Military Review

Cavalry General, Knight of St. George Fedor Arturovich Keller

34
“I always felt disgusting and worthy of contempt when people changed their convictions for the sake of personal good, profit or security.”
F. Keller



Fedor Arturovich was born 12 October 1857 in the city of Kursk. His father, Count Arthur Keller, was a famous cavalry officer, owner of numerous estates in the Smolensk and Vitebsk provinces. In 1859, he retired with the rank of colonel, and in the summer 1860 became the manager of the Tula stable. At 1853 in St. Petersburg, he became engaged to Rozenshild-Paulin, Natalia Nikolaevna. Fedor Arturovich was the first child in the family, his younger brother Arthur was born ten years after him. The count's childhood almost completely passed on in family estates. From a young age, the boy, as a future officer, was taught to love the Motherland and honor the king. When it was time for Fyodor to enter the school, his father took him to his grandmother in Riga and set him up in a local guesthouse. Two years later, the teenager was transferred to Moscow to uncle Viktor Fedorovich Keller, where he continued his education. And a couple of years later, at the request of his parents, the young man went to St. Petersburg and, after special training, was enrolled in the preparatory board of the Nikolaev Cavalry School.

Cavalry General, Knight of St. George Fedor Arturovich Keller


In the country at that moment another war was brewing. Bosnian Bulgarians and Serbs, who were under the heel of the Turks, were subjected to terrible torment for the Christian faith. In Bulgaria, the highlanders-Circassians raged here, fleeing from the Russian weapons from the Caucasus, and Albanians-Arnauts raged in Bosnia. When the banner of insurrection rose in the Slavic lands, Turkish hordes came out against the rebellious people. The refugees who arrived in Russia told about the terrible atrocities committed by the Moslems in their native villages. Russian people responded to the pain of fraternal peoples - donations were collected everywhere, many people volunteered to fight in the Balkans. And in April, 1877 happened a long-awaited event - Emperor Alexander II announced the beginning of a war with Turkey.

In connection with these events from the boarding school Keller was released early. Leaving this elite institution, the nineteen-year-old Fyodor without parental knowledge of the lower rank (as a volunteer) entered the first Life-Dragoon Moscow Regiment and went with him to the war. An example for him in those years was cousin Fyodor Keller - a young lieutenant colonel, a graduate of the Nikolaev Academy of the General Staff, who left, among other Russian volunteers, at 1876 for the Balkans and entered the service of the Serbian army. Having been in many battles, he became famous for his extraordinary courage and was awarded the highest military awards of the principality.

In a long march of dragoons, the young earl for the first time experienced all the war. About this expedition they wrote: “... Along with other parts, the frosty winter cavalrymen had to cross mountain ridges to overcome the ridges of the Balkans - an act comparable to the great feats of the victorious Suvorov bogatyrs. They moved light, throwing carts. Slippery, narrow paths looped between snow drifts and deep chasms; steep ascents did not allow riding. On halts the fires were not burned in order not to attract the attention of the enemy. Dragoons were descending, holding on to the reins of horses that were rolling down the slope in the backside ... ” Subsequently, Keller recommended young people who wanted to wear officers' shoulder straps to serve as volunteers for at least one year in order to better understand the psychology of ordinary soldiers and thus destroy the often misunderstanding.

When the first Life Dragoon Moscow Regiment joined the column of the famous General Skobelev, Fyodor Artovich met with his famous cousin, who returned from Serbia and headed Mikhail Dmitrievich's headquarters instead of the wounded Kuropatkin. Famous in the military stories the names - Turtukai, Silistra, Pleven, Adrianople, Shipka - became the places of the first battles of the young "free-rider". In this war, he “earned” silver soldier Georgy of the third (for occupying Ternova station) and the fourth (for the differences on the day of the bloody battle of Shane) of the degrees personally awarded to him by the Commander-in-Chief of the army. Many years later, Fyodor Arturovich, with his usual modesty, spoke of these military awards: “I myself don’t understand why they gave it. The first cross earned by inexperience - an orderly carried the order, and instead of headquarters he flew at the Turkish trench. Opponent fired at me, the authorities saw and awarded. And the second cross was given for the fact that the burning bridge was galloping. And that's it! ” Despite this, soldier Georgy Keller was truly proud and did not remove them from his chest, even when he had reached the rank of general.

In April, 1878, shortly after the war ended, the young earl received the first officer rank of ensign. A couple of months later, Fyodor Arturovich successfully passed the test for the right to production in the following ranks at the Tver Cavalry Cadet School. Two years later, in accordance with the orders of the authorities, the Keller cornet was transferred to the sixth hussar Klyastitsky regiment. Here, commanding a squadron, he rose to the rank of captain in seven years, and in 1888-1889 he was sent to the Officer Corps School for training in the squadron commanders department. He graduated from the course with the highest marks, and in 1894 "for the differences in service" he was promoted to lieutenant colonel, and in 1901 with the same wording - to colonel. Over the years, the count served in the twenty-fourth dragoon Lubensky, the twenty-third dragoon Voznesensky, the eleventh dragoon Kharkov regiments, commanded the Crimean division, the fifteenth dragoon Alexandria and the Life Guards Dragoon regiments. An excellent soldier, who repeatedly won prizes for horse riding, chopping and shooting, “very skillfully,” according to the recollections of his subordinates, who fought off five horsemen with a pike, the graph was a model of the servant in the best sense of the word. Subordinates were afraid of their stern commander, but they were devoted to him, bowing before Keller's tireless energy and iron will. By his two-meter height, the count inspired people with respect and confidence. A contemporary described him like this: “His appearance is a slim, tall, well-knit figure of an old cavalryman, a pair of crosses of St. George on an elegantly tailored jacket, kind expression on an energetic, beautiful face, expressive eyes penetrating the very soul.” The palace commandant Vladimir Voeikov, who knew Keller well, in his notes called Fyodor Arturovich “a crystal-clear, truly Russian person, imbued with a bone-in-heart feeling of love for the Motherland and duty”.


