“I always felt disgusting and worthy of contempt when people changed their convictions for the sake of personal good, profit or security.”
Fedor Arturovich was born 12 October 1857 in the city of Kursk. His father, Count Arthur Keller, was a famous cavalry officer, owner of numerous estates in the Smolensk and Vitebsk provinces. In 1859, he retired with the rank of colonel, and in the summer 1860 became the manager of the Tula stable. At 1853 in St. Petersburg, he became engaged to Rozenshild-Paulin, Natalia Nikolaevna. Fedor Arturovich was the first child in the family, his younger brother Arthur was born ten years after him. The count's childhood almost completely passed on in family estates. From a young age, the boy, as a future officer, was taught to love the Motherland and honor the king. When it was time for Fyodor to enter the school, his father took him to his grandmother in Riga and set him up in a local guesthouse. Two years later, the teenager was transferred to Moscow to uncle Viktor Fedorovich Keller, where he continued his education. And a couple of years later, at the request of his parents, the young man went to St. Petersburg and, after special training, was enrolled in the preparatory board of the Nikolaev Cavalry School.
In the country at that moment another war was brewing. Bosnian Bulgarians and Serbs, who were under the heel of the Turks, were subjected to terrible torment for the Christian faith. In Bulgaria, the highlanders-Circassians raged here, fleeing from the Russian weapons from the Caucasus, and Albanians-Arnauts raged in Bosnia. When the banner of insurrection rose in the Slavic lands, Turkish hordes came out against the rebellious people. The refugees who arrived in Russia told about the terrible atrocities committed by the Moslems in their native villages. Russian people responded to the pain of fraternal peoples - donations were collected everywhere, many people volunteered to fight in the Balkans. And in April, 1877 happened a long-awaited event - Emperor Alexander II announced the beginning of a war with Turkey.
In connection with these events from the boarding school Keller was released early. Leaving this elite institution, the nineteen-year-old Fyodor without parental knowledge of the lower rank (as a volunteer) entered the first Life-Dragoon Moscow Regiment and went with him to the war. An example for him in those years was cousin Fyodor Keller - a young lieutenant colonel, a graduate of the Nikolaev Academy of the General Staff, who left, among other Russian volunteers, at 1876 for the Balkans and entered the service of the Serbian army. Having been in many battles, he became famous for his extraordinary courage and was awarded the highest military awards of the principality.
In a long march of dragoons, the young earl for the first time experienced all the war. About this expedition they wrote: “... Along with other parts, the frosty winter cavalrymen had to cross mountain ridges to overcome the ridges of the Balkans - an act comparable to the great feats of the victorious Suvorov bogatyrs. They moved light, throwing carts. Slippery, narrow paths looped between snow drifts and deep chasms; steep ascents did not allow riding. On halts the fires were not burned in order not to attract the attention of the enemy. Dragoons were descending, holding on to the reins of horses that were rolling down the slope in the backside ... ” Subsequently, Keller recommended young people who wanted to wear officers' shoulder straps to serve as volunteers for at least one year in order to better understand the psychology of ordinary soldiers and thus destroy the often misunderstanding.
When the first Life Dragoon Moscow Regiment joined the column of the famous General Skobelev, Fyodor Artovich met with his famous cousin, who returned from Serbia and headed Mikhail Dmitrievich's headquarters instead of the wounded Kuropatkin. Famous in the military stories the names - Turtukai, Silistra, Pleven, Adrianople, Shipka - became the places of the first battles of the young "free-rider". In this war, he “earned” silver soldier Georgy of the third (for occupying Ternova station) and the fourth (for the differences on the day of the bloody battle of Shane) of the degrees personally awarded to him by the Commander-in-Chief of the army. Many years later, Fyodor Arturovich, with his usual modesty, spoke of these military awards: “I myself don’t understand why they gave it. The first cross earned by inexperience - an orderly carried the order, and instead of headquarters he flew at the Turkish trench. Opponent fired at me, the authorities saw and awarded. And the second cross was given for the fact that the burning bridge was galloping. And that's it! ” Despite this, soldier Georgy Keller was truly proud and did not remove them from his chest, even when he had reached the rank of general.
