Military Review

Cossacks in the Civil War. Part III. 1919 year. Russian Vendée

Surrounded by the Red Army after the Germans left the Ukraine, seeing no help either from the Anglo-French allies or from Denikin's volunteers, under the influence of anti-war agitation of the Bolsheviks, the Don army at the end of 1918 began to decompose and barely restrained the offensive of the four Red armies as part of 130000 people. The Cossacks of the Upper Don Region began to desert or go over to the side of the Red Army, and the northern sector of the front collapsed. The Bolsheviks broke into the Don. Soon mass terror against the Cossacks began, later called “raskazachivaniem.” At the same time, the revolution began in Germany and the Bolshevik leadership believed in their quick victory in Russia and the possibility of transferring the civil war to European territory. In Europe, it really smelled "world revolution." In order to untie their hands for action in Europe, the Bolshevik leaders planned to crush the Cossacks with one decisive and cruel blow. By this time, the Orthodox clergy were actually crushed. It was the turn and the Cossacks - the Bolsheviks understood that without the destruction of the Cossacks, their domination is impossible. Starting in the winter of the 1919 of the year, the Bolshevik Central Committee decided to transfer the policy of the "Red Terror" to the Cossack territories.

The Directive of the Organizing Bureau of the Central Committee of the RCP (B) of 24 in January of 1919 ordered mass repressions against all Cossacks, who directly or indirectly disagreed with the Soviet authorities. She read: “Recent events on various fronts in the Cossack regions — our advancement into the depths of the Cossack settlements and the disintegration among the Cossack troops force us to give instructions to party workers about the nature of the work in rebuilding and strengthening Soviet power in these areas. It is necessary, taking into account the experience of the year of the civil war with the Cossacks, to recognize as the only right the most merciless struggle with all the upper ranks of the Cossacks by their total extermination. No compromise, no halfness is unacceptable.

Therefore it is necessary:

1. To carry out mass terror against the rich Cossacks, exterminating them without exception;
conduct a merciless mass terror against the Cossacks in general, who took any direct or indirect part in the struggle against Soviet power. It is necessary to apply all measures to the average Cossacks that give a guarantee against any attempts on his part to make new demonstrations against the Soviet power.

2. Confiscate the bread and force to pour all the excess in the specified points. This applies to both bread and all other agricultural products.

3. Apply all measures to assist the relocating alien poor, organizing resettlement where possible.

4. Equalize alien "nonresident" to the Cossacks in the land and in all other respects.

5. Carry out complete disarmament, shooting everyone who is found weapon after the deadline.

6. To issue weapons only to reliable elements from non-resident.

7. Armed detachments to leave in the Cossack villages until the establishment of full order.

8. All commissars appointed to one or another Cossack settlement are invited to show maximum hardness and to steadily carry out these instructions.

The Central Committee decides to carry out, through the appropriate Soviet institutions, the obligation of the People's Commissariat to develop, in a hurry, actual measures for the mass relocation of the poor to Cossack lands.
Y. Sverdlov.

All the points of the directive for the Cossacks were simply unique and meant the complete destruction of the Cossack life, based on the Cossack service and Cossack land tenure, that is, a complete raskazachivanie. Unprecedented for the Cossacks, as a military and military class, was paragraph 5 of complete disarmament. Even after the Pugachev rebellion, only the artillery was withdrawn from the Yaikovsky army, and the Cossacks had cold weapons and firearms left, introducing only ammunition control. This draconian and obscurant directive was a Bolshevik response to the Cossacks of the Upper Don District who, at the end of 1918, expressed the credulity and humility of Soviet power, threw the front, went home, and made a tremendous impression on them. At that time and in those places the incredible metamorphoses and peripetias of the Cossack worldview were written brilliantly by M. Sholokhov in “The Quiet Don” on the example of Grigory Melekhov and his countrymen. The directive made no less impression on other Cossacks, who finally became convinced of the infinite perfidy of the new government. However, it should be said that in reality this directive referred only to the Don and the Urals, where Soviet troops were at that time. It is difficult to imagine an even more stupid and untimely undertaking during that period of civil war than this anti-kazakh directive. The Cossacks responded with mass uprisings. With their suppression there was a war of annihilation, without prisoners. So who are these, the main suppressors of the Cossacks?

Person number 1: Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov (Lenin) - the executioner of the Russian people and a paid agent of Kaiser Germany. As soon as the First World War began, Lenin, who was in emigration, proclaimed the task of the Bolshevik Party: to turn the imperialist war into a civil war and offered his services to the German General Staff. Not having come together in price, the German government then refused its services, but continued to sponsor the Bolsheviks to carry out the betrayal of Russia's national interests. After the February Revolution, their time has come, and the German General Ludendorff organized a delivery from Switzerland to Petrograd, in special sealed wagons in total 224 re-immigrants of Social Democrats led by Lenin. At the same time, banker Jacob Schiff organized the delivery of socialists to the emigrants from the USA by ship across the ocean, among which 265 were his paid agents. Subsequently, many of these leaders became leaders of the "proletarian revolution." On the other hand, the Bolsheviks received enormous support from international Zionist capital. Polling as secret masons, the Bolshevik leaders were little interested in the national interests of Russia. They carried out the will of the Great Masters of the international masonic organization. In the 1917 year, through the associate of Lenin, the mason Parvus (aka Gelfand), Germany gave Lenin about 100 million marks. Only 18 July 1917, at the expense of Lenin in Kronstadt from the German bank 3 million 150 thousand marks were transferred. Money to the Bolsheviks also came from the United States. In April 1917, Jacob Schiff publicly stated that, thanks to his financial support for the Russian revolution, success was assured. More about this was written in the article "Cossacks and the October Revolution."

Person number 2: Yakov Sverdlov (Yeshua Solomon Movshevich). It was he from the Kremlin who led the execution of the royal family in Yekaterinburg in 1918 year. After the assassination attempt on Lenin, the Socialist-Revolutionary Kaplan, a relative of Sverdlov, he signed an appeal from the Central Executive Committee on merciless terror. 24 January 1919 of the Organizing Bureau of the Central Committee of the RCP (B) issued a directive on disclosure, signed by Yakov Sverdlov. This directive immediately began to be implemented in the territories controlled by the red. However, soon Sverdlov was fatally beaten by workers at a rally in Orel, according to the official version, he died of a cold.

But Lev Davidovich Trotsky (Leyba Davidovich Bronstein), who was born in the family of the usurer, was notable for his particular cruelty. First, he participated in the revolutionary struggle as a Menshevik, then, while in emigration, he joined the Freemasons, was recruited as a secret agent, first by Austrian (1911 — 1917), and then by German (1917 — 1918) intelligence services. Through a man close to Trotsky, Parvus (Gelfand), the Bolsheviks received money for the October revolution from the German General Staff. In the year 1917, Trotsky suddenly becomes a “fiery Bolshevik” and breaks through to the heights of the Soviet government. After Lenin's death, without sharing power with Stalin, he was forced to flee abroad. Killed by NKVD agent Ramon Mercader in Mexico with an ice ax blow to the head. Trotsky and his assistants commissars Larin (Lurye Mikhail Zelmanovich), Smilga Ivar, Poluyan Yan Vasilyevich, Gusev Sergey Ivanovich (Drabkin Yakov Davidovich), Bela Kun, Zemlyachka (Zalkind), Sklyansky Efraim Markovich, Beloborodov (Weisbart) and other them them and them them. bloody meat grinder in all of Russia, and on the original Cossack land.

At the beginning of 1919, the Don Army was bleeding, but the front kept. Only in February began the transfer of the Kuban army to help Don. During stubborn battles, the advancing red units were stopped, defeated and went on the defensive. In response to the exterminating terror of the Bolsheviks on February 26, an all-out uprising of the Cossacks of the Upper Don Region, called the Vyoshensky Uprising, broke out. The rebellious Cossacks formed a militia of up to 40 thousand bayonets and sabers, including the elderly and adolescents, and fought in complete encirclement, until parts of the Don Army of General Sekretov broke through to their aid. In the spring of 1919, Russia entered the most difficult stage of the civil war. The Entente Supreme Council supported the plan of the military campaign of the whites against the Bolsheviks. On January 31, Franco-Greek troops landed in southern Ukraine and occupied Odessa, Kherson and Nikolaev. During the winter of 1918-1919, the White armies were delivered: 400 thousand rifles to Kolchak and up to 380 thousand Denikin, about 1 thousand trucks, Tanks, armored cars and aircraft, ammunition and uniforms for several hundred thousand people. By the summer of 1919, the center of the armed struggle moved to the Southern Front. Ubiquitous peasant-Cossack revolts disorganized the rear of the Red Army. The uprising of the Red Chief of Staff Grigoryev, which led in May to the general military-political crisis in Ukraine, and the Vyoshensky uprising of the Cossacks on the Don were especially widespread. To suppress them, large forces of the Red Army were thrown, but in battles with the rebels the soldiers of the red units showed instability. Under the favorable conditions, the All-Union Socialist Republic of Ukraine defeated the opposing forces of the Bolsheviks and entered the operational space. After heavy fighting, parts of the Caucasian Army on June 17 occupied Tsaritsyn on the right flank, and Kharkov, Aleksandrovsk, Yekaterinoslav, and Crimea occupied the white parts on the left flank. Under pressure from the Allies on June 12, 1919, Denikin officially recognized the power of Admiral Kolchak as the Supreme Ruler of the Russian state and the Supreme Commander-in-Chief of the Russian armies.

