Military Review

MBR-2. Prolonged service


In 1929, the famous aircraft designer RL Bartini presented to TsAGI a draft design of a naval neighbor intelligence officer (ICBM). The following year, under the supervision of I.V. Chetverikov at the plant number 39 organized marine department CDB. G.M. was appointed deputy head. Beriev. Bartini was also sent to the same department. However, he was soon forced to leave, and all materials of the project on an all-metal ICBM aircraft were transferred to G.M. Beriev.

The country's need for such seaplanes was great, but the whole aviation aluminum went to the construction of heavy bombers. Therefore, G.M. Beriev decided to rework the original design of an all-metal ICBM aircraft, making it wooden. As a result, a practical new seaplane was created. The design of the machine with the M-27 engine received the designation MBR-2 (TsKB-25). However, this motor could not stand the bench tests and had to be replaced with a less powerful, but serial M-17.

The first flight of an experienced MBR-2 with a BMW VI engine, built at the Menzhinsky plant, was performed by the pilot B.L. Buchholz in May 1932.

The MBR-2 was a diversified flying boat with a high wing. The success of a seaplane largely depends on the choice of the hull contours of the boat, the cross section of which in the first direction was distinguished by high deadrise, which allowed the machine to be operated at a wave up to 0,7 m. According to VB Shavrova, this form of the bottom was extremely successful for landing, but not optimal on the run-up. It would be more profitable to round the bottom section in the keel area, but technologically this shape was easier to carry out from metal than from wood.

MBR-2. Prolonged service

Despite the fact that the seaplane was not amphibious, and a removable chassis was used for its rolling out, the designers made it possible to use it in the winter on skis, and later on wheels. The main structural material of the seaplane was wood, with the exception of the chassis, tails and ailerons, made of aluminum alloy and covered with percals, as well as elements of weapons and power plant.

Armament - two turret guns of the “YES” machine guns of the navigator and mechanic, as well as 550 kg caliber bombs up to 250kg, which were located on the wing holders. The crew consisted of three people: the pilot (there was a place for the co-pilot), the navigator in the front, and the gunner (mechanic) in the stern cabin.

From January 1933 to February 1934, the modified machine passed state tests. Engineers Balykov, pilots Glyadeiko and Krasnikov were driving the car. Tests showed that the seaplane on piloting technique did not differ from the previous modification. At the same time, the MBR-2 had an excessive margin of road stability and the pilot had to put a lot of effort on the pedals due to the insufficient axial compensation of the rudder. However, a flying boat could roll up to 45 °.

In March of the same year, the MBR-2 passed state tests on skis. The flying boat could be used as a bomber, but this eliminated the suspension of 250 kg caliber bombs because of the close proximity of the ski landing gear to them. The maximum ground speed decreased from 209 to 203 km / h, and the overload flight weight increased to 4350 kg. It should be noted that the ski take-off and landing device was widely used during the Great Patriotic War.

The scope of application and capabilities of the machine expanded rapidly. For example, in August 1934, employees of the Special Technical Bureau, who headed Bekauri, experienced radio-controlled ICBM-2 in Taganrog. Then came the cargo and passenger versions of the car.

In 1935, the seaplane, designated MBR-2bis (aircraft "L"), installed a more powerful high-altitude engine M-34НБ with a supercharger and a two-bladed metal propeller of ground pitch and diameter 3,2 m. the latter has significantly improved the review. Sparky machine guns "YES" was replaced by a single SHKAS of the same caliber, but more rapid-fire. To increase the stock of road stability, they increased the area of ​​the vertical tail, changing its shape. All this allowed to bring the maximum speed of the water to 235 km / h, and at the height of 5000 m - to 275 km / h.

Despite the excellent operational and seaworthy qualities, the MBR-2 was already outdated by the 1938 year. As its replacement in the design bureau of marine aircraft, a new hydroplane MBR-7 was developed. The new aircraft had the same scheme and was equipped with an M-103A engine.

By decree on the development of a new intelligence officer, the maximum speed at 4500 m not less than 370 km / h was envisaged, the landing speed was 115 km / h, the practical ceiling was 8200 m, and the range with a normal flight weight was 1000 km (ferry 2000 km). Defensive armament was supposed to be two ShKAS machine guns. Bomb load up to 400 kg.

The first flight on the MBR-7 made N.P. Kotyakov in April 1939. In June, the pilot M.V. Tsepilova. During the week he performed ten flights, while noting an easy take-off, a good vertical speed (the height of the 8000 m new machine reached for 25 minutes), excellent visibility for the pilot and a fairly high maximum speed - up to 365 km / h.

