Military Review

Bad memory "frame." FW 189

Bad memory "frame." FW 189

The FW 189, known to the general public as a “frame,” has undoubtedly become one of the symbols of the Luftwaffe of the past war. In the memoirs of the veterans of the Red Army, he appears very often - the infantrymen remember him as a dangerous forerunner of a quick raid or shelling, pilots - as a very difficult, tenacious air enemy. Omnipresent "frames" literally "hung" over positions, carrying out reconnaissance and adjustment. But at the same time, they were built much less than the no less famous fighters of the Messerschmitt Bf.109 or the Junkers bomber.

In February 1937, the Ministry aviation Germany prepared the requirements for a three-seater reconnaissance aircraft with a circular overview to replace the Hs 126. The answer to German industry was the single-engine asymmetric Blom and Foss BV 141, Arado Ag 198 and Fokke-Wulf FW 189. The latter had an almost completely glazed central a gondola (for which he earned the nickname "Eagle Owl"), two engines and a plumage mounted on the tail beams.

Officials from the Ministry of Aviation of Germany at first preferred the “Arado”, finding the other machines unacceptable (the “Arado” did not become serial due to poor handling and low flight data). Although the advantages of the FW 189 with its perfect overview for the crew were obvious from the very beginning. Moreover, the designers of the machine K. Tank and E. Kozel offered to use various nacelles on the FW 189, depending on the purpose of the aircraft: for direct air support of the ground forces, training, armored attack aircraft, anti-tank aircraft, as well as for passenger special transportation and transportation of light loads . "Filin" flew well at low altitudes and was well suited for reconnaissance. Its extensive glazing provided an ideal view, although, as follows from foreign sources, the front oblique panels distorted the image.

The first prototype of the FW 189V1 took off in the summer of 1938 of the year. The constructor commented positively on the car and called it "Oile" ("Owl"), although in the Luftwaffe it received the name "Wuhu" ("Owl"). The media dubbed him the "Flying Eye".

The most massive version of the aircraft was the FW 189A, which differed from the V1 prototype with screws and the design of the main landing gear. The V2, which took off in the summer of 1938, had a pair of MG 17 machine guns with a riflescope for shooting at the course and placed at the root of the wing, with one magazine MG 15 in the nose and middle parts of the gondola, as well as in the tail cone. On four wing holders, 50 kg bombs and aviation chemical devices could be hung.

Although by the beginning of the 1939 of the year, the FW 189A-0 had worked on the experimental machines, the Luftwaffe command was not in a hurry to adopt it, since the Hs 126 was completely controlled with the duties assigned to them. The only thing the company could do was to continue to work on other versions, and only in 1941, they decided to release ten pre-production A-0 machines. At the same time, it became obvious that Hs 126 did not meet the requirements of military campaigns in the West, and Focke-Wulf was ordered by an additional number of A-1 variant machines.

Positive feedback from the combat units accelerated the matter. In addition, the FW 189 quietly flew on one engine. Focke-Wulf quickly mastered the production of A-1 series aircraft, but the production lines were significantly overloaded, mainly with the release of the FW 190 fighter. It was necessary to attract the Czech factory "Aero", which in 1941 year released 151 FW 189, while the parent company - only 99.

It was expected that with the start of the war against the USSR, the need for air reconnaissance would also increase, so a significant part of the French aircraft industry was provided to Focke-Wulf. Production equipment has been transported to Merignac from Bremen. As a result, the release of scouts reached 20 aircraft per month.

On the "A-1" there was no bow gun and armament consisted of two MG 17 and a pair of MG 15. If necessary, the FW 189 could drop an 50-kg bomb from a dive or horizontal flight. The S 125 smoke instruments were standard equipment, but they were not used. In the gondola, the Rb 20 / 30 aerial camera was mounted, and the crew always had hand-held movie cameras.

In the middle of 1941, the launch of the FW 189A-2 began, with the MG 15 being replaced with a faster rate pairing with MG 81Z machine guns, which could provide up to 3600 shots per minute. The tail cone was turned by an electric drive. This made targeting easier. weaponsdefending the rear hemisphere.

On the Soviet-German front, the FW 189 was called the “frame” for its distinctive look. It was possible to get close to the car when the trophy variant A-2 was examined in detail at the Air Force Institute (a little later, another FW 189 appeared at the Chkalovskaya airfield).

On the plane was a pair of inverted V-shaped air-cooled Argus As-410 A1 engines with power on take-off mode in 465 hp. These motors are easy to start even in the cold and were considered very reliable. For a quick replacement of engines provided for the removal of the power plant with a motor and hoods. The car had two fuel tanks of 222 each. They were protected and located in the beams behind the engine nacelles. Maslobaki, containing 19 l, were in the rear of the engines.

The two-spar wing with the back wall and working metal lining was the main strength element of the machine. The most interesting unit of reconnaissance was the central gondola, executed as a single unit with the center wing. It was firmly fastened with rivets to the spars of the center section. It housed the crew, equipment and weapon systems. During the production, the crew gondola was not changed from the V1 version until the last aircraft produced, with the exception of two experimental machines. Pilot's seat was greatly shifted to the left. Almost all flight navigation instruments were located on the same side. On the right and slightly behind on the rotating seat was a navigator-radio operator with an optical bomb-sight GV 219d. If necessary, he could fire from the dorsal machine-gun installation. On the tail end of the gondola on the mattress lay the gunner-flight mechanic. The nasal part of the gondola is almost entirely glazed with triplex-type flat glass.

The small arms of the aircraft included five 7,92-mm machine guns. The location of the firing points protected mainly the rear hemisphere of the FW 189. The front machine guns served primarily for shelling ground targets. An excellent survey from a scout reduced the likelihood of a sudden attack of fighters. The high maneuverability allowed on time to prepare for a defensive battle. With successful maneuvering, the enemy fighter could always be in the zone of the FW 189 defensive points. Aerodynamics scout allowed to perform turns at speeds of the order of 180-200 km / h. As a rule, the scout went out of battle, falling down in a spiral and moving on a shaving flight.