Count F. A. Keller with children: Pavel (1883 — 1980) - on the right; Alexander (1887 — 1944) and Elizabeth (1885 — 1965)


When the 1905 unrest embraced the outskirts of the empire, Keller went to pacify Poland, transferred to martial law. In 1906 in the Polish town of Kalush, while serving as interim governor-general, he was sentenced in absentia to death by terrorists. The first bomb thrown at him Fedor Arturovich, showing tremendous composure, intercepted still in flight, gently laid on the ground and rushed after the criminal in pursuit. The second bomb, filled with striking elements, was thrown at the count, when he was accompanied by his officers returning from regimental exercises. Keller’s explosion was seriously contused, and several dozen shards lodged in his leg. After this incident and until the end of his life, he limped on one leg.

One of his main tasks as regiment commander, Keller, considered training subordinates. He was extremely demanding of his fighters, for example, when meeting new officers, Fedor Arturovich told them: “I work from eight in the morning until eight in the evening and from eight in the evening until eight in the morning. I hope all of you will work the same way. ” His notes were preserved as follows: “All my work should be aimed at developing a conscious fighter and boss who is able to assess environmental conditions and not waiting for orders to make an appropriate decision ... The junior commander must firmly believe in himself, correctly evaluate the forces of the enemy, use the opening chances of success, do not miss the right moment to attack and defeat the enemy. " Keller outlined his methodology for training soldiers in a number of brochures under the general title “Several Cavalry Issues” issued in St. Petersburg. In the cavalry training system, Fedor Arturovich focused on single dressage in the field (he did not recognize the arena), cutting the vine, shooting from horse to horse at targets set on the ground.

In relation to the Russian soldiers, Keller followed in the footsteps of Skobelev and Suvorov, strongly disagreeing with those officers who found our fighters backward and significantly inferior in skills to the lower ranks of the European armies. The general said: “After having recruited recruits for five years, after having commanded squadrons for more than ten years and in separate units for about nine years, I became closely acquainted with our soldiers ... I was convinced that everything depended on training and education ... Our soldier has a natural mind and wisdom that is incomparably greater than any Frenchman or German. The one who bothered to get to know a Russian soldier a little closer, became interested in his life, penetrated his views, outlook, weaknesses and inclinations, could not help but make sure that the opinion about our soldiers absolutely does not correspond to the truth and depends on how to take their training and education. "

The findings of Fyodor Arturovich embodied in his parts: “In order for a person to take the case consciously and with interest, his personal participation in the accomplishment of the task, the opportunity to show a small but his initiative is necessary. He should have a consciousness that his personal “I” plays a role and contributes to the achievement of a common cause. The implementation of the whole, complex maneuver, the soldier is not clear, this requires training and knowledge. But the little things of maneuver, often of enormous importance (the work of a separate crossing, timely delivery or interception of reports, etc.) are clear and interesting for him, develop in the soldier prowess, ability to use the terrain, determination and wit. ”

In 1907, Nicholas II appointed Colonel Keller an aide-de-camp, and four months later Fyodor Arturovich (again "for the difference") was promoted to major general with his majesty's entourage. From 1910 to 1912, the count headed the first brigade of the Caucasian Cavalry Division, and he met the First World War in the rank of lieutenant-general (appointed 1913 in May) as the head of the tenth Cavalry Division. According to the memoirs of one of the officers news about the beginning of hostilities in his part was met "with great self-confidence and great enthusiasm." Well-trained regiments believed in their commander, and Keller's fame in 1914-1916 is inseparable from the glory of his fighters.

Speaking at the German front at the head of the tenth cavalry division, which became part of the third army of General Nikolai Ruzsky, on the fourth day of battle, Keller defeated the cavalry of Austro-Hungarians and brought the Russian army its first victory in world war. The battle that took place on 8 in August 1914 under the village of Yaroslavlitsa was called by military historians the “last equestrian battle of the First World War”, and possibly the whole world history, since the collisions of the cavalry masses during the years of the Civil War were significantly different from the “classic” ones. Near Yaroslavitsy met two cavalry divisions. Fyodor Arturovich threw, without hesitation, ten (according to seven sources, seven) squadrons of the Ingermanland hussars, Odessa ulans and Novan masters, Odessa ulans and Novan masks, Odessa ulans and Novan masks, Odessa ulans and Novan glans, Odessa ulans and Novan glanders, Odessa districts, who used to prepare for the battle and occupied the advantageous position of the Austrian fourth Cav. At the same time, the Orenburg Cossacks attacked the landwehr regiment attached to the Zaremba division. Colonel Alexander Slivinsky assessed the battle as follows: “Fyodor Arturovich demonstrated astonishing presence of mind, speed of decisions, clarity of thought and a great eye ... The 8 August Battle 1914 is a rare phenomenon during the Great European War, showing a typical example of cavalry combat with all its development phases, exceptional both in terms of the number of riders involved, and in the presence of a purely cavalry frontal collision. ”

Russian cavalrymen were forced to attack on the ascent, and the crest hid from them the building of the enemy and the true number of Austrians. The risky actions of the Russian military leader could have ended in failure if not for the excellent training of the Keller cavalry honed in the pre-war years, as well as the personal involvement of Fyodor Arturovich during the battle. At the decisive moment of the battle, the commander of the Russian division, commanding: “Convoy and headquarters - to attack!”, Led a platoon of Cossacks of the first Orenburg regiment and several random horsemen attacked the enemy squadron between the Russian troops and crushed it. The outcome of the battle was the complete rout of the Austrians, and the pursuit and extermination of the enemy continued for as long as the Russians could bear. The losses of the enemy killed and wounded amounted to about a thousand fighters, while the "Keller" division is no more than 150 people. In the battle were captured many prisoners, more than three hundred horses, eight guns, machine guns and staff documentation. For his heroic actions, the count was awarded the Order of St. George of the Fourth Degree.


Fedor Arturovich Keller at the beginning of 1915, as commander of the 3-m equestrian corps


Large cavalry battles were no more, but the war continued. During the Battle of Galicia, Keller organized the pursuit of the enemy and in mid-September captured five hundred prisoners and six guns from the town of Yavorov. In March, 1915 his troops smashed the forces of the enemy, advancing on the city of Khotyn, taking over two thousand people as prisoners. And at the end of April, 1915, the third cavalry corps, commanded by Keller at the beginning of spring, conducted a well-known equestrian attack in the ranks in the course of the general army offensive, knocking the enemy out of a triple row of trenches fortified with barriers. Over two thousand enemy soldiers and officers were taken prisoner. For this success, Keller was awarded the St. George of the third degree.

