Military Review

Cossacks in the Civil War. Part IV. And what did you fight for?

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In a previous article, it was shown how, in the midst of the Whites' offensive against Moscow, their forces were distracted by the raid of Makhno and the actions of other rebels in Ukraine and the Kuban. 1-I Cavalry Army formed by the red parts of the shock units, as a result of a successful counter-offensive, by 6 January 1920 broke through to Taganrog and was able to split the Armed Forces of Southern Russia (VSYUR) into two parts. In January, the advance of the Reds continued. January 7 Konno-Consolidated Corps B.M. Dumenko occupied the capital of the white Don Novocherkassk. On January 10, units of the 1 Cavalry Army under the command of S. M. Budyonny were occupied by Rostov. By the beginning of 1920, most of the territory of the Don was occupied by red: the mounted army of Budyonny and 8, 9, 10 and 11 armies in 43 LLC bayonets and 28 000 sabers with 400 guns, total 71 000 ch. The front between the belligerents passed along the line of the Don. During the retreat, the troops of the VYVR divided into two parts: the main forces retreated southeast to the Kuban, and the other part to the Crimea and beyond the Dnieper. Therefore, the Soviet front was divided into the South and Southeast. The main base of the counter-revolution was the Don, Kuban and the Caucasus, and therefore the main task of the Reds was the destruction of the forces of the Southeast. The 10-I Red Army marched on Tikhoretskaya, the 9-I was advancing from Razdorskaya-Konstantinovskaya, the 8-I was advancing from the Novocherkassk area, and in the Rostov region, the cavalry army of Budyonny with attached infantry divisions operated. The cavalry army consisted of 70% of volunteers from the Don and Kuban regions, including 9500 riders, 4500 infantry, 400 machine guns, 56 guns, 3 armored trains and 16 airplanes.


Don froze more 3 on January 1920 of the year and the Soviet commander Shorin ordered his 1 Horse Mounted and 8 armies to be forced from the cities of Nakhichevan and Aksai. General Sidorin ordered to prevent this and smash the enemy at the crossings, which was done. After this failure, the 1-I Cavalry Army was assigned to the reserve and to replenish. 16 January 1920, the Southeast Front was renamed Caucasian, commanded by Tukhachevsky on February 4. He was tasked with completing the rout of General Denikin’s armies and seizing the North Caucasus before the war with Poland began. Three reserve Latvian divisions and one Estonian are transferred to reinforcement of this front. In the front line, the number of red troops reached 60 thousands of bayonets and sabers against 46 thousands of whites. In turn, General Denikin also prepared the offensive with the aim of returning Rostov and Novocherkassk. In early February, the Red cavalry corps of Dumenko was defeated on Manych, and as a result of the onset of the Kutepov Volunteer Corps and the 3rd Don 20 Corps of February, White again captured Rostov and Novocherkassk, which, according to Denikin, “caused an explosion of exaggerated hopes in Ekaterinodar and Novorossiysk ... However, the movement to the north could not get development, because the enemy went already to the deep rear of the Volunteer Corps - to Tikhoretskaya ".

The fact is that simultaneously with the onset of the Volunteer Corps, the shock group of the 10 Army of the Reds broke through the defenses of the whites in the area of ​​responsibility of the unstable and decaying Kuban Army, and the 1 Cavalry Army was introduced into the breakthrough to develop success on Tikhoretskaya. The equestrian group of General Pavlov (II and IV Don corps) was advanced against her. On the night of February 19, Pavlov's equestrian group struck at Trading, but White's bitter attacks were repulsed. The white cavalry was forced to retreat to Middle Egorlyk in a bitter cold. Leaving the Merchant, the Cossack regiments joined the main forces, which were in a very unattractive position, located under the open sky on the snow, in a terrible frost. The morning awakening was terrible and there were quite a few frozen ones in the corpus. To turn the tide in their favor, the White Command 25 of February decided to strike at the rear of the 1 Cavalry Army. Budyonny was aware of the movement of Pavlov’s group, and he prepared for battle. Rifle divisions took positions. Horse regiments lined up in columns. The head brigade of the IV Corps was unexpectedly attacked by Budyonny's cavalry, crumpled and turned into erratic flight, which upset the following columns. As a result, to the south of strategically important Middle Egorlyk 25 February, a battle takes place - the largest for the whole history civil war oncoming equestrian battle of up to 25 thousands of sabers on both sides (15 thousands of reds against 10 thousands of whites). The battle was distinguished by a purely cavalry character. The attacks of opponents took turns within a few hours and were distinguished by extreme bitterness. Horse attacks occurred with alternating alternation of movements of horse masses from one side to another. The retreating masses of one cavalry were pursued by the enemy’s horse mass rushing after it to their reserves, when approaching which the attackers fell under heavy artillery and machine-gun fire. The attackers stopped and turned back, but at this time the enemy's cavalry, recovering and replenishing their reserves, proceeded to the pursuit and drove the enemy also to its original position, where the attackers fell into the same position. After artillery and machine-gun fire, they turned back, pursued by the returning cavalry of the enemy. Fluctuations of horse masses, occurring from one height to another through the vast basin that divided them, continued from 11 in the afternoon until the evening. A Soviet author, evaluating the operation of Pavlov's equestrian group, concludes: "The once white glorious cavalry that thundered with glorious battles and dashing attacks, the best white cavalry, lost much of its menacing meaning on Denikin and our Caucasian fronts." This moment for the Don cavalry in the history of the civil war was decisive, and after that everything went to the fact that the Don cavalry quickly lost its moral stability and, without resistance, began to quickly roll towards the Caucasus Mountains. This battle actually decided the fate of the battle for the Kuban. The cavalry army of Budyonny, leaving its cover in the direction of Tikhoretskaya with the support of several infantry divisions, moved to pursue the remnants of the equestrian group of General Pavlov. After this battle, the white army, having lost the will to resist, retreated. The Reds won the war in the southeast against the Cossacks. The civil war between the Whites and the Reds of the Southeastern Front practically ended in this battle of the select horsemen of both warring parties.

Cossacks in the Civil War. Part IV. And what did you fight for?

Fig. 1 Battle of the 1 Mounted Army under Egorlyk

March 1 The volunteer corps left Rostov, and the white armies began to retreat to the Kuban River. The Cossack units of the Kuban Army (the most unstable part of the Volyn) completely decayed and began to surrender en masse to red or go over to the "green" side, which led to the collapse of the white front and the retreat of the remnants of the Volunteer Army in Novorossiysk. The next most significant events were the crossing over the Kuban, the Novorossiysk evacuation, and the transfer of part of the whites to the Crimea. 3 March Red troops approached Yekaterinodar. Stavropol was commissioned more 18 February. The Kuban region was overwhelmed by retreating and advancing waves of the contending parties, large batches of greens were formed in the mountains, which declared that they were against the Reds and against the Whites, in fact it was one of the ways to get out of the war, and the greens (if necessary) easily turned into red. By the spring of 1920, in the rear of the whites, the 12-thousand-strong guerrilla army of greens was active, providing substantial assistance to the five advancing red armies, under the blows of which the front of the All-Soviet Union was falling apart, and the Cossacks were massively switching to the green ones. The volunteer army with the remnants of the Cossack units retreated to Novorossiysk, the Reds moved after. The success of the Tikhoretskaya operation allowed them to proceed to the Kuban-Novorossiysk operation, during which the 17 of March the 9-I army of the Caucasian Front under the command of I.P. Uborevicha took Ekaterinodar and forced the Kuban. Leaving Yekaterinodar and crossing over the Kuban, the refugees and military units fell into unfavorable environmental conditions. The low and swampy banks of the Kuban River and numerous rivers flowing from the mountains with swampy shocks impeded their movement. Circassian auls with a population irreconcilably hostile and white and red were scattered along the foothills. The few stanitsas of the Kuban Cossacks were with a strong admixture of nonresident, most sympathizing with the Bolsheviks. In the mountains dominated the green. Negotiations with them led to nothing. Dobromrmiya and the I Don Corps retreated to Novorossiysk, which was a "vile sight." Behind the agonizing front in Novorossiysk, tens of thousands of people have accumulated, most of whom were completely healthy and fit with weapons in the hands to defend their right to exist. It was difficult to observe these representatives of the bankrupt government and intelligentsia: landowners, officials, the bourgeoisie, dozens and hundreds of generals, thousands of officers who were trying to quickly leave, angry, frustrated and cursing everyone and everything. Novorossiysk, in general, was a military camp and a rear nativity scene. In the meantime, in the port of Novorossiysk, troops were being loaded onto vessels of all types, more reminiscent of fistfights. All ships were provided for loading the Volunteer Corps, which 26-27 March from Novorossiysk went by sea to the Crimea. Not a single ship was given for parts of the Don Army, and General Sidorin, who had lost his temper, went to Novorossiysk with the goal of failing to ship Don units to shoot Denikin. This did not help, there were simply no ships, and the 9 Army of the Reds 27 in March captured Novorossiysk. Cossack units located in the Novorossiysk area were forced to surrender in red.


Fig. 2 Evacuation of whites from Novorossiysk

The other part of the Don Army, together with the Kuban units, was drawn into the mountainous hungry region and moved on Tuapse. March 20 I Kuban Shefner-Markevich occupied Tuapse, easily expelled from it occupied the red part of the city. Then he moved further to Sochi, and the cover of Tuapse was entrusted to the II Kuban Corps. The number of troops and refugees departing on Tuapse turned up to 57 LLC. There was only one solution left: to go to the borders of Georgia. But in the talks that began, Georgia refused to let the armed mass across the border, as it had neither food nor sufficient funds not only for the refugees, but even for itself. However, the movement towards Georgia nevertheless continued, and the Cossacks reached Georgia without any complications.

Faced with the defeat of his troops with the intensification of opposition sentiments in the white movement, Denikin 4 April left the post of Commander-in-Chief of the All-Soviet Union, handed over command to General Wrangel and the same day on the English battleship "The Emperor of India" departed with his friend, comrade and former chief of staff of the Soviet. General Romanovsky in England with an intermediate stop in Constantinople, where the latter was shot dead in the Russian Embassy in Constantinople by a lieutenant Kharuzin, a former counterintelligence officer and VSYUR.

April 20 from the Crimea to Tuapse, Sochi, Sukhum and Poti arrived military vessels to load the Cossacks and transport them to the Crimea. But only people who decided to part with their comrades, horses, were loaded, since the transportation could be carried out without horses and horse equipment. It should be said that the most implacable were evacuated. So the 80 th Zungar regiment did not accept the terms of surrender, did not lay down arms, and in full force along with the remnants of the Don units was evacuated to the Crimea. In Crimea, the 80 th Zungar regiment, consisting of the Salsk-Kalmyk Cossacks, marched in front of the Supreme Commander of the All-Soviet Union of Persons and Persons, P.N. Wrangel, as among the units evacuated from Novorossiysk and Adler, besides this regiment there was not a single armed unit. Most of the Cossack regiments, pressed to the shore, accepted the terms of the surrender and surrendered to parts of the Red Army. According to the Bolsheviks, on the Adler coast, they took 40 LLC man and 10 000 horses. It should be said that during the civil war, the Soviet leadership somewhat adjusted its policy regarding the Cossacks, trying not only to split it even more, but also to attract as much as possible to its side. For the leadership of the Red Cossacks and for agitation purposes, in order to show that not all Cossacks are against the Soviet power, a Cossack department is created under the All-Russian Central Executive Committee. As the Cossack military governments became increasingly dependent on the “white” generals, the Cossacks, one by one, and in groups began to side with the Bolsheviks. At the beginning of 1920, these transitions become widespread. In the Red Army, whole divisions of Cossacks begin to be created. Especially many Cossacks join the Red Army, when the White Guards are evacuated to the Crimea and throw tens of thousands of Don and Kuban residents onto the Black Sea coast. Most of the abandoned Cossacks, after filtration, are credited to the Red Army and sent to the Polish front. In particular, it was then that Guy's 3 Cavalry Corps, which was recorded in the Guinness Book of Records as “the best cavalry of all times and peoples”, was formed from prisoners of the White Cossacks. Along with the White Cossacks, a large number of white officers are credited to the Red Army. Then a joke was born: “The Red Army is like a radish, it’s red outside, it’s white inside.” Due to the large number of former whites in the Red Army, the military leadership of the Bolsheviks even imposed a limit on the number of white officers in the Red Army - no more than 25% of the commanding staff. "Surpluses" were sent to the rear, or went to teach in military schools. In all, about 15 of thousands of white officers served during the civil war in the Red Army. Many of these officers linked their fate with the Red Army, and some achieved a high position. So, for example, from this “appeal” the former adjoining the Don Army Shapkin TT during the Patriotic War, he was a lieutenant-general and a comic book, and the former Kolchak artillery headquarters captain L. Govorov. became the front and one of the marshals of Victory. However, the 25 March 1920, the Bolsheviks issued a decree on the abolition of the Cossack military lands. Soviet power was finally established on the Don and adjacent territories. The great Don Army ceased to exist. Thus ended the civil war on the lands of the Don and Kuban Cossacks and the entire southeast.