Our fighter pilots were recommended to attack the FW 189 from the front with a dive at an angle of 30-45 ° or at a lower angle of more than 45 °. Attacks should start from behind the clouds or from the sun. Unexpected for the "German" could be attacks from below, as it provided a disguise against the background of the earth's surface and hold down the maneuver of the aircraft for shaving flight. The scout's weak spot was the crew, which was practically not covered with armor from the front hemisphere. In the case of an attack from the rear hemisphere, it was desirable to hit the rear arrow, then the entire lower plane of the rear hemisphere was made unprotected.

The firepower of the Focke-Wulfe himself left much to be desired. In the initial period of the war, one MG 189 machine gun was mounted on the rear FW 17 lens mount, later replaced with a MG 81 pair. There were also two under each wing of the bomb ram, with electric locks for 50 kg bombs. Alternatively, two 100 kg bombs could be hung. The maximum bomb load did not exceed 200 kg.

The navigator's seat moved and rotated, which made it possible, without rising, to move backwards and, turning on 140-160 °, to fire from the top machine-gun installation. Due to the lack of a back on the seat, the navigator had to lean forward all the time, which was tiring in flight. The disadvantage of the cockpit was considered weak booking. But it could be heated, and to any desired temperature. Successful placement of the crew next to each other ensured good communication between them without STC and interchange. It was noted and thoughtful location of all the necessary flight equipment and weapons.

In their conclusions, the specialists of the Air Force Scientific Research Institute noted: “The two-beam scheme implemented on the 189 EF is one of the most successful schemes for the“ military reconnaissance and artillery spotter. " 189 not only fighters, but also attack aircraft and front-line bombers. "

During the war years, aircraft factories also produced a number of training FW 189A-3 equipped with dual controls. In addition, several "А-О" and "А-1", have been modified to the version "А-3". Back in 1940, several "AO" were sent to the 9-th army squadron of the 2-th training and combat squadron, but before the 1942-th FW 189 was extremely rare on the fronts. Subsequently, the FW 189 entered the aviation units, including the Slovak and Hungarian Air Forces. In addition to these machines, the five-seater training FW 189В and the double-armored FW 189C attack aircraft with a close box gondola, which barely enough space for the pilot and the shooter sitting back to him, are known. Designed double-float seaplane Fw189D.

In winter, the first prototype of the 1938-1939 converted the armored pond into the FW type 189C and, having received the designation V1b, took off in the spring of the year 1939. The pilot had almost no review, he could not fire from on-board weapons. The shooter’s position was even worse. The handling of the V1b turned out to be low, and the flight-technical capabilities left much to be desired and things didn’t go further.

In the spring of 1940, the FW 189V6 with its upgraded engines and chassis from the FW 189F-0, with an improved armored crew nacelle and improved visibility, took to the air. Its armament included two MG FF cannons and four MG 17 machine guns, as well as an installation with a MG 81Z pair for firing back.

But the military chose Hs 129, the main advantage of which was a smaller geometrical size and cost. In the 1939-1940-ies, a plant in Bremen built three pre-production "B-O" and ten "B-1".

The latest production version of the FW 189-4 had enhanced armor protection and MG FF wing cannons. At the end of 1942, a small amount of "A-4" was released, intended for assault operations and reconnaissance aircraft with improved armor and armament from MG FF guns instead of MG17 machine guns. Total built 828 FW 189, including 293 - in Merignac and 337 - in Prague.

22 June 1941, there has never been a single FW 189 in the Luftwaffe combat units. "Rama" were sent to the Soviet front only for the winter. Despite the fact that the losses of Hs 126 were small in percentage terms (even smaller than those of the new Bf.109 and Ju 88), but the enormous scope of the Soviet front and the intensity of the fighting did their job - the fascist aviation lost more than a short time 80 Hs 126, including 43 were lost forever. In addition, the "Hensheli" were no longer produced, and FW 189 went into the reconnaissance squadrons.

A positive feature of the aircraft, identified during combat operation, was a unique stability, combined with good handling. Engines "Argus" perfectly start up and work steadily at all temperatures. However, the failure of one motor practically did not threaten the aircraft; "Frame" perfectly could continue the flight and on one engine. The vitality of the FW 189 was extremely high. Thanks to its excellent maneuverability, (achieved due to low wing loading), the scout was quite a difficult target, in addition, the "frame" well held a large number of hits of machine-gun bullets and small fragments. There is even a case when the FW 189 returned to its airfield after a ram.

On the sections of the main strikes of the fascist armies FW 189, our soldiers knew excellently. "Damned" frames, "remembered General FP Polynin," from dawn until dark, we plowed our skies, searching for targets to strike, following the movements of our troops. " And on the most intense sectors of the front, such as the Stalingrad bridgehead, the FW 189 literally “hung” over the positions of the Soviet troops. In particular, over Mamayev Kurgan “frames” appeared on 5-6 once a day with an interval of only 2-3 hours. As a rule, the departure of the scouts was accompanied by a subsequent raid of dive bombers.

In the spring of 1943, the FW 189 tried out a new role for itself - counterguerrilla warfare. The leadership of the German army acknowledged the high efficiency of these vehicles during retaliatory operations in the rear of the actions of Army Group Center. However, after a few weeks, all the "frames" were again sent to the front to support Operation Citadel.