On the whole front, the Reds retreated, on the side of the Whites there were superior masses of Cossack cavalry, which played a decisive role at this stage of the civil war. Due to the general success, General Denikin arrived on June 12 with General Romanovsky in Tsaritsyn. There he held a parade, declared gratitude to the army, and then issued a directive to attack Moscow. In response, on July 14, the Central Committee of the Bolshevik Party published a letter, “Everything to fight against Denikin!”, And appointed a counter-offensive on August 20. By the time of the issuance of the directive on the march to Moscow, the Don Army was replenished and had 9 fighters in three corps deployed at the front in 15-42000. The Don Army went beyond the Don and entered the territories occupied by the population of central Russia. This line became not only the front line, but also the political line. The middle provinces of the Russian state are the very Russia, on whose shoulders lay centuries of struggle against the nomadic steppe, and it was destined to resist and stand in this centuries-old boiling fight of the struggle. But the population of these medium-sized Russian provinces was the most deprived in the sense of land allotments. The great reforms of the sixties, which liberated the peasants from the dependence of the landowners, did not resolve the main issue of land ownership, served as a pretext for the discontent of the peasants and gave excellent reasons for propaganda of the Bolshevik agitators.

The revolution uncovered this sick abscess, and it was resolved spontaneously, regardless of government decrees, by a simple “black” redistribution, with the help of the spontaneous seizure of land by large peasants by peasants. For the Russian peasantry, which constituted up to 75% of the population, all political problems began and ended with the land issue, and only those that promised them land were acceptable political slogans. They did not care at all whether such areas as Poland, Finland, the Baltic States, the Caucasus, and others would form part of the Russian state, forming a great and indivisible Russia. On the contrary, these conversations terribly frightened the peasants, they saw in them the danger of returning to the old order, and for them this meant the loss of land seized by them. It is clear, therefore, that the arrival in these provinces of the white armies that returned the old order did not arouse enthusiasm among the locals. The fact that the appointed governors announced a new democratic redistribution of land, which would be taken up by special land agencies, these words were not taken into account, because the new section was promised only three years after the restoration of order in the entire Russian state. From the point of view of an incredulous Russian peasant, this meant “never.” The Bolsheviks, on the second day of their time in power, adopted the “Decree on Land”, effectively legitimizing the “black partition”, and thus decided the outcome of the civil war in Central Russia in their favor.

A completely different situation was in Ukraine. In the civil war in the south, this richest and most fertile part of the Russian Empire occupied a special position. Historical the past of this region was completely different from that of the central regions of Russia. Left-bank and right-bank Ukraine was the cradle of the Dnieper Cossacks and peasants, who did not know serfdom. After the Dnieper Cossacks ceased to exist and their remnants became hussar regiments, the Cossacks became the property of people who were awarded the government for special merits and were settled by immigrants from the Russian and non-Russian provinces of the vast empire, which created an incredibly variegated ethnic polyphony in the Black Sea provinces. The inner life in the new region was developing completely differently than in the central regions. The empire was able to take possession of all the vast lands of Little Russia only by the end of the 30th century. The Russian state at that time was quite powerful and in these lands there was no longer any need to create voivodships with a population attached to them, which was why there was no need for the formation of strong serfdom. The lands were fertile, the climate was favorable, which greatly softened the issues associated with low land. The population of Little Russia, or Ukraine, was estimated at almost 70 million inhabitants. It would seem that this part of the country, more prosperous and less constrained by the living conditions of the past, should have shown stability and resistance to the disorder in what is happening around anarchy. But it was not there. Consciousness associated with its Maidan past, the Zaporizhzhya Sich, Cossack liberties and independent life firmly lived among the people of this land. An important feature of the Ukrainian people, or Little Russians, was that up to XNUMX% of the population spoke a local language that was different from the language of Great Russia and had a significantly distinctive mentality.

Fig.1 The distribution of languages ​​in the Ukraine in the early twentieth century

This peculiarity spoke of the belonging of this population to another branch of the Russian people, voluntarily joining Great Russia only in the middle of the 17th century. Over the past 2,5 centuries of being part of Russia, the situation has changed only in that a significant part of educated Little Russians learned Russian and became bilingual, and the Polish-Ukrainian gentry, in order to earn and consolidate the estates, learned to properly serve the empire. The main part of the Little Russian population in the past were part of the Galician, Kiev, Chervonnoy and Black Russia, for many centuries were part of the Lithuanian-Polish possessions. The past of this land was closely connected with Lithuania and Poland, with the Cossack liberties, the independence of the lost Cossack life, which was partially preserved in the former Cossack regions of the Dnieper region. The difficult fate of the Dnieper Cossacks earlier in the "VO" was described in more detail in this series of articles. In the national everyday life of the Ukrainians, local folklore was carefully kept, fanned by poetry, legends, and songs connected with the not-so-distant past. All this violent folklore and domestic forbs abundantly watered and fertilized by the Ukrainian intelligentsia, which surreptitiously and hypocritically gradually gave it anti-Russian cultural and political nuances. In the beginning of the revolutionary collapse, a significant part of the Ukraine was part of the front line, and for a long time was filled with masses of soldiers from the decomposed army units. Under such conditions, awakened nationalism could not take on forms of a more or less civilized character. Under the Brest Treaty, Ukraine was given to Germany and occupied by Austro-German troops. Having occupied Ukraine, the Austro-Germans put it as the ruler of the hetman General Skoropadsky, under whose rule Ukraine was presented as an autonomous, independent republic, with all the necessary forms of its existence. It was even declared the right to form a national army. However, on the part of the Germans, this was a diversion that covered real goals. The purpose of the occupation of this rich Russian region, as well as other 19 provinces, was to replenish all types of resources of a completely exhausted Germany. She needed bread and more to continue the war. The power of the hetman in Ukraine was mostly fictitious. The occupation command ruthlessly exploited all the resources of the country and took them to Germany and Austria. Brutal requisitions of grain stocks provoked resistance from the peasants, with whom ruthless reprisals were carried out.

Cossacks in the Civil War. Part III. 1919 year. Russian Vendée
Fig. 2 Terror of the Austrians in occupied Ukraine

The brutal exploitation of the local population caused hatred among the masses, but at the same time was welcomed by part of the population who was looking for salvation from anarchy and the lack of power of spreading communism. With such disarray and confusion in Ukraine, the organization of a national army was out of the question. At the same time, Ukraine attracted Cossack regions close to her in spirit, and embassies from Don and Kuban reached for Hetman Skoropadsky. Through the hetman of Skoropadsky, the ataman Krasnov entered the sphere of great international politics. He entered into correspondence with the leadership of Germany and in letters addressed to the Kaiser, asked for help in the fight against the Bolsheviks and recognition of diplomatic rights for Don as a country fighting for their independence against the Bolsheviks. These relations had the meaning that during the time of the occupation of the territory of Russia, the Germans supplied the necessary weapons and military supplies to Don. In exchange, Krasnov gave Kaiser Wilhelm guarantees of neutrality of the Don Cossack troops in World War II, with the obligation to expand trade, preferences and privileges for German industry and capital. Under pressure from the Germans, Ukraine recognized the old borders of the Don Region and the Don troops entered Taganrog.

As soon as the chieftain received Taganrog, he immediately took the Russian-Baltic plant and adapted it for the production of shells and ammunition and reached the beginning of 1919, the production of 300 000 cartridges per day. Don was proud that the whole Don Army was dressed from head to foot in his own, sitting on his horses and in his saddles. Emperor Wilhelm Don asked the machines and equipment for factories to get rid of the care of foreigners as soon as possible. It was the Don Russian orientation, so understandable to the common people and completely incomprehensible to the Russian intelligentsia, who were always used to bowing to some foreign idol. Ataman looked at the Germans as enemies who came to put up, and believed that they can ask. He looked at the allies as debtors in front of Russia and Don, and believed that they needed to be demanded. But the expectation of help from them for Don turned out to be a complete chimera. After the defeat of Germany by the Allies and the departure of her troops from Ukraine, all help to Don disappeared.

By the summer of 1919, the Reds against the Cossacks and volunteers had six armies concentrated on the Southern Front, as part of the 150000 fighters. Their main task was not to allow Denikin’s troops to unite with Kolchak’s army. The Kuban army, occupying Tsaritsyn, was stopped for rest, replenishment and putting in order. The Red Army 10-I was in a battle near Tsaritsyn brought into severe frustration, and only a few divisions and the Budenny cavalry corps maintained their combat capability. Due to the defeats of the Commander-in-Chief of the Red Army, Vatsetis 9 of July was removed from command, his place was taken by the former colonel of the General Staff Kamenev. Commander of the Southern Front was appointed former colonel of the General Staff Yegoryev. On July 2, General Denikin ordered the Caucasian Army (Kuban + Terskaya) to launch an offensive. On July 14, the Cossacks occupied Linovka and cut off the retreat routes of the 10 Army to the north. The Red Army was cut in two, and three divisions were surrounded in Kamyshin. When trying to break through to the north, these red divisions were attacked by the Cossacks and completely destroyed by them. Saving the situation, the corps of Budyonny against the I Don Corps was red directed. Budyonny pressed the parts of the Donets to the line of the Ilovli River. This partial success of Kamyshin was not saved and July 15 was occupied by the Cossacks. After the occupation of Kamyshin, the movement had to continue to Saratov. For the defense of Saratov, the Reds were attacking troops from the Eastern Front and mobilized units from Russia. Despite the condition of the troops of the Caucasian Army, General Romanovsky, Chief of Staff of General Denikin, telegraphed the orders of the commander-in-chief to continue the offensive.

At a time when the Caucasian army fought on the Kamyshin front and beyond, the Don army occupied the front on the Novy Oskol line - Liski station. Until the end of July, the Don Army fought stubbornly offensive battles for the capture of the Liski-Balashov-Krasny Yar railway lines, but which it failed to take. The fights went with the transition from hand to hand cities of Liski, Bobrov, Novokhopyorsk and Borisoglebsk. The Don Army was on the main line to Moscow. Having regrouped, the 9 Red Army, supported by the flank units of the 10 and 8 armies, launched an offensive, squeezed parts of the Don Front and occupied Novokhopyorsk, Borisoglebsk and Balashov. The Donets were ousted back from the Russian territory to the borders of Russia and the Don. On the whole front were heavy and hard fighting. At this difficult moment, the Don command adopted a bold project. It was decided to create a special shock cavalry corps of a strong composition and send it to the rear of the Reds. The purpose of the raid: disruption of the counteroffensive and the blow to the headquarters of the Red Front, destruction of the rear, damage to railways and disruption of transport.