The Crimean peninsula was the last stage of the civil war in the southeast. He responded both in terms of geographical location and political aspiration of the leaders of the Volunteer Army, because he represented a neutral zone, independent of the power of the Cossack administration and the claims of the Cossacks for internal independence and sovereignty. Parts of the Cossacks transported from the Black Sea coast, in psychology, were also volunteers who left their territories and were deprived of the opportunity to fight directly for their lands, houses and property. The command of the Volunteer Army was relieved of the need to reckon with the governments of the Don, Kuban and Terek, but it was deprived of their economic base, necessary for the successful conduct of the war. It was obvious that the Crimean region was not a reliable territory for the continuation of the civil war, and for the continuation of the struggle it was necessary to build calculations only for unforeseen happy circumstances, or for a miracle, or to prepare for a final exit from the war and look for a way out. The number of army, refugees and rear services amounted to one and a half million people, especially those who were not inclined to put up with the Bolsheviks. Western countries with keen attention and curiosity watched the tragedy in Russia. England, which had previously taken an active part in the history of the white movement in Russia, was inclined to end civil strife, with the goal of concluding a trade agreement with the Soviets. General Wrangel, who replaced Denikin, was well acquainted with the general situation in Russia and in the West and had no bright hopes for a successful continuation of the war. Peace with the Bolsheviks was impossible, negotiations on concluding peace agreements were excluded, there was only one inevitable decision: to prepare the basis for a possible safe exit from the struggle, i.e. evacuation. Having entered command, General Wrangel vigorously stood up to continue the struggle, at the same time he directed all efforts to putting the ships and ships of the Black Sea in order fleet. At this time, an unexpected ally appeared in the struggle. Poland entered the war against the Bolsheviks, which opened up the possibility for the white command to have at least this very slippery and temporary ally in the struggle. Poland, taking advantage of the internal turmoil in Russia, began to spread the borders of its territory to the east and decided to occupy Kiev. On April 25, 1920, the Polish army, equipped at the expense of France, invaded Soviet Ukraine and on May 6 occupied Kiev.


Fig. 3 Soviet poster of the year 1920

Head of the Polish State U. Pilsudski hatched a plan to create a confederative state "from sea to sea", which would include the territory of Poland, Ukraine, Belarus, and Lithuania. Disregarding the claims of Poland unacceptable to Russian politics, General Wrangel agreed to an agreement with Pilsudski and concluded a military treaty with him. However, these plans were not destined to come true. The Reds began to take measures against the threat coming from the west. The Soviet-Polish war began. This war took the character of a national war among the Russian people and began successfully. On May 14, a counter-offensive began on the forces of the Western Front (commander M.N. Tukhachevsky), 26 May - South-West (Commander A.I. Egorov). Polish troops quickly began to retreat, did not hold Kiev, and in mid-July the Reds approached the borders of Poland. The Politburo of the Central Committee of the RCP (b), clearly overestimating its own forces and underestimating the forces of the enemy, set the Red Army command a new strategic task: to enter the territory of Poland with battles, take its capital and create conditions for the proclamation of Soviet power in the country. According to the statements of the Bolshevik leaders, in general, it was an attempt to push the "red bayonet" into Europe and thereby "stir up the Western European proletariat" and push it to support the world revolution. Speaking at 22 in September of 1920 at the 9th All-Russian Conference of the RCP (B), Lenin said: “We decided to use our military forces to help the Sovietization of Poland. From this followed the further general policy. We formulated it not in the official resolution recorded in the minutes of the Central Committee and representing the law for the party until the new congress. But among themselves we said that we should probe with bayonets, whether the social revolution of the proletariat in Poland had not matured. ” The order of Tukhachevsky to the troops of the Western Front No. 1423 from 2 July 1920 sounded even clearer and clearer: “In the West, the fate of the world revolution is decided. Through the corpse of White Poland Poland is the path to a global fire. On bayonets, we will carry happiness to working mankind! ” However, some military leaders, including Trotsky, feared for the success of the offensive and offered to respond to the proposals of the Poles for peace. Trotsky, who knew the state of the Red Army well, wrote in his memoirs: “There were hot hopes for the uprising of the Polish workers .... Lenin had a firm plan: to bring the matter to the end, that is, to join Warsaw in order to help the Polish working masses to overturn the Pilsudski government and seize power ... I found in the center a very strong mood in favor of bringing the war to the end. I strongly opposed this. The Poles have already asked for peace. I thought that we had reached the culmination point of success, and if, without calculating our strength, we go further, then we can pass by the already won victory - to defeat. ” Despite the views of Trotsky, Lenin and almost all members of the Politburo rejected his proposal for an immediate peace with Poland. The attack on Warsaw was entrusted to the Western Front, and to Lviv South-Western. The successful advance of the Red Army to the west created a great threat to Central and Western Europe. The Red cavalry invaded Galicia and threatened to occupy Lvov.

The attempt to invade Poland ended in disaster. The troops of the Western Front in August 1920 were routed near Warsaw (the so-called “Miracle on the Vistula”), and rolled back. During the battle of the five armies of the Western Front only 3-I survived, which managed to retreat. The rest of the armies were defeated or destroyed: the 4 Army and part of the 15 fled to East Prussia and were interned, the Mozyr group, the 15 and 16 armies were also defeated. More than 120 thousands of Red Army soldiers captured during the battle near Warsaw were taken prisoner, and 40 thousands more soldiers were in East Prussia in internment camps. This defeat of the Red Army is the most catastrophic in the history of the civil war. According to Russian sources, in the future about 80 thousands of Red Army soldiers out of the total number of Polish prisoners were killed by starvation, disease, torture, harassment, executions, or did not return to their homeland. It is reliably known only about the number of returned prisoners of war and interned - 75 699 people. In the estimates of the total number of prisoners of war, the Russian and Polish sides diverge - from 85 to 157 thousand people. The Soviets were forced to enter into peace negotiations. In October, the parties concluded a truce, and in March 1921, another “obscene world” was concluded, like Brest, only with Poland and also with a large contribution. According to its conditions for Poland, a significant part of the land in the west of Ukraine and Belarus with 10 million Ukrainians and Belarusians. None of the parties during the war reached its goals: Belarus and Ukraine were divided between Poland and the Soviet republics, which entered the Soviet Union in 1922 year. The territory of Lithuania was divided between Poland and the independent Lithuanian state. The RSFSR, for its part, recognized the independence of Poland and the legitimacy of the Pilsudski government, temporarily abandoned plans for a "world revolution" and the abolition of the Versailles system. Despite the signing of a peace treaty, relations between the USSR and Poland remained very tense over the following years, which ultimately led to the participation of the USSR in the partition of Poland in the 1939 year. During the Soviet-Polish war between the countries of the Entente disagreements arose on the issue of military-financial support of Poland. Negotiations on the transfer of part of the property and weapons captured by the Poles to Wrangel’s army also did not lead to any results due to the failure of the leadership of the white movement to recognize Poland’s independence. All this led to a gradual cooling and termination of the support of many countries of the white movement and anti-Bolshevik forces in general, and subsequently to the international recognition of the Soviet Union.

At the height of the Soviet-Polish war, Baron P.N. moved to active operations in the south. Wrangell. With the help of harsh measures of influence, including public executions of demoralized soldiers and officers, the general turned scattered Denikin divisions into a disciplined and efficient army. After the start of the Soviet-Polish war, the Russian Army (formerly-armed forces of the Soviet Union), which had recovered from the unsuccessful attack on Moscow, launched from the Crimea and by the middle of June occupied Northern Tavria. Military operations on the territory of the Tauride region can be attributed to military historians as examples of brilliant military art. But soon the resources of the Crimea were almost exhausted. In the supply of weapons and ammunition, Wrangel was forced to rely only on France, since England had already stopped helping White back in 1919. August 14 A landing party (1920 thousand bayonets and sabers) was landed from the Crimea in the Kuban under the direction of General S. G. Ulagai, with the aim of uniting with numerous rebels and opening a second front against the Bolsheviks. But the initial successes of the assault force, when the Cossacks, having crushed the red units thrown against them, had already reached the approaches to Ekaterinodar, could not be developed because of Ulagai’s mistakes, which, contrary to the original plan of the swift attack on the capital of the Kuban, had stopped the offensive and started regrouping the troops. This allowed the red to tighten reserves, create a numerical advantage and block parts of Ulagay. The Cossacks retreated to the coast of the Sea of ​​Azov, to Achuev, from where 4,5 of September was evacuated to the Crimea, taking with them 7 of thousands of insurgents who joined them. Planted on Taman and in the area of ​​Abrau-Durso, a few paratroopers to divert the forces of the Red Army from the main Ulagayev paratrooper after stubborn battles were also taken back to the Crimea. 10-thousandth guerrilla army Fostikova, operating in the area of ​​Armavir-Maykop, to get to the aid of the landing force could not. In July-August, the main forces of the Wranglewiers fought successfully in defensive battles in Northern Tavria. After the failure of the assault force on the Kuban, realizing that the army blocked in the Crimea was doomed, Wrangel decided to break the encirclement and make his way towards the advancing Polish army.

But before moving the fighting to the right bank of the Dnieper, Wrangel threw parts of his Russian army to the Donbass in order to crush the Red Army units operating there and prevent them from striking the rear of the white army’s main forces, which they successfully managed . October 3 began the White offensive on the Right Bank. But the initial success failed to develop and October 15 Wrangel moved to the left bank of the Dnieper. Meanwhile, the Poles, contrary to the promises given to Wrangel, 12 of October 1920 of the year concluded an armistice with the Bolsheviks, who immediately began to deploy troops from the Polish front against the white army. October 28 units of the Southern Red Front, commanded by M.V. Frunze launched a counterattack, in order to encircle and defeat the Russian army of General Wrangel in Northern Tavria, not allowing it to withdraw to the Crimea. But the planned environment failed. The main part of Wrangel’s army to 3 November was transferred to the Crimea, where it consolidated on the prepared lines of defense. MV Frunze, concentrating around 190 thousands of fighters against 41 thousands of bayonets and sabers at Wrangel, on November 7 began storming the Crimea. Frunze wrote an appeal to General Wrangel, which was broadcast by the front radio station. After the text of the radio telegram was reported to Wrangel, he ordered the closure of all radio stations, except one, which was served by officers, in order to prevent the troops from familiarizing themselves with Frunze’s address. No reply was sent.

Fig. 4 Comfront M.V. Frunze

Despite the significant superiority in manpower and weapons, the Red forces could not for several days break the defenders of the Crimea. On the night of November 10, the machine-gun regiment on the carts and the cavalry brigade of the insurgent army of Makhno, under the command of Karetnik, forced the Sivash along the bottom. They were counterattacked under Yushun and Karpova Balka by the cavalry corps of General Barbovich. Against the Barbovich cavalry corps (4590 sabers, 150 machine guns, 30 cannons, 5 armored cars), the Makhnovists used their favorite tactical technique of the “false counter cavalry attack”. Cartwright located in the battle line immediately behind the lava of the cavalry Kozhin machine-gun regiment on the carts and led the lava to the oncoming battle. But when 400 - 500 meters remained up to White's horse lava, the Makhnov lava spread out on the sides of the flanks, the cart quickly turned around and machine gunners opened heavy fire from close range at the attacking enemy, who had nowhere to go. The fire was conducted with the highest voltage, creating a fire density up to 60 bullets per running meter of the front per minute. The Makhnovian cavalry at that time entered the enemy’s flank and defeated it with cold weapons. The machine-gun regiment of the Makhnovists, which was a mobile reserve of the brigade, in one battle completely destroyed almost the entire cavalry of the Wrangel army, which decided the result of the whole battle. Having smashed the Barbovich's cavalry corps, the Makhnovists and the red Cossacks of the 2 Cavalry Army Mironov went to the rear of Wrangel’s forces defending the Perekop Isthmus, which contributed to the success of the entire Crimean operation. The defense of the whites was broken and the Red Army broke into the Crimea. November 12 red was taken Dzhankoy, November 13 - Simferopol, November 15 - Sevastopol, November November 16 - Kerch.


Fig. 5 Liberation of the Crimea from the whites

After the Bolsheviks seized the Crimea, mass shootings of the civilian and military population began on the peninsula. The evacuation of the Russian army and civilians also began. For three days, troops, families of officers, and part of the civilian population from the Crimean ports of Sevastopol, Yalta, Theodosia, and Kerch were sunk on 126 ships. 14-16 November 1920, the armada of ships under the flag of St. Andrew’s left the Crimea, taking white regiments and tens of thousands of civilian refugees to foreign lands. The total number of voluntary exiles was 150 thousand people. Coming out on an improvised "armada" to the open sea and becoming inaccessible to the Reds, the commander of the armada sent a telegram addressed to "all ... all ... all ..." with a statement of the situation and a request for assistance.