For Soviet pilots, the FW 189 aircraft and in the 1943 year were considered a difficult, but honorable trophy. Despite the good dodge "frames", the Soviet pilots still learned to shoot them down. General B.N. Eremin recalled: “In order to overthrow this plane, surely, it was necessary to fire at the cockpit. But with the surprising maneuverability of the“ frame ”, it was not easy to do it. And so it happened: I flashed one of the beams in a queue, I managed to open the eyes, but obviously it was necessary to literally cut the beam so that the "frame" fell ... "

FW 189 fought in North Africa, for which their power plants were equipped with dust filters. Two "A-1" converted into staff aircraft. Around 30, A-1 was transformed into night interceptors that were part of 100 and 5 squadrons of night fighters. Instead of reconnaissance equipment, they placed the FuG 212 C-1 radar with antennas in the bow, and the dorsal machine guns were replaced with MG 151 / 1 5 (sometimes they used MG 151 / 20 guns).

Despite the fact that As 410 was a good engine, the company continued to select more powerful engines. On a single FW 189E, designed in SNCASO, French star-shaped 700-powerful GR 14M 4 / 5 motors were installed. The FW 189F "A-2" modification with 600-strong engines As 411MA-1 was very popular.

Among the latest 17 machines made in 1944 in Bordeaux was the FW 189F-1. In the project "F-2" provided enhanced armor protection and electric drive mechanism for cleaning the chassis.

Haruk A. Hateful "frame" Fw 189. M .: Collection, Yauza, EKSMO, 2011. C.15-31. 39-44.
Ivanov S. "The Flying Eye" of the Wehrmacht // War in the air. No.18. C.3-7, 9-11,
Haruk A. “Flying Eye” of the Luftwaffe // Aviation and Time. 2009. No.4. C. 4-15.
Safonov S. Eyed "Filin" // Wings of the Motherland.2002. No.8. 15-17.
Kotelnikov V., Khazanov D. Legendary "frame" // World of Aviation. 1994. No.1. C. 12-20.
Green William. Wings of the Luftwaffe (warplanes of the Third Reich). CH 2. M .: Publishing Department TsAGI, 1994. C. 126-131.

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  1. D-Master
    D-Master April 15 2015 06: 55
    Frame - one of the outstanding weapons of the 3go Reich. The Germans in the second world war showed the whole world how to fight and what is needed for this. Frame - reconnaissance aircraft - corrector has become an essential element in the interaction of the ground forces and the Luftwaffe. What is interesting - the most titled pilot of the Reich - Hans-Ulrich Rudél began his career as a pilot of Rama and only later switched to U-87.
    1. Per se.
      Per se. April 15 2015 09: 32
      Quote: D-Master
      Frame - one of the outstanding weapons of the 3go Reich.

      It is hardly outstanding, for the example of the Su-12 one can wonder what prevented the Germans from putting more powerful motors on the FW-189. If we talk about outstanding, this is the competent use of their equipment by the Germans, excellent interaction of the combat arms. Here it is appropriate to remember about the spotter-reconnaissance officer Henschel 126, which also spoiled a lot of blood for our soldiers, being already an outdated aircraft (in common parlance "Crutch"). All the short-range reconnaissance squadrons concentrated on our borders before the war were armed only with Hs. 126. Such squadrons, attached to army corps and tank divisions, played a significant role in ensuring accurate control of German troops in a difficult situation in the summer of 1941.
      1. andrey-ivanov
        andrey-ivanov April 15 2015 14: 19
        which prevented the Germans from putting more powerful motors on the FW-189.

        Motors are more powerful, as well as more serious weapons - this is a sharp increase in the weight and size of the aircraft. Compare the Su-12 and FV-189 everything will become clear. What the hell is a little scout? He already did an excellent job with his duties.
        1. Per se.
          Per se. April 15 2015 19: 57
          Quote: andrey-ivanov
          Motors are more powerful, as well as more serious weapons - this is a sharp increase in the weight and size of the aircraft
          Nevertheless, the Germans strengthened their armament, as it was noted that "the presence of only small-caliber weapons and weak armor protection of the crew make it possible to destroy the FW 189 not only fighters, but also attack aircraft and front-line bombers", therefore, at the end of 1942, they launched a modification FW 189A-4, in which wing machine guns were replaced by MG FF cannons and armor was placed in the lower fuselage, under the engines and gas tanks. The power of the motors also increased, - FW 189F. The F-1 model received the forced As 411MA-1 engines, whose takeoff power reached 580 hp. It was planned to strengthen the booking, increase the fuel supply, and introduce changes to the electrical system on the FW 189F-2, but they did not have time to finalize them. At the end of 1943, 5 FW 189F-1s were assembled in Bordeaux and 17 more of these machines - at the beginning of 1944. The last modification was the unrealized project FW 189G with a number of design changes and even more powerful As 402 engines of 950 hp. Before the end of the war, the plant did not even have time to finish building an experimental prototype of this series. Yes, the plane was nimble, successful, but by the middle-end of the war, it was outdated. If we compare the Su-12 and FW-189, of course there is a big difference in terms of engine power and take-off weight, as well as dimensions differ. So, if we compare the Messerschmitt Bf 109C-1 and its modification Bf 109K-4, the difference will also be noticeable in all respects, for example, the take-off weight of the C-1 is 2200 kg, and the K-4 is already 3362 kg. To say - "And what for", but because otherwise they were already hopelessly shot down, this applies to the FW-189, there would be a new scout, would the Luftwaffe become worse?
    2. vomag
      vomag April 15 2015 09: 45
      There is nothing outstanding in the frame! The average plane for all performance characteristics except for the weapons there is finally Ales Kaput! talking about a thing, in principle, doesn’t make sense out of date by mid-1942, and there your Hans fought on it, I don’t know .....
      1. D-Master
        D-Master April 15 2015 15: 09
        Not ours but them Hans-Ulrich Rudél. According to official Luftwaffe data, Rudel made 2530 sorties (the largest number among World War II pilots), during which Rudel destroyed about 2000 units of military equipment, including 900 tanks, 150 self-propelled guns, 4 armored trains, 800 vehicles, numerous, but small boats, such as rafts, motor boats, etc., which the Red Army command used to transfer troops by water, which were not amenable to accurate calculation, also participated in the sinking of two cruisers, the destroyer and battleship Marat.