Formed for this IV cavalry corps of General Mamontov was composed of the best parts of the Don army number of 7000 riders. The breakthrough of the front of the Reds was scheduled at the junction of the 8 and 9 of the Red armies. The operation began on July 28. The corps, without meeting resistance, went into a deep raid and on July 30 captured the train with the mobilized, heading for the replenishment of one of the red divisions. About three thousand of the Red Army soldiers who were mobilized were taken prisoner and dismissed to their homes. In addition, a mobilization center was captured, where up to five thousand of the Reds just mobilized were collected, which were immediately, to their satisfaction, disbanded. Many carriages with shells, cartridges, hand grenades and quartermaster property were seized. The 56 Infantry Division of the Reds, which had been sent to eliminate the breakthrough, was destroyed. From the south-east towards the corps the cavalry brigade was moving, which was also completely broken. Having met a heavily fortified position south of Tambov, the corps walked around it and on August 5 took Tambov. The city was dissolved before 15000 mobilized. From Tambov the corps headed towards Kozlov, where the headquarters of the Southern Front was located. The breakthrough of the front by the IV Don Corps brought great alarm to the headquarters of the Red Command. The Council of Defense of the Republic declared the Ryazan, Tula, Oryol, Voronezh, Tambov and Penza provinces under martial law and ordered the establishment of county and city committees of military revolutionary courts everywhere. However, the brilliant activity of the IV Don Corps produced more moral than operational impact and essentially limited itself to actions of a purely tactical order.

It seemed that the cavalry corps directed into the deep rears seemed to have a purpose isolated from the general course of the war. During its movement in the rear areas of the Red armies, there was no adequately powerful and vigorous action on the part of the whites on the front. At the head of the red armed forces were already officers of the general staff who knew military affairs no worse than the command of the whites. The breakthrough was unpleasant for them because of the confusion of the troops under their control. Even upstairs, in the Defense Council, some were afraid of the appearance of Cossacks near Moscow, but for officers who were well versed in military operations, it was clear that the cavalry corps, poorly supported from the front, would quickly dry out and would look for a safe way out. Therefore, the Red Command set the goal of eliminating the breakthrough and at the same time making parts of the 8 Army an offensive against the Third Don Corps at its junction with the Front of the Democratic Army. This offensive of the Reds and the withdrawal of the Cossacks exposed the left flank of the May-Mayevsky units and threatened Kharkov, where Denikin's headquarters was located. The Red Army penetrated deep into the 100-120 versts on the front of the 3rd Don Corps. There was no reserve at the disposal of the white command, and it was necessary to use cavalry. From the first Kuban and second Terek brigades, the III cavalry corps was created under the command of General Shkuro, which was subordinated to May-Mayevsky. With blows from the west of General Shkuro's corps and from the southeast of the Don corps this deeply-cut wedge was destroyed, and the Reds were thrown back not only to their original position, but to the 40-60 version north. At the same time, the corps of General Mamantov continued to operate in the rear of the 8 Army, destroying the rear of the Reds, he occupied the Yelets. Special Communist regiments and parts of Latvians were opposed to the Mamantov corps. From the east came a cavalry brigade with the support of cadets and armored units. From Yelets Mamantov moved to Voronezh. On the side of the Reds, several infantry divisions were issued, and an order was given to the Budenny corps to also go against Mamantov. On August 24, Kastornaya, a large station in the rear areas of the 13 and 8 Red armies, was busy with Mamantov's corps, which facilitated the activities of the 3rd Don Corps, which operated from the south. The great success of the Mamantov raid prompted the Reds to reevaluate the role of cavalry, and their commanders had the idea, following the example of the White Cossack cavalry, to create cavalry units and units of the Red Army, which resulted in the order of Bronstein, saying: “Proletarians, everything is on horseback! The main trouble of the Red armies is the lack of cavalry. Our troops have a maneuverable character, require the highest mobility, which assigns a large role to the cavalry. Now Mamontov’s destructive raid sharply raised the question of creating numerous red cavalry units.

Our lack of cavalry is not accidental. The revolution of the proletariat was born in most of the industrial cities. We have no shortage of machine guns and artillerymen, but we have a great need for riders. The Soviet Republic needs cavalry. Red cavalry, forward! On a horse, proletarians! ” General Mamantov’s raid continued from July 28 for six weeks. The Red Command took all measures so that the corps could not break through to the south, but it did not reach its goal. With a skillful maneuver, the Mamants defiantly attacked one of the divisions, where the Reds were loyal and resistant, and the corps, changing movement, having crossed to the west bank of the Don, attacked the rear units of the Reds and left the rear, joining 5 of September with the 1 of the Kuban Division leading the battles against the same red parts on the south side. The corps of General Mamantov not only successfully emerged from the reds of the Reds, but also brought out the Tula Infantry Division of Volunteers formed by him in the short term of the raid, which all the time took part in the battles on the side of the whites.

Fig. 3 General Mamantov

It should be said that Bronstein’s call: “Proletarians, everything is on horseback!” Was not an empty sound. Red cavalry quickly emerged as a counterbalance to the white-cavalry cavalry, which at the initial stage of the civil war had an overwhelming numerical and qualitative superiority. The cavalry corps of the Cossack troops formed the basis of the white cavalry, and the red cavalry created their cavalry practically from scratch. Initially, its main organizational units were predominantly hundreds, squadrons, cavalry units, which did not have a clear organization, a constant number, which were part of the military cavalry. In the construction of cavalry as a kind of troops of the Workers 'and Peasants' Red Army, it is possible to allocate the following stages:

- the creation of hundreds of squadrons, squads and regiments
- reducing them to cavalry units - brigades and divisions
- formation of strategic cavalry - cavalry corps and armies.

In the creation of equestrian armies of the Red Army has absolute priority. For the first time, a cavalry army led by General Oranovsky was created at the end of 1915, during heavy defensive battles on the German front, but this experience was unsuccessful. This was described in more detail in the article “Cossacks and the First World War. Part III, 1915 year. However, thanks to the tireless enthusiasm and talent of real fans of the cavalry business of the Red Cossacks Mironov, Dumenko and Budyonny, this case was brilliantly developed and became one of the decisive military advantages of the Red Army over the white armies.

By the time of the decisive battle in the movement to Moscow, as part of the white Russian army, according to General Denikin, there were 130 000 fighters, and 75% of them were Cossacks. The front of the Cossack troops at the same time had a stretch of 800 versts from the Volga to New Oskol. The front, which was engaged in the main part of the Volunteer Army between Novy Oskol and the Desna River, was about 100 miles wide. When attacking Moscow, Ukraine was very important, which was, in essence, in the struggle against the Bolsheviks, the third and very important front. On the territory of Ukraine, in the bizarre tangle of contradictions, the interests of various forces intertwined: 1) Ukrainian separatism 2) aggressive Poland 3) Bolsheviks and 4) the Volunteer Army. Separate independent groups and Poles fought a war against the Bolsheviks. The Bolsheviks fought with the Ukrainian rebels and Poles, as well as against the Volunteer and Cossack ar-mi. Denikin, following the idea of ​​restoring United and Indivisible Russia, fought against all: the Bolsheviks, the Ukrainians and the Poles, and the fourth front for him were rebels in his rear. From the west, from the side of Ukraine, the 13 and 14 armies were deployed with the Reds against the All-Ukrainian Union of Human Rights Forces, and from the side of the Whites considerable forces were needed to counter. The Red Army could not be proud of the successful mobilization among the Russian and Ukrainian population. By the spring of 1919, the Soviet command proposed to place 3 million under the red banner. However, the implementation of this program interfered with internal troubles. Power held on bayonets. Unusually significant is the distribution of armored cars on the fronts. On the east, there were 25 machines, on the western 6, on the southern 45, in the rear of the 46. In the only punitive Latvian division there were 12 armored cars. Brutal measures were taken by the Reds to force the entry of peasants into the army, but even cruel reprisals and terror against deserters and the population hiding from joining the Red Army did not succeed. Mass desertion during the civil war was one of the most acute problems of all the warring armies. The table shows the number of refusers and deserters in the Red Army in 1919, according to N. Karpov.














For 1919















At first glance, these figures look monstrous, but desertion is a sad and inevitable companion of any civil war. Now we already know the results of the current "mobilization" in Ukraine in the ATO and have something to compare. Millions of Ukrainians are fleeing to neighboring countries and “mow down” from conscription by hook or by crook, and in this light the figures from the table no longer look unreal. 40 million country Ukraine with great difficulty was able to assemble for the ATO only a few relatively capable brigades and individual battalions. And then the composition of the Red Army in the days of the most intense battles on the Southern and Western fronts had no more 200000 people. The stability of most of these troops was relative. Often enough was a successful maneuver, so that parts of them either fled or surrendered. The exception was made by special and special troops from Latvians, cadets, communists, who at the same time also played the role of merciless executioners against the population. In fact, in the autumn of 1919, soldiers from the Red Army deserted several times more than they served in the White Guard armies. Between June 1919 and June, 1920 deserted up to 2,6 million, but in Ukraine only up to 500 thousand deserters were identified. The same problem of mass desertion arose in front of the whites as soon as they tried to mobilize in the “liberated” territories. Thus, the Denikin army in the period of greatest success controlled the territory with a population of about 40 million, but it could not increase its number. As a result, whites were forced to recruit even from among the captured Red Army men. But such units not only quickly decomposed, but, often, went over to the Red side in full strength.