General Anton Denikin wrote in his diaries: “The victorious reports of the South-Western Front most often mentioned the names of two cavalry commanders — only two, because in this war the cavalry ceased to play the role of the“ queen of the fields ”—Keller and Kaledin, equally brave but completely opposite in character: one is carried away, passionate, sometimes reckless, the other is stubborn and calm. ... Fyodor Arturovich led his troops into battle beautifully and spectacularly, as if on battle canvases, but without any deliberate panache, it happened by itself. " And at the end of 1914, Empress Alexandra Feodorovna commented on the general: “Count Keller creates something incredible. With his division he had already crossed the Carpathians. The sovereign asks him to be more careful, but he only answers him: "I am moving forward." Great fellow ... ". So the actions of Fyodor Arturovich looked from far St. Petersburg. For those who saw the general in a combat situation, they made an even stronger impression; it was not for nothing that the graph, despite his years, preferred to personally lead the regiments to the attack and was wounded twice. Peter Krasnov, who served under him, described the breakthrough episode in the third cavalry corps in April 1915: “... And when there was a fight, it seemed that the count was near. And he was there, and they saw him, and they went boldly and merrily in the assault. ”

Among other things, Keller was extremely careful about his subordinates. Even in the most difficult months of the war, Fyodor Arturovich closely followed the soldiers ’allowance, took all measures to ensure that they were necessary, checked the contents of the soldiers' booths for taste, and strictly punished if it was of inadequate quality. Knowing this, the commissaries of the third cavalry corps never risked stealing food. By order of the count, hot food was given to lower ranks at least twice a day, while in neighboring parts soldiers did not always receive it once a day. With great attention Keller treated the health of their fighters. The commander of the Tenth Hussar Ingermanland Regiment, Colonel Cheslavsky, wrote: “Fyodor Arturovich twice a day went around all the wounded and sick, checking that everyone had a bottle of hot water at their feet.” And shortly after the cholera epidemic began, the colonel wrote down the following: “Earl completely neglected the danger of becoming infected — he approached seriously ill patients, rubbed their hands, comforted, saying that they had cholera in a mild form, no one had yet died and, in all likelihood, deaths will not be. Such moral support greatly encouraged the fighters. ” By the way, during the cholera epidemic, by order of Keller, rice was included in the fighters ration, tea standards increased, and citric acid was added to food.

Fyodor Arturovich was very attentive about the observance of the merits of ordinary ranks. He wrote: "Soldiers are inspired by the idea of ​​a high rank of a warrior, and on the fences of public gardens, parks and at the entrances to the party with the inscription:" Do not drive dogs, "you can read" Lower ranks are forbidden to enter. " It is time to change the look on the soldier, to look at him as a full-fledged, adult person, responsible for his behavior. It is time, showing full confidence, to educate him in this direction, strictly and tirelessly demanding from him sobriety, preserving military merits and the ability to keep himself in crowded places ... Not a couple of years pass, like the face of our lower rank, his self-respect, self-awareness change completely. " Decisively, the general suppressed cases of assault. In one of his orders it is written: “Even in peacetime, I pursued a beating of soldiers, and during the period of hostilities, I even more consider it to be unacceptable, because it deactivates people called up for the defense of the Motherland. This, in my personal opinion, inappropriate relationship is a crime. ” It should be noted that Fyodor Arturovich strictly punished those or other forgiveness, “despite the ranks or valor” of the guilty. Nothing, including high intercession, could have an impact on the general. The count did not let down even minor offenses, believing that the collapse of the army begins with them. Often, Keller found the verdict of field courts too soft or, conversely, overly harsh and personally interfered in their work.


General Count Fedor Arturovich Keller (sitting second from left) with the ranks of the headquarters of cavalry and Cossack units. Sit: the commander of the brigade of the Terek Cossack Division, Major General I.Z. Khoranov (fourth from left) and the head of the Special Purpose Squad Esaul A.G. Shkura (fifth)


In 1916, during the general offensive of the Southwestern Front, Keller's corps was part of the tenth army of General Platon Lechitsky. In June, units of Fyodor Arturovich pursued the retreating southern group of the seventh Austro-Hungarian Army and occupied the Romanian city of Kimpulung, capturing over three and a half thousand enemy soldiers. At the start of 1917, Keller was promoted to cavalry general, and in March he received shocking news of a revolution in the country. Soon the new text of the oath was sent to the column. After reviewing it, Keller stated that the troops entrusted to him would not lead to it, since "he does not understand the legal basis and the essence of the power of the Provisional Government." Gathering representatives from each squadron and hundreds, the count prepared a message to the emperor: “The Third Cavalry Corps does not want to believe that You, Sovereign, abdicated the throne voluntarily. Just give the order - we will come and protect you. ”

However, a different point of view was held by top management, who feared incitement of internecine hatred for the warring country, and decided to swear in a new government. The independent position of Fyodor Arturovich caused the authorities fair concerns, and the commander of the twelfth Cavalry Division, Baron Mannerheim, who later became the ruler of independent Finland, went to the headquarters of the third equestrian corps located in the city of Orhei. The generals spoke in private. Karl Mannerheim persuaded Keller to “sacrifice personal political convictions for the good of the army,” but met a categorical refusal. Feodor Arturovich’s convictions were not at all political, the count was guided only by moral motives, embodying the best features of the Russian officers contained in the ancient commandment: “Soul to God, life to the Sovereign, heart to the lady, honor to anyone”. His answer to Mannerheim remained forever in the annals of history: "I'm a Christian, and I consider it my greatest sin to change the oath."



Keller's telegram addressed to the Sovereign on March 6 1917, s.1


The fact that the position of the graph had moral grounds was confirmed by Keller’s unwillingness to interfere in the procedure of taking the oath by the third cavalry corps. Fedor Arturovich made no attempt to thwart, perhaps hoping that his subordinates would be just as adamant in loyalty to the emperor as he was. General Nikolai Shinkarenko wrote: “We can assume that the count was not interested in how his soldiers and officers will decide. He knew how to act to him, and did so. " The expectations of Fyodor Arturovich, if there were any, were not justified - the old warrior had no allies to the same extent loyal to the throne. And soon a new order came from the commander of the Romanian front, ordering the count to hand over the entrusted corps under the threat of his announcement as a rebel. So without waiting for orders from the sovereign, the sixty-year-old Fedor Arturovich obeyed the order received and said goodbye to his regiments.