In April, 1878, shortly after the war ended, the young earl received the first officer rank of ensign. A couple of months later, Fyodor Arturovich successfully passed the test for the right to production in the following ranks at the Tver Cavalry Cadet School. Two years later, in accordance with the orders of the authorities, the Keller cornet was transferred to the sixth hussar Klyastitsky regiment. Here, commanding a squadron, he rose to the rank of captain in seven years, and in 1888-1889 he was sent to the Officer Corps School for training in the squadron commanders department. He graduated from the course with the highest marks, and in 1894 "for the differences in service" he was promoted to lieutenant colonel, and in 1901 with the same wording - to colonel. Over the years, the count served in the twenty-fourth dragoon Lubensky, the twenty-third dragoon Voznesensky, the eleventh dragoon Kharkov regiments, commanded the Crimean division, the fifteenth dragoon Alexandria and the Life Guards Dragoon regiments. An excellent soldier, who repeatedly won prizes for horse riding, chopping and shooting, “very skillfully,” according to the recollections of his subordinates, who fought off five horsemen with a pike, the graph was a model of the servant in the best sense of the word. Subordinates were afraid of their stern commander, but they were devoted to him, bowing before Keller's tireless energy and iron will. By his two-meter height, the count inspired people with respect and confidence. A contemporary described him like this: “His appearance is a slim, tall, well-knit figure of an old cavalryman, a pair of crosses of St. George on an elegantly tailored jacket, kind expression on an energetic, beautiful face, expressive eyes penetrating the very soul.” The palace commandant Vladimir Voeikov, who knew Keller well, in his notes called Fyodor Arturovich “a crystal-clear, truly Russian person, imbued with a bone-in-heart feeling of love for the Motherland and duty”.
Count F. A. Keller with children: Pavel (1883 — 1980) - on the right; Alexander (1887 — 1944) and Elizabeth (1885 — 1965)
When the 1905 unrest embraced the outskirts of the empire, Keller went to pacify Poland, transferred to martial law. In 1906 in the Polish town of Kalush, while serving as interim governor-general, he was sentenced in absentia to death by terrorists. The first bomb thrown at him Fedor Arturovich, showing tremendous composure, intercepted still in flight, gently laid on the ground and rushed after the criminal in pursuit. The second bomb, filled with striking elements, was thrown at the count, when he was accompanied by his officers returning from regimental exercises. Keller’s explosion was seriously contused, and several dozen shards lodged in his leg. After this incident and until the end of his life, he limped on one leg.
One of his main tasks as regiment commander, Keller, considered training subordinates. He was extremely demanding of his fighters, for example, when meeting new officers, Fedor Arturovich told them: “I work from eight in the morning until eight in the evening and from eight in the evening until eight in the morning. I hope all of you will work the same way. ” His notes were preserved as follows: “All my work should be aimed at developing a conscious fighter and boss who is able to assess environmental conditions and not waiting for orders to make an appropriate decision ... The junior commander must firmly believe in himself, correctly evaluate the forces of the enemy, use the opening chances of success, do not miss the right moment to attack and defeat the enemy. " Keller outlined his methodology for training soldiers in a number of brochures under the general title “Several Cavalry Issues” issued in St. Petersburg. In the cavalry training system, Fedor Arturovich focused on single dressage in the field (he did not recognize the arena), cutting the vine, shooting from horse to horse at targets set on the ground.
In relation to the Russian soldiers, Keller followed in the footsteps of Skobelev and Suvorov, strongly disagreeing with those officers who found our fighters backward and significantly inferior in skills to the lower ranks of the European armies. The general said: “After having recruited recruits for five years, after having commanded squadrons for more than ten years and in separate units for about nine years, I became closely acquainted with our soldiers ... I was convinced that everything depended on training and education ... Our soldier has a natural mind and wisdom that is incomparably greater than any Frenchman or German. The one who bothered to get to know a Russian soldier a little closer, became interested in his life, penetrated his views, outlook, weaknesses and inclinations, could not help but make sure that the opinion about our soldiers absolutely does not correspond to the truth and depends on how to take their training and education. "
The findings of Fyodor Arturovich embodied in his parts: “In order for a person to take the case consciously and with interest, his personal participation in the accomplishment of the task, the opportunity to show a small but his initiative is necessary. He should have a consciousness that his personal “I” plays a role and contributes to the achievement of a common cause. The implementation of the whole, complex maneuver, the soldier is not clear, this requires training and knowledge. But the little things of maneuver, often of enormous importance (the work of a separate crossing, timely delivery or interception of reports, etc.) are clear and interesting for him, develop in the soldier prowess, ability to use the terrain, determination and wit. ”
In 1907, Nicholas II appointed Colonel Keller an aide-de-camp, and four months later Fyodor Arturovich (again "for the difference") was promoted to major general with his majesty's entourage. From 1910 to 1912, the count headed the first brigade of the Caucasian Cavalry Division, and he met the First World War in the rank of lieutenant-general (appointed 1913 in May) as the head of the tenth Cavalry Division. According to the memoirs of one of the officers news about the beginning of hostilities in his part was met "with great self-confidence and great enthusiasm." Well-trained regiments believed in their commander, and Keller's fame in 1914-1916 is inseparable from the glory of his fighters.