Nevertheless, the mobilization efforts of the Reds bore fruit. After Kamyshin was occupied by the Caucasian army, Denikin ordered to vigorously pursue the enemy’s army in the direction of Saratov, regardless of the heavy losses. Reds, replenished, had a strong resistance. In Saratov were concentrated part of the 2-th army, the former before, on the Siberian front. At the front of the Caucasian and Don armies, the Reds regrouped and created in each of the existing armies shock groups of reliable troops with a total of 78 000 bayonets, 16 000 sabers, 2487 machine guns and 491 gun. 1 August 1919, the shock units of the 10 Red Army switched to the Kamyshin offensive on the front of the Caucasian Army and the 1st Don Corps. On August 14, the Don Plastun Brigade was destroyed, and with its death an unprotected front opened along the course of the Medveditsa River to the district center of the village of Ust-Medveditskaya. To cover the resulting void from the front, the commander of the garrison was mobilized by young men of invocative age, beginning with 17 years, and all Cossacks capable of carrying weapons. All the Cossacks of the Pridonsk villages co-ordinatedly responded to this call, a brigade of two regiments was formed from these drafted Cossacks, occupying all the right-bank villages of the district from Kremenskaya to Ust-Khopyorsk. Mobilization was also carried out throughout the Don Army. The decisive moment came in the struggle, and Don gave the last that was at his disposal for the struggle. The army lacked horses for horse regiments and artillery. Transportation to supply the army was supported by women and adolescents. 23 August began fighting for Tsaritsyn. The Reds were defeated and, having lost 15 thousands of prisoners, 31 guns and 160 machine guns, were thrown to the 40 version north. But, having replenished the units, the 10 Army of the Reds, which also included Budyonny’s strong equestrian corps, went on the offensive again between the Volga and the Dipper. On the whole front, heavy battles were fought, and the Cossacks managed to repel the enemy offensive with the capture of a large number of prisoners and weapons. For the successful execution of the RVS directives, the Budenyi cavalry corps was transferred to the junction of the 8 and 9 armies, scheduling a blow to the joint of the Volunteer and Don armies.

For the Don Army created a difficult situation. Despite this, in the first half of September 1919, the Don and Caucasian armies withstood the frenzied onslaught of the shock parts of 8, 9, and 10 armies in the number of 94 LLC fighters with 2497 machine guns and 491 guns. Moreover, the 8 and 9 armies were dealt a heavy defeat, which stopped their decisive offensive in the middle reaches of the Don, and the 11 forces in the lower Volga. By September, 1919, the territory that was engaged in the All-Soviet Union armed forces included: part of the Astrakhan province, the whole Crimea, Yekaterinoslav, Kharkov, Poltava, Kiev and part of the Voronezh province, the territory of the Don, Kuban and Terek troops. On the left flank, the white armies continued the offensive more successfully: Nikolaev, 18 August, Odessa, 23 August, Kiev, 30, September, Kursk, 20, September, Voronezh, 30, Oryol, were taken on August 13. It seemed that the Bolsheviks were close to a catastrophe and they began to prepare for going underground. An underground Moscow party committee was created, government agencies began evacuating to Vologda.

But it only seemed. In fact, the Bolsheviks in Central Russia had much more supporters and sympathizers than in the south and east and managed to raise them to fight. In addition, events of a general political nature that were unfavorable for the white movement occurred in Europe and their negative effect began to be felt more and more. 28 June 1919 of the year at the Palace of Versailles in France, a peace treaty was signed that officially ended World War I of 1914-1918. Representatives of Soviet Russia were excluded from the negotiation process, as Russia concluded a separate peace with Germany in 1918, according to the terms of which Germany received a significant portion of land and resources in Russia and was able to continue the struggle. Although the Entente powers did not invite the delegation of Moscow, they granted the right to speak to the “Russian foreign delegation” composed of the former Russian foreign minister Sazonov and the former ambassador of the Provisional Government Nabokov. Members of the delegation felt keenly the historical humiliation of Russia. Nabokov wrote that here "the name of Russia became anathema." After the conclusion of the Versailles peace, the help of the Western allies to the white movement gradually ceases for various reasons. After the collapse of the Central Powers and the Russian Empire, the eastern hemisphere of the planet was ruled by Britain and its opinion was decisive. British Prime Minister Lloyd George, shortly after the failed attempt to bring white and red men to the negotiating table on the Princes' Islands, spoke in the following vein: "The expediency of helping Kolchak and Denikin is even more controversial because they are" fighting for the United Russia "... I don’t indicate whether this slogan is consistent with the policy of Great Britain ... One of our great men, Lord Beaconsfield, saw in the huge, mighty and great Russia, rolling like a glacier towards Persia, Afghanistan and India, the most formidable danger to the British Empire ... ". The reduction, and then the complete cessation of aid from the Entente, brought the white movement to a catastrophe. But the betrayal of the Allies was not the only problem of the White armies at the end of 1919. The presence of “green” and “black” gangs and movements in the rear of the whites were distracted by considerable forces from the front, plundered the population, and in general disintegrated the white armies. In the rear areas, peasant uprisings rose everywhere, and the anarchist Makhno distracted the greatest white forces.

Fig. 4 Combrig Makhno and Comdiv Dybenko

With the beginning of the offensive of the white troops on Moscow, Makhno began a large-scale partisan war in the rear of the whites and again called on the peasant rebels to unite with the Reds. The carts were especially popular with the Makhnovists. This ingenious invention radically changed the character of the civil war in the south. As all ingenious this invention was just plain ugly and was the fruit of pure eclecticism. Let me remind you that the theory considers 3 the main source of creativity: charisma (talent, gift of God), eclecticism and schizophrenia (cleavage of reason). Eclecticism is the connection of the heterogeneous, not previously combinable, with the aim of obtaining new properties and qualities. For all the seeming simplicity of this genre, eclecticism can produce fantastic results. One of the luminaries of this genre in the technique of Henry Ford. He did not invent anything in the car, everything was invented before him and not by him. He did not invent and the conveyor. Before him, on assembly lines in America for many decades, revolvers, rifles, weaving looms, etc. were assembled. But he first began to collect cars on the conveyor and made an industrial revolution in the automotive industry. So with the cart. In the southern provinces, where the sleigh is not in use, light sprung Saxon britts, called by Germans colonists tachanki (they were also called tachi, cars), were a very common type of personal and hired passenger transport among the colonists, wealthy peasants, ordinary people and cabers. They were then seen there all, but did not give them any other meaning. The machine gun was also invented a long time ago, the designer Maxim presented it back in 1882 year. But the unknown Makhnovist genius of genius, who first put a machine gun on his car and harnessed four horses into it, radically changed the nature of hostilities and the use of cavalry in the civil war in southern Russia. The insurgent army of Makhno, which had 1919 of the year before 28 000 people and 200 machine guns on the carts, used them very effectively.

In addition to machine-gun carriages in subdivisions, separate machine-gun companies and divisions existed from them. To quickly achieve local fire superiority, Makhno even had a machine gun regiment. The cart was used both for moving machine guns and for delivering fire strikes directly on the battlefield. The Makhnovists used the cart to transport infantry. In this case, the total speed of movement of the detachment corresponded to the speed of the trotting cavalry. Thus, the forces of Makhno easily passed up to 100 km a day for several days in a row. So, after a successful breakthrough under Peregonovka in September of 1919, Makhno’s large forces in 11 days passed more than 600 km from Uman to Guliay-Polya, taking the white garrisons by surprise. After this glorious raid machine-gun carts with the speed of the car began to spread in the white and in the red army. In the Red Army, cart women gained the loudest glory in the First Cavalry Army of SM. Budyonny.

Fig. 5 Makhnovskaya tachanka

By early October, the balance of forces and their location were as follows: The Volunteer Army had up to 20 LLC fighters, the Don Army 48 LLC, the Caucasus (Kuban and Terskaya) - 30 LLC. Total 98 000 fighters. There were about 40 000 Red men from the 13 and 8 armies against Dobraarmy. Against Don and the Caucasus around 100 000 people. Front of the fighting parties: Kiev - Orel - Voronezh - Tsaritsyn - Dagestan region. Astrakhan was not taken white. Despite the mediation of the British, Denikin did not manage to reach an agreement with the Ukrainian army of Petliura and the Polish army; the anti-Bolshevik forces did not join forces. Dagestan region was also against the white army. The Red Command, realizing where the main danger was, directed the main blow against the Cossacks. RVS replaced the commander of the southern front Yegoryev, putting in his place the general staff of colonel Egorov. October 6 Reds near Voronezh pressed Cossack units. Under the pressure of the cavalry corps of the Reds, the Cossacks left 12 of October Voronezh and retreated to the west bank of the Don. The Don command asked the Caucasian army to strengthen the right flank of the Don army, and Wrangel promised to go on the offensive in order to divert Dumenko's cavalry. It was easier for the Caucasian army after leaving the cavalry corps of Budyonny and Dumenko from its front. Cruel battles were also fought on the front of Dobromrmii, and under the pressure of the 14, 13 and 8 armies their resistance was broken, and a slow retreat began. Budenny’s corps was reinforced by two infantry divisions, and under their pressure 4 in November, Kastornaya was left white. After this, the flanks of Dobrovrmii and the Don Army could no longer be connected. From November 13, Dobromrmiya rolled back to the south, and communication with parts of May-Mayevsky and Dragomirov was lost. The Reds took Kursk and opened the way to Kharkov. After the capture of the Kastorny Corps, Budyonny was instructed to continue to operate at the junction of the Goodwill and Don Corps. On the part of the 10 and 11 armies, an attack began on Tsaritsyn, the 9-I continued the offensive within the Don territory, and the 8-I and 13-i acted against the Dobrovrmi and partly against the Don units. On November 26, instead of May-Mayevsky, General Wrangel took command of the Goodbye Union. The Don units began to take positions and in two days moved beyond the Seversky Donets River. 1 December, the Reds occupied Poltava, 3 December, Kiev, and parts of Dobrovrmy continued to move south. The Don Army continued to thaw from loss and typhus. By December 1 the Red vs 23000 Don had 63 LLC infantry and cavalry.