After leaving the army, Fedor Arturovich settled in Kharkov, leading a secluded life and recording his memories of the war, unfortunately, subsequently lost. In the eyes of the old general, the “Ukrainization” of the Little Russian provinces, the revolt of the Bolsheviks and the subsequent occupation of Ukraine by the Austrian and German troops followed this spring 1918 took place. The last of the old warrior was most affected, he said to his friends that “he tries not to go out because he does not tolerate the spectacle of German helmets”. In April, with the support of the Germans, 1918 was formed by the Ukrainian state, headed by hetman Pavel Skoropadsky, which became the first island in the middle of the sea anarchy sweeping the country. Don came to Keller with news of how Generals Denikin and Alekseev fight the Reds at the head of the Volunteer Army organized by them. The count also wanted to take part in the struggle against the Bolsheviks, however, remaining “unshakably loyal to the idea of ​​the monarchy,” he considered it possible to resist only “in the name of the Tsar-Autocrat of All Russia”, moving along the path of rebuilding the old army. On the proposal of General Boris Kazanovich in June 1918 to join the ranks of the Volunteer Army, he refused. The count told him: “The unification of Russia is undoubtedly a great thing, but this slogan is too vague. It is possible to unite, collect those who scattered only to one particular person or place. You are silent about the face of this - a born, legitimate Sovereign. Declare that you are going for the Tsar, and all the best that is left in Russia, all the people who have longed for firm authority, will go without hesitation. ” Right-wing leaders in Kiev also wanted to see Keller in the ranks of the Southern Army, which they formed with the support of the German military. Despite the apparent coincidence of monarchical positions, Fyodor Arturovich refused them, noting: "Part of the intelligentsia here holds an allied orientation, the other is adherents of the German, but both the first and second forgot about their age-old Russian orientation."


Fedor Arturovich Keller, commander of the Russian Imperial Army, the retinue of His Imperial Majesty, the cavalry general, “the first piece of Russia”. Killed in December 1918 by Petliura separatists in Kiev. Buried in Kiev Women's Pokrovsky Monastery


In September, the Metropolitan of Kiev, Anthony Volynsky, served a memorial service for the murdered sovereign in 1918 in St. Sophia Cathedral. The world war was also nearing its end — the German administration was rapidly losing its all-powerful position in Ukraine on the eve of the emergence of allies. At the same time, Skoropadsky’s protracted negotiations with Soviet Russia were interrupted, and the first red detachments appeared on the northern borders of the country. Keller worriedly wrote: “There is not a minute to lose. The Anglo-French troops who landed could misunderstand the situation - not seeing the real forces openly striving for the unification of Russia and the revival of the monarchy, they can imagine that everyone in our Fatherland dreams of a republic. ”

At the end of October, Pskov monarchists arrived to Keller, calling themselves the “Defense Council of the North-West Region”. After telling the general about the formation of white detachments in the Pskov region, they suggested that the graph should become the head of the future Northern army, independent from the German command and monarchist in ideology. This proposal, unlike the rest, was made by Fyodor Arturovich. Forced inaction has long plagued the count, moreover, Keller thought that he had finally found himself loyal assistants and like-minded people. Believing the words "Council of Defense", the count proceeded to the creation of the headquarters of the Northern Army. In “The Call of the Old Soldier” Fyodor Arturovich addressed his old comrades: “The time has come when I call you again. Remember the prayer - the one that we read before our glorious victories, signify yourself with a sign of the cross with God’s help and ahead for the Tsar, for the Faith, for our indivisible Russia. ” Already in early November, the earl arrived in Kiev, where he continued to gather around him officers of the future Northern army. For her ranks, he established his own sign — an eight-pointed Orthodox silver cross, nicknamed the “Cross of General Keller.”

By mid-November, Fyodor Arturovich announced the preparatory work for the creation of the northern army was completed and decided to go to Pskov. But to get there, he, alas, was not destined. The situation in Ukraine was becoming more and more threatening. The German forces playing a deterrent role, under the terms of the armistice, began to retreat to the pre-war borders, and the sham units formed by the hetman during the summer of 1918 did not represent a serious combat force. The socialist independentists with the chieftain Petlyura, taking advantage of the situation, roused a revolt against Skoropadsky and his "landlord government". Throughout the country, uprisings broke out, led either by the Petliurists, then by the Bolsheviks, or simply by criminal elements. Sensing the danger of his position, the hetman proclaimed the formation of the All-Russian Federation with the inclusion of the Ukrainian state. In addition, Fyodor Arturovich, who was still in the service with the tsar, Pavel Skoropadsky asked the count for help in creating an efficient army, promising the general full civil and military power.

Fyodor Arturovich accepted the offer of Skoropadsky, and in the military sense this appointment proved to be brilliant. The Hetman Guard, consisting of untrained and unexperienced boys, with the arrival of the commander-in-chief to the front unexpectedly launched an offensive, in the very first battle discarding the most experienced Sich archers. By the way, Fedor Arturovich, limping and leaning on his wand, personally led the chains of soldiers to attack. But the rulers of Ukraine were more interested in not winning the graph, but taking up an independent position. Not wanting to reckon with the hetman government, which proved its weakness, Keller gave orders to the ministers, summoned them to report to himself, frankly did not recognize artificial "Ukrainization", and to top it off, publicly stated that "he would put his head to create a great, united Russia, and does not accept any federal state’s separation from it. ” Dissatisfaction with the count, accumulated among the hetman's confidants, found a way out in late November during the funeral of three dozen volunteer squad officers who were brutally murdered near Kiev. Outraged, Keller, not restraining himself, expressed a proposal for the transfer of all power to him until the restoration of the monarchy. The answer to the frightened hetman was a decree on his resignation and replacement by Prince Dolgorukov.
Only ten days Fedor Arturovich was at the post of commander in chief, and less than three weeks after his resignation the hetman with his ministers lasted. In early December, the Northern Army left the Pskov Bolsheviks, and near Kiev, a few volunteers from the Russian troops from the last force held back those who were stalking Petliurists. Skoropadsky, dressed in a German uniform, shamefully fled. Prince Dolgorukov, despite the loud words "to die with the troops entrusted to him", also went on the run. The only authoritative person in the city was Fedor Arturovich. Officers then turned to him, the squads of which retreated under pressure from the troops of the Siege Corps to the city center.