Fig. 6 Running

France responded to the call for help, her government agreed to accept the army as emigrants for its support. After receiving consent, the fleet moved towards Constantinople, then the volunteer corps was sent to the Gallipoli peninsula (then it was the territory of Greece), and the Cossack units, after some stay in Chataldja camp, were sent to the island of Lemnos, one of the islands of the Ionian archipelago. After a year-long stay of the Cossacks in the camps, an agreement was reached with the Slavic Balkan countries on the deployment of military units and emigration in these countries, with a financial guarantee for their food, but without the right of free accommodation in the country. Under the difficult conditions of camp emigration, epidemics and famine were frequent and many of the Cossacks who left their homeland died. But this stage became the base from which accommodation of emigrants began in other countries, as opportunities for entry into European countries to work on contract with groups or individuals opened up, with permission to search for work on site, depending on professional training and personal abilities. About 30 thousands of Cossacks, once again believed the promises of the Bolsheviks and in 1922-1925 returned to Soviet Russia. Later, they were repressed. So for many years the white Russian army became for the whole world the vanguard and an example of an uncompromising struggle against communism, and the Russian emigration began to serve for all countries as a reproach and moral antidote to this threat.

With the fall of the White Crimea, organized resistance to the power of the Bolsheviks in the European part of Russia was stopped. But on the agenda for the red "dictatorship of the proletariat" there was an acute question of the struggle against peasant uprisings that swept all over Russia and directed against this power. Peasant uprisings, which have not stopped since 1918, turned into real peasant wars by the beginning of 1921, which was facilitated by the demobilization of the Red Army, as a result of which millions of men familiar with military affairs came from the army. These uprisings swept the Tambov region, Ukraine, the Don, Kuban, Volga region, the Urals and Siberia. Peasants demanded, first of all, changes in tax and agricultural policies. Regular units of the Red Army with artillery, armored vehicles and aviation. In February 1921, strikes and protest rallies of workers with political and economic demands also began in Petrograd. The Petrograd Committee of the RCP (B) qualified the unrest in the factories of the city as a rebellion and imposed martial law in the city, arresting workers' activists. But discontent spread to the armed forces. The Baltic Fleet and Kronstadt became agitated, once, as Lenin called them in 1917, "the beauty and pride of the revolution." However, the then “beauty and pride of the revolution” has long been either disappointed in the revolution, or perished on the fronts of the civil war, or together with another, swarthy and curly “beauty and pride of the revolution” from Little Russian and Belorussian places, planted the “dictatorship of the proletariat” in a peasant country . And now the Kronstadt garrison consisted of the same mobilized peasants, whom the "beauty and pride of the revolution" made happy with a new life.

Fig. 7 Beauty and pride of the revolution in the village

1 March 1921 of the year seamen and Red Army soldiers of Kronstadt Fortress (26 garrison of thousands of people) under the slogan “For Soviets without Communists!” Issued a resolution on supporting the workers of Petrograd, created a revkom and appealed to the country. Since in him, and in the softest form, almost all the demands of the people of that time were formulated, it makes sense to bring it in full:

“Comrades and citizens!

Our country is going through a difficult moment. Hunger, cold, economic ruin have been holding us in iron grip for three years now. The Communist Party, ruling the country, broke away from the masses and was not able to bring it out of the state of general disruption. It did not count with the unrest that had recently taken place in Petrograd and Moscow, which rather clearly indicated that the party had lost the trust of the working masses. Not considered with the requirements of the workers. She considers them the machinations of counter-revolution. She is deeply mistaken. These unrest, these demands - the voice of the whole people, of all the working people. All the workers, sailors and Red Army men clearly see at the moment that only by common efforts, by the common will of the working people, can the country be given bread, firewood, coal, clothed and disheveled, and brought the republic out of the impasse ...

1. Since the present Soviets no longer reflect the will of the workers and peasants, immediately hold new, secret elections and for the election campaign provide full freedom of agitation among the workers and soldiers;

2. To grant freedom of speech and press to workers and peasants, as well as to all anarchist and left-socialist parties;

3. To guarantee freedom of assembly and coalition to all trade unions and peasant organizations;

4. To convene an over-party conference of workers, Red Army men and sailors of St. Petersburg, Kronstadt and St. Petersburg province, which should be held at the latest on March 10 on March 1921;

5. Release all political prisoners belonging to socialist parties, and release from prison all workers, peasants and sailors who were arrested in connection with workers and peasant unrest;

6. To verify the affairs of the remaining prisoners in prison and concentration camps, elect an audit commission;

7. Eliminate all political departments, since no party has the right to claim special privileges to distribute their ideas or financial support for this from the government; instead, establish cultural and educational commissions to be elected locally and funded by the government;

8. Immediately dissolve all barrage units;

9. Establish an equal size of the food ration for all workers, except for those whose work is particularly dangerous from a medical point of view;
10. Eliminate special communist departments in all formations of the Red Army and communist security groups in enterprises and replace them, where necessary, with compounds that should be allocated by the army itself, and in enterprises - formed by the workers themselves;

11. To give the peasants complete freedom to dispose of their land, as well as the right to own their livestock, provided that they manage their own means, that is, without hiring labor;

12. To request all soldiers, sailors and cadets to support our demands;

13. Ensure that these solutions are distributed in print;

14. To appoint a traveling control commission;

15. Allow the freedom of artisanal production, if it is not based on the exploitation of foreign labor. "


Convinced of the impossibility of reaching an agreement with the sailors, the authorities began to prepare for the suppression of the uprising. March 5 was restored 7-I army under the command of Mikhail Tukhachevsky, who were instructed "to suppress the uprising in Kronstadt as soon as possible." March 7 artillery began shelling Kronstadt. The leader of the uprising, S. Petrichenko, later wrote: "Standing up to the waist in the blood of working people, bloody field marshal Trotsky first opened fire on revolutionary Kronstadt, who rebelled against the sovereignty of the communists to restore the true power of the Soviets." 8 March 1921, on the opening day of the 10th Congress of the RCP (b), units of the Red Army launched an assault on Kronstadt. But the assault was repulsed, punitive troops, suffering heavy losses, retreated to their original lines. Sharing the demands of the rebels, many Red Army and army units refused to participate in suppressing the uprising. Began mass executions. For the second assault on Kronstadt, the most loyal units were put into battle, and even delegates to the party congress were thrown into battle. On the night of March 16, after an intensive shelling of the fortress, a new assault began. Thanks to the tactics of the shooting of retreating barrage detachments and the superiority of forces and means, Tukhachevsky's troops broke into the fortress, fierce street battles began, and only by the morning of March 18 the resistance in Kronstadt was broken. Part of the defenders of the fortress died in battle, the other went to Finland (8 thousand), the rest surrendered (of them shot by verdicts of the revtribunals - 2103 people). But the victims were not in vain. This uprising was the last straw that filled the cup of national patience, and made a tremendous impression on the Bolsheviks. 14 March 1921, the X congress of the RCP (b) adopted the new economic policy "NEP", which changed the policy of "war communism", carried out during the civil war.

By 1921, Russia literally lay in ruins. The territories of Poland, Finland, Latvia, Estonia, Lithuania, Western Ukraine, Western Belarus, the Kara region (in Armenia), and Bessarabia were separated from the former Russian Empire. The population in the remaining territories did not reach 135 million people. Losses in these territories as a result of wars, epidemics, emigration, reduction in the birth rate amounted to at least 1914 million people with 25. During the war, mining enterprises of the Donetsk coal basin, the Baku oil region, the Urals and Siberia suffered especially, many mines and mines were destroyed. Due to the lack of fuel and raw materials, the plants stopped. The workers were forced to leave the cities and leave for the village. The overall industry level has declined more than 6 times. The equipment has not been updated for a long time. Metallurgy produced as much metal as it was smelted under Peter I. Rural production declined by 40%. During the civil war, hunger, disease, terror, and in battles killed (according to various sources) from 8 to 13 million. Erlihman V.V. cites the following data: about 2,5 million people were killed and died from wounds, including 0,95 million Red Army soldiers; 0,65 million white soldiers and national armies; 0,9 million rebels of different colors. About 2,5 million people died as a result of terror. About 6 million people died from hunger and epidemics. Total killed about 10,5 million.

Emigrated from the country to 2 million. The number of street children has dramatically increased. According to different data in 1921-1922, in Russia there were from 4,5 to 7 million homeless. The damage to the national economy amounted to about 50 billion gold rubles. Industrial production fell in various industries to 4-20% of the year’s level of 1913. As a result of the civil war, the Russian people remained under the authority of the communists. The result of the Bolshevik domination was the outbreak of an apocalyptic general hunger, which covered Russia with millions of corpses. In order to avoid further hunger and general disruption, the Communists did not have any methods in the arsenal, and their brilliant leader, Ulyanov, decided to introduce the new economic program under the name NEP, to destroy the foundations of which they had taken all imaginable and inconceivable measures. November 19, 1919, in his speech, he said: “Farmers do not all understand that free trade in bread is a state crime: I produced bread; this is my product, and I have the right to trade them: this is how the peasant reasoned the old way. And we say it's a state crime. " Now, not only free trade in bread was introduced, but also in all others. Moreover, private property was restored, private enterprises were returned to their own enterprises, private initiative and wage labor were allowed. These measures satisfied the bulk of the country's population, above all the peasantry. After all, 85% of the population of the country were small proprietors, first of all peasants, and the workers were - it is ridiculous to say, a little more than 1% of the population. In 1921, the population of Soviet Russia in the then limits was 134,2 million, and industrial workers were 1 million 400 thousand. NEP was a turn on 180 degrees. Such a reboot was not to the liking of many Bolsheviks. Even their brilliant leader, who possessed a titanic mind and will, survived dozens of incredible metamorphoses and twists in his political biography, based on his crazy dialectics and bare, unprincipled, pragmatism, could not stand such ideological kulbit and soon lost his mind. And how many of his comrades-in-law have lost their minds or have committed suicide from changing the course, history is silent about this. In the party matured discontent, the political leadership responded with mass party cleansing.


Fig. 8 Lenin before death

With the introduction of the NEP, the country quickly came to life, and life in all respects began to revive in the country. The civil war, having lost economic reasons and a massive social base, quickly began to stop. And then it's time to ask questions: And what did you fight for? What have you achieved? What conquered? For the sake of what destroyed the country and put millions of lives of representatives of its people? After all, they returned almost to the starting points of being and ideology, from which the civil war began. The Bolsheviks and their followers do not like to answer these questions.

The answer to the question of who is responsible for the outbreak of a civil war in Russia does not depend on the facts, but depends on the political orientation of the people. The followers of the Reds naturally began the war of the whites, while the followers of the Whites naturally started the Bolsheviks. Do not strongly argue only about the places and dates of its beginning, as well as the time and place of its end. It ended in March 1921 of the year at the X Congress of the RCP (B.) With the introduction of the NEP, i.e. with the abolition of the policy of "war communism". And no matter how hard the Communists are and they do not mislead, this circumstance automatically gives the correct answer to the question posed. It was the irresponsible introduction of class chimeras of Bolshevism into the life and life of a peasant country that became the main cause of the civil war, and the abolition of these chimeras became the signal for its end. It also automatically solves the question of responsibility for all its consequences. Although history does not accept the subjunctive mood, but the whole course and especially the final of the war speak for the fact that if the Bolsheviks did not break the people's life through the knee, then there would not be such a bloody war. This is very eloquently indicated by the defeat of Dutov and Kaledin at the beginning of 1918. The Cossacks responded to their atamans clearly and concretely: “The Bolsheviks have done nothing wrong to us. Why do we go to fight with them? ". But everything changed dramatically after a few months of the real stay of the Bolsheviks in power, and in response, mass uprisings began. Throughout its history, humanity has unleashed a lot of senseless wars. Among them, civil wars are most often not only the most senseless, but also the most cruel and merciless. But even in this series of transcendental human idiocy, the civil war in Russia is phenomenal. It ended after the restoration of political and economic conditions of management, due to the cancellation of which, in fact, began. The bloody circle of crazy voluntarism closed. So what did you fight for? And who won?

The war ended, but it was necessary to solve the problem of deceived heroes of the civil war. There were many of them, for several years on foot and on horseback they were extracting a bright future for themselves, promised by commissars of all ranks and all nationalities, and now they demanded, if not communism, then at least a tolerable life for themselves and loved ones, to satisfy their most minimal needs. The heroes of the civil war occupied a significant and important place on the historical scene of 20's, and it was more difficult to cope with them than with a passive, frightened people. But they did their job, and it was their time to leave the historical scene, leaving it to other actors. Heroes were gradually declared oppositionists, deviationists, enemies of the party or the people, and doomed to destruction. For this, new frames were found, more obedient and loyal to the regime. The strategic goal of the leaders of communism was the world revolution and the destruction of the existing world order. Having seized the power and means of the Great Country, having a favorable international situation as a result of the World War, they turned out to be incapable of achieving their goals and could not successfully demonstrate their activities outside of Russia. The most encouraging success of the Reds was the promotion of their army to the line of the Vistula River. But after the crushing defeat of the “obscene world” with Poland, their claims to the world revolution and the advance into the depths of Europe before World War II were put to the limit.