Speaking at the German front at the head of the tenth cavalry division, which became part of the third army of General Nikolai Ruzsky, on the fourth day of battle, Keller defeated the cavalry of Austro-Hungarians and brought the Russian army its first victory in world war. The battle that took place on 8 in August 1914 under the village of Yaroslavlitsa was called by military historians the “last equestrian battle of the First World War”, and possibly the whole world history, since the collisions of the cavalry masses during the years of the Civil War were significantly different from the “classic” ones. Near Yaroslavitsy met two cavalry divisions. Fyodor Arturovich threw, without hesitation, ten (according to seven sources, seven) squadrons of the Ingermanland hussars, Odessa ulans and Novan masters, Odessa ulans and Novan masks, Odessa ulans and Novan masks, Odessa ulans and Novan glans, Odessa ulans and Novan glanders, Odessa districts, who used to prepare for the battle and occupied the advantageous position of the Austrian fourth Cav. At the same time, the Orenburg Cossacks attacked the landwehr regiment attached to the Zaremba division. Colonel Alexander Slivinsky assessed the battle as follows: “Fyodor Arturovich demonstrated astonishing presence of mind, speed of decisions, clarity of thought and a great eye ... The 8 August Battle 1914 is a rare phenomenon during the Great European War, showing a typical example of cavalry combat with all its development phases, exceptional both in terms of the number of riders involved, and in the presence of a purely cavalry frontal collision. ”
Russian cavalrymen were forced to attack on the ascent, and the crest hid from them the building of the enemy and the true number of Austrians. The risky actions of the Russian military leader could have ended in failure if not for the excellent training of the Keller cavalry honed in the pre-war years, as well as the personal involvement of Fyodor Arturovich during the battle. At the decisive moment of the battle, the commander of the Russian division, commanding: “Convoy and headquarters - to attack!”, Led a platoon of Cossacks of the first Orenburg regiment and several random horsemen attacked the enemy squadron between the Russian troops and crushed it. The outcome of the battle was the complete rout of the Austrians, and the pursuit and extermination of the enemy continued for as long as the Russians could bear. The losses of the enemy killed and wounded amounted to about a thousand fighters, while the "Keller" division is no more than 150 people. In the battle were captured many prisoners, more than three hundred horses, eight guns, machine guns and staff documentation. For his heroic actions, the count was awarded the Order of St. George of the Fourth Degree.
Large cavalry battles were no more, but the war continued. During the Battle of Galicia, Keller organized the pursuit of the enemy and in mid-September captured five hundred prisoners and six guns from the town of Yavorov. In March, 1915 his troops smashed the forces of the enemy, advancing on the city of Khotyn, taking over two thousand people as prisoners. And at the end of April, 1915, the third cavalry corps, commanded by Keller at the beginning of spring, conducted a well-known equestrian attack in the ranks in the course of the general army offensive, knocking the enemy out of a triple row of trenches fortified with barriers. Over two thousand enemy soldiers and officers were taken prisoner. For this success, Keller was awarded the St. George of the third degree.