        Most of the sorties took place on various modifications of the Yu-87 “Shtuk” dive bomber, which, according to Rudel, became extremely effective for destroying tanks after installing two 37 mm cannons in the wing gondolas at the insistence of Rudel.

        Our army was opposed - an educated, strong in spirit and skill enemy. The best in the world. And the higher the honor and praise to the fighters of the red army and the entire Soviet people who were able to defeat such an enemy.
        1. vomag
          vomag April 15 2015 17: 00
          Stuck slow-moving "picker" in the battle for Britain, the Germans lost their flow in a couple of weeks, so they stopped flying there!Rudel destroyed about 2000 pieces of military equipment, including 900 tanks, 150 self-propelled guns, 4 armored trains, 800 vehicles, numerous, but not countable, small craft, such as rafts, motor boats, etc., which were used by the Red Army command to the transfer of troops by water, also participated in the sinking of two cruisers, the destroyer and battleship "Marat".That’s what Goebels’s propaganda says, look at what we’re capable of at least half the lie! The Germans had more to say aces to which they attributed 300-500 and even 800 shot down Soviet planes ... And to my minusers, my regards are clear again that in world 2 technique you alas, a complete and dull gov ... atatata ...
          1. Bayonet
            Bayonet April 15 2015 19: 38
            Quote: vomag
            Rudel destroyed about 2000 pieces of military equipment, including 900 tanks,

            On tanks, overkill is obvious - someone's fantasy, 500 are mentioned in his memoirs (Pilot Pieces).
          2. Lord of Wrath
            Lord of Wrath April 16 2015 03: 24
            And why are precisely the accounts of the aces-fighters and Rudel always called into question?
            Let's look broadly and remember the submariners (they probably counted the number of ships on the propellers), snipers (by the number of cartridge cases delivered), tankers, etc.
            1. Sanyl1
              Sanyl1 April 16 2015 09: 56
              Because all this is cheap propaganda. When a series of defeats came, Germany had no choice but to raise the morale of the army and the population with PR and inventions. And after the war, all this was overgrown with new fantasies of writers and historians ...
            2. Awaz
              Awaz 15 September 2015 21: 22
              and besides Rudel there were enough visionaries. And the Germans themselves did not hide that they were engaged in postscripts, especially in the first months of the war in the USSR. And many of his comrades-in-arms did not like Rudel for 3,14 dzhezhzhzh, but with pleasure put sticks about and without.
              By the way, if you observe the statistics of the Germans, as soon as they were transferred to fight in the western direction, all their skills abruptly disappeared and real statistics appeared. Probably lying to Western opponents was somehow not convenient, but on the eastern front it was possible to carry anything.
        2. lazy
          lazy April 16 2015 13: 02
          science fiction your rudle
      2. Bayonet
        Bayonet April 15 2015 19: 35
        Quote: vomag
        There is nothing outstanding in the frame! ... there is finally Ales Kaput! talking about a thing, in principle, it makes no sense out of date by mid-1942

        It would not hurt to read books! And what is a "frame" on the battlefield or a diving "Thing", it is better to listen to the veterans, they have experienced on themselves and will not fence this!
        1. vomag
          vomag April 15 2015 19: 51
          Do you read and where is the mention of things after1943? after the appearance of the frame, there was usually an art raid that’s what scared the soldiers to death! where is the OUTSTANDING TTX? at that time it was a regular reconnaissance plane, I wrote about this but people here are as incomprehensible as evil ...
        2. EGOrkka
          EGOrkka April 17 2015 06: 16
          The tactics and organization of the use of technical means were outstanding. Remember Berlin was taken in 2 weeks !!!! We have learned.
      3. samoletil18
        samoletil18 April 18 2015 23: 38
        Is U-2 just an empty space? Here, tactics determined a lot, and as the commentators of the article correctly noted, the interaction of the types and types of troops. So even Schwabedissen noted in his opus about Stalin's falcons baby U-2 as a serious problem. Rudel may not have worked as much as Goebbels' propaganda attributed to him, but "pieces" and "frames" were used until the end of the war, therefore, the Germans saw them as weapons worthy of attention. I will also add that the Su-2 that was discontinued back in 1942 were supported in our Air Force as early as 1944 as spotters and leaders of attack aircraft, although by 1942 a single-engine bomber, not adapted for diving and attacking, looked like an anachronism.
    3. perfect100
      perfect100 April 15 2015 11: 56
      The Germans in the second world war showed the whole world how to NOT fight and what to do to do this. We must not forget who won and who was defeated and unconditionally capitulated!
      1. Per se.
        Per se. April 15 2015 13: 38
        Quote: perfect100
        The Germans in the Second World War showed the whole world how to NOT fight
        Our grandfathers defeated the strongest army in the world, and it’s not worth it to pathetically cheer on a jingo-pipe, there were cruel lessons, fierce battles with strong opponents, the victory was expensive. Hitler could not but attack, everyone knew that a war with the Nazis was inevitable, but the Germans attacked without waiting for our rearmament by the 1942 year, our readiness to attack ourselves, and not waiting for the formal surrender of England. From this, and now it is necessary to draw conclusions, the enemy attacks when it is not convenient for you, when it is unexpected. As for German technology, thanks to trophies and captive specialists from Germany, our jet aircraft and missile troops with ballistic missiles were accelerated (our P-1 copy of the German Fau-2). A lot of things were borrowed for the development of our post-war submarine fleet, and not only.
      2. D-Master
        D-Master April 15 2015 15: 04
        And not who does not forget who won this terrible war, but who was defeated. But you must always remember that we they defeated the best army in the world and defeated it when they learned to fight better than they did. But for the lessons they paid with rivers of blood. And to argue that the Germans did not know how to fight, only a person who does not know history at all can, and thereby diminish the role of his own army and his own people.
        1. Elk
          Elk April 15 2015 15: 44
          that we defeated the best army in the world

          Not WE, but our grandfathers and great-grandfathers.
        2. 11 black
          11 black April 15 2015 16: 22
          Quote: D-Master
          But you must always remember that we defeated the best army in the world.