Costly revolution Cossacks. During the brutal, fratricidal war, the Cossacks suffered huge losses: human, material and spiritual and moral. Only on the Don, where 1 1917 4 people of different classes lived on 428 January 846, did 1 1921 2 people stay on 252 January 973 of the year. In fact, every second was cut out. Of course, not everyone was “cut out” in the literal sense, many simply left their native Cossack districts, fleeing from the terror and arbitrariness of local combos and komchyacheek. The same picture was in all other territories of the Cossack Troops. In February, 1920, the 1-th All-Russian Congress of Labor Cossacks took place. He adopted a resolution on the abolition of the Cossacks as a special class. Cossack ranks and titles were eliminated, awards and insignia were abolished. Separate Cossack troops were liquidated and the Cossacks merged with the entire people of Russia. In the resolution "On the construction of Soviet power in the Cossack regions" the congress "recognized the inexpedient existence of separate Cossack authorities (military executive committees)" stipulated by the decree of the Council of People's Commissars of June 1 of 1918. In accordance with this decision, the Cossack villages and farms were now part of the provinces in which they were located. The Cossacks of Russia suffered a severe defeat. After a few years, the Cossack villages will be renamed volosts and the very word "Cossack" will begin to disappear from everyday life. Only on the Don and Kuban Cossack traditions and orders still existed, and dashing and detached, sad and intimate Cossack songs were sung.

It seemed that the Bolshevik rasskazyvanie took place abruptly, completely and irrevocably, and the Cossacks could never forgive this. But, despite all the atrocities, the overwhelming majority of the Cossacks, during the Great Patriotic War, resisted the patriotic positions and in the hard times took part in the war on the side of the Red Army. Only a few Cossacks betrayed their homeland and took the side of Germany. The Nazis declared these traitors descendants of the Ostrogoths. But that's another story.

Materials used:
Gordeev A.A. History of the Cossacks
Mamonov V.F. and others. The history of the Cossacks of the Urals. Orenburg-Chelyabinsk 1992
Shibanov N.S. Orenburg Cossacks of the XX century
Ryzhkova N.V. Don Cossacks in the wars of the early twentieth century-2008
Krasnov P.N. Great Don army. "Patriot" M.1990
Lukomsky A.S. Origin of the Volunteer Army. M.1926
Denikin A.I. How the struggle against the Bolsheviks began in the south of Russia. M.1926
Karpov N. D. The tragedy of the White South. Xnumx
Wrangel P.N. White matter. Xnumx
Author:
Articles from this series:
Siberian Cossack Epic
Old Cossack ancestors
Cossacks and the annexation of Turkestan
Education Volga and Yaitsky Cossack Troops
Cossacks in Time of Troubles
Seniority (education) and the formation of the Don Cossack troops in the Moscow service
Azov seat and the transition of the Don troops in the Moscow service
Formation of the Dnieper and Zaporizhia troops and their service to the Polish-Lithuanian state
The transfer of the Cossack army hetman to the Moscow service
Treason of Mazepa and the pogrom of Cossack liberties by Tsar Peter
The uprising of Pugachev and the elimination of the Dnieper Cossacks by Empress Catherine
Cossacks in World War 1812 of the year. Part I, pre-war
Cossacks in World War 1812 of the year. Part II, the invasion and expulsion of Napoleon
Cossacks in World War 1812 of the year. Part III, foreign campaign
Formation of the Kuban Army
The feat of the young Platov (Battle of the Kalalah on the third of April, 1774)
Education Orenburg Cossack troops
Cossacks before the World War
Cossacks and the First World War. Part I, pre-war
Cossacks and the First World War. Part II, 1914 year
Cossacks and the First World War. Part III, 1915 year
Cossacks and the First World War. Part IV. 1916 year
Cossacks and the First World War. Part V. The Caucasian Front
Cossacks and the February Revolution
Cossacks and the October Revolution
Cossacks in the Civil War. Part I. 1918 year. The origin of the white movement
Cossacks in the Civil War. Part II. 1918 year. In the fire of fratricidal Troubles
Cossacks in the Civil War. Part III. 1919 year. Russian Vendée
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  1. Russian Uzbek
    Russian Uzbek April 16 2015 06: 56
    +6
    "" It also automatically resolves the issue of responsibility for all its consequences ""
    does not solve anything! "War Communism" was introduced as an emergency measure and was a consequence of the Civil War, not its cause! and the reasons for the war are much deeper, the war was CLASS and to assert that the reason for its beginning was the "economic policy of the Bolsheviks" is a lie! and in general - it all started not at all with the Bolsheviks, but with the February bourgeois revolution - this is where the "breaking through the knee" began, and the Bolsheviks took power only in October 17, when the country was already full of anarchy and chaos and it is not yet known what would have happened with Russia (most likely nothing good) if not for the Bolsheviks who expelled liberal demagogues from power who very successfully destroyed the country
  2. Russian Uzbek
    Russian Uzbek April 16 2015 07: 04
    +5
    As I understand it, the author used materials only from "whites", and the broken ones and on the basis of these materials sprinkled this one-sided article, although if he bothered to read the collected works of V. I. Ulyanov, then it is written in great detail - why the Bolshevik government was forced to go to such extreme measures as "war communism", but I suspect that the author is an adherent of the "white guard" and considers the works of the classics to be schizophrenia
    In general, a one-sided and harmful article, such only make a split
    1. avt
      avt April 16 2015 09: 26
      +1
      Quote: Russian Uzbek
      As I understand it, the author used materials only "white", and broken and on the basis of these materials sprinkled this one-sided article,

      But why ? He himself with a mustache - “Despite the significant superiority in manpower and weapons, the Red troops for several days could not break the defense of the defenders of the Crimea. " laughing Oh how! for several days, the "stupid" Reds under the command of Frunze could not break into some lousy defense echeloned on Perekop, Lithuanian and Yushun! wassat That is, according to the author, they should have gone at a trot to Sevastopol in two hours!? fool Or this - "In particular, it was then that the 3rd Cavalry Corps of Guy was formed from the captured White Cossacks, recorded in the Guinness Book of Records as" the best cavalry of all times and peoples. " laughing And where is the same corps of "Chervonokazachestva" under the command of Primakov? And actually the same 1st cavalry of Budyonny? Ah-ah-and there, the wrong "cavalrymen were, not" radishes " laughingThat’s why they won, and the same corps of Guy, unlike Budeny’s army, interned in Germany, probably there he was written down in the Ginesov book, and then the survivors were sent to St. Petersburg by ships.
    2. Boatsman_Palych
      Boatsman_Palych April 16 2015 15: 29
      +1
      So the author of the "Cossacks" is such a sect, like the Maydauns. The Cossacks are a special, "exclusive", separate "nation" - and by definition they cannot be bad guys, They are right in everything and do the right thing ... What objectivity do you want from such people?
  3. semirek
    semirek April 16 2015 07: 26
    -3
    The article is written in normal language --- what happened, it happened, nothing superfluous. I want to add: the Bolshevik experiments with the "world" revolution - nothing good was given to the Russian people, Trotsky somehow declared, "if necessary, I will put on the altar of the world revolution of 300 million Russian peasant ", except for Poland, there was a saber march to India, it would be easier to kindle the" flame "there.
    1. Russian Uzbek
      Russian Uzbek April 16 2015 08: 02
      +4
      the language is normal, the information is one-sided - pay attention, dear Cossack, the materials on which the author relied - Mamonov, Krasnov, Lukomsky, Wrangel, Denikin (wow!) the most active instigators and initiators of the Civil War and intervention in Russia - after being defeated by dumping over the hill, these "guardians of the Russian people" whose hands were covered in blood on their shoulders began to write memoirs in which they tried to whitewash their loved ones as much as possible and cover them up with dirt as much as possible for the "boors who threw them out; Bolsheviks "... well, and take off the responsibility for the mountains of corpses, they say, if the Bolsheviks quietly let themselves be hanged, there would be no civil war, but they, boors, courageous men, began to resist and, accordingly, all the blame is on them, as wrote the author of the article - "" automatically resolves the issue of responsibility for all its consequences "", but we have nothing to do with it
      1. semirek
        semirek April 16 2015 08: 38
        -1
        Dear comrade, I operate with facts, and you are emotions. Wasn’t there a humiliating Brest peace with enslaving conditions? - who signed it? Kerensky? And the campaign to Poland with the expanded banner of the world revolution - how did it end? Loss of territories, death of hundreds of thousands Red Army soldiers - Russian peasants, signing a no less enslaving world with huge compensation - where is the one-sided information? Do not bring the blame on the healthy: In the cradle of Russian tsars-Kremlin were the leaders of the Bolshevik state, whose main idea was to destroy the foundations of the millennial of the state, but they succeeded, but at what cost - and blaming the white movement for resistance to the destruction of the Russian world - it’s not serious, there was not one revolution in France, and not all Frenchmen were delighted with them. When the state proclaims the ideology as terror, as the basis of its existence, copied right from the first French revolution, there will always be resistance to this state. Yes, you can make Jewish-Bolshevik experiments in a country inhabited by 150 million peasants. One can take away property from some overnight, and then give it to others, disguising oneself under the highest slogans of justice.
        1. Boris55
          Boris55 April 16 2015 08: 52
          -1
          Quote: semirek
          Wasn’t there a humiliating Brest peace with enslaving conditions?

          It was the Brest Peace that destroyed the plans for globalizing the world according to their scenario, for which Lenin was killed. Therefore, the 2-WWII took place, as a revenge on the continuation of the scenario for the capture of the world, therefore they are still trying to destroy us. As long as we exist, they will not be undivided masters of the world. According to their bestial concepts, there is only one place for the Olympus of the world.

          You are talking about the Bolsheviks, and here you are also referring to the acts of Trinity. You have already decided on the concepts of Bolshevism and Trotskyism, because you still try to blame all the sins of perestroika on Putin.
          1. semirek
            semirek April 16 2015 09: 35
            +1
            Quote: Boris55
            Quote: semirek
            Wasn’t there a humiliating Brest peace with enslaving conditions?

            It was the Brest Peace that destroyed the plans for globalizing the world according to their scenario, for which Lenin was killed. Therefore, the 2-WWII took place, as a revenge on the continuation of the scenario for the capture of the world, therefore they are still trying to destroy us. As long as we exist, they will not be undivided masters of the world. According to their bestial concepts, there is only one place for the Olympus of the world.

            You are talking about the Bolsheviks, and here you are also referring to the acts of Trinity. You have already decided on the concepts of Bolshevism and Trotskyism, because you still try to blame all the sins of perestroika on Putin.

            But was Lenin killed? An interesting version. As for Trotsky (not Troitsky), such a concept as "Trotskyism" appeared after the mid-20s, when I. Stalin, being the General Secretary, began a struggle against the "distributors" of the world revolution, where the main Leon Trotsky was a revolutionary. In the events described, these articles - the tribune of the revolution and a fiery orator, Leo Bronstein - is still the closest associate of V. Lenin, one of the founding fathers of the Soviet state, the People's Commissariat for Military Affairs, who defeated the White Guards of all stripes, including including White Cossacks, as well as suppressing peasant uprisings, including the Kronstadt and Tambov revolts, which were especially dangerous for the Soviet regime.
            As for the Brest Peace Treaty: A. Kerensky answered this question to the Soviet journalist G. Borovik, in an interview in the 60s: “If I made peace with the Germans, there would be no October coup, and why didn’t it, it’s a victory I was close, very close, Austro-Hungarians, they were negotiating peace with us, the Germans were one step away from this, what is the reason to offer peace first. "
            I don’t understand some comrades who deny the facts, no one denies the victory of the Reds over the Whites, but why hide the facts? Well, if you admit these facts are so painful --- it’s not easier to ban such articles from being published in VO.
            1. Boris55
              Boris55 April 16 2015 10: 16
              -5
              Quote: semirek
              . Kerensky answered this question to the Soviet journalist G. Borovik, in an interview in the 60s: "If I made peace with the Germans, there would be no October coup

              Lenin was poisoned by Krupskaya.
              Such a concept as Trotskyism appeared later. It cannot be otherwise - from the beginning a phenomenon and only then a definition is given to this phenomenon. What does it mean - those atrocities perpetrated by revolutionaries who arrived in a sealed carriage on the territory of Russia in the name of the world revolution. I do not deny their atrocities. Trotsky strongly opposed the signing of the Brest Peace. As a result of this world, the revolution in Germany and other countries was strangled. In fact, an attempt was made to violent globalization of the world.

