix prosto nevidis. srat nam eti gomiki mi edem tuda sosvoimi celiami .. K stati samij glavnim pedik litvi organizator vsex homikov paradovv litve ejvliatsa ruskij imia Vladimir, shto vi na eto skazite ?? !!