          Not really - the best army in the world defeated one of the best, so it will be more true
          Quote: D-Master
          But for the lessons paid by the rivers of blood

          The combat losses of the Red Army are comparable to the German ones, experts have repeatedly stated that the difference in losses cannot, even in the worst case, exceed 30%, I can give a link where everything is detailed and intelligibly described, and the remaining 20000000 are the fascist scum of women and old people in concentration camps, so our grandfathers did not pay "for the lessons" - they themselves taught the lesson, but what a lesson! - the enemy was the vilest, not knowing good, morality and mercy, that's all
          Quote: D-Master
          And to argue that the Germans did not know how to fight

          Here I agree - they knew how, even as they knew how, France over the month put cancer
    4. Civil
      Civil April 15 2015 19: 21
      There are simply no parliamentary words to retell the words of my grandfather about the "frame" ... successful, unfortunate second question, how did he hate this plane ... and he drank our blood near Kharkov and on the Dnieper bridgehead ...
    5. Lord of Wrath
      Lord of Wrath April 16 2015 03: 16
      Probably the most successful all the same Fieseler Fi 156 Storch.
      Long-lived airplane. And even now it is successfully produced and sold.
      1. yehat
        yehat April 16 2015 14: 05
        in the USSR, its clone Aist was produced - it differed only in a conical fairing on a screw and was a little faster.
        ps and in the game IL-2 Storch is the most unkillable aircraft, it survives even without wings)))
        in reality, Storch pilots could land vertically with a "parachute" from a low altitude.
  2. qwert
    qwert April 15 2015 07: 05
    Yes, the "damned" frame. It spoiled our soldiers' blood and nerves. A kind of harbinger of an imminent bombing of a position. One of the symbols of the War, is mentioned in almost every memory of front-line soldiers and old Soviet films.
    The rear rifle mount and the attack aircraft prototype are interesting.
  3. svp67
    svp67 April 15 2015 07: 44
    In their conclusions, the specialists of the Air Force Research Institute noted: "The two-beam scheme, implemented on the FV 189, is one of the most successful schemes for a" military reconnaissance officer and artillery fire spotter "
    So, it’s clear why Suddenly, after the war there appeared such a Sukhoi-Su12 airplane
  4. Free wind
    Free wind April 15 2015 08: 20
    In 1943, the Sukhoi Design Bureau was instructed to design a reconnaissance aircraft, a two-beam scheme. Future SU-12. in 1943, the cabins of some frames were equipped with breathing apparatus for high-altitude flights. When installing more powerful engines, the ceiling exceeded 10 km. It’s very unlikely to get a frame there. Both pilots were equipped with powerful binoculars. Often, pilots, when adjusting artillery fire, contacted directly with the commanders of artillery batteries.
  5. heruv1me
    heruv1me April 15 2015 08: 23
    Quote: D-Master
    What is interesting - the most titled pilot of the Reich - Hans-Ulrich Rudél began his career as a pilot of Rama and only later switched to Yu-87.

    Rudel never flew on a frame, he started on the FW-44, then he flew only on the piece and on the FW-190.
    1. yehat
      yehat April 16 2015 14: 07
      FW-190 what?
      A4, A8, G?
  6. ARES623
    ARES623 April 15 2015 08: 24
    Quote: D-Master
    The Germans in the second world war showed the whole world how to fight and what it takes

    Therefore, having in the rear the entire economy of Europe, its human resources, Germany lost the war !!!!!!!!! Take an example from her! Having losses in defense much less than in similar conditions incurred by the Red Army, the Wehrmacht, nevertheless, abandoned its positions, even while on its territory. This is an indicator of the strength of the army. So on the question - "showed how to fight", you still need to look at the Russians. IMHO
    1. andrey-ivanov
      andrey-ivanov April 15 2015 14: 05
      Therefore, having in the rear the entire economy of Europe, its human resources,

      what does human resources have to do with it? The number of foreigners in the Wehrmacht and SS has never been large. The Germans endured almost the entire war on themselves. But about the economy I agree - who only in Europe did not work for the "good" of the Reich.
      1. zubkoff46
        zubkoff46 April 15 2015 15: 27
        And about a million heavies in the troops is this a lot or a little? What about the security and criminal police in the occupied territories?
        1. Elk
          Elk April 15 2015 16: 39
          And about a million heavis

          Heavie doesn't count here. Directly on the side of the Third Reich, from 1,5 to 2 million French, Romanians, Finns, Danes, Spaniards, Italians, etc. fought. Even Afrikaners came across ...
          Thus, one can speak not of a war with Germany, but of a war with a united Europe. So the Eternal Glory to our grandfathers and great-grandfathers, who were able to break the ridge of this whole pack.
      2. Elk
        Elk April 15 2015 15: 47
        The number of foreigners in the Wehrmacht and the SS has never been large.