General Anton Denikin wrote in his diaries: “The victorious reports of the South-Western Front most often mentioned the names of two cavalry commanders — only two, because in this war the cavalry ceased to play the role of the“ queen of the fields ”—Keller and Kaledin, equally brave but completely opposite in character: one is carried away, passionate, sometimes reckless, the other is stubborn and calm. ... Fyodor Arturovich led his troops into battle beautifully and spectacularly, as if on battle canvases, but without any deliberate panache, it happened by itself. " And at the end of 1914, Empress Alexandra Feodorovna commented on the general: “Count Keller creates something incredible. With his division he had already crossed the Carpathians. The sovereign asks him to be more careful, but he only answers him: "I am moving forward." Great fellow ... ". So the actions of Fyodor Arturovich looked from far St. Petersburg. For those who saw the general in a combat situation, they made an even stronger impression; it was not for nothing that the graph, despite his years, preferred to personally lead the regiments to the attack and was wounded twice. Peter Krasnov, who served under him, described the breakthrough episode in the third cavalry corps in April 1915: “... And when there was a fight, it seemed that the count was near. And he was there, and they saw him, and they went boldly and merrily in the assault. ”
Among other things, Keller was extremely careful about his subordinates. Even in the most difficult months of the war, Fyodor Arturovich closely followed the soldiers ’allowance, took all measures to ensure that they were necessary, checked the contents of the soldiers' booths for taste, and strictly punished if it was of inadequate quality. Knowing this, the commissaries of the third cavalry corps never risked stealing food. By order of the count, hot food was given to lower ranks at least twice a day, while in neighboring parts soldiers did not always receive it once a day. With great attention Keller treated the health of their fighters. The commander of the Tenth Hussar Ingermanland Regiment, Colonel Cheslavsky, wrote: “Fyodor Arturovich twice a day went around all the wounded and sick, checking that everyone had a bottle of hot water at their feet.” And shortly after the cholera epidemic began, the colonel wrote down the following: “Earl completely neglected the danger of becoming infected — he approached seriously ill patients, rubbed their hands, comforted, saying that they had cholera in a mild form, no one had yet died and, in all likelihood, deaths will not be. Such moral support greatly encouraged the fighters. ” By the way, during the cholera epidemic, by order of Keller, rice was included in the fighters ration, tea standards increased, and citric acid was added to food.
Fyodor Arturovich was very attentive about the observance of the merits of ordinary ranks. He wrote: "Soldiers are inspired by the idea of a high rank of a warrior, and on the fences of public gardens, parks and at the entrances to the party with the inscription:" Do not drive dogs, "you can read" Lower ranks are forbidden to enter. " It is time to change the look on the soldier, to look at him as a full-fledged, adult person, responsible for his behavior. It is time, showing full confidence, to educate him in this direction, strictly and tirelessly demanding from him sobriety, preserving military merits and the ability to keep himself in crowded places ... Not a couple of years pass, like the face of our lower rank, his self-respect, self-awareness change completely. " Decisively, the general suppressed cases of assault. In one of his orders it is written: “Even in peacetime, I pursued a beating of soldiers, and during the period of hostilities, I even more consider it to be unacceptable, because it deactivates people called up for the defense of the Motherland. This, in my personal opinion, inappropriate relationship is a crime. ” It should be noted that Fyodor Arturovich strictly punished those or other forgiveness, “despite the ranks or valor” of the guilty. Nothing, including high intercession, could have an impact on the general. The count did not let down even minor offenses, believing that the collapse of the army begins with them. Often, Keller found the verdict of field courts too soft or, conversely, overly harsh and personally interfered in their work.
General Count Fedor Arturovich Keller (sitting second from left) with the ranks of the headquarters of cavalry and Cossack units. Sit: the commander of the brigade of the Terek Cossack Division, Major General I.Z. Khoranov (fourth from left) and the head of the Special Purpose Squad Esaul A.G. Shkura (fifth)
In 1916, during the general offensive of the Southwestern Front, Keller's corps was part of the tenth army of General Platon Lechitsky. In June, units of Fyodor Arturovich pursued the retreating southern group of the seventh Austro-Hungarian Army and occupied the Romanian city of Kimpulung, capturing over three and a half thousand enemy soldiers. At the start of 1917, Keller was promoted to cavalry general, and in March he received shocking news of a revolution in the country. Soon the new text of the oath was sent to the column. After reviewing it, Keller stated that the troops entrusted to him would not lead to it, since "he does not understand the legal basis and the essence of the power of the Provisional Government." Gathering representatives from each squadron and hundreds, the count prepared a message to the emperor: “The Third Cavalry Corps does not want to believe that You, Sovereign, abdicated the throne voluntarily. Just give the order - we will come and protect you. ”
However, a different point of view was held by top management, who feared incitement of internecine hatred for the warring country, and decided to swear in a new government. The independent position of Fyodor Arturovich caused the authorities fair concerns, and the commander of the twelfth Cavalry Division, Baron Mannerheim, who later became the ruler of independent Finland, went to the headquarters of the third equestrian corps located in the city of Orhei. The generals spoke in private. Karl Mannerheim persuaded Keller to “sacrifice personal political convictions for the good of the army,” but met a categorical refusal. Feodor Arturovich’s convictions were not at all political, the count was guided only by moral motives, embodying the best features of the Russian officers contained in the ancient commandment: “Soul to God, life to the Sovereign, heart to the lady, honor to anyone”. His answer to Mannerheim remained forever in the annals of history: "I'm a Christian, and I consider it my greatest sin to change the oath."