            2. Russian Uzbek
              Russian Uzbek April 16 2015 10: 18
              +4
              "" the victory was close, very close, the Austro-Hungarians, they were negotiating peace with us, the Germans were one step away from this, what is the reason to offer peace first ""
              and then what was the reason to overthrow the tsar’s king? Kerensky said nothing about this? Germany capitulated only at the end of the 18th year (there was at least one more powerful German offensive) would Russia and Kerensky liberals survive to this hour? highly doubt
              1. semirek
                semirek April 16 2015 10: 38
                0
                Quote: Russian Uzbek
                "" the victory was close, very close, the Austro-Hungarians, they were negotiating peace with us, the Germans were one step away from this, what is the reason to offer peace first ""
                and then what was the reason to overthrow the tsar’s king? Kerensky said nothing about this? Germany capitulated only at the end of the 18th year (there was at least one more powerful German offensive) would Russia and Kerensky liberals survive to this hour? highly doubt

                Germany surrendered at the end of the year 18, the Brest Peace pulled back the agony, the Germans' troops were transferred from east to west, food in the form of reparations went to starving Germany, and most importantly, tsarist Russia, backward in all respects, had so much money that it could be It was scattered left and right, and the Germans and Poles.
                I don’t want to repeat about the tsar: recently there was an article on VO about General Keller, everything is well stated there.
            3. MrK
              MrK April 16 2015 10: 26
              -1
              Quote: semirek
              As for the Peace of Brest: A. Kerensky answered this question to the Soviet journalist G. Borovik, in an interview in the 60s: "If I made peace with the Germans, there would be no October coup, and why not, there was close, very close, Austro-Hungarians, were negotiating peace with us, the Germans were one step away from this, what is the reason to offer peace first. "

              The history of the subjunctive mood does not have. There is nothing to refer to the Social Democrat Kerensky. One word is a social democrat. We have recently taken to this trend warmly and touchingly. In vain. The gentlemen of the Social Democrats, wherever they get down to business, wherever they break through to the helm, have always managed to lose and to spoil everything that is possible. If a soldier is tired of an unnecessary war, you won’t force him to fight. The decision on the Brest Peace was not made by Lenin. a Congress of Soviets. it was on it that soldiers from the front went to the podium and said: Give peace - albeit obscene.
              1. semirek
                semirek April 16 2015 10: 59
                +1
                Quote: mrark
                Quote: semirek
                As for the Peace of Brest: A. Kerensky answered this question to the Soviet journalist G. Borovik, in an interview in the 60s: "If I made peace with the Germans, there would be no October coup, and why not, there was close, very close, Austro-Hungarians, were negotiating peace with us, the Germans were one step away from this, what is the reason to offer peace first. "

                The history of the subjunctive mood does not have. There is nothing to refer to the Social Democrat Kerensky. One word is a social democrat. We have recently taken to this trend warmly and touchingly. In vain. The gentlemen of the Social Democrats, wherever they get down to business, wherever they break through to the helm, have always managed to lose and to spoil everything that is possible. If a soldier is tired of an unnecessary war, you won’t force him to fight. The decision on the Brest Peace was not made by Lenin. a Congress of Soviets. it was on it that soldiers from the front went to the podium and said: Give peace - albeit obscene.

                You contradict yourself: “if a soldier is tired of war from an unnecessary war, then you cannot force him to fight.” Yes, it’s true 3 years in the trenches for the tsar-father, and Ilyich said: the proletariat has no fatherland, but why defend what But suddenly a new civil war begins, but as we know the soldier is tired and does not want to fight in principle, the question is how did 20 million soldiers appear in the red army by 5, where did they come from? That is, from one war to another , and the soldiers happily deserted from one army, and gladly went to their deaths under bullets in another - absurd.
                Lenin also has a sudden transformation: Either do not fight for the fatherland, then the socialist fatherland is in danger - where is the logic asked? Or maybe there is a banal instinct for self-preservation, under the guise of patriotic slogans.
                1. MrK
                  MrK April 16 2015 15: 30
                  -5
                  Respected. Lenin never called for war against the fatherland. He called for a civil war against the bourgeois government. So do not distort. It was believed that the workers and peasants, having taken power in their hands, would quickly recapture everything. So they won back.
            4. Rastas
              Rastas April 16 2015 15: 45
              +1
              What a victory ??? What are you talking about??? And what did she give Russia this victory ??? WWI was the most criminal war in the history of mankind. It is no coincidence that the most famous works about her - Remarque, Hasek, Aldington, Barbusse, Celine, Hemingway are anti-war in nature. In the preface to A Farewell to Arms, old Ham wrote: “I have taken part in many wars, so I am, of course, biased in this matter, I hope, even very biased. But the author of this book has come to the conscious conviction that those who fight in war, the most wonderful people, and the closer to the front line, the more wonderful people you meet there; but those who start, kindle and wage war are pigs who think only about economic competition and that you can profit from it. I believe that everyone who profits from the war and who contributes to its incitement should be shot on the very first day of hostilities by trusted representatives of the honest citizens of their country whom they send to fight. " The Bolsheviks are great for ending this war, and it is just those who brought Russia into it that need to be judged.
        2. Russian Uzbek
          Russian Uzbek April 16 2015 10: 01
          +3
          1 how many months did the Brest Peace last? it was concluded knowing in advance that it would not last long! Lenin wrote bluntly: "when the revolution overwhelms Germany - the Brest Peace will be annulled" - which happened! it should be understood in what conditions this peace was concluded - the tsarist army was destroyed and the Red Army had not yet been created, in February 1918 the Germans approached Petrograd and could seize it and there was nothing to resist them, the Germans in any case would have seized the territories that they "acquired" in As a result of the Peace of Brest-Litovsk plus others (the same Petrograd), and so they got a continuous crap and after a few months were forced to flee from the occupied territories in fear of the "plague of Bolshevism." the Bolsheviks decomposed their army at an accelerated pace
          Do you understand? the Bolsheviks were not at all going to fulfill the conditions of the Brest Peace; they needed it as a respite for organizing the army; besides, Lenin brilliantly foresaw that the same processes were brewing in the German Empire as in the Russian Empire and Germany and Russia would soon plunge into the abyss of the class struggle (plus defeat in the war!) and she will not be up to the seizure of territories (which was brilliantly confirmed in practice)
          2 as for the Polish campaign: you are again confusing causes and consequences - first the Poles invaded Russia, captured Kiev and reached the Dnieper, and only then as a result of the defeat of the White Polish invaders (who were actively assisted, for example, by the "guardian for the Russian people" Baron Wrangel) began a campaign against Warsaw, which in political terms was quite logical (to finish off the enemy and transfer the revolutionary war to Europe) and in terms of military training and organization - an adventure
          3 and again - THE BOLSHEVIKS WASN'T OVERLINED THE KING! all this bloody mess was brewed by gentlemen Western liberals under the sauce of "democratic civilizational values" (reminds nothing?)
        3. washi
          washi April 16 2015 12: 07
          +1
          Before the campaign in Poland there was an invasion of the Psheks.
          They repulsed the invasion, but then some "not comrades" got carried away.
          And the Lord commanded to share.
          Seeds Dezhnev, Ermak, I can recognize as Cossacks.
          And the bulk is just a gang fighting for those who pay more.
          Even now they demand privileges for themselves, spitting on the rest of the people of Russia.
          Not for nothing that Ukrainians consider Zaporizhzhya Cossacks to be their founders. Also venality and thirst for freebies.
          I want to remind that looting is a tradition of the Cossacks
        4. Rastas
          Rastas April 16 2015 15: 31
          +1
          You go with your Russian world to hell.
          Maybe at school they studied:
          Native land!
          Give me such a cloister
          I haven’t seen such a corner
          Wherever your sower and keeper
          Where would a Russian peasant groan?
          He groans in the fields, on the roads,
          He groans in prisons, in prison
          In mines, on an iron chain;
          He groans under the barn, under the stack,
          Under the cart, spending the night in the steppe;
          Groans in his own poor little house
          I am not happy with the light of God's sun;
          Groans in every deaf little town
          At the entrance of the courts and chambers.
          Go to the Volga: whose groan is heard
          Over the great Russian river?
          This groan is called a song
          Then the barge haulers go on a towline! ..
          Volga! Volga! .. In the spring of high water
          You don't fill the fields like that
          How great tribulation of the people
          Our land is full,
          Where the people are, there is a groan ... Eh, hearty!
          What does your groan endless mean?
          You wake up full of energy
          Ile, destinies obeying the law,
          All that you could have already done
          Created a song like a groan
          And spiritually rested forever? ..
          Thanks to the Bolsheviks for destroying such a splendid "Russian world". By the way, there is no need to write about the crunch of a French roll. Read the Russian classics, how the magnificent thousand-year monarchy lived.
          1. 97110
            97110 April 16 2015 17: 57
            0
            Quote: Rastas
            Read the Russian classics, how the magnificent thousand-year monarchy lived

            It’s better to listen to what your family remembers about those times. And the classics, especially the great ones - they are just people. Masterfully owning a pen, expressed their thoughts. Unfortunately, usually anti-government. It’s easiest of all, but, having the talent of a writer, it’s also the most dangerous thing to criticize people pulling a heavy cart of public administration. Not without the efforts of such talents and arranged for the tragedy of the 20th century for Russia.
            1. Rastas
              Rastas April 16 2015 21: 32
              0
              What a tragedy? The fact that class division was destroyed? Is it that people got access to free education and medicine? That people got a ticket to life? My family remembers different things, but about the Soviet regime, my grandfather, who survived the same 30s while retired, said that just as he lives in the 70s, his grandfather could only dream of. I am not a supporter of judging a story by the stories of relatives. They might not understand all the processes taking place in the country, this is a very subjective, philistine idea.
      2. Black
        Black April 16 2015 09: 27
        +1
        Quote: Russian Uzbek
        the language is normal, the information is one-sided

        The author asks the question - "for what, why?"
        And the answer is, it seems, but not to the end. Russia has become a springboard for the implementation of the plan of overseas forces to exterminate world civilizations, empires with the goal of creating a New Empire. Which was successfully created.

        By the Cossacks. My dear villagers went with Philip Mironov to the Patriotic War and believed him "until the dondyshka" ... When he appeared in the village in the early spring of the 18th with two companions, the Cossacks not only did not give him up (a detachment came from Ust-Medveditskaya to capture) followed him recklessly, 300 sabers - one of the stones in the foundation of the Don corps, and the future 2 cavalry ... My great-grandfather crossed the Sivash with him ...
        And in the fall of 18, the Reds came to the village and a detachment of Red Chinese shot the old people directly on the 10 Maidan .... Yes, and Philip Kuzmich did not serve the new government for long, he was erased to ashes in 21 ....
        1. semirek
          semirek April 16 2015 10: 25
          0
          Quote: Chen
          Quote: Russian Uzbek
          the language is normal, the information is one-sided

          The author asks the question - "for what, why?"
          And the answer is, it seems, but not to the end. Russia has become a springboard for the implementation of the plan of overseas forces to exterminate world civilizations, empires with the goal of creating a New Empire. Which was successfully created.

          By the Cossacks. My dear villagers went with Philip Mironov to the Patriotic War and believed him "until the dondyshka" ... When he appeared in the village in the early spring of the 18th with two companions, the Cossacks not only did not give him up (a detachment came from Ust-Medveditskaya to capture) followed him recklessly, 300 sabers - one of the stones in the foundation of the Don corps, and the future 2 cavalry ... My great-grandfather crossed the Sivash with him ...
          And in the fall of 18, the Reds came to the village and a detachment of Red Chinese shot the old people directly on the 10 Maidan .... Yes, and Philip Kuzmich did not serve the new government for long, he was erased to ashes in 21 ....

          About Mironov is well described in Znamensky, in red days.
          In Novokhopyorsk, there is a monument to the dead Reds, including the "Chinese" volunteers: What did the Chinese in Russia do with weapons in their hands? Much has been said about the Czechs, but why silence about the Chinese?
        2. MrK
          MrK April 16 2015 11: 21
          +4
          Quote: Chen
          Quote: Russian Uzbek
          the language is normal, the information is one-sided

          By the Cossacks. My dear villagers went with Philip Mironov to the Patriotic War and believed him "until the dondyshka" ... When he appeared in the village in the early spring of the 18th with two companions, the Cossacks not only did not give him up (a detachment came from Ust-Medveditskaya to capture) followed him recklessly, 300 sabers - one of the stones in the foundation of the Don corps, and the future 2 cavalry ... My great-grandfather crossed the Sivash with him ...
          And in the fall of 18, the Reds came to the village and a detachment of Red Chinese shot the old people directly on the 10 Maidan .... Yes, and Philip Kuzmich did not serve the new government for long, he was erased to ashes in 21 ....