Were found and negative points. Among them, the tendency of the machine to turn right during take-off, travel instability and low flap strength. The latter caused an increased landing speed and the inclination of the aircraft to “leopards” (the ricochet of a seaplane from the surface of the water during landing).

In October 1939, an experienced MBR-7 crashed. During the takeoff run, progressive longitudinal oscillations of the machine appeared at the exit to the redan, throwing the plane into the air almost 3 meters with a sudden pickling and then diving. The plane was destroyed and could not be repaired.

Guilty recognized the pilot, who, when the first "nod" appeared, did not stop the takeoff. By the way, when developing the MBR-7, they did not test the model of a seaplane in the hydro-channel of TsAGI, relying on their design experience with intuition. In addition, the MBR-7 was too strict on the elevator and the revolutions of the engine.

There were no replacements for the MBR-2, and he had to endure the burden of three wars on his shoulders. Fighting baptism of flying boats received during the Finnish War, but the machines experienced the greatest difficulties during the Great Patriotic War. From its first days, the MBR-2 was involved in combat operations and used around the clock, and mostly in the ground theaters of military operations in providing ground troops.

The large losses of the aircraft soon forced to go to the night bombing attacks. Lifting up to 600 kg of bombs (six FAB-100) MBR-2bis bombed the enemy's manpower, columns on the march, railway tracks and other military targets.

A unique case occurred on August 15, 1941 over the Baltic. A pair of ICBM-2 (pilots Petrovichev and Kudryashev) from the 41st separate squadron of the Baltic Air Force fleet patrolled over vehicles that evacuated people and cargo from Tallinn when the Ju-88 bomber appeared. Trying to disrupt the enemy’s plans, the couple’s commander Petrovichev directed the flying boats towards the Junkers and threatened with a head-on strike to turn him off course. Similar actions by Soviet pilots were repeated several times, forcing the enemy to drop bombs not aiming from horizontal flight. Then even more unexpected happened. The German decided to pay for the failure with the slow-moving MBR-2, imposing an air battle on them. But it was not there. Flying boats, firing at the Junkers with four machine guns, set fire to one of its engines, and a bomber crashed into the water in front of numerous witnesses from transports. But the flying boat was considered heavy and very strict in piloting a car.

With the onset of autumn, before the frosts, the MBR-2 was installed on a wheeled chassis and exploited from unpaved runways. In winter, skied. In this form, the seaplanes flew until spring 1942.

It was possible for the MBR-2 to participate in the Battle of Stalingrad. At the end of August, an air group (commander major P. Evdokimov) 1942 flew from Baku to the Nikolo-Komarovskoye airfield, at the mouth of the Volga River (southern outskirts of Astrakhan), without landing, covering a distance of about 700 km. The main task of the group was to deter the bombing of the advancing German troops along the Elista-Astrakhan highway. For more than two months, the pilots bombed the enemy, taking off from a water aerodrome, and only deep autumn with the start of freezing on the Volga and the absence of a wheeled chassis forced the air group to return to Baku.

September 6 The 1943 of the Batumi-Poti region of the MBR-2 82-th separate aviation squadron badly damaged a German submarine. In 17 hour. 25 min. after dropping two depth charges from Lieutenant Zhandarov’s plane, a solar blot and air bubbles were observed on the detected boat on the surface of the sea. However, the boat continued to sail, and only after a second strike of the four seaplanes stopped moving.

MBR-2 began the fighting from the first days of World War II, and they also had the honor of being the first to bomb the Japanese troops at the final stage of World War II. On the night of August 9, during the Manchurian operation, the flying boats of the 115-nd separate mash three groups of four aircraft from the heights of 1400 - 2200 and bombed transports in the port of Yuki (North Korea). The first group of aircraft set fire to a tanker moored to the pier. The fire made it easier for the crews of other vehicles to perform the combat mission.

In the course of the South Sakhalin operation 11 of August, several groups of the IBR-2 of the Northern Pacific Fleet four times bombed the port of Estori and twice the airfield and the port of Toro. Five days later, close scouts destroyed the warehouses and barracks of the Japanese in the village of Toro and Taihoi one by one, clearing the bridgehead for the landing force. They carried out the MBR-2 and its main duty - intelligence, in particular, the west coast of Sakhalin Island.

In fact, with the end of the Second World War, the combat service of heavily aged ICBR-2 aircraft was completed. A little longer they were operated in the Civil Air Fleet. Immediately after the creation of the MBR-2 with the GVF M-34 engine and the Central Design Bureau of the MS, a proposal was made to create a passenger version of the MP-1 seaplane. But GUUP initially reacted negatively to this proposal, arguing the refusal by high workload of plant No. 31.