The fact that the position of the graph had moral grounds was confirmed by Keller’s unwillingness to interfere in the procedure of taking the oath by the third cavalry corps. Fedor Arturovich made no attempt to thwart, perhaps hoping that his subordinates would be just as adamant in loyalty to the emperor as he was. General Nikolai Shinkarenko wrote: “We can assume that the count was not interested in how his soldiers and officers will decide. He knew how to act to him, and did so. " The expectations of Fyodor Arturovich, if there were any, were not justified - the old warrior had no allies to the same extent loyal to the throne. And soon a new order came from the commander of the Romanian front, ordering the count to hand over the entrusted corps under the threat of his announcement as a rebel. So without waiting for orders from the sovereign, the sixty-year-old Fedor Arturovich obeyed the order received and said goodbye to his regiments.
After leaving the army, Fedor Arturovich settled in Kharkov, leading a secluded life and recording his memories of the war, unfortunately, subsequently lost. In the eyes of the old general, the “Ukrainization” of the Little Russian provinces, the revolt of the Bolsheviks and the subsequent occupation of Ukraine by the Austrian and German troops followed this spring 1918 took place. The last of the old warrior was most affected, he said to his friends that “he tries not to go out because he does not tolerate the spectacle of German helmets”. In April, with the support of the Germans, 1918 was formed by the Ukrainian state, headed by hetman Pavel Skoropadsky, which became the first island in the middle of the sea anarchy sweeping the country. Don came to Keller with news of how Generals Denikin and Alekseev fight the Reds at the head of the Volunteer Army organized by them. The count also wanted to take part in the struggle against the Bolsheviks, however, remaining “unshakably loyal to the idea of the monarchy,” he considered it possible to resist only “in the name of the Tsar-Autocrat of All Russia”, moving along the path of rebuilding the old army. On the proposal of General Boris Kazanovich in June 1918 to join the ranks of the Volunteer Army, he refused. The count told him: “The unification of Russia is undoubtedly a great thing, but this slogan is too vague. It is possible to unite, collect those who scattered only to one particular person or place. You are silent about the face of this - a born, legitimate Sovereign. Declare that you are going for the Tsar, and all the best that is left in Russia, all the people who have longed for firm authority, will go without hesitation. ” Right-wing leaders in Kiev also wanted to see Keller in the ranks of the Southern Army, which they formed with the support of the German military. Despite the apparent coincidence of monarchical positions, Fyodor Arturovich refused them, noting: "Part of the intelligentsia here holds an allied orientation, the other is adherents of the German, but both the first and second forgot about their age-old Russian orientation."
Fedor Arturovich Keller, commander of the Russian Imperial Army, the retinue of His Imperial Majesty, the cavalry general, “the first piece of Russia”. Killed in December 1918 by Petliura separatists in Kiev. Buried in Kiev Women's Pokrovsky Monastery
In September, the Metropolitan of Kiev, Anthony Volynsky, served a memorial service for the murdered sovereign in 1918 in St. Sophia Cathedral. The world war was also nearing its end — the German administration was rapidly losing its all-powerful position in Ukraine on the eve of the emergence of allies. At the same time, Skoropadsky’s protracted negotiations with Soviet Russia were interrupted, and the first red detachments appeared on the northern borders of the country. Keller worriedly wrote: “There is not a minute to lose. The Anglo-French troops who landed could misunderstand the situation - not seeing the real forces openly striving for the unification of Russia and the revival of the monarchy, they can imagine that everyone in our Fatherland dreams of a republic. ”
At the end of October, Pskov monarchists arrived to Keller, calling themselves the “Defense Council of the North-West Region”. After telling the general about the formation of white detachments in the Pskov region, they suggested that the graph should become the head of the future Northern army, independent from the German command and monarchist in ideology. This proposal, unlike the rest, was made by Fyodor Arturovich. Forced inaction has long plagued the count, moreover, Keller thought that he had finally found himself loyal assistants and like-minded people. Believing the words "Council of Defense", the count proceeded to the creation of the headquarters of the Northern Army. In “The Call of the Old Soldier” Fyodor Arturovich addressed his old comrades: “The time has come when I call you again. Remember the prayer - the one that we read before our glorious victories, signify yourself with a sign of the cross with God’s help and ahead for the Tsar, for the Faith, for our indivisible Russia. ” Already in early November, the earl arrived in Kiev, where he continued to gather around him officers of the future Northern army. For her ranks, he established his own sign — an eight-pointed Orthodox silver cross, nicknamed the “Cross of General Keller.”