Having led a detachment of several dozen officers of the headquarters of the Northern Army, the count made an attempt to break through to the Don. However, it was already impossible, having reached Khreshchatyk, the detachment ran into the advanced units of the Petliurists. After a short battle, which did not bring success to any of the parties, Fyodor Arturovich led the survivors to the Mikhailovsky Monastery. At the meeting, it was decided to disband the detachment, and only a few of the most loyal people remained with the general. On the evening of the same day, a major of the German army arrived at the monastery, making Keller an offer to take refuge in the German commandant's office. According to the memoirs of an officer from the detachment of Fyodor Arturovich, “despite the refusal, we took the count to the courtyard with almost force. On the way, they threw a German overcoat on him, to which he reluctantly complied. When he was asked to remove George from his neck and sword, the Count with anger threw off his overcoat, turned and went back to his cell. Neither threats, nor pleas failed to change his decisions. ” Soon Petliurists came to the monastery. By this time, almost all the comrades of the general had left him, and only two adjutants remained with Keller - Colonel Panteleyev and Captain Ivanov, who had decided to share the fate of their commander to the end. For about a week, the count and his adjutants were kept under arrest. And 8 December 1918 in 4 hours of the morning with the next translation Keller, Panteleyev and Ivanov were shot in the back on the Sofia area near the monument to Bogdan Khmelnitsky. Eleven bullet wounds were counted in the body of the general. This is a crime, since the standard phrase “shot while trying to escape” could not deceive anyone, agitated the population of the city. Thanks to Bishop Nestor Kamchatsky, the body of the count, already taken to the dump, was found and buried under a strange name on the churchyard of the Holy Pokrovsky Monastery. His wife, two sons and daughters of the general managed to escape, they all lived a long life, having found their last refuge in a foreign land.

According to the materials of the site http://feodor-keller.narod.ru/ and the books of S.V. Fomin "The Golden Blade of the Empire".
Author:
34 comments
Information
Dear reader, to leave comments on the publication, you must sign in.
  1. Serg65
    Serg65 April 10 2015 07: 01
    +14
    “Command, King, we will come and protect you!” ... this is the whole Keller !!! And do not care that most of the country betrayed the Sovereign! The most interesting thing is that Fin Mannerheim persuades the German Keller to betray his honor, here is the answer to those who shouted about the betrayal of the Germans in the Russian Army.
  2. parusnik
    parusnik April 10 2015 07: 51
    +7
    Keller, Panteleev and Ivanov were shot in the back ..The usual behavior of the Petliura-Banderaites .. General Vatutin, the liberator, of Kiev, died after being ambushed by bullets from the "liberators" of Ukraine ... as they are now called, the Banderaites ...
  3. Aasdem
    Aasdem April 10 2015 08: 57
    +7
    Great People were both in World War I and in World War II ... But we don’t remember everyone ...
    1. lukke
      lukke April 10 2015 11: 27
      +5
      Great People were both in World War I and in World War II ... But we don’t remember everyone
      To even greater regret and our own shame - we do not know about everyone.
    2. The comment was deleted.
  4. YaMZ-238
    YaMZ-238 April 10 2015 09: 03
    +7
    Memory and RESPECT to Fedor Arturovich Keller !!!! There would be more such officers in the army, you see, and the country will rise !!!
  5. Captain45
    Captain45 April 10 2015 09: 17
    +7
    Despite the apparent coincidence of monarchical positions, Fedor Arturovich refused them, noting: “Part of the intelligentsia here adheres to an allied orientation, the other is partisans of the German one, however, the first and second have forgotten their original Russian orientation”.
    As the general correctly noted. A hundred years have passed, but the position of most of the so-called "intelligentsia" has not changed. As the saying goes, there is nothing new under the moon. Probably thanks to such people of duty and honor as General F.A. Keller, it has not yet succeeded " intelligentsia "to completely destroy Russia. For the commandment "Soul - to God, life - to the Sovereign, heart - to a lady, honor - to nobody". will always be decisive for real officers. soldier
  6. creak
    creak April 10 2015 10: 36
    +3
    Another Russian officer to the end remaining loyal to military duty was also the cavalry commander General Khan Nakhichevan. Having devoted his entire life to the Army, he, in particular, brilliantly displayed himself during the WWII and received a number of the highest awards, including Order of St. George, enjoyed great respect and love from his subordinates. As commanders of the Guards Cavalry Corps, he, like Count Keller, refused to swear allegiance to the Provisional Government ...
    After his dismissal, he lived with his family in Petrograd, in 1918 he was shot along with other hostages by order of the Cheka, the place of his burial is not known reliably.
    The Muslim Khan of Nakhichevan, like the German Keller, regardless of nationality and religion, first of all, considered themselves Russian officers and above all placed fidelity to the Fatherland and military duty ...
    The Army has always stood and should stand on these principles ...
    1. The polar
      The polar April 10 2015 12: 23
      +1
      Thanks for the info, I hope soon here and they will write about Khan Nakhichevan soon (by the way, he was a colonel during the great sitting in the Bayazed fortress)
  7. RPG_
    RPG_ April 10 2015 11: 21
    +2
    It is a pity that such great people in our country are a minority. Eternal glory to the "First Draft of the Empire"!
  8. motorized rifle
    motorized rifle April 10 2015 11: 24
    0
    Loyalty to the oath, personal courage, skilful command, all this impresses and evokes eulogies a la: "Glory to General Keller! We must remember!" What do you ask to remember? I think the same general, this was not what was needed, but what should be remembered and DOED: “All my work should be aimed at developing a conscientious fighter and commander, capable of assessing the surrounding conditions and without waiting for orders to make the appropriate decision ... The junior commander must firmly believe in yourself, correctly assess the strength of the enemy, take advantage of the opening chances of success, do not miss the right moment to attack and defeat the enemy. "
    1. Nagaibak
      Nagaibak April 10 2015 16: 46
      +1
      motorized rifleman "What do you ask to remember?"
      Judging by how the people minus your comment))) they probably don’t remember what Keller said and tried to achieve.))) It's easier to clap your hands and be touched.)))
  9. lukke
    lukke April 10 2015 11: 33
    +4
    But I agree with this indisputably:
    Subsequently, Keller recommended that young people who wished to wear officer uniforms serve as volunteers for at least one year in order to better understand the psychology of ordinary soldiers and thereby destroy the often misunderstood
    only taking into account the current realities, I would do this - a future cadet of a higher military school must serve compulsory military service for at least 6 months, have good characteristics of commanders (platoon commander, company commander, battalion commander) and only after that be able to get access to exams. And maybe finally the Army and the Navy will lose most of the "random passengers".
  10. Nikita Gromov
    Nikita Gromov April 10 2015 11: 36
    +4
    A courageous man and a brave warrior - did not drop the honor of a Russian officer.
  11. holgert
    holgert April 10 2015 11: 37
    +4
    The saddest thing is that in March 1917, when all the "loyal to the Tsar" "units wore red revolutionary bows, only the following remained loyal to him in St. Petersburg - a) Mannerheim's Finnish regiment b) a separate battalion of Prince Anvar Oslanov c) Prince Nakhichevan and EVERYTHING !!!! The rest, cat. on duty they were OBLIGED to protect the Tsar, such as the Cossack Don Hundred, the Leib of the Tsarskoe Selo company ((by the way, with artillery)), the Dragoons, etc. ALL without exception were revolutized ........ Such as Keller was few, BUT they were !!! Eternal Memory of truly Russian Warriors who did not break the oath !!!!!!!
    1. semirek
      semirek April 10 2015 15: 28
      +2
      Quote: holgert
      The saddest thing is that in March 1917, when all the "loyal to the Tsar" "units wore red revolutionary bows, only the following remained loyal to him in St. Petersburg - a) Mannerheim's Finnish regiment b) a separate battalion of Prince Anvar Oslanov c) Prince Nakhichevan and EVERYTHING !!!! The rest, cat. on duty they were OBLIGED to protect the Tsar, such as the Cossack Don Hundred, the Leib of the Tsarskoe Selo company ((by the way, with artillery)), the Dragoons, etc. ALL without exception were revolutized ........ Such as Keller was few, BUT they were !!! Eternal Memory of truly Russian Warriors who did not break the oath !!!!!!!