In 1937, the first passenger MP-1bis, tested in Sevastopol, was manufactured at the Taganrog aircraft factory. From 1937 to 1941, the 59 MP-1 equipped with the M-17F and 100 MP-1 bis engines with the М-34Н engine were located in various civil aviation enterprises of the country.

In November, 1936 of the year on the Black Sea Airlines in Odessa on the MP-1 opened regular passenger flights Odessa-Batumi. The take-off weight of the ten-seater MP-1 was more than 4100 kg (empty weight - 2710 kg). Under such conditions, the seaplane climbed to a height of 1000 m in 5,5 minutes, and the maximum ceiling was 4710 m. The maximum range with passengers was 710 km.

MP-1 aircraft were delivered to civil organizations not only from the Taganrog aircraft factory. Some vehicles of the first editions, with M-17F engines and dismantled weapons, were transferred from the Navy Air Force.

The pre-war years are a time of records. Aviation developed unusually fast, and many new aviation achievements were registered annually by global agencies. The Soviet MBR-2 also did not stand aside. Rather modest characteristics of the seaplane did not provide absolute achievements. However, it was possible to storm the appropriate categories of FAI. Our female crews set records most successfully.

In the 1937 year, P. Osipenko on the civil MP-1bis was able to set as many as three world aviation records. She reached a height of 7000 m with a weight of 1000 kg, then rose to 7600 m, but with a load of 500 kg. Finally, May 22's high-altitude culmination of its records was the achievement of the height 8846 m without load. Until now, this record legendary pilots remains unsurpassed.

A year later, the crew 24 of May 1938, led by Polina Osipenko (co-pilot V. Lomako, navigator of the machine M. Raskov) again struck the aviation world, having flown in a straight line on 1 km on MP-1749,23 bis. On July 2, the same crew made a non-stop flight on the Sevastopol-Kiev-Novgorod-Arkhangelsk route, 2416 km long (km 2241,5 in a straight line), with an average speed on the route in 228 km / h.

Serial production of the MBR-2 began at the plant number 31 in Taganrog with the release in 1933 of the 22-x training MBR-U with the M-17 engine, and from next year and in combat. During the serial construction, which lasted until the 1940 year, 1365 machines of all modifications were released. Despite the fact that by the beginning of World War II, the gruff and indifferent MBR-2 already looked like a complete anachronism, he passed through the whole war with honor to its last volleys. Not a single MBR-2 has survived to this day, with the exception of a reconstructed seaplane at the Museum of Aviation of the Northern Fleet.

Zablotsky A. Salnikov A. Unknown Beriev. Genius of naval aviation. M .: Yauza, Eksmo, 2009. C. 6-36.
Zablotsky A. MBR-2 in battles. Unknown Biography // Aviation and Cosmonautics. 1996. No.5. C. 25-34.
Salnikov A. Zablotsky A. Sea "ambar" // Aviation and time. 2004. No.1. C. 4-20.
Salnikov A. Zablotsky A. Marine near reconnaissance MBR-2 // Aviacollection. 2011. No.5. C. 2-8, 19-30.
Yakubovich N. Participant of three wars // Wings of the Motherland. 2001. No.11. C.11-15.
Shavrov V.B. History designs of aircraft in the USSR before the year 1938. M .: Mashinostroenie, 1994. C. 568-570.
Simakov B. Aircraft Country of the Soviets. 1917-1970. M .: DOSAAF, 1970. C. 64-66.
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  1. qwert
    qwert April 14 2015 07: 01
    Although the plane was unprepossessing and already obsolete, he made his contribution to the approach of Victory over fascism. With proper use and decent pilots, the machine quite successfully fought.

    By the way, from childhood I liked this car, precisely because of its simplicity and squareness. There was some charm in it, especially in the first modification. Nothing more, an example of pure functionality without frills.
    1. Gamdlislyam
      Gamdlislyam April 14 2015 07: 41