In December, an event occurred that finally turned the tide in favor of the Red Army and had the most negative effect on the fate of the All-Soviet Union. In the village of Velikomikhaylovka, which now houses the Museum of the First Cavalry, December 6, as a result of a joint meeting of members of the RVS of the Southern Front Yegorov, Stalin, Schadenko and Voroshilov with the command of the cavalry corps, order No. 1 was created to create the First Cavalry Army. At the head of the army administration, the Revolutionary Military Council was composed of Commander Konarmiy Budyonny and members of the PBC Voroshilov and Shchadenko. The Communist Army became a powerful operational-strategic mobile group of troops, which was entrusted with the main task of defeating Denikin's armies by rapidly cutting the white front into two isolated groups along the New Oskol-Donbass-Taganrog line, followed by their destruction separately. Those. a deep massive raid of the red cavalry to the Sea of ​​Azov was conceived. The red cavalucus and previously made deep raids up to Rostov, but they were strategically unsuccessful. Deep wedged cavalry corps of the Reds were subjected to flanking strikes of white parts and returned with great losses. It is quite another thing konarmiya. When it was formed, Budenny’s shock cavalry corps was reinforced by several rifle divisions, hundreds of carts, dozens of horse batteries, armored cars, armored trains and airplanes. The impact of the cavalry, with the powerful support of armored trains and machine-gun carts, was murderous, and the attached rifle divisions made the wounded conarmia extremely resistant to counterstrikes. The attacking and marching orders of the Budyonnovsk cavalry were reliably protected by aerial reconnaissance and machine-gun carriages from sudden flank attacks of white-cavalry cavalry. Budennovsk carts differed from the Makhnovist ones, as they were mostly self-made, but the task of machine-gun escorting cavalry at a trot was no less successful. The idea of ​​the army, which the Cossack generals raved during world war, found its brilliant embodiment in the hands and heads of the red Cossacks and effectively earned literally from the early days. December 7 The 4 division of Gorodovikov and the 6 division of Tymoshenko defeated General Mamantov’s cavalry corps under Volokonovka. By the end of December 8 after a fierce battle, the army captured Valuykami.

December 19 The 4 Division, with the support of armored trains, crushed the combined cavalry group of General Ulagay. On the night of December 23, Konarmiya forced Seversky Donets. By December 27, parts of the Konarmia firmly seized the Bakhmut-Popasnaya frontier. December 29 actions of the 9 th and 12 th infantry divisions from the front and the covering maneuver of the 6 th cavalry division of the whites were knocked out of Debalcevo. Developing this success, 11-I cavalry, together with 9-th infantry division of 30 December, captured Gorlovka and Nikitovka. December 31 The 6 Cavalry Division, coming out in the Alekseevo-Leonovo area, completely defeated three regiments of the Markov officer infantry division. 1 January 1920, the 11 Cavalry and 9 Rifle Divisions, supported by armored trains, captured the Ilovaiskaya station and the Amvrosievka area, defeating the Cherkasy Whites division. On January 6, the forces of the 9 th rifle and 11 th cavalry divisions, with the assistance of the local Bolshevik underground, occupied Taganrog. The task was completed, parts of the WSYR were chopped up into 2 parts.

Fig. 6 Mounted Army Offensive

Don army retreated from the Don to the south. The goodwill of the army turned into a corps under the command of General Kutepov, and he passed into the submission of the commander of the Don army, General Sidorin. In the rear of the white army there was an incredible accumulation of wagons on dirt roads and blockage of railroad cars on railways. The roads were crowded with abandoned carts with household belongings, sick, wounded Cossacks. Eyewitnesses described that there were not enough words to express in words the deepest tragedy of the soldiers, the wounded and the sick, who fell into such conditions. So pitiable for White ended 1919 year in southern Russia. What was the situation in 1919 in the East?

At the end of the 1918 of the year, Dutov's South-Western Army, formed mainly from the Cossacks of OKW, suffered great losses and in January 1919 left Orenburg. In the conquered territories of the Cossack regions, the Soviet rulers launched cruel repression. As mentioned above, 24 January 1919, Secretary of the Central Committee of the RCP (b) Ya.M. Sverdlov signed and sent to the places a directive on the story about the destruction and destruction of the Cossacks of Russia. It should be said that the Orenburg regional executive committee did not fully implement this criminal directive, and in March 1919, it was canceled. At the same time, in some Cossack areas it was used until the end of the civil war, and in this satanic case, Trotsky with his frantic supporters did a great deal of success. The Cossacks suffered enormous damage: human, material and moral.

On the Siberian expanses, the scale and means of warfare against the Reds were more than the funds of the Don and Kuban regions. The mobilization of the army gave a large number of replenishment, and the population more willingly responded to the call. But along with the mood of the masses in the struggle against the destructive forces of Bolshevism, there was a hard political struggle. The main enemies of the white movement in Siberia were not so much the organization of the communists as the representatives of the socialists and the liberal public who were in communion with the communists, and through the hands of their representatives from Moscow received money for propaganda and struggle against the government of Admiral Kolchak. Back in November 1918, Admiral Kolchak overthrew the Social Revolutionary-Menshevik Directory and proclaimed himself the Supreme Ruler of Russia. After the coup, the Social Revolutionaries declared Kolchak and the White movement an enemy worse than Lenin, stopped the fight against the Bolsheviks and began to act against the white power, organizing strikes, insurrections, acts of terror and sabotage. In the army and the state apparatus of Kolchak and other white governments there were a lot of socialists (Mensheviks and Social Revolutionaries) and their supporters, and they themselves were popular among the population of Russia, primarily among the peasantry, therefore the activities of the Social Revolutionaries played an important, largely decisive role in defeating the white movement in Siberia. Against the admiral, a conspiracy in the army was slowly but persistently created.

However, in the spring of 1919, the Kolchak troops launched an offensive. At first it was successful. The Cossack army of Dutov cut the road to Turkestan and attacked Orenburg. Dutov mobilized 36 ages into his regiments and had 42 Mounted Riders, 4 Foot Regiments and 16 batteries. But in May-June, due to the start of field work, the ataman was forced to let the Cossacks older than 40 go home. This led to a significant decrease in the White Cossack combat effectiveness, the old bearded men firmly held discipline in the hundreds and forced the young Cossacks to observe loyalty to the oath. In addition, the Red Army launched an offensive on the Trans-Siberian Railway to Chelyabinsk and to repel this offensive from near Orenburg to the north, the 2 Cossack Corps of General Akulinin was sent. After violent multi-day battles in August 1919, the Red Army took Verkhneuralsk and Troitsk and cut off the White Army army of Dutov from the main forces of Kolchak. The White Cossack units rolled to the southeast, but part of the Cossacks did not want to leave their homes, and in the Orsk and Aktyubinsk regions, the mass surrender of Cossacks began. The white Cossacks and officers who surrendered were placed in the Totsky, Verkhneuralsky and Miass camps, where they were thoroughly checked and filtered. Many have not been released, and of those who wanted to earn the forgiveness of the new government, the Red Cossack units, the ND cavalry force, formed. Kashirin and kavdiviziyu N.D. Tomin. Orenburg residents replenished Konarmiyu S.M. Budyonny and fought against the army of Denikin, Wrangel, Makhno and the White Poles.

In September-October 1919 of the year between the Tobol and Ishim rivers a decisive battle took place between the whites and reds. As on other fronts, whites, yielding to the enemy in forces and equipment, were defeated. After that, the front collapsed and the remnants of Kolchak's army retreated deep into Siberia. In the course of this retreat, the Kolchak troops carried out the Great Siberian Ice Campaign, as a result of which the Kolchak troops retreated from Western Siberia to Eastern, thus overcoming more than 2000 kilometers and avoided encirclement. For Kolchak was characterized by unwillingness to delve deeply into political issues. He sincerely hoped that under the banner of the struggle against Bolshevism he would be able to unite the most diverse political forces and create a new solid state power. Meanwhile, the Social Revolutionaries organized a number of insurrections in the rear of Kolchak, as a result of one of them they managed to capture Irkutsk. The power in the city was taken by the Socialist-Revolutionary Political Center, to whom Czechoslovak 15s of January, among whom pro-SR sentiments were strong and had no desire to fight, issued Admiral Kolchak, who was under their guard.

After the withdrawal of Kolchak's army across the Tobol River, parts of the Orenburg and Ural Cossacks on the Turkestan front were thrown back into the sandy, desert lands, and their territories were occupied by the Reds. The front of the Baltic countries was passive, and it was only on the outskirts of Petrograd that the North-Western army of General Yudenich fought. In November 1919, under Kokchetav, the Dutov army was again defeated, the most irreconcilable in the number of 6-7 thousands of Cossacks and their families went with the ataman to China, and the majority surrendered to captivity. The difficulties of traveling to China aggravated the cruelty of the former Siberian Cossack Ataman B.V. Annenkov. Ataman Annenkov not only did not help the Orenburg citizens who came to Semirechie, but at the very border dealt with thousands of desperate villagers and their families. Just before the border itself, he suggested that those who did not wish to part with their native land return to Soviet Russia. Those turned out to be about two thousand. Annenkov wished them a happy journey and indicated a gathering place. But it was an insidious trick. Machine guns hit the Cossacks who had gathered in a clearing. The runaway people were chopped by the horsemen of Annenkovtsy. A terrible reprisal was arranged against women and children. Such zoological cruelty speaks of the savagery of the Annenkovites and the like “fighters” for the white idea, turning them into extremely embittered Sadist-Satanists. Having set as a goal the struggle for Orthodox Russia against the atheists-communists, many white warriors themselves fell to the cruelty of primitive barbarians. Any war hardens people, but civil, fratricidal war is especially corrupting. That is why the patriarch of All Russia Tikhon did not give the blessing of the white army.