        Well yes. So, a little, just a million and a half ...
      3. Sanyl1
        Sanyl1 April 16 2015 10: 12
        Finns, Romanians, Hungarians, Bulgarians, Italians and other Dutch French do not count? On the eastern front alone, the number of Allied forces in certain periods reached 30% of the total number of German and Allied forces.
    2. yehat
      yehat April 16 2015 14: 17
      Quote: ARES623

      Having losses in defense much less than the Red Army suffered under similar conditions, the Wehrmacht, nevertheless, left its positions, even while on its territory. This is an indicator of the strength of the army. So on the question - "showed how to fight", you still need to look at the Russians. IMHO

      The Wehrmacht retreated because the German economy did not have the capacity to supply it enough and make up for losses. In 41, the Germans had an army more than half equipped with equipment captured in Europe, especially in France and the Czech Republic.
      By the year 43, the situation had changed greatly - the German units were already inferior in equipment to the Red Army. And they retreated because the war was fought by them primarily by technical means - guns, tanks, aircraft. When they retreated to the Vistula, the Germans had a large army, but hopelessly inferior equipment and supplies - the guns correlated 3-15 times, tanks 3-4 times, the transport was also better due to land lease from the USSR. And besides, a huge lack of fuel. The only thing that the Germans kept at a high level by the end of the war was to equip the infantry with heavy weapons: machine guns and Faustpatrons. Sturmgever STG44 appeared in 44, but did not manage to influence the battles
  7. Kalinov Bridge
    Kalinov Bridge April 15 2015 08: 31
    Among the last 17 machines manufactured in 1944 in Bordeaux was the FW 189F-1. The project "F-2" provides for enhanced armor protection and electric drive chassis cleaning mechanism.

    You have to understand that before that the chassis was retracted "by hand"?

    Recently, someone joked about the mechanism for the release and cleaning of the chassis on the I-16 ...
    Although, of course, the I-16 is a single-seat aircraft, and the navigator could follow this with Rama, but still the 44th year is not the 42nd
    1. andrey-ivanov
      andrey-ivanov April 15 2015 14: 09
      The frame of the plane is rather small, so it is quite possible that in the first modifications of the chassis it was removed manually. By the way, on many much larger machines, there were hand-operated emergency landing gear systems. For example, on the English Stirling bomber jacket, to retract the landing gear in manual mode, it was necessary to make ... 1000 revolutions (!) With a handle with a rather tight stroke.
    2. qwert
      qwert April 15 2015 14: 44
      The landing gear retraction mechanism can be manual, electric, pneumatic and hydraulic. We had completely different systems on the Yaks and Lavochkin. Although both designers also tested alternative systems, the "proprietary" systems remained in the series.
  8. Rus_87
    Rus_87 April 15 2015 08: 50
    Tell me, people in the know, why did he have some "ribs" installed on the propellers?
    1. Per se.
      Per se. April 15 2015 13: 09
      Quote: Rus_87
      Why did he have some "ribs" installed on the screws?
      The motors are equipped with two-blade automatic variable pitch propellers of the company. Argus having a mechanism for translating the blades into the vane position. Screw blades wooden, sleeve metal. Screw diameter 2,6m. The screw operates at two constant speeds corresponding to takeoff (3100 rpm) and cruising (2800 rpm) modes. The operating mode of the screw is set by the pilot, and the number of revolutions of the screw remains unchanged from full throttle to a certain throttle position. With further throttling of the motor, the screw acts as a fixed pitch screw.
      The energy required for the rearrangement of the blades is created by the rotation of the chickenpox installed in front of the sleeve and rotating under the pressure of the incoming flow. The rotation of the chickenpox is transmitted through a system of gears and a spring regulator to the worm gear, which is meshed with the worm; a wheel mounted on the butt of the screw.
  9. voyaka uh
    voyaka uh April 15 2015 10: 39
    The plane was super-lucky.
    It is fortunate that the Reich did not have money for his
    mass production as a strike aircraft
    ("Rama" was an expensive airplane).
    His American counterpart: heavy twin-engine
    Lightnig P-38 Lightning reconnaissance fighter.
    1. enot73
      enot73 April 15 2015 11: 04
      You can recall another famous Allied aircraft, built according to a similar scheme. Northrop P-61 "Black Widow" ("Black Widow"; Eng. Northrop P-61 Black Widow) - American heavy night fighter during the Second World War. The first fighter specially designed for night operations. In total, Northrop manufactured (including prototypes) 215 R-61A, 450 R-61V, 41 R-61C aircraft.
      1. Roman 1977
        Roman 1977 April 15 2015 11: 43
        Why did they try to adapt "Rama" as a night fighter to fight the light night bombers of NN Polikarpov U-2 (Po-2), which literally terrorized the front-line positions of German troops at night. To this end, the Fw.189 Behelfsnachtjoger was created, which was equipped with a FuG.212C-1 "Litchenstein" radar with a conventional antenna group in the form of a large four-fold dipole, mounted in the bow of the crew nacelle, which made it impossible to place any effective fighter weapons there. To conduct air combat, the upper pivot mount with a 7,9 mm MG.15 machine gun or with a coaxial 7,9 mm MG.81Z machine gun was dismantled, and instead a rigidly fixed 20 mm MG.151 / 20 automatic cannon was installed. It was mounted tilted up and slightly forward, similar to the "Schrage Musik" ("Jazz Music") system found on most Luftwaffe night fighters.
        The first two fighters entered service with the 100 NJG1943 night fighter squadron, formed in Bryansk in August 1944, in March 1. Then, starting in May, they began to enter service in small quantities mainly with the first staffel of squadron 100./NJG189. By June, the total number of FW.100A fighters in service with the "hundredth" squadron reached eight. Then in August, five of them were transferred to the second group II./NJG189. Unfortunately, there is no information on the effectiveness of the FW.2 as a night fighter. These machines also do not appear in the memoirs of Soviet pilots. What successes they achieved in the field of fighting the U-1945 remained unclear. Their last rare appearances were recorded in February-March 30 in the area of ​​the Danzig, Witzkerstrand, Greifswald airfields. In total, about 189 copies of the FW.XNUMXA were converted into night fighters.