      why did this happen? the answer is simple: the example of this article shows that real patriots, officers and soldiers did not spare their lives - "so for the king, for the homeland, for the faith ...", they just died, six calls of the guard were killed in battles, in their place the wrong people came, and they were already indifferent to the fate of the tsar and the fate of the homeland without him, as for Count Keller --- there are only a few such officers with honor.
      1. erg
        erg April 10 2015 16: 03
        0
        Exactly, six calls were lost. And in the name of what? The people did not understand. Imagine yourself in the place of a worker or peasant. One son was taken away - laid down, the second was taken away - laid down, the eldest was taken away - laid down. And it’s your turn. And at home the wife remains, possibly her daughter, the household. How to live further? So the people did not want to fight for the king. The French are okay, almost half of the country was seized from them. And here we have some western provinces. About which the peasant from the backwoods and never heard of. Many contemporaries, of the officers who later wrote memoirs, note this feature. I did not perceive the Russian people from the central regions of Russia on the outskirts of the empire as their homeland. Perhaps only under the Soviet regime, with its program of universal literacy and its agitation, it was possible to make a real patriot who loves his country from suburbs to suburbs. The officer corps, then another. Although among them there were many scum.
        1. semirek
          semirek April 10 2015 23: 00
          0
          Quote: erg
          Exactly, six calls were lost. And in the name of what? The people did not understand. Imagine yourself in the place of a worker or peasant. One son was taken away - laid down, the second was taken away - laid down, the eldest was taken away - laid down. And it’s your turn. And at home the wife remains, possibly her daughter, the household. How to live further? So the people did not want to fight for the king. The French are okay, almost half of the country was seized from them. And here we have some western provinces. About which the peasant from the backwoods and never heard of. Many contemporaries, of the officers who later wrote memoirs, note this feature. I did not perceive the Russian people from the central regions of Russia on the outskirts of the empire as their homeland. Perhaps only under the Soviet regime, with its program of universal literacy and its agitation, it was possible to make a real patriot who loves his country from suburbs to suburbs. The officer corps, then another. Although among them there were many scum.

          And in the name of what we gave the territories to the Don in the 18th year, including Crimea, Ukraine, the Russian provinces, while paying the Germans exorbitant gold, giving the Germans 1 million byks from these territories - the people also did not understand how it was to fight three years "And it’s all down the drain? And why did you decide that then people didn’t have a feeling of patriotism, and under the Soviet regime, all of a sudden became patriots? Lenin wrote: the proletariat has no fatherland, and why defend what is not?
      2. Nagaibak
        Nagaibak April 10 2015 16: 54
        0
        semirek "why did this happen? the answer is simple: the example of this article shows that real patriots, officers and soldiers did not spare their lives -" so for the tsar, for the homeland, for the faith ... ", they simply died, six calls of the guard were killed in battles, the wrong people came to their place, and they were already indifferent to the fate of the tsar and the fate of the homeland without him, as for Count Keller --- such officers with honor, only a few remained. "
        Here are the big words again.))) And what kind of a dumb-headed commander should be, that would six times to clap his guard, its officer corps, that would remain alone and without the support of the faithful units.))) And then be surprised that they say there were no faithful. It was necessary to preserve the guard, and not wreck it throughout the war.
        1. Alexey RA
          Alexey RA April 10 2015 17: 19
          +3
          Quote: Nagaibak
          And what kind of a dumb-headed commander should be, that would six times to clap his guard, its officer corps, that would remain alone and without the support of the faithful units.))) And then be surprised that they say there were no faithful. It was necessary to preserve the guard, and not wreck it throughout the war.

          Given the history of the Empire’s guard, keeping it near a throne at a critical time is also dangerous. Well, as gentlemen of the guardsmen remember about the glorious times of Elizabeth and Catherine ... and whoever does not remember himself will be reminded (using the same debt receipts).