The anti-people civil war was launched by both sides against the will of the clergy and statists and was led on the white side by generals Kornilov, Denikin, Alekseev, basely oath-taking, Sovereign and the state. About the other side and say nothing. Civil war inevitably dooms the state to ruin and defeat, and the people participating in it, to moral degradation, savagery and lack of spirituality. In all, about 100 of thousands of refugees came out of Orenburg, fearing reprisals from the Reds. About 20 thousands of White Cossacks and their families crossed the border with China. Of these, the ataman Dutov managed to gather in Suidun an efficient detachment of about 6 thousands of people, preparing military actions against Soviet Russia. The Chekists decided to end this threat. The operation involved Kazakh noble origin Kasym Khan Chanyshev, who allegedly was preparing an uprising in eastern Kazakhstan. During the operation, ataman Dutov was treacherously murdered. So ingloriously ended the struggle of the Cossacks of the OKV with the Bolsheviks.

The struggle in 1919 on the territory of the Ural Cossack army was no less persistent and bitter. The Ural White Cossacks retreated under the pressure of a well-armed, reinforced and full-blooded 25 Infantry Division, commanded by a talented, skilled and brave warrior V.I. Chapaev. Despite the successful raid of the White Cossack detachment on the headquarters of the division in Lbishchensk, which ended in the complete defeat of the headquarters and the death of the legendary commander, the position of the White Cossacks was terrible. Their retreat continued, and among them the outbreak of typhoid and dysentery epidemics. People died like flies. In response to the ultimatum M.V. Frunze most irreconcilable went south along the Caspian Sea. In this most difficult campaign, most died. Of those who reached Tehran, a part entered the service in the Persian division, a part was sent to Vladivostok, then it turned out to be in China. After some time, part of the Cossack emigrants headed by Ataman V.S. Tolstoy moved to Australia. Thus ended the great drama of the glorious Ural Cossack army.

Thus, the 1919 year ended catastrophically for White. The allies abandoned the white movement and were occupied with the device of the post-war world, and simply divided the booty. And she was considerable. Mighty empires collapsed 3: German, Ottoman and Austro-Hungarian. The former Russian Empire burned over a slow fire, and in this flame in torment a new powerful Red Empire was born. The new 1920 year began, and with it the agony of the white movement. The Red Leaders had already seen the victory, and again they smelled the smell of world revolution. But this is a completely different story.

Materials used:
Gordeev A.A. History of the Cossacks.
Mamonov V.F. and others. The history of the Cossacks of the Urals. Orenburg - Chelyabinsk, 1992.
Shibanov N.S. Orenburg Cossacks of the XX century.
Ryzhkova N.V. Don Cossacks in the wars of the early twentieth century. M., 2008.
Krasnov P.N. Great Don army. M .: Patriot, 1990.
Lukomsky A.S. Origin of the Volunteer Army. M., 1926.
Denikin A.I. How the struggle against the Bolsheviks began in the south of Russia. M., 1926.
Karpov N. D. The tragedy of the White South. 1920 year.
Articles from this series:
Siberian Cossack Epic
Old Cossack ancestors
Cossacks and the annexation of Turkestan
Education Volga and Yaitsky Cossack Troops
Cossacks in Time of Troubles
Seniority (education) and the formation of the Don Cossack troops in the Moscow service
Azov seat and the transition of the Don troops in the Moscow service
Formation of the Dnieper and Zaporizhia troops and their service to the Polish-Lithuanian state
The transfer of the Cossack army hetman to the Moscow service
Treason of Mazepa and the pogrom of Cossack liberties by Tsar Peter
The uprising of Pugachev and the elimination of the Dnieper Cossacks by Empress Catherine
Cossacks in World War 1812 of the year. Part I, pre-war
Cossacks in World War 1812 of the year. Part II, the invasion and expulsion of Napoleon
Cossacks in World War 1812 of the year. Part III, foreign campaign
Formation of the Kuban Army
The feat of the young Platov (Battle of the Kalalah on the third of April, 1774)
Education Orenburg Cossack troops
Cossacks before the World War
Cossacks and the First World War. Part I, pre-war
Cossacks and the First World War. Part II, 1914 year
Cossacks and the First World War. Part III, 1915 year
Cossacks and the First World War. Part IV. 1916 year
Cossacks and the First World War. Part V. The Caucasian Front
Cossacks and the February Revolution
Cossacks and the October Revolution
Cossacks in the Civil War. Part I. 1918 year. The origin of the white movement
Cossacks in the Civil War. Part II. 1918 year. In the fire of fratricidal Troubles
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  1. 3axap
    3axap 31 March 2015 07: 40
    The author for the article +++. But here is a link to, Fig.1 The spread of languages ​​in Little Russia at the beginning of the twentieth century, it seems to me a little of the "evil". And the theme of the Civil War in the history of Russia every year will become more and more vague and incomprehensible. hi
    1. avt
      avt 31 March 2015 09: 48
      Quote: 3axap
      ... But here is a link to, Fig.1 The spread of languages ​​in Little Russia at the beginning of the twentieth century, it seems to me a little bit of the "evil"
      Not from the evil one, but from quite a Svidomo ykr. As well as the statement - ,,, in the White Russian army, according to General Denikin, there were 130 fighters, and 000% of them were Cossacks. "Well, and this is in general -" The Reds took brutal measures to force the peasants to join the army, but even cruel reprisals and terror against deserters and the population hiding from joining the ranks of the Red Army did not achieve success. Mass desertion during the civil war was one of the most acute problems of all the belligerent armies. The table shows the number of refuseniks and deserters in the Red Army in 75 according to ND Karpov. "---- Can you imagine such a picture of mobilization in your right mind? "Their Cossack nobility" the author wrote about this from the last movie about Rimbaud, well, where he was there in Nepal on the river. And the author doesn't want to say anything about deserters in the White Army. ? Well, again, according to the author - "It should be said that Bronstein's appeal:" Proletarians, all on horseback! " was not an empty phrase. The red cavalry quickly emerged as a counterbalance to the White Cossack cavalry, which had an overwhelming numerical and qualitative superiority at the initial stage of the civil war. The basis of the white cavalry was the cavalry corps of the Cossack troops, and the Reds created their cavalry practically from scratch. " dithering, mass atrocities of repression? laughing Doesn't it seem to the readers that the author does not fit? Well, either the Jewish Cossacks turned out to be more important, or the author frankly distorts, that is, a banal sharper - for his "Cossack" adjusting the historical texture. It is banal that the polarity of the presentation changes - before the White Guards committed atrocities against the proletarariat, now the "white lambs - the Cossacks" evil Trotsky with the Chinese and Latvians from the detachments' barriers. As you wish, but this author wrote clearly trying to surpass Svanidze's chronicle.
  2. tetrako
    tetrako 31 March 2015 07: 55
    Oh, how many Russian people were destroyed in this fratricidal war. Compared to the social fanatics led by Lenin and Trotsky, current religious and nationalist fanatics like al-Qaeda and ISIS are simply naughty. Verily, the road to hell is lined with good intentions.
    1. Vadim2013
      Vadim2013 31 March 2015 20: 09
      Damn the civil war when the Russians killed the Russians.
    2. The comment was deleted.
    3. RUSS
      RUSS 31 March 2015 21: 08
      Quote: tetrako
      Oh, how many Russian people were destroyed in this fratricidal war

      On March 27, Orthodox Christians remembered Memorial Day for the victims of the Terek Cossacks genocide
      The path to the Beslan of the Cossacks 95 years ago became a "road of death" for them. The one who could not walk, primarily children and the elderly, was killed by escorts.

      In 1920, Bolshevik political activists Sergei Kirov and Grigory Ordzhonikidze decided to evict the residents of the Terek Cossack villages near Grozny and transfer them to Chechens and Ingush. Just on March 27, 1920, Terek Cossacks from the villages of Aki-Yurt, Tarskaya, and Sunzhenskaya armed Bolshevik detachments were expelled from their houses and built in columns. Only families of Red Cossack families were allowed to take the property, but not more than one cart. Pedestrian evicters, under an armed escort, moved several tens of kilometers to the railway station Dalakovo. Now Beslan is located there.

      According to contemporaries, the entire road to the city was covered with the bodies of the dead. But even at the Dalakovo station, several thousand people were shot from machine guns and chopped with sabers in a meadow a few kilometers from the station due to the lack of wagons. The dead were buried in huge dug holes previously dug. Up to 38 thousand Cossacks and members of their families died in that massacre.