      2. andrey-ivanov
        andrey-ivanov April 15 2015 14: 22
        And also F-82 "Twin Mustang" - a further development of a successful fighter.
        1. enot73
          enot73 April 15 2015 17: 54
          Quote: andrey-ivanov
          And also F-82 "Twin Mustang" - a further development of a successful fighter.
          Well, this plane has just two separate fuselages, and the PV - 189, unlike the F - 82, there is one crew cabin and it is located in the middle. Somewhat similar to the F - 82, the design was rather Xe - 111 Zwilling. although also its design differs from F - 82
          1. Bayonet
            Bayonet April 15 2015 19: 54
            Quote: enot73
            He - 111 Zwilling

            Born by the imagination of Colonel-General Ernst Udet, "Zwilling" or "Siamese Twins" became one of the most unusual aircraft that entered service during the Second World War - the flying "monster" He.111z. During 1940, when development began on the huge Ju.322 and Me.321 cargo gliders, the Luftwaffe began to look for a suitable tugboat for them. During a visit to Mariene, Ulet suggested that Heinkel create "Siamese twins" from two He.111, capable of performing this task. The total chassis base was 10m, and the maximum take-off weight was 28400kg. The distance between the two Heinkel-Zwilling fuselages was 12.8m. At the end of autumn 1941. He.111z-V1 and V2 were successfully tested. In the air, the He.111z looked very strange, but its characteristics turned out to be even higher than it was necessary to solve the assigned tasks. Within three months after the first flight of V1, both prototypes were delivered to the test center in Rechlin, and Heinkel received an order for another 10 Zwillings. The first three of them, like the experienced ones, were assembled from He.111h-6, and the rest from H-16. Eight additional vehicles were delivered by the end of the spring of 1942.
    2. goose
      goose April 15 2015 12: 09
      Well, a completely unsuccessful comparison. The Fw-189 appeared as an example of the use of unnecessary engines, and its release was limited only by its price, which was relatively small. (This is by the way, why he did not look like a Su-12). If this plane lost its advantages in the form of price, simplicity, reliability, weak and useless engines, the ability to land on small platforms, low fuel consumption, it would have been a failure.
      The only thing that is not clear is why it was not armed with the MG-131. There were few machine guns, guns were overkill.
      The demand for it at the front was also very small, and there was enough production. For the plane was highly specialized and performed poorly in all other roles. The only supporting roles that have somehow succeeded are the Po-2 night interceptor and the anti-guerrilla aircraft. But in view of the very narrow tasks and the presence of a competitor in the form of Fi, “Rama” felt a certain pressure all the time.
      1. enot73
        enot73 April 15 2015 17: 40
        Quote: goose
        Fw-189 appeared as an example of the use of useless engines
        Not quite so, the engines were from Arado Ar 96, and built them in the amount of 2891 pcs. They even released them, under the name Avia S - 2, after the war, in Czechoslovakia.
      2. Argon
        Argon April 15 2015 18: 08
        You goose are wrong the machine was created purposefully, as the main vehicle of the advanced avionobservers-coordinators (the most numerous part of the Luftwaffe reconnaissance aviation). and maintenance (compared to Hs-126).
    3. jjj
      jjj April 15 2015 13: 08
      Quote: voyaka uh
      His American counterpart: heavy twin-engine
      Lightnig P-38 Lightning reconnaissance fighter.

      It killed the famous pilot and writer Antoine de Saint-Exupery
      1. REZMovec
        REZMovec April 15 2015 14: 33
        Exupery died on an unarmed reconnaissance version of the R-38
  10. Andrey VOV
    Andrey VOV April 15 2015 10: 40
    My grandfather was a war veteran, when I asked him to talk about the war, and he was very reluctant to do it all, he told me that he was most nervous and just shivering and jerking when they started to hum in the silence of the frame ... they really were forerunners .. they them on what the light is)))
  11. Gray 43
    Gray 43 April 15 2015 10: 49
    In all the memoirs of our fighter pilots, this aircraft is described as a difficult target, but they were also shot down
    1. goose
      goose April 15 2015 12: 16
      Quote: Gray 43
      In all the memoirs of our fighter pilots, this aircraft is described as a difficult target, but they were also shot down