          You should not moan according to Philip Kuzmich, although what happened to him is regrettable. I could moan the same. My baht, in 1942 slapped 10 years for the praise of German weapons. And just after a glass of tea, after a fight, in a narrow circle, he said that it was more convenient to fight with a shmeiser - you could cram horns into the bootlegs. And PPSh has only two disks. So, he, after imprisonment, had to scold the Owls. Power? Ah, what a bad Red Army. Nazi Germany was defeated, Hitler was brought to suicide. He always told me: do not blame Stalin, he did not plant me. Just among the people there are many scoundrels. Rehabilitated - in 1956 year.
          1. Astartes
            Astartes April 16 2015 16: 38
            +1
            Quote: mrark
            To my baht, in 1942 they slaughtered 10 years for praising German weapons. And just after a glass of tea, after a fight, in a narrow circle, he said that it was more convenient to fight with a shmeiser - you could cram horns into the bootlegs. And PPSh has only two disks.
            A soldier, during the war, literally from the battlefield, for 10 years in the camps, do you really think that we should believe this ???
            1. MrK
              MrK April 16 2015 20: 52
              0
              First of all, not a soldier, but an officer. And secondly, he even knew who wrote the denunciation.
    2. washi
      washi April 16 2015 11: 54
      -2
      Quote: semirek
      The article is written in normal language --- what happened, it happened, nothing superfluous. I want to add: the Bolshevik experiments with the "world" revolution - nothing good was given to the Russian people, Trotsky somehow declared, "if necessary, I will put on the altar of the world revolution of 300 million Russian peasant ", except for Poland, there was a saber march to India, it would be easier to kindle the" flame "there.

      And who said that Trotsky is a Bolshevik?
      It has already been proved (according to many sources) that he is a representative of American-Jewish capital.
      Frunze guaranteed the safety of those who surrendered in Crimea, but the Trotskyists staged mass executions.
      Stalin was against the offensive on Warsaw, but again Lenin and Trotsky, sponsored by the West, won.
  4. Nikita Gromov
    Nikita Gromov April 16 2015 09: 44
    +5
    The Russian Cossacks (not dressed up) should be reborn. This is necessary both to strengthen the defense capability of our army in the new conditions, and to protect the Russian population (especially in the southern regions of Russia), from impending Islamist terrorism.
    1. Spas the Great
      Spas the Great April 16 2015 11: 03
      -1
      Nikita, I completely agree with you.
      The only question is, on what principles?

      Do today's Cossacks know what the word "COSSACK" means? (AK - warrior, AZ - light / the foundation of God on Earth, Ka - similar, i.e. Cossack is a White Warrior or a Warrior similar to the Light).
      Do they remember anything about the Cossack Savior?
      But this is not only martial art, it is a system of knowledge about the structure of the World and Man.
      And is it not because the Cossacks forgot their traditions that cruel trials were sent to them?
      1. avt
        avt April 16 2015 12: 44
        0
        Quote: Savior the Great
        Do today's Cossacks know what the word "COSSACK" means? (AK - warrior, AZ - light / the foundation of God on Earth, Ka - similar, i.e. Cossack is a White Warrior or a Warrior similar to the Light).

        Yes nuuu? And where is this Light ??? laughing Az sinful always believed that Az - he is As and Ace closer to Europe, and specifically in Poland, in the old Russian language meant -FIRST and what I now understand. A - Ak in Turkic - white, hence Ak Mola - Akmolinsk - the grave of white, well now it seems like it was no longer a grave, and even according to the National Academy of Sciences - a great shrine. I heard his answer to NTV during it.
        Quote: Savior the Great
        Do they remember anything about the Cossack Savior?

        They also remember about the "Battle Hopak".
        1. Spas the Great
          Spas the Great April 16 2015 14: 26
          0
          Dear AVT!
          It is very nice to see your comments - a man who is not versed in the issue of the Cossacks and even more so the ancient Slavic writing.
          To get started, take the trouble to find out what the Slavic Initial Letter is ... and count how many initial letters are in it!
          Find out that the language of Rus is figurative, i.e. Each letter has its own image!
          And to show your IMFGENCY - a lot of mind is not necessary hi
          1. avt
            avt April 16 2015 14: 37
            -1
            Quote: Savior the Great
            And to show your IMFGENCY - a lot of mind is not necessary

            Means with "fighting hopak" mustache in order. laughing
            Quote: Savior the Great
            It is very nice to see your comments - a man who is not versed in the issue of the Cossacks and even more so the ancient Slavic writing.

            Oh, you're lying! You're lying to the Tsar! Well, taperich was enlightened that the Cossacks are wars of light laughing You can say-war dennitsy. wassat
            1. Spas the Great
              Spas the Great April 16 2015 14: 55
              0
              I have no task to educate you.
              You are in hibernation. Therefore, everything that you do not understand or do not want to understand seems to you to be spiteful, negative towards you. Your natural reaction is to make fun, try to humiliate your interlocutor.
              This is absolutely normal! The natural reaction to information that "pulls" you, because gaining new knowledge is painful.

              I will tell you this ... In Russia they said: "Live and learn!" ))))
              Good to you! And spiritual growth wink
              1. avt
                avt April 16 2015 16: 30
                0
                Quote: Savior the Great
                This is absolutely normal! The natural reaction to information that "pulls" you, because gaining new knowledge is painful.

                laughing Where is the information ??? Why and what fright does it “pull me away” and the main thing is that? Your stay in “hibernation” - nirvana among the “warriors of light”? Where do you teach some sacred knowledge.
                Quote: Savior the Great
                I will tell you this ... In Russia they said: "Live and learn!" ))))
                Good to you! And spiritual growth

                May God save me from teachers and such teachings - in the 90s I saw enough of “educators.” I did something in the old fashioned way, as they taught - questioning everything and rechecking the facts for comparison.
                1. Spas the Great
                  Spas the Great April 16 2015 18: 05
                  0
                  Yes, it is noticeable that you have "seen enough" laughing

                  Quote: avt
                  I’m somehow in the old fashioned way, as taught - questioning everything and double-checking the facts for comparison.

                  What are you going to question in the old fashion?
                  The presence of Slavic initial letters?
                  Or Cossacks?

                  It is ridiculous to read comments from a person who engages in verbiage for the sake of verbiage! Despite the fact that you have never even held a saber in your hands, you only saw a horse in films.
                  If you don’t know anything about Cossacks, aren’t you ashamed to write what you don’t understand?
                  I think the answer is rhetorical!
                  If the Lord wants to punish a person, he robs him ...!
                  I wish you success in your knowledge.
                  1. avt
                    avt April 16 2015 18: 52
                    0
                    Quote: Savior the Great
                    It is ridiculous to read comments from a person who engages in verbiage for the sake of verbiage!

                    Quote: Savior the Great
                    Your natural reaction is to ridicule, try to humiliate your interlocutor.

                    Trying hard - no credit.
                    Quote: Savior the Great
                    The natural reaction to information that "pulls" you, because gaining new knowledge is painful.

                    laughing Especially tonality - this is how the stretched smile and the desire to be a bosom friend seem to be, well, to cling to the Adam's apple, but since the little arms are short, hence this oily syrup
                    Quote: Savior the Great
                    Good to you! And spiritual growth

                    Quote: Savior the Great
                    I wish you success in your knowledge.

                    Quote: Savior the Great
                    If you don’t know anything about Cossacks, aren’t you ashamed to write what you don’t understand?
                    I think the answer is rhetorical!

                    laughing Right now I will pay and repent that I know, of course I know about the "wars of light"?
                    Quote: Savior the Great
                    , the answer is rhetorical!

                    From which hangover I will be the reality for your glitches to customize.
                    Quote: Savior the Great
                    If the Lord wants to punish a person, he robs him ...!

                    Reason. What ? Scared to print until the end? In general, someone's painfully smoothly spread. Do you really stay for an hour in the "wars of light" of relatives?
                    Quote: Savior the Great
                    I wish you success in your knowledge.

                    I can’t help.
    2. washi
      washi April 16 2015 12: 21
      +1
      Quote: Nikita Gromov
      The Russian Cossacks (not dressed up) should be reborn. This is necessary both to strengthen the defense capability of our army in the new conditions, and to protect the Russian population (especially in the southern regions of Russia), from impending Islamist terrorism.

      But why?
      ALL RUSSIAN people in the tradition of defending their homeland.
      No need to object to this ugly estate, the basis for exclusivity (see hohland, heirs of the Cossacks)
      But to restore the NVP, war games such as "Zarnitsa", "Eaglet".
      Restoring civil defense, otherwise the Ministry of Emergencies only raises shelter for itself, and is in no hurry to restore them.
      1. avt
        avt April 16 2015 13: 18
        0
        Quote: Vasya
        But to restore the NVP, war games such as "Zarnitsa", "Eaglet".

        DOSAAF - OSAviAKhim, which proved itself perfectly during the Soviet era, but at a qualitatively different level - not only preparation for the service, but also work in the mobile reserve and as PMCs.
        1. Starina_hank
          Starina_hank April 16 2015 18: 55
          +1
          Why PMC? To prepare the fifth column for state funds? Or comrade oligarch?
          1. avt
            avt April 16 2015 20: 02
            -1
            Quote: Starina_Hank
            Why PMC?

            And so that the reservists, at their own will, somewhere in Surya, for example, support their qualifications, do not lose.
      2. MrK
        MrK April 16 2015 15: 37
        -1
        To revive the Cossacks is to revive the estates. Maybe it is better to develop the culture of the Cossacks in every possible way?
  5. MrK
    MrK April 16 2015 10: 36
    +5
    We will use the memoirs of Kornilovites Trushnovich:
    “What is the reason for the defeat of a victorious and armed better than the Red Volunteer Army? I received an exhaustive answer in the very first village beyond Oboyan, where I spent the night with my machine gun crew. It consisted in one phrase, said to me by a simple peasant:
    - If they gave the land to the peasant, but if they didn’t rob!
    So, the reason for the defeat of the former White Army is the unresolved agrarian question and moral decay.
    The agrarian question has stood at the center of all state and public thought in Russia, not only in recent years. He stood for almost a century. Our bosses, divorced from public thought and from the people, did not understand this. Many of them may have wished well, but the decisive influence was exerted by the people who led Russia to disaster. For those who willingly forget the events and facts of the recent past, it is useful to recall that most peasants were happy to accept the revolution only because they hoped for agrarian reform, and all their thoughts were about dividing landlord land. ”
    In Russia, neither the 1905 revolution of the year nor the February 1917 revolution of the year were able to resolve the agrarian question.
    It was decided only by the October 1917 of the year, which, in fact, was not a socialist, but an agrarian-peasant revolution, because according to the “Land Decree”, all landlords, tsars, churches, and monasteries were confiscated along with equipment and buildings and transferred to peasant committees for distribution among peasants.
    As a result, the peasantry received over 150 million acres of land, freed from the annual payment of 700 million rubles. gold for rent of landowner land and from debts of 3 billion rubles.
    AND, EXACTLY FOR THIS, THE RUSSIAN PEASANTS IN THE SERIES OF THE RED ARMY Fought IN THE FIELDS OF A CIVIL WAR. This is the main reason for the victory of the Red Army.
    And what was the White Army fighting for? I can answer again with the words of Trushnovich: for the restoration of property and owners. Give the land to the peasant back to the landowner, return the factory, etc. Therefore, the whites lost the war.
    1. Doctorleg
      Doctorleg April 16 2015 11: 05
      +1
      If the peasants knew that in 10 years they would be driven into collective farms, it is not known who they would go for.
      1. semirek
        semirek April 16 2015 11: 38
        -2
        Quote: DoctorOleg
        If the peasants knew that in 10 years they would be driven into collective farms, it is not known who they would go for.