          In addition, the fish rots from the head. No guard will save if the entire top of the army (even Alekseev and Nikolai Nikolaevich) betrays the emperor, persuading him to renounce.
        2. semirek
          semirek April 10 2015 23: 03
          +2
          Quote: Nagaibak
          semirek "why did this happen? the answer is simple: the example of this article shows that real patriots, officers and soldiers did not spare their lives -" so for the tsar, for the homeland, for the faith ... ", they simply died, six calls of the guard were killed in battles, the wrong people came to their place, and they were already indifferent to the fate of the tsar and the fate of the homeland without him, as for Count Keller --- such officers with honor, only a few remained. "
          Here are the big words again.))) And what kind of a dumb-headed commander should be, that would six times to clap his guard, its officer corps, that would remain alone and without the support of the faithful units.))) And then be surprised that they say there were no faithful. It was necessary to preserve the guard, and not wreck it throughout the war.

          And what kind of stupid commanders do you need to give 42 million of the population of 70 by July 240?
          1. Nagaibak
            Nagaibak April 11 2015 06: 57
            0
            semirek "And what kind of stupid commander is needed to give 42 million of the population by July 70, out of 240?"
            Yeah ...))) Only at the end of the war did the USSR become a superpower and for 40 years no one dared to fart in Europe without his knowledge. Whether you like it or not.)))
            But Nicholas 2 did it right to the point that plunged the country into chaos. This is his direct fault ... Until the Bolsheviks raised the power that was lying under their feet.))) Only do not tell me about the Brest Peace.))) The collapse of Russian statehood and the army took place during the reign of the Provisional Government.))))
  12. Vadim2013
    Vadim2013 April 10 2015 11: 47
    +2
    Thanks for the article, I read it completely with interest. There were generals in the Russian army who did not change their oath. Honor to them and eternal memory.
  13. Heimdall48
    Heimdall48 April 10 2015 11: 51
    +2
    I would like to wish the Kingdom of Heaven to such a well-deserved person. If there were more of these in Russia then, then there would be no mess for the next seventy years and now.
  14. semirek
    semirek April 10 2015 15: 18
    +2
    "Convoy and headquarters to attack!" Is something. In fact, we do not know anything about this war, as if it never happened, sometimes you pass by the military registration and enlistment office: a large patriotic poster, Alexander Nevsky, Alexander Suvorov and immediately Georgy Zhukov as if there was no Great War.
    Many thanks to the author for the article.
    1. Nagaibak
      Nagaibak April 10 2015 17: 02
      +2
      semirek "you pass by the military registration and enlistment office: a large patriotic poster, Alexander Nevsky, Alexander Suvorov and immediately Georgy Zhukov, as if there was no Great War."
      There are not enough Kutuzov and Skobelev.
      But the commanders of the Great War are not suitable because they participated in the fratricidal war. Who is for the white, who is for the red .... And then who was in the 1st world level of the above? Keller? He was an excellent commander of the cavalry division, a good commander of the cavalry corps. And perhaps all.)))
      1. Alexey RA
        Alexey RA April 10 2015 17: 20
        +1
        Quote: Nagaibak
        And then who was in the 1st world level of the above? Keller?

        Brusilov?
        1. Nagaibak
          Nagaibak April 10 2015 20: 14
          0
          Alexey RA "Brusilov?"
          I would agree with his candidacy ... if, after a brilliant breakthrough, there would not have been a massacre near Kovel.))) And also Kirly Baba ....
      2. semirek
        semirek April 10 2015 23: 13
        0
        Quote: Nagaibak
        semirek "you pass by the military registration and enlistment office: a large patriotic poster, Alexander Nevsky, Alexander Suvorov and immediately Georgy Zhukov, as if there was no Great War."
        There are not enough Kutuzov and Skobelev.
        But the commanders of the Great War are not suitable because they participated in the fratricidal war. Who is for the white, who is for the red .... And then who was in the 1st world level of the above? Keller? He was an excellent commander of the cavalry division, a good commander of the cavalry corps. And perhaps all.)))

        And why for 70 years we had portraits of the red heroes of the heroes of the civil war, who were also participants in the Great War, to take the same Budyonny, Tukhachevsky, Egorov, judging by your logic - they participated in the fratricidal war.
        1. Nagaibak
          Nagaibak April 11 2015 07: 16
          0
          semirek "Why did we have portraits of red heroes of the Civil War heroes who were also participants in the Great War for 70 years, take the same Budyonny, Tukhachevsky, Yegorov, judging by your logic - they participated in a fratricidal war."
          Yes, because the Bolsheviks were the same uncompromising comrades as you)))). Since you still can’t move away.)))
          They considered themselves winners in the civil war and it would be strange to see portraits of Kolchak and Denikin in the offices of the Communists.)))
          I think in America, too, portraits of General Lee do not hang in military institutions. But Grant's portraits most likely have a place to be. The winners are guided by the rule - whoever defeated he and dad.
          ABOUT MY LOGIC.))) MY LOGIC IS SUCH THAT THE SEAFELLERS WHO PARTICIPATED IN THE FELLOWLESS WAR SHOULD BE CONSIDERABLE THOSE) )))
          In general, civil war is an endless topic. It is not necessary to idealize some and stain others with dirt. They were all good there.
          I have a question for you as a seven-ruble.))) Did you not know if there were villages and Cossack villages of your army in the area of ​​Lake Issyk-Kul?
          1. semirek
            semirek April 11 2015 10: 05
            0
            Quote: Nagaibak
            semirek "Why did we have portraits of red heroes of the Civil War heroes who were also participants in the Great War for 70 years, take the same Budyonny, Tukhachevsky, Yegorov, judging by your logic - they participated in a fratricidal war."
            Yes, because the Bolsheviks were the same uncompromising comrades as you)))). Since you still can’t move away.)))
            They considered themselves winners in the civil war and it would be strange to see portraits of Kolchak and Denikin in the offices of the Communists.)))
            I think in America, too, portraits of General Lee do not hang in military institutions. But Grant's portraits most likely have a place to be. The winners are guided by the rule - whoever defeated he and dad.
            ABOUT MY LOGIC.))) MY LOGIC IS SUCH THAT THE SEAFELLERS WHO PARTICIPATED IN THE FELLOWLESS WAR SHOULD BE CONSIDERABLE THOSE) )))
            In general, civil war is an endless topic. It is not necessary to idealize some and stain others with dirt. They were all good there.
            I have a question for you as a seven-ruble.))) Did you not know if there were villages and Cossack villages of your army in the area of ​​Lake Issyk-Kul?