By mid-November, Fyodor Arturovich announced the preparatory work for the creation of the northern army was completed and decided to go to Pskov. But to get there, he, alas, was not destined. The situation in Ukraine was becoming more and more threatening. The German forces playing a deterrent role, under the terms of the armistice, began to retreat to the pre-war borders, and the sham units formed by the hetman during the summer of 1918 did not represent a serious combat force. The socialist independentists with the chieftain Petlyura, taking advantage of the situation, roused a revolt against Skoropadsky and his "landlord government". Throughout the country, uprisings broke out, led either by the Petliurists, then by the Bolsheviks, or simply by criminal elements. Sensing the danger of his position, the hetman proclaimed the formation of the All-Russian Federation with the inclusion of the Ukrainian state. In addition, Fyodor Arturovich, who was still in the service with the tsar, Pavel Skoropadsky asked the count for help in creating an efficient army, promising the general full civil and military power.
Fyodor Arturovich accepted the offer of Skoropadsky, and in the military sense this appointment proved to be brilliant. The Hetman Guard, consisting of untrained and unexperienced boys, with the arrival of the commander-in-chief to the front unexpectedly launched an offensive, in the very first battle discarding the most experienced Sich archers. By the way, Fedor Arturovich, limping and leaning on his wand, personally led the chains of soldiers to attack. But the rulers of Ukraine were more interested in not winning the graph, but taking up an independent position. Not wanting to reckon with the hetman government, which proved its weakness, Keller gave orders to the ministers, summoned them to report to himself, frankly did not recognize artificial "Ukrainization", and to top it off, publicly stated that "he would put his head to create a great, united Russia, and does not accept any federal state’s separation from it. ” Dissatisfaction with the count, accumulated among the hetman's confidants, found a way out in late November during the funeral of three dozen volunteer squad officers who were brutally murdered near Kiev. Outraged, Keller, not restraining himself, expressed a proposal for the transfer of all power to him until the restoration of the monarchy. The answer to the frightened hetman was a decree on his resignation and replacement by Prince Dolgorukov.
Only ten days Fedor Arturovich was at the post of commander in chief, and less than three weeks after his resignation the hetman with his ministers lasted. In early December, the Northern Army left the Pskov Bolsheviks, and near Kiev, a few volunteers from the Russian troops from the last force held back those who were stalking Petliurists. Skoropadsky, dressed in a German uniform, shamefully fled. Prince Dolgorukov, despite the loud words "to die with the troops entrusted to him", also went on the run. The only authoritative person in the city was Fedor Arturovich. Officers then turned to him, the squads of which retreated under pressure from the troops of the Siege Corps to the city center.
Having led a detachment of several dozen officers of the headquarters of the Northern Army, the count made an attempt to break through to the Don. However, it was already impossible, having reached Khreshchatyk, the detachment ran into the advanced units of the Petliurists. After a short battle, which did not bring success to any of the parties, Fyodor Arturovich led the survivors to the Mikhailovsky Monastery. At the meeting, it was decided to disband the detachment, and only a few of the most loyal people remained with the general. On the evening of the same day, a major of the German army arrived at the monastery, making Keller an offer to take refuge in the German commandant's office. According to the memoirs of an officer from the detachment of Fyodor Arturovich, “despite the refusal, we took the count to the courtyard with almost force. On the way, they threw a German overcoat on him, to which he reluctantly complied. When he was asked to remove George from his neck and sword, the Count with anger threw off his overcoat, turned and went back to his cell. Neither threats, nor pleas failed to change his decisions. ” Soon Petliurists came to the monastery. By this time, almost all the comrades of the general had left him, and only two adjutants remained with Keller - Colonel Panteleyev and Captain Ivanov, who had decided to share the fate of their commander to the end. For about a week, the count and his adjutants were kept under arrest. And 8 December 1918 in 4 hours of the morning with the next translation Keller, Panteleyev and Ivanov were shot in the back on the Sofia area near the monument to Bogdan Khmelnitsky. Eleven bullet wounds were counted in the body of the general. This is a crime, since the standard phrase “shot while trying to escape” could not deceive anyone, agitated the population of the city. Thanks to Bishop Nestor Kamchatsky, the body of the count, already taken to the dump, was found and buried under a strange name on the churchyard of the Holy Pokrovsky Monastery. His wife, two sons and daughters of the general managed to escape, they all lived a long life, having found their last refuge in a foreign land.
According to the materials of the site http://feodor-keller.narod.ru/ and the books of S.V. Fomin "The Golden Blade of the Empire".