      All this is remembered today in the Pyatigorsk and Circassian diocese. According to the press service, Ossetians, residents of Beslan, after those events, the land on which the massacre took place was never used for agricultural purposes. In 2001, at the site of the tragedy, a mound was poured and an Orthodox cross was erected, and a monument was erected at the base.
  3. semirek
    semirek 31 March 2015 08: 23
    The author, setting forth the material, mainly operates on facts that are generally accessible, even in Soviet times. The further he leads the story from central Russia, it becomes clear that the author does not have information about the Ural, Orenburg, Siberian and Semirechensk Cossack troops of that time, the actions of these troops against the Reds, specific atamans, the alignment of troops, as a result of many inaccuracies. I think that the author did not bother much with searches in the archives, an analysis of the recollections of participants in the civil war. about the red leaders, everything was taken entirely from Wikipedia, and it was listed there from Soviet textbooks. Honestly, I wanted to learn something new for myself, but unfortunately for me it is not.
    As I understood from the author, there are two more articles left: Crimea and the Far East.
    1. captain
      captain 31 March 2015 08: 58
      The author is not clear for what purpose he writes in his article about the spread of the Ukrainian language on the territory of Ukraine in 1897-1910. The diagram is taken from modern Ukrainian textbooks. Galicia (Galicia) was never a part of Russia (Encyclopedic Dictionary of Russia, published in 1898), you can also read about this in the Great Soviet Zncyclopedia. There was no such state formation or even a territorial formation in Russia. In the works of Klyuchevsky, Soloviev, Illovaisky and other Russian authors, it is not mentioned, by the way, in the works of Polish and Austrian historians the same thing. The borders of Little Russia and modern Ukraine are not commensurate in their concept. Why Makhno is praised here is not clear. It is necessary to study the history of the Makhnovshchina not from feature films, but from documentary sources or, in extreme cases, from official ones. It was in the movies that he smashed Denikin's officer regiments and units of the Red Army, but in reality everything was different. I recommend to watch the SVE, the work "Makhnovshchina", etc. The author tries to accustom us, as schoolchildren in Ukraine were taught, to the existence of Ukraine from time immemorial and its struggle with the Russians. As these Russophobes flooded to us, Dima Grachev appeared on NTV, who called us "quilted jackets", insects, Mongoloid Fino-Ugrians ..., and now they will laugh at us after each program, with our money.
      1. semirek
        semirek 31 March 2015 11: 37
        The dear fully agrees with you: I also drew attention to the card with the languages ​​- pure unscrupulous agitation. I offer a small historical reference:
    2. Nagaibak
      Nagaibak 31 March 2015 17: 22
      semirek "I think that the author did not bother much searching in the archives, analyzing the memories of participants in the civil war."
      What are you talking about archives about?)))) I agree with you that the article is very superficial.)))
  4. 3axap
    3axap 31 March 2015 08: 43
    semirek SU Today, 08:23 ....... To the author + at least for the fact that he forces us to argue and discuss at the Forum. From the previous article and discussion, your point of view aroused respect from me. NOT in the sense Which is completely For, and how you defended and defended it. hi
    1. semirek
      semirek 31 March 2015 11: 26
      Quote: 3axap
      semirek SU Today, 08:23 ....... To the author + at least for the fact that he forces us to argue and discuss at the Forum. From the previous article and discussion, your point of view aroused respect from me. NOT in the sense Which is completely For, and how you defended and defended it. hi

      I’m interested in the details of that war, we don’t know much, the Soviet cliches are already tired, and they are read from cover to cover --- but I want to know more. For example, I accidentally find out that there was a war in the 20s, where white-backed immigrants fought side by side side with the Red Army - and the white general commanded the army - where it is described in Soviet textbooks.
      I am personally interested in our history, in particular the Cossacks, talking with old people - I find a lot of new things for myself. I’m all interested, especially when all the arguments are well-reasoned.
  5. Asily 50
    Asily 50 31 March 2015 09: 47
    When * foreigners * write about the life of Cossacks, it’s funny. The Cossacks, for the most part, were brought up by * earners *, simply: looters and robbers, however, like all who lived on the outskirts of RUSSIA. It is logical that all inadvertently * become * Cossacks brutalized in their impunity. It is surprising that they were not all cut out with their families, they were given the opportunity to raise children. And now their descendants are talking about * innocently killed *, the church is even trying to consecrate them. These are all the fruits of irresponsibility. Under the tsar, the same * television * and others, including the Cossacks, accepted any repressions, both against units and against the masses, quite positively, because it hurt differently.
    1. semirek
      semirek 31 March 2015 11: 12
      Quote: Asily 50
      When * foreigners * write about the life of Cossacks, it’s funny. The Cossacks, for the most part, were brought up by * earners *, simply: looters and robbers, however, like all who lived on the outskirts of RUSSIA. It is logical that all inadvertently * become * Cossacks brutalized in their impunity. It is surprising that they were not all cut out with their families, they were given the opportunity to raise children. And now their descendants are talking about * innocently killed *, the church is even trying to consecrate them. These are all the fruits of irresponsibility. Under the tsar, the same * television * and others, including the Cossacks, accepted any repressions, both against units and against the masses, quite positively, because it hurt differently.

      Well, this is a bust, the Cossacks, first of all living on the Don and Terek and the Dnieper, even before relations with Russia lived at the junction with alien, non-Christian civilizations --- that have one principle, to attack with a large number, to kill, steal cattle and women’s sale, respectively, all these nomads were rebuffed, and sometimes themselves, the Cossacks went on a campaign to take the same Azov. The quality initially was not some kind of horde, ready to be plundered, as some comrades interpret, but you can say so: a society of free cultivators and pastoralists, which could e danger to instantly repel the enemy, unnecessarily. Cossacks from childhood mastered the military craft - the warrior-farmer.
      I don’t know, Asiliy 50, why do you have so much hatred: is Kazakhstan across the throat, now the Cossacks?
      1. avt
        avt 31 March 2015 11: 44
        Quote: semirek
        .Quality was not originally a horde, ready to be plundered, as some comrades interpret, but as it were: a society of free cultivators and pastoralists, which could in case of danger give an instant rebuff to the enemy, because Cossacks from childhood mastered the military craft - the warrior-farmer.

        laughing Yeahhhh? It's like, "grain growers" that from the king-father grain salary demanded that ??? Type only in those days when "instantly" rebuff the enemy gave ?? And on the Black Sea, they just caught mullet laughing , well, Stepan cut across Khvalynsky in search of sturgeon, the famous “Saryn - for a kichka!” meant casting nets while fishing.
        Quote: alkt
        Lenin wrote about the transformation of the imperialist war into a civil war in the "Theses on the War" in 1914.
        The Civil War, started not by the Reds, but by the White, behind which the Western powers stood. There was no need to start the Civil War - the power was already in their hands.

        Well, let’s put it like this immediately over the whole country they didn’t take power and it was quite expected that the Civil War would be waged in accordance with the installation of Lenin himself.
        Quote: alkt
        It has become fashionable to represent the Whites as people "loyal to honor and oath." This is a completely shameless lie. To whom did these officers and generals take the oath? To the king. Whom did they remove during the February Revolution? The one to whom they swore allegiance. Have they changed their oath?

        Yes, this is quite concrete confirmation in the form of Nika's telegrams # 2 to the Dno station, as well as Alekseev's recollection that the subsequent telegram disavowing a letter signed by Nikolashka, which was later issued as a manifesto, he - Alekseev, put in his pocket ", in his own words. And further, the singers of the bright image of "kakzatsky knights" can even get acquainted with the chronicler of Svanidze how and how many of them in the ice campaign "Don left.
        1. semirek
          semirek 31 March 2015 12: 18
          How you got it! You read the comments carefully - Firstly, I wrote ...- even before the relations of Russia ..., Dear! Come on without aggression - if you are a clown, then your place in the circus, if you are violent, I also think you know where, and if you are a normal man, and interested in history, not verbiage, be so kind as to reasonably respond to comments. Moreover, I do not like communists, but I call historical personalities by their names, for example, V. Lenin, I do not call his Volodka bald, and And, Stalin - the only pockmarked --- please call historical figures yours Enam, normal people may not understand: Nikolashka is apparently a tsar’s messenger, and Nikolay II is still at that time the head of state and it’s hard for a normal reader to understand who signed the bulletin’s letter or the tsar.
          1. avt
            avt 31 March 2015 13: 17
            Quote: semirek
            if you are a clown, then your place in the circus, if you are violent, I also think you know where, and if you are a normal man and interested in history and not verbiage, please respond to comments with reason

            Oh how! laughing Then, the Cossack, keep in mind that the men in the stable do not poke, but contact - Your Excellency, or in abbreviated form - Vashskrod. And tell me what and how the site owners will write in accordance with the rules they have established for the site, which by the way they have already done in my address, within which I write what and how I consider it necessary. Not correct? For this, the creators of the site have provided a "black list" - read, well, if you are tired of minus.
            1. The comment was deleted.
            2. Asily 50
              Asily 50 April 1 2015 21: 11
              Symirek was not a Cossack, and his ancestors were never Cossacks. Hence the complex.
        2. 3axap
          3axap 31 March 2015 13: 17
          avt (2) SU Today ..... That's the truth, why you have such hatred for "Cossacks and Cossacks." You perceive everything connected with this word with such not envy and sarcasm. But this is our story, and it is as it is. Right now UkroAriy- are rewriting their stories, destroying Donbas. It reminds me of 1918. when they destroyed the Cossacks as a class and also rewrote history. They also demolished monuments and hayals of previous rulers. History is a cyclical thing, and if We do not understand the mistakes of the past now, we will make even more mistakes. I have a friend who really wants us to start "Big Buza". All my arguments have nothing to do with him, He wants, that's all .... hi
          1. avt
            avt 31 March 2015 14: 05
            Quote: 3axap
            ... It's true why you have such hatred for "Cossacks and Cossacks." You perceive everything connected with this word with such not envy and sarcasm.

            With sarcasm, I perceive operetta Cossacks painting popular prints of "glorious knights" as selfless "defenders" of Orthodoxy and the state.
            Quote: 3axap
            . But this is our story,

            Quote: 3axap
            and she is what she is.

            Oh, is it? And maybe all the same, "your shit doesn't smell"? For the siege of the Trinity Lavra of St. Sergius, together with the Poles, the Cossacks - the defenders of Orthodoxy do not want to repent? And for Krasnov and Shkuro and their Hitler past with SS oath personally to Hitler?
            Quote: 3axap
            We will not understand the mistakes of the past, we will make even more mistakes.

            Yeah !? For the time being, I see not an understanding of the mistakes of the past, according to church repentance, I will immediately make a reservation - I try not to use this Greek word in view of the fact that liberoids put a completely different meaning in it, but quite a rewriting of history, or rather the creation of another myth for the dismemberment of Russia. A complete analogy of the "Cossack people" created for the future "Cossacks", which Krasnov was still molding, with the current Ukraine, they are now a Cossack family and also Slovenians, unlike us - the Finno-Ugric Horde wassat Muscovites.
            Quote: 3axap
            . Right now UkroAriy- rewrite their stories, destroy Donbas.