      The LII specialists correctly said that it was not difficult to shoot down the Fw-189, but for a trained pilot. In view of the poor flight and fire training of most of the Red Army fighter pilots, who were accustomed to attacking in a flat maneuver when equalizing speeds, and in this case, the attack was difficult. With vertical maneuver and yo-yos, this aircraft was a common target, and not the most durable and difficult. I think the "pros", he did not cause problems. Other pilots, the same poorly trained, but smarter have learned to shoot down "frames", using radio communication and work in pairs (which can be read in their memoirs). This method nullified the ability to steer away from the fire, because the plane came under fire from a partner.
    2. andrey-ivanov
      andrey-ivanov April 15 2015 14: 15
      I read somewhere that an order was given for a knocked-down "frame". True or not, I will not say.
  12. RuslanNN
    RuslanNN April 15 2015 12: 21
    Very tenacious aircraft. The late grandfather during the war was an anti-aircraft gunner, he recalled with bad words, it was very difficult to bring down. A frame has appeared - wait for the bombing.
    1. I love Motherland
      I love Motherland April 17 2015 18: 07
      During the war, the sniper Arseny Mikhailovich Etobaev shot down one "frame" and one "piece" from a sniper rifle ...
  13. Kornilovets
    Kornilovets April 15 2015 12: 45
    Yes, she drank, she blew our blood, the infantry hated her ...
  14. apro
    apro April 15 2015 13: 44
    The right tactics, the right task, is the right airplane. The Germans were able to put this into practice. Although the airplane is not the most outstanding, and another moment the main fleet was made for Czech Czechs moaned under the burden of occupation with salaries, bonuses, and wellness trips.
    1. REZMovec
      REZMovec April 15 2015 14: 36
      The paddlers also did not lag behind ...
  15. miv110
    miv110 April 15 2015 14: 54
    Ram specialists in fighter aircraft of the spacecraft and navy
    Among the three thousand Soviet aces who personally shot down 5 or more enemy planes during the war, there were relatively few who had a shot-down Rama on their combat account — only about seven hundred people. Even fewer are those who managed to celebrate the victory over the FV-189 twice, and very few - who were lucky enough to send three such aircraft or more to the ground.
    The greatest success in the fight against the hated spotters was achieved by two Soviet fighter pilots, with the representatives of the army and sailors equally sharing the palm: 5 Heroes of the Soviet Union Nikolai Fedorovich Krasnov, who fought as part of 402-, each had 116 confirmed personal air victories. Go, 31th, 530st and 4th Fighter Aviation Regiments of the Air Force of the KA, and Arkady Fedorovich Selyutin from the XNUMXth Guards IAP of the Air Force of the Baltic Fleet.
    The second step of the “podium” (if it is possible in principle to apply similar sports terminology to the realities of the air war) is occupied by pilots who have 4 personally shot “Frames” in the combat account:
    Kucherenko Petr Maksimovich (297th IAP, total 12 + 9 victories, flew to La-5);
    Yashin Victor Nikolaevich (157th IAP, total 26 + 1 victory, Yak-1, Yak-9);
    Semenov Vasily Ivanovich (107th Guards IAP, total 13 +1 victory, Yak-1);
    Sukhov Konstantin Vasilievich (16th Guards IAP, total 22 + 0 victories, “Aerocobra”);
    Revutsky Victor Konstantinovich (72nd Guards IAP, total 12 + 0 wins, Yak-7);
    Timofeenko Ivan Vasilievich (9th Guards IAP, total 18 + 3 victories, Yak-1, “Aerocobra”);
    Kharenko Nikolay Mikhailovich (163rd IAP, total 15 + 0 wins, Yak-9).
    At the same time, the first two pilots in the list, in addition to four personal victories, have on their account one “Rama”, shot down in the group. Petr Kucherenko is, apparently, the most “quick-fire” pilot among the “frame hunters”: in order to shoot down four enemies, it took him only 9 days (the first victory was 25.07.1943, the fourth was 02.08.1943).
    The list of “bronze laureates” of our imaginary pedestal, who personally shot down three “Frames”, is more extensive, but also on the scale of the total number of pilot aces is very small and has only 19 names.
  16. qwert
    qwert April 15 2015 15: 01
    The French were paid bonuses for overfulfilment and they were given up to 130% of the plan !!! Soyuznichki tried.
  17. marat-73
    marat-73 April 15 2015 16: 53
    Quote: D-Master

    ... The best in the world...

    Stop talking nonsense! How can the "best in the world" lose to "not the best in the world"? Your "best", together with their vassal Europe and the American-British masters, were defeated by our grandfathers, i.e. residents of the USSR. Tell your owners / customers that this number will not work with us.
    1. Bayonet
      Bayonet April 15 2015 19: 58
      Quote: marat-73
      Tell your owners / customers that this number will not work with us.

      And why without "Hurray !!!" at the end of the comment?
  18. Uzer 13.
    Uzer 13. April 15 2015 19: 44
    The aircraft as such turned out to be successful and useful for the war, especially in the initial period. However, the very idea of ​​aerial reconnaissance did not receive the necessary technical support. There was no specialized photo equipment, the range of photographic materials and chemical reagents was extremely scarce. All this greatly limited the capabilities of the reconnaissance aircraft. Shooting was done with a practically household camera from a great height. If we take the lens resolution for calculation to be 50 lines / mm and the length of the terrain shown in the image is about 1 km, then the actual image resolution will be 20 meters / mm. This roughly corresponds to the satellite resolution allowed for domestic use. images of the area. Real military images of the Luftwaffe confirm this assumption. They were suitable for adjusting artillery fire or for an approximate calculation of the amount of military equipment, the equipment itself is very difficult to classify.

    Pictures taken
    1. Elk
      Elk April 15 2015 21: 49
      However, the very idea of ​​aerial reconnaissance did not receive the necessary technical support. There was no specialized photo equipment, and the range of photographic materials and chemical reagents was extremely scarce.

      Well, why write frank nonsense?
      When did the Germans not understand the need for intelligence? They all understood that they were always literate warriors. And their air reconnaissance was more than developed. Only reconnaissance aircraft (modified or specially developed) they had more than 40 samples (for comparison, we have 4 times less). And their photographic equipment was more than on the level (as well as optics in general).
      Specifically, "Owl". On it, in a special nest, cameras Rb 20/30, Rb 50/30, Rb 21/18 or Rb 15/8 were installed, and the observer could actually take pictures with a perspective manual camera. Here are just "household" Hk19 somehow difficult to name.
  19. oxotnuk86
    oxotnuk86 April 15 2015 20: 50
    Thanks for the article +. Indeed, in the memoirs "frame" and "crutch" are mentioned only as a headache for the infantry. And you shouldn't discount the psychological impact. It was interesting to see the photos and learn more about the history of the aircraft.
  20. Denimax
    Denimax April 16 2015 01: 33
    When the full advantage is in the air, then such glass aquariums can fly.
    Polykarpov biplanes would be optimal fighters of such whatnots.
    Maneuverability is higher, and the line from all Cabinets will make bloody devastation in the cockpit.
  21. xomaNN
    xomaNN April 16 2015 17: 36
    In my opinion, if an enemy has developed an interesting and successful aircraft technology, it’s smarter relying on this finished development to make its own even better. laughing
    The experience of twin-body reconnaissance aircraft was highlighted in the comments. I’ll also mention the Soviet 70s, the scout of the Myasischev design bureau (it seems his index is M-38?)
  22. abc_alex
    abc_alex April 16 2015 17: 57
    The frame is a decent plane, but all its advantages were preserved exactly until the moment when the Red Army remained "starvation of extermination". As correctly noted above, after 1943, the Ram crews actually killed themselves. The losses were very high and the Germans stopped using them.