            America has long ago put an end to the division into "northern" and "southern" and portraits of not only General Grant, but also General Lee hang in military offices. In the United States, even a tank was built with the name "Grant-Lee", this suggests that they, the Americans, have overcome the syndrome of civil war. In our society, the civil war, fortunately in the "minds", is still continuing, based on the rejection of one side of the "red" of the entire pre-revolutionary history of Russia and at the same time the unwillingness to recognize the obvious (spoiling the entire varnished Soviet reality) facts, what does not suit - the other side of the "conflict".
            And what to do with Suvorov? after all, he essentially put an end to the Pugachev region --- and the Pugachevites, a simple people who came out to fight against tsarism, Suvorov fought with his own people? according to your logic: not worthy to be a great Russian commander?
            As for me, as a person and citizen, and as a patriot of my homeland, I am against distorting our history, no matter what it is, whether it is Russian or Soviet, they do not choose their homeland.
            The territory of modern Kyrgyzstan was part of the Semirechensk region, respectively, there were Cossack villages, hamlets, picket villages. Cossack settlements are concentrated in two counties: Pishpeksky, and Przhevalsky, covering the territory around the lake, in particular the villages: Kurumdinsky, and Aksuyskaya, in addition to the villages, here there were a lot of resettlement, Russian villages.
            1. Nagaibak
              Nagaibak April 11 2015 15: 00
              0
              semirek "And what to do with Suvorov? After all, he essentially put an end to the Pugachev region --- and the Pugachevites, this is a simple people who went out to fight tsarism, Suvorov fought with his own people? Corresponding to your logic: not worthy to be a great Russian commander?"
              Suvorov ripened to hat analysis. I don’t remember a single battle given to them by Pugachev.))) But I remember well the actions of Bibikov and other Decolongs with the Michelsons. And then Suvorov is known precisely as a commander who fought with foreign enemies of the Fatherland. So he went down in history. You can pull a lot by the ears.)))) If someone rebelled against Alexander Nevsky, he would calm them at once. And why would he also not be considered a great commander?)))
              And about our civil war, we don’t need to sculpt heroes from neither of those of the others. It’s just that 70 years were sculpted from some, now there is a trend from the late 80s to sculpt heroes from white ones. Here I am against what. There can be no heroes in a civil war. Although the Reds also fought against the interventionists. I think their actions against foreign troops can be distinguished.
              semirek "As for me, as a person and a citizen, and as a patriot of my Motherland, I am against the distortion of our history, whatever it is, whether it is Russian or Soviet, the Motherland is not chosen."
              I agree! At 100%.)))
              semirek "We, in society, still continues, fortunately in the" minds "of the civil war, based on the rejection of one side of the" red "of the entire pre-revolutionary history of Russia and at the same time the unwillingness to recognize the obvious (spoiling the entire varnished Soviet reality) facts that do not suit - the other side of the "conflict".
              Honestly, you yourself are not an example of political correctness.))) From your posts it is clear that whites are not indifferent to you.
              About the fact that the Americans got rid of the civil war syndrome. I don’t know, I doubt it.))) I haven’t been there and didn’t communicate with them.)))) But, I know that they are still divided as they were divided into Yankees and Dixies.
              For the map and the answer is very grateful ... thanks a lot.
          2. The comment was deleted.
  15. riegele
    riegele April 10 2015 23: 44
    +1
    about the Cossack Baron von Ungern was a good article
    1. Nagaibak
      Nagaibak April 11 2015 07: 32
      0
      riegele "about the Cossack Baron von Ungern was a good article."
      I don’t know what kind of Cossack he was there.))) But the German from the Baltic was exactly.)))
      1. riegele
        riegele April 11 2015 11: 19
        0
        Quote: Nagaibak
        riegele "about the Cossack Baron von Ungern was a good article."
        I don’t know what kind of Cossack he was there.))) But the German from the Baltic was exactly.)))


        Well, I'm not talking about nationality, but about the fact that he commanded a Cossack army. In Mongolia, he is still a national hero, your Shoigu spoke very warmly about him in an interview.
        1. Nagaibak
          Nagaibak April 11 2015 15: 16
          0
          This is what Ungern dreamed of, as you can see about the Cossacks, he did not think, even though they were in his troops.))) I had these views in mind.))) Data from the wiki ...
          "R. F. Ungern dreamed of uniting Tibet, Xinjiang, Khalkha, Inner Mongolia, Barga, Manchuria, Shandong into a single Middle State modeled on the empire of Genghis Khan for a" crusade "against the West, the source of revolutions. The basis of his power was to be the" yellow " , Asian, peoples who, like the white peoples, have not lost their age-old foundations for the restoration of overthrown monarchies and the establishment of the “yellow” culture and “yellow” faith throughout the Eurasian continent, Tibetan Buddhism, called, according to the baron, to spiritually renew the Old World. The transition to Mongolian citizenship was intended to emphasize Ungern's yellow robe, which, at the same time, was wearing the shoulder straps of the Russian general.Even before joining Mongolia, Ungern tried to create the "order of military Buddhists", which is now sometimes called the "Buddhist crusader order".
          The Mongols respected him since he defeated the Chinese. Ie acted as a liberator. After he captured the city of Urga, the capital of Mongolia, Ungern ordered the slaughter of all the Jews in the city, which was done. Here is such a romantic knight.)))
          1. semirek
            semirek April 11 2015 16: 20
            0
            The baron thereby rendered a great service to the Reds, after the capture of Urga by him, the Chinese ceased to trust the White Guards who moved to China, of course I mean the remnants of the army of Dutov, and parts of Ataman Annenkov, who was immediately imprisoned by the Chinese authorities, which greatly paralyzed anti-Bolshevik activity. Moreover, the Chinese prevented the movement of Cossacks who wanted to fight in the Far East, few managed to escape.
  16. Passerby2
    Passerby2 April 11 2015 04: 09
    +1
    In short. Russian officers went to fight for the Republic of Ingushetia at 18, and Soviet officers in the 90s did not go to fight for the USSR. But to show multi-star epaulets is yes, it is forever.
    1. Nagaibak
      Nagaibak April 11 2015 07: 26
      0
      Passer-by2 "In short. For RI, Russian officers went to fight at 18."
      The number of those who went to fight for RI was scanty then, especially in 1918.)))