        The peasants paid in full for this land.
      2. dmb
        dmb April 16 2015 11: 48
        0
        And you do not feel the difference between the collective farm and the return of the land to the landowner? And who would have worked that land in large quantities, and not returned to the landowner? Correctly - laborers. And since when are farm laborers supposed to pay in proportion to the labor invested? It is possible for Tajiks today, because they are illegal immigrants, and sooner or later his neighbor will raise a pitchfork. So it is necessary to keep the police, and where to get the money, not from a farm laborer, but from a reference owner. This means the laborer will have to pay even less. So sooner or later the pitchfork will still be used. Marx and Lenin, of course, do not like the "reference", but they cannot refute what they wrote.
      3. washi
        washi April 16 2015 12: 30
        +1
        Quote: DoctorOleg
        If the peasants knew that in 10 years they would be driven into collective farms, it is not known who they would go for.

        if they knew that Khrushchev robbed them of their personal households, abolished MTS, imposed restrictions on personal land use, and levied taxes on personal households ....
        Khrushchev destroyed not only agriculture, but also industrial cooperatives.
        The result is a lack of consumer goods.
        I want to remind you: it was the cooperative that released the first televisions, not the state. enterprises. It was the cooperatives that dealt with the teaching staff during the HE.
        Also read the work of the ITT. Including collectivization.
        If now officials, and the government are weird, then why did they act differently in the 30s.
        There is only one difference. They used to plant it.
      4. EvilLion
        EvilLion April 16 2015 14: 08
        0
        If you had an elementary knowledge of history, then you would not have written such nonsense.
      5. MrK
        MrK April 16 2015 14: 39
        +2
        Retelling the mantra of the goat liberals about collective farms, sitting today with a beer at the computer, is an ungrateful task.
        What is the outcome of collectivization? LABOR PRODUCTIVITY IN AGRICULTURE INCREASED EIGHT TIMES. The village gave the state bread for money, from the sale of which, industrial enterprises were bought abroad. Since 1934, for the first time in Russia, such a thing as hunger has disappeared. Millions of freed hands were engaged in the construction of factories, factories, cities.
        HERE NEED TO UNDERSTAND THE MAIN. IT WOULD NOT BE COLLECTIVIZATION - IT WOULD NOT BE INDUSTRIALIZATION. IT WOULD NOT HAVE INDUSTRIALIZATION - WOULD NOT BE VICTORY IN THE GREAT PATRIOTIC WAR. AND BEEN DRINKING BAVARIAN BEER NOW. TRUTH, NOT ALL. And THOSE, VERY FEW, WHO WOULD LIVE LIVE, BE A GERMAN SLAVE.
        But the demshiza dispersed the collective farms, exposed their Stalinist-totalitarian essence, burned, it can be said, with red-hot iron this legacy of dark times. And what did agriculture achieve after the destruction of collective farms, from 1990 to this year?
        Here are the data from the socio-political journal of the Federal Assembly - the Parliament of the Russian Federation IN 2011 YEAR. Sown area has been reduced by 40,9 million hectares, from 117,7 to 76,8 million hectares. Grain production in 2010 amounted to 67,2% of the production of 1990 of the year. And food consumption per capita per year after the defeat of collective farms decreased as follows: meat - from 75 kg to 35 kg, milk - from 386 kg to 216 kg, eggs - from 297 to 202 pcs, fish - from 20 kg to 6,4 kg, sugar - from 47 to 25 kg.
        In 1928, it became clear that there would be a war. Stalin decided: we need to prepare, and as soon as possible. Similar to how the West carried out industrialization due to the robbery of the colonies, Stalin took a surcharge from the peasants, a tribute. And with whom else to take? The Russian intelligentsia, like the current talkers, initially never gave anything to their state, but they would be glad to take it from the worker, but he still has no goods. Extreme were the peasants.
        Cooperation took the form of collective farms that existed until the end of the Soviet era. In essence, collective farms are the highest form of cooperation. Only stupid instructors of the district committees of the CPSU (b) should manage them. Collective farms can and should be managed by economic methods.
        What is the US experience? - Now in America it’s not that the majority, but almost all rural producers are covered by cooperation.
        In 1990, at a meeting of the Soviet-American Food Commission in Washington, the then US Under Secretary of Agriculture said: “If cooperation in the US suddenly disappeared, our farm would collapse in six months. We wrote off all our cooperation with the USSR. ”
        Only current talkers are convinced that farmers will feed the country. The whole civilized world thinks and does otherwise - only large farms.
        No need to use the mantra of the scum of the liberals. Please read: “Damned Soviet power ...”, A. Kurlandchik on Proza.ru. or YaPishu.net. Everything is laid out there on the shelves.
        1. Russian Uzbek
          Russian Uzbek April 16 2015 15: 45
          -1
          "" Sown area decreased by 40,9 million hectares ""
          yes, the scale itself from the village is depressing of course ... one thing is good: the last 5-7 years there has been some kind of reverse movement, and before that, there was continuous darkness, solid ruins instead of the former millionaire collective farms
          and only one cossack around;) (Orenburg province)
          1. semirek
            semirek April 16 2015 18: 07
            0
            Quote: Russian Uzbek
            "" Sown area decreased by 40,9 million hectares ""
            yes, the scale itself from the village is depressing of course ... one thing is good: the last 5-7 years there has been some kind of reverse movement, and before that, there was continuous darkness, solid ruins instead of the former millionaire collective farms
            and only one cossack around;) (Orenburg province)

            it’s strange, but how do we then collect without these 40,9 100 million tons of grain, Putin himself said this today - who is trying to mislead everyone, or the president?
            1. MrK
              MrK April 16 2015 21: 03
              0
              Your wisdom, I hope, will allow you to figure out who makes a fool of yourself. I bring data from
              Source of information Rosstat:
              1. Russian Statistical Yearbook: 2001, 14.82 .; 2010 g. 13.30; 2012 g. 13.20.
              2. Russia 2012. Statistical reference. Page Xnumx
              3. Russia in numbers. 2013 g. 14.9.

              Details here: Food production and consumption in the RSFSR and the Russian Federation http://maxpark.com/user/3121148154/content/841644

              1989 104,8;
              1990 116,7;
              1991 89,1;
              1992 106,9;
              1993 99,1;
              1994 81,3;
              1995 63,4;
              1996 69,2;
              1997 88,5;
              1998 47,8;
              1999 54,6;
              2000 65,4;
              2001 85,1;
              2002 86,5;
              2003 67;
              2004 77,8;
              2005 77,8;
              2006 78,2;
              2007 81,5;
              2008 108,2;
              2009 97,1;
              2010 g. 61,0.
              1. semirek
                semirek April 17 2015 08: 01
                0
                why not since 18?
          2. semirek
            semirek April 16 2015 18: 08
            0
            Quote: Russian Uzbek
            "" Sown area decreased by 40,9 million hectares ""
            yes, the scale itself from the village is depressing of course ... one thing is good: the last 5-7 years there has been some kind of reverse movement, and before that, there was continuous darkness, solid ruins instead of the former millionaire collective farms
            and only one cossack around;) (Orenburg province)

            it’s strange, but how do we then collect without these 40,9 100 million tons of grain, Putin himself said this today - who is trying to mislead everyone, or the president?
        2. Doctorleg
          Doctorleg April 16 2015 16: 55
          0
          I lived in the USSR and I do not need to talk about the abundance of products, especially if I did not live in Moscow. Have you forgotten about the sausage trains? And about the words of the Americans, there are also large farmers and cooperatives. only there are no party district committees who tried to command. And cooperations were created voluntarily, and not by force. And what colonies did the USA have when industrialization took place? or Germany?
        3. Starina_hank
          Starina_hank April 16 2015 20: 18
          +1
          Comrade confuses space-time concepts! I cannot say for the whole of Russia, but for my region I can tell: according to communist sources, the number of rich and poor people in the village was approximately equal to 8-10%, the rest of the middle peasants were 1-2 horses, 2-3 cows. The number of cattle in comparison with 1913 was reached approximately only by 1965, approximately because the region was organized only in 1942, for sheep the level of 13 years was never reached. If before the war the number of goals was given in absolute figures, then by the end of the 50s, only in% of the previous period. Source: "Brief Historical Sketches of the Kurgan Region". According to personal recollections: for 3 years of farming, the author was able to earn a house, a cow and a horse. By the beginning of collectivization I had 18 !!! heads of large and small livestock for two with a pregnant wife. Source: website Zauralskaya genealogy. There were about 90 churches in the region, which were built at the request and with donations of parishioners, for those who do not know, the parish was also building the priest's house, not the priest. And to build a stone church with a height of 4-5 storey building was not very cheap. We can say unequivocally that under the tsar, our people were far from poor! And 70 years of Soviet power did not bring much joy to the peasantry, houses of pre-revolutionary buildings make up 50 and more% of village buildings. And the churches are the most beautiful and high-rise buildings of rural architecture !!
          1. semirek
            semirek April 16 2015 20: 55
            0
            Quote: Starina_Hank
            Comrade confuses space-time concepts! I cannot say for the whole of Russia, but for my region I can tell: according to communist sources, the number of rich and poor people in the village was approximately equal to 8-10%, the rest of the middle peasants were 1-2 horses, 2-3 cows. The number of cattle in comparison with 1913 was reached approximately only by 1965, approximately because the region was organized only in 1942, for sheep the level of 13 years was never reached. If before the war the number of goals was given in absolute figures, then by the end of the 50s, only in% of the previous period. Source: "Brief Historical Sketches of the Kurgan Region". According to personal recollections: for 3 years of farming, the author was able to earn a house, a cow and a horse. By the beginning of collectivization I had 18 !!! heads of large and small livestock for two with a pregnant wife. Source: website Zauralskaya genealogy. There were about 90 churches in the region, which were built at the request and with donations of parishioners, for those who do not know, the parish was also building the priest's house, not the priest. And to build a stone church with a height of 4-5 storey building was not very cheap. We can say unequivocally that under the tsar, our people were far from poor! And 70 years of Soviet power did not bring much joy to the peasantry, houses of pre-revolutionary buildings make up 50 and more% of village buildings. And the churches are the most beautiful and high-rise buildings of rural architecture !!

            In my youth, my grandmother labored for weeding - one and a half rubles a day — is it a lot or a little? Did a skilled carpenter get a ruble a day, labor in Russia was paid at that time. And take the construction of the Trans-Siberian Railway: 3 versts a day, and in Soviet times, a maximum of one and a half kilometers, the limit. As they rafted and built.
    2. semirek
      semirek April 16 2015 11: 53
      0
      There was no general landlessness in Russia at that moment, and to take Siberia there was never a shortage of land, just like the landlords. But not all peasants needed land, there were a lot of lumpens in the Russian village who had a land decree like manna from heaven, a freebie, and Soviet power relied on them. What is the result: by the end of the 20s, the main land users were strong peasant owners who simply bought unused allotments from the lumpen for nothing. And again, landless cretans appeared and how to deal with the eternal peasant problem? Stalin acted very simply: collective farms are a panacea for this problem, it’s not I had to work there by will, and you won’t sell the land - it’s state-owned, though it was necessary to lime the kulaks — strong masters — the two farming systems on the earth were not compatible.
      1. EvilLion
        EvilLion April 16 2015 14: 12
        0
        Generally, landlessness actually existed, and has not disappeared, 25% of the land confiscated in favor of the peasants only weakened the problem.

        Siberia is a completely different story.

        Fists = strong master? This could be told in the 80s, and now such idiotic announcements are simply surprising.
        1. MrK
          MrK April 16 2015 14: 44
          0
          After being appointed Head of the tsarist government, Stolypin decided to bet on the rich peasants in the village, i.e. - to the kulaks, not really thinking about the origin of their wealth, which was not the result of better work, as in the West, but for the most part the result of deceiving their neighbors in the community.
        2. semirek
          semirek April 16 2015 14: 47
          +1
          Quote: EvilLion
          Generally, landlessness actually existed, and has not disappeared, 25% of the land confiscated in favor of the peasants only weakened the problem.

          Siberia is a completely different story.

          Fists = strong master? This could be told in the 80s, and now such idiotic announcements are simply surprising.

          I myself am the grandson of a fist - maybe you can tell me what it is.
          1. Astartes
            Astartes April 16 2015 16: 41
            -1
            Quote: semirek
            I myself am the grandson of a fist - maybe you can tell me what it is.

            it can be seen)) come on, let us know how you worked there to bloody blisters, and everyone else envied you.
            1. semirek
              semirek April 16 2015 18: 24
              0
              Quote: Astartes
              Quote: semirek
              I myself am the grandson of a fist - maybe you can tell me what it is.

              it can be seen)) come on, let us know how you worked there to bloody blisters, and everyone else envied you.