      The air brotherhood gave this aircraft a resounding nickname - Ambarchik.
      But the fact that he had to fight until the end of World War II, alas, the result, on the one hand, of a successful design and simple production technology, and, on the other hand, the lack of a replacement aircraft acceptable by TTD. In the late 20s and 30s, there were many design teams in our country who were engaged in seaplanes, but no one succeeded in creating a successful aircraft to replace the ICBM-2.
      In the history of this aircraft, there were also intrigues of competitors, who tried to prevent this aircraft from entering serial production (including A.N. Tupolev, who punched his unsuccessful all-metal aircraft). In this case, the insistence of the sailors helped to move the issue of mass production of the "barn" from an anchor.
      1. Argon
        Argon April 14 2015 13: 25
        In my opinion, calling the MBR-2 a successful aircraft, all the more a successful flying boat, is rather risky. I had a chance to communicate with a man who flew on it, the co-pilot, "Ambar" did not evoke pleasant memories. By the way, according to the pre-war aviation staff of the Navy, its crew is 4 people, but flew to the war in three. It is also not worth talking about the simplicity of technologies, the series were built using imported, waterproof adhesives, impregnations and varnishes, during the war, it is clear such materials were a luxury, so most cars by 42g tried to keep them further from the water, operating it with a bogie chassis, which creates additional resistance , reducing the already not brilliant for 40x g performance characteristics. Analogs of the MBR-2 from domestic designs can be called the KOR-2 (a rather close machine in characteristics, moreover, the only "boat" built in series during the war). A conceptually similar machine can be called Che-2. Another thing is that the very idea of ​​a flying boat as a combat vehicle of the littoral zone did not justify itself, the range of "land" aircraft of the Great Patriotic War made it possible to solve all combat missions in the coastal zone much more efficiently. What is the secret of the front-line longevity of the Ambarchik? I think this is a practically confirmed need to have a universal SINGLE-ENGINE platform with a full-fledged sighting and bomb weapons and two \ three crew members capable of bombing from loitering (that is, capable of being in the air for a long time). The Su-2 most fully met these requirements, but the decision to stop its release (in my opinion, erroneous) doomed to "untimely youth" , both R-10, MBR-2, and already released Su-2, and also brought to life an incredible number (for wartime) of various "ersatz" -like two-seat "harrikeins", or extremely lightweight IL-2 (as spotters).
        1. Gamdlislyam
          Gamdlislyam April 14 2015 18: 12
          Dear Sergey Vladimirovich, the production of the MBR-2 began in 1934. This aircraft replaced the licensed Savoy C-62 in production. The last cars were assembled in the first quarter of 1940. They were operated until the end of 1946 (at a rate of 4 years). It was a naval close scout. In the role of a bomber, he was used involuntarily. As an anti-submarine aircraft, its effectiveness was low due to the lack of appropriate equipment. But Che-6, GTS, alas, could not replace the barn. And even the supplies of licensed Katalin did not completely replace the MBR-2. KOR-2 (Be-4) was produced during the war, only 50 pieces. This is a shipborne ejection reconnaissance aircraft, it occupied a completely different niche and could not replace the MBR-2 by definition. The Su-2 is a short-range bomber that has never been supplied to the Navy (and it was intended for other purposes).
          What I agree with you is that the "barn" survived the Patriotic War not because it was a SUCCESSFUL aircraft, but because of the need of the fleet for such aircraft and the lack of replacement for it.
  2. Volga Cossack
    Volga Cossack April 14 2015 07: 18
    mbr-2, along with sh-2, is a kind of naval aviation; it was the right machine.
  3. fomkin
    fomkin April 14 2015 08: 14
    As always, I read it with interest. My favorite topic. Special thanks to the author.
  4. Malkor
    Malkor April 14 2015 09: 11
    Technician engineer as usual on top. Article plus. I read it with pleasure.
  5. rubin6286
    rubin6286 April 14 2015 11: 35
    In the pre-war, military and post-war years, MBR-2 was both a modest worker and warrior. While serving in the Far East, I had to meet with veteran pilots who piloted this plane. According to their stories, the car was simple in design and in piloting, but under the influence of salt and water, the main structural material - the tree quickly became worthless. “Old, full of holes, they flowed strongly when landing on water,” said veterans. In 1948 they were replaced by the captured Arado-196. Those were duralumin and served until 1956. A good machine for ice reconnaissance and search for schools of fish. They even wanted to be mass-produced.
  6. allim
    allim April 14 2015 15: 35
    excellent article I would like to continue at least about the hydroplanes of the designer Chetverikov
  7. KOMA
    KOMA April 15 2015 01: 10
    About the MBR-2 there is an excellent book by Vladimir Kovalenko "Wings of Sevastopol", I recommend reading.
  8. Denis_469
    Denis_469 April 16 2015 00: 06
    I am still amazed by the fact that German submarines were unable to shoot down a single MBR-2 during the entire war. But these planes attacked German submarines. And they sometimes defended themselves with anti-aircraft fire. In general, it was a useful anti-submarine aircraft, since it could stay in the air for a long time and had a radio station. As a result, he forced the submarines to keep under water while flying in the area.
  9. Andrey591
    Andrey591 April 16 2015 11: 30
    Beautiful car.
  10. Pate
    Pate 3 May 2017 13: 26
    On May 3, 1932, the first flight of this flying boat took place, which later became the Weapon of Victory over the Nazi invader in the Great Patriotic War.