              Times have changed, everything fell into place, you, comrade can only nostalgic about those times, I will continue to bay, and if you have a bad life, who is to blame?
          2. MrK
            MrK April 16 2015 21: 11
            0
            The modern “democratic” press in Russia writes about fists as the best part of the Russian peasantry. A different view of them was made by Professor E. Dilon, who lived for several years in Russia http://zavtra.ru/cgi//veil//data/zavtra/09/840/31.html. He writes: “Of all the human monsters that I have ever met during my life and travel (in Russia), I can’t remember more evil and disgusting than a fist”
            1. semirek
              semirek April 17 2015 08: 04
              0
              Foreigners have always hated Russians --- are you not ashamed to quote Western liberal professors?
        3. Starina_hank
          Starina_hank April 16 2015 20: 31
          0
          Have you forgotten about the Far East? A little Far Eastern topology (names from memory of the settlements of Primorye): Razdolnaya, Livadia, Crimea, Tsarevka-Petrovka-Alekseevka-Romanovka (Tsar Peter Alekseevich Romanov) do not speak at all about a beggarly existence, in contrast to Nekrasov: "Gorelovo, Neelova, Neurozhaka, too". The land would be enough for everyone, it was necessary to support Stolypin!
          1. semirek
            semirek April 16 2015 20: 48
            0
            Under the tsar, the Far East was called Siberia, for example, the Siberian flotilla. My grandfather, a Stolypin immigrant, to Altai, gave land exorbitantly, no taxes — live and be rich, Siberia was just for such peasant owners, paradise, idlers drove, preferred to turn around in the community.
      2. MrK
        MrK April 16 2015 21: 07
        0
        Lived of course perfectly. Here are excerpts from the orders of the peasants to their deputies in the State Duma of the 1906-1907 years.
        http://delta-grup.ru/4/40.htm
        Stopino Village, Vladimir Province: “The bitter experience of life convinced us that a government that has oppressed the people for centuries, a government that has seen and wants to see us an obedient payment cattle, can do nothing for us. The government, consisting of nobles and officials, who did not know the needs of the people, cannot bring the exhausted homeland to the path of order and legality. ”
        Moscow province: “The whole earth has been paid back by us with sweat and blood for several centuries. It was processed in the era of serfdom and for the work received beatings and exiles, and thereby enriched the landowners. If you sue them now for 5 cop. per day per person for all serfdom, they do not have enough to pay the people of all the lands and forests and all their property.
        In addition, for forty years we have been paying fabulous rents for land from 20 to 60 rubles. for tithing in the summer, thanks to the false law of the 61 year, according to which we got freedom with a small allotment of land, half-starved people, and the parasites of the landowners and kulaks formed tremendous wealth. "
    3. Starina_hank
      Starina_hank April 16 2015 19: 15
      +1
      The Russian people were trusting, and the Bolsheviks lied indefinitely and told tales of a bright future. Nothing of the promise was fulfilled! The general results of the revolution are CATASTROPHIC! The main reason for the defeat of the white movement is the lack of a single leader who could lead the fight against the Bolsheviks, and the absence of any social program. The solution of the land issue was postponed until later, after the end of the civil war!
  6. captain
    captain April 16 2015 12: 41
    +5
    Informative article, my grandfather served in the 1-th Cavalry Army and spoke about the fighting qualities of the Cossacks with respect. By the way, in the 1-th Horse there was the same decent amount. My grandfather's opinion about the civil war is quite interesting; he believed that if the Bolsheviks had not begun to talk, then there would simply be no civil war. And another interesting point, he said that when they took Rostov, the horsemen began robbery there and Budenny and Voroshilov were saved from execution by Stalin. My grandfather until his death believed that the Bolsheviks were for the people, and the Communists were against. He told me that Lenin gave the peasants land, and the Communists took it. When I tried to explain to him that it was one and the same thing, he began to spit.
    1. EvilLion
      EvilLion April 16 2015 14: 13
      0
      And now explain how the Bolsheviks differ from the Communists. Although then the Communists called supporters of Trotsky.
    2. MrK
      MrK April 16 2015 14: 48
      -4
      A deep knowledge of the history of this army general. Maybe because the captain. And where do such ear-pots come from among adults. All thinking people are well aware that the civil war began with the rebellion of the white whites, supported by white generals. Thousands of books have been written on this subject.
  7. alkt
    alkt April 16 2015 19: 03
    -1
    And where in the article on executions and hangings of at least 45 thousand Cossacks of supporters of the Soviet power P.N.Krasnov? There is absolutely nothing about atrocities, shootings and robberies by parts of Shkuro in September 1918 in Kislovodsk, in January 1919 in Vladikavkaz, public executions in September 1919 in Voronezh ...
    At the trial, Shkuro openly admitted:
    “I can’t recall all the facts of the tortures and atrocities carried out by the Cossacks subordinate to me, but the advancement of my units was accompanied by massive robberies and killings of communists and Soviet workers. Such actions were encouraged by the generals and officers of the Volunteer Army, who, by personal example, intensified the atrocities and robberies perpetrated by the Cossacks. ”
  8. alkt
    alkt April 16 2015 20: 23
    +1
    For evacuated White Guard troops, genuine torment began in Europe.
    Hunger, cold, cholera, cynical indifference - all this was answered by the ungrateful Europe to the sufferings of tens of thousands of people, to which it owed much to the years of the First World War. “In Gallipoli and Lemnos, 50 thousand Russians, abandoned by everyone, were in front of the whole world a living reproach to those who used their power and blood when they were needed, and abandoned them when they fell into misfortune,” they angrily resented two white emigrant authors
    (VHDavatts and N.N. Lvov) in the book "The Russian Army in a Foreign Land", published in Belgrade (1923, p. 30). The island of Lemnos was rightfully called the "island of death." And in Gallipoli life, according to the opinions of its inhabitants, “seemed at times like hopeless horror” (ibid., P. 105).
    From May 1921, emigrants began moving to Slavic countries, but even there their life was bitter. The masses of white emigres began to receive insight. One of the emigrants, Cossack I. Lunchenkov, very sincerely and truthfully told how the White-Cossack emigration lived and how the patriotic movement was born and expanded among the Cossack emigrants in his book “For Other Sins (Cossacks in Emigration)”. She entered the USSR in 1925 with an enthusiastic response from the commander of the 1st Horse S.M. Budenny. The illustrious commander wrote in the preface: “The book of I. Lunchenkov, which is truly his confession, I ardently
    I recommend reading it to every worker - a Cossack, a peasant and a worker ... Once mistaken, but now they see clearly, they - including the author of the book - deserve to scourge their former "leaders", sincerely repent of the mistakes made before the Soviet regime ”(I. Lunchenkov, Decree. Op., Pp. 4-5).
    The movement among the Cossack emigrants for returning to their homeland, for breaking with the corrupt general’s elite, has become truly massive. The patriotic forces of this movement created their own organization, the Union for Homecoming (Sovnarod), in Bulgaria, and launched the publication of the newspapers Home and New Russia. Their agitation was a great success. In 10 years (from 1921 to 1931) 181,5 thousand Cossacks and refugees returned from Bulgaria to their homeland (see: Russian military emigration of the 20-40s. Documents and materials. - M., 2001, vol. 2, pp. 440–441).
  9. alkt
    alkt April 16 2015 20: 23
    +1
    The desire to return to their homeland among the ordinary mass of Cossacks and soldiers turned out to be so strong that it captured even some of the white generals and officers.
    The response to the group of generals and officers “To the White Army”, in which they announced the collapse of the aggressive plans of the White Guards, was recognized as a great resonance.
    Soviet government and readiness to serve in the Red Army. The appeal was signed by generals A.S. Sekretev (former commander of the Don Corps breaking through the blockade of the Veshensky uprising), Yu. Gravitsky, I. Klochkov, E. Zelenin, as well as 19 colonels, 12 military foremen, 4 centurions, etc. (I. Lunchenkov Decree, Op., P. 180). Their appeal said:
    “Soldiers, Cossacks and officers of the white armies! We, your old bosses and associates of your former service in the White Army, urge you all to honestly and openly break with the leaders of the white ideology and, recognizing the Government of the USSR existing in your homeland, boldly go home ...
    Every extra day of our living abroad tears us away from our homeland and gives occasion to international adventurers to build their treacherous adventures on our heads. We must decisively dissociate ourselves from this low and vile betrayal of our homeland and anyone who has not died out a sense of love for their homeland, to quickly join the working people of Russia ... Long live the USSR. Long live the Workers 'and Peasants' Red Army! ” (ibid., pp. 179-180).
    The return to the USSR of the many thousands, more conscious part of the military emigration, which consisted mainly of ordinary Cossacks and soldiers, summed up, as it were, the final result of the recently waning civil war in Russia. It confirmed to the whole world the correctness and greatness of the affairs of those who, in the ranks of the Red Army, defended the conquests of the Great October Revolution, including tens of thousands of red Cossacks who fought under the leadership of Budyonny, Dumenko, Blinov, Mironov and
    other military leaders. Tens of thousands who returned to their homeland in the face of the whole world recognized the unrighteous, anti-people character of the Civil War on the part of the leaders of the white movement, repented of their criminal plans and declared their readiness to make amends to the working people of the USSR with honest work for the good of the motherland. The mass re-emigration of the military thwarted the plans of Wrangel, Krasnov, Bogaevsky and their supporters to unleash a new civil war in Russia with the help of the imperialists of the West, although from the previous war the country was still
    I couldn’t recover yet. Other times have come.
    From the book "Truth and Lies about the Cossacks'" Decossackization "" Golub Pavel Akimovich Doctor of Historical Sciences.
    1. semirek
      semirek April 16 2015 21: 07
      0
      And why don’t you say that many Kuban and Don villages didn’t want to join the collective farms - and they went straight to us in the Karaganda steppes - that’s how the Bolshevik motherland met them.
      1. alkt
        alkt April 16 2015 21: 34
        -1
        Since you were talking about collective farms, it was precisely the final collectivization that defeated the famine in Russia. And what was it necessary to shoot stupidly? Those who did not want to share grain with the city?
        1. semirek
          semirek April 17 2015 08: 14
          0
          Strange, now no one forbids you to express your point of view, they will not be jailed for dissent, they will not confiscate a computer and a car with an apartment --- why then it was in use, those authorities could not create a free society, where there is competition, between forms of rural production , artels, collective farms, communes, private traders?
          And it’s obvious right away that you have no relation to the land, but if you did, would you want to “share” with the city, the bread grown by your labor?
          1. alkt
            alkt April 17 2015 11: 06
            0
            And it seems strange to you your attempts to compare that historical moment with the present. We will put ourselves in the place of the leaders of the USSR in about the 27th year, the critical year of “choosing a path”, when it became clear that the NEP, which had given a temporary respite, would not lead anywhere. A small owner, of course, will build many taverns, restaurants and hairdressers, but in principle he is not able to build the main thing at that time - the modern industry.
            Without it, Soviet Russia was doomed. And before the start of World War II, 14 years remained as we now know. Where would we go with our fists? In a country of devastation, poverty and illiteracy .. Any responsible government in such conditions is simply obliged to deal with the distribution of food for the city. Creation of more efficient agriculture, modernization of the means of production.
            The Soviet Government won precisely because it was not for life, but for death that very “economically inefficient” population, harsh and merciless men who attacked not only the “White Army” officers, but also the most modern armies time. These very men brought to life the industrialization, electrification and collectivization of the country. And the Soviet government fed, shod, dressed, trained the people who could survive in the most difficult conditions after the Civil War, and then win the Great Patriotic War.
            As for the present, we still use the achievements of socialism, we have the remnants of the social gains of the USSR - the elderly have pensions, at least partial free medical care and partially free education. But in Ukraine, the IMF is demanding for the sake of the possibility of providing loans to cut it all, apparently as "remnants of socialism."
            1. semirek
              semirek April 17 2015 11: 30
              0
              I repeat, somewhere I have already expressed to the "apologists", you are hinting that the Bolsheviks made their coup only for a single purpose: to win the Second World War? Please do not, the theme of the Great Patriotic War, sacred for any Russian person, is to be linked with the Bolshevik slogans of 17 years.
              You give the impression of being an intelligent person, but at the same time you are arguing as a fifth grader who does not know the history of your country. It is ridiculous to blame the last Russian tsar for the fact that during his reign there were no spaceships --- you think Russia would not be Bolshevism dead, you are deeply mistaken - Russia has its own path, regardless of the people in power - and now it takes its place in the world. All the achievements of the Soviet government that you mention did not happen on October 26, 17, have passed long, long years on the road to this , and this way was far from cloudless.
              1. alkt
                alkt April 17 2015 11: 43
                0
                I’m not hinting at anything. I’m directly speaking for the development of Russia at that time with people with fists was not on the way. And there is no need to cast a shadow on the wattle fence.
            2. Doctorleg
              Doctorleg April 17 2015 14: 11
              0
              In England, do people also use the achievements of socialism? - pensions, free medicine? Or is it the achievement of capitalism ?. And Ukraine is required to do one thing-live within our means, and not how it is used to. Otherwise, the money will simply be consumed. In this respect, it does not differ from Greece, where it violated the requirements of the eurozone countries for the budget deficit, where there were thirteenth pensions and fourteenth salaries. Ended up with such a big hole that more than 200 billion did not close
        2. Doctorleg
          Doctorleg April 17 2015 14: 05
          0
          Quote: alkt
          Since you were talking about collective farms, it was precisely the final collectivization that defeated the famine in Russia. And what was it necessary to shoot stupidly? Those who did not want to share grain with the city?

          Are you ready to share what you produced? Is free?
      2. alkt
        alkt April 16 2015 21: 42
        0
        By the way, long before any decisions dispossession began on the ground - in the provinces and villages. No, not at all because of envy of successful neighbors, but because of the inability of “cost-effective” world-eaters to live humanly in the Russian community.
        So, in 1928, in the territory of the RSFSR, 1307 terrorist attacks were carried out with fists, including more than 400 murders of communists, activists, teachers, police officers and tractor drivers. In 1929, only in villages and villages of the central regions of Russia, 1002 terrorist attacks were noted, including 384 murders and 141 arson of collective farm buildings. In reality, the situation was much worse - a lot of killings of arsons and sabotage were not recorded due to weak law enforcement agencies or were framed as accidents.
        There was no way to find the criminals without a complete “cleansing” of the kulaks. If this were to be carried out somewhere in the year 28 with indicative severity and ruthlessness, then we could

        to avoid many innocent victims and big problems afterwards.

        In 1930 (even when the majority of the dispossessed were sent to Siberia and Kazakhstan), 2391 terrorist acts and 456 kulak gangs armed with firearms, including machine guns, were recorded in the country. In battles with bandits, more than 170 policemen, Red Army soldiers and KGB officers died.
        1. Doctorleg
          Doctorleg April 17 2015 14: 13
          0
          People defended their property. Maybe it was better not to rob them?