            Quote: 3axap
            . It reminds me of 1918. when they destroyed the Cossacks as a class and also rewrote history.

            And to me the dismemberment of the USSR with such labor and blood collected in 1991.With the creation of new, next ancient peoples in the manner of ykrov, after the Cossacks there are already Pomors, Siberians of the American-Pacific Institute, or as it is called there, are already growing in the territory of Russia. to go far - Belarusians have already appeared - Litvinians, demanding that they be called not in Russian, but exclusively in accordance with the Belarusian language. And why not in accordance with Litvinsky? However, they do not tell us finogram wassat By the way - the Cossack people have not yet appeared language, or am I missing something? Previously, when I went to my uncle in Novocherkassk, everyone seemed to speak Russian.
            Quote: 3axap
            . I have a friend who really wants us to start "Big Buza".

            Do you seriously believe that the author of the article is different from your friend, as the intellectuals congratulated telegrams in 1904 that glorified the Japanese Mikado with its victory over the Russians ???
            1. 3axap
              3axap 31 March 2015 14: 46
              avt (2) SU Today, ....... I liked the fact that you agreed that the story / OUR .And because we are beginning to rewrite it before our eyes. This is already our fault. And for their sins before Russia, the Cossacks always paid. With their blood, freemen and territories. And if, Varskrod, offers to kneel the Cossacks and ask Russia for forgiveness, then maybe they should ask for forgiveness to everyone else. But those who brought greatness and the pride of their homeland long vanished into the summer. Those who remained were shot, dispossessed or drowned quietly in the Black Sea. And what remained was cool. not in All Cossacks. hi
              1. avt
                avt 31 March 2015 15: 12
                Quote: 3axap
                . And for their sins before Russia, the Cossacks always paid. With their blood, freemen and territories.

                Is it one ??? Actually, you correspond with the great-grandson of the dispossessed, a great-grandfather had a full bow.
                Quote: 3axap
                .This is already our fault.

                Yes ! And therefore, No. 227,, Not a step back! "Already in earnest Chubais and Gavrila vtyuhivaet that Vlasov is in Leningrad made his way in order to lead the resistance to Stalin!
                Quote: 3axap
                And if, Vashskrod, suggests kneeling on the Cossacks and asking Russia for forgiveness,

                No. All the same from
                Quote: avt
                For the time being I see not comprehending the mistakes of the past, according to church repentance, I will make a reservation right away - I try not to use this Greek word because liberoids put a completely different meaning in it, but rather rewrite history, or rather create another myth for dismembering Russia

                As feared, they read only REPENTANCE. Yes, in vain I wrote it sad Indeed, the concept of a word is a rethinking, driven into the minds of libertarians tightly with a different meaning, like self-abasement. But I didn’t say that!
                Quote: 3axap
                .A statement that we want to divide the strona.-Unfounded accusation of the Cossacks of the Rostov region in separatism. Kozitsin is not all Cossacks.

                The objective reality is a simple and quite tangible fact - "divide and rule", which has ALWAYS been applied to Russia throughout history. In this particular case, I am talking about the fact that the Cossacks are READY for the role of dismemberment, as well as others. The question of who is more susceptible to suggestion Ukraine showed it brilliantly - they turned out to be good students. So, given the very recent events of 1991, I don’t read the Strugatskys very much, however - “If you smell of sulfur, it’s better to set up the production of holy water on an industrial scale in advance”, take my word for it - that's it. very fragile. hi
                1. 3axap
                  3axap 31 March 2015 15: 52
                  avt (2) SU Today, ...... Like, we’re talking about the same thing, but we don’t understand each other. Maybe I’m saying this is not the topic and I’m going the wrong way. Well, there are no people in my environment, wishing to swing or dismember. Well no. I am very glad that you are proud of your ancestor. Believe my ancestors, they are also worthy of respect. Everyone here on the Don. I personally found my great-grandfather and great-grandmother. hi And about this "hero" Vlasov, well, he is not an authority for me. And who protects him is also not an authority. And we need to defend the truth. Someone with the help of a pen and the media, and someone with a fist. hi
                  1. avt
                    avt 31 March 2015 16: 41
                    Quote: 3axap
                    ... Here, it seems, we’re talking about the same thing, but we don’t understand each other.

                    No. You misplace the accents. They are shaking - they are organized by completely different uncles, sometimes even geographically not related to Russia, but they are used, and often in a dark, like in a city building, through agents of influence, already specifically people in the field. And they cling to them for various reasons, that's what they bite, that's what they bred. It can be completely different topics from religious to national. On the national one, they did very well with the USSR - they swayed the elite, who had a little disbelief in the ideology they themselves preached, and fell down at once. So why should they invent and look for some new scenario if they can repeat the one that has already worked? Especially since they have such a trump card as Bandera's Ukraine? And then everything will be like in Trofim's song, and while the peasants are flattening their faces in a fight, they are raking in so that my God. "
                    Quote: 3axap
                    T. And we need to defend the truth.

                    Relying on ALL the facts without hushing up ANYTHING in order not to give the enemy fields for speculation, yes. good Soberly evaluate our history ourselves, clarify to the well-intentioned manipulators and
                    Quote: 3axap
                    with a fist.
              2. Rastas
                Rastas 31 March 2015 21: 46
                "You, Grishka, think about it. ... You must understand that a Cossack - as he was a Cossack, he will remain a Cossack. Stinking Russia should not rule over us." This is from "Quiet Don". The tragic fate of the Russian Cossacks was inevitable. The reason is their small-town egoism during the Revolution - you give us everything, we don’t give anything. And the attitude of the Cossacks to the common people - workers and peasants - was rather arrogant. Also, for example, in Japan the samurai caste was eliminated. And no one sheds tears over this. On the contrary, Japan took a step out of feudalism and became a prosperous country. And the samurai went into the service of the country, and those who did not agree were destroyed.
          2. revnagan
            revnagan 31 March 2015 16: 57
            Quote: 3axap
            It reminds me of 1918. when they destroyed the Cossacks as a class and also rewrote history.

            Then ALL classes and estates were abolished. Well, of course, the PRIVILEGES of classes and estates were abolished. And in comparison with the same peasants these same privileges, the Cossacks had a-oh. Here are the Cossacks and soared: How are they, the support of the regime, deprived of privileges and equated to "smerds" ?! So they went to fight in the first place for their privileges. And then "freedom, equality, brotherhood!" What is "equality"?
            1. 3axap
              3axap 31 March 2015 17: 47
              Quote: revnagan
              Quote: 3axap
              It reminds me of 1918. when they destroyed the Cossacks as a class and also rewrote history.

              Then ALL classes and estates were abolished. Well, of course, the PRIVILEGES of classes and estates were abolished. And in comparison with the same peasants these same privileges, the Cossacks had a-oh. Here are the Cossacks and soared: How are they, the support of the regime, deprived of privileges and equated to "smerds" ?! So they went to fight in the first place for their privileges. And then "freedom, equality, brotherhood!" What is "equality"?

              Well YOU are wrong. My grandfather said that they accepted calmly and the abolition of rights and privileges. And they divided the land on equal terms. But when they began to rob and take under clean, and if you don’t give up death. That is where Don stirred up. And the Cossacks also raised the cruelty of the Bolsheviks. hi
              1. vladkavkaz
                vladkavkaz April 4 2015 18: 22
                3axap (1
                The cruelty of the Bolsheviks?
                But how do you understand the cruelty of KRASNOV, who executed 50 thousand of those same Cossacks who did not want to serve the Whites and accepted the Decree about the Earth and the Bolsheviks, as a deliverance for foremen and chieftains of different stripes?
                How to understand the documents adopted by Krasnov about the so-called TALKING?
                No need to sculpt the humpback, as they say, in the direction of the Bolsheviks, deliberately trying to whitewash the same whites who later served the Nazis.
    2. Asily 50
      Asily 50 31 March 2015 12: 41
      I just saw the results of * wrestlers * with RUSSIA. Only in the Far East was not. People remember everything. It is necessary to listen, and not correct in * the light of the current moment *. On the same Don, how many stories about * innocently killed *, but only it comes to the personality * of the killed * immediately eloquence disappears, interjections and excuses from the most brave, and even into a fight. And in Asia, the Cossacks were forced to support the SOVIET POWER in the destruction of the RUSSIANs that had begun. Moreover, local nationalists united in the heat of robbery, but when they had to answer for it, they sent complaints about * misunderstanding * of local conditions, and there are still complaints. They just don’t want to look at the archives. By the way, an interesting story with the emergence of the term cases and Kazakhstan. Take an interest in the mass of new and little-talked about manifest.
      1. semirek
        semirek 31 March 2015 13: 21
        For the most part, the Semirechye Cossacks did not support the Soviet regime, as they could, they fought against it until March 20, the majority went to the Xinjiang - tens of thousands of people. Those Cossacks who supported the Soviet regime, as well as the peasant population --- were waiting a surprise from the Soviet government: in 21 the land-water reform began, the lands of Russians were seized and transferred (to the local indigenous population) which, in principle, was nomadic and they did not need the land because of the fields, respectively, the Russians were removed from water resources, which forced thousands to leave to Siberia. Moreover, the Russians were declared colonialists, the names of the villages and villages changed to Kazakhs. But that’s not all, in the 29th and 30th years in the KazSSR and in Semirechye, in particular, the then ruler Goloshchekin - Small October was organized --- total confiscation of cattle among the population, not only Russian, dispossession and the fight against outrage resulted in tens of thousands of cattle that were driven into tracts and shot from machine guns. , literally understood the order from Moscow. The result - thousands of Kazakhs and Russians, forced to abandon everything, to flee to China. In turn, from central Russia, they deported thousands of peasants declared fists who built Turksib and dug canals and spillways to Karatalstroy.
        That was such a life.
    3. The comment was deleted.
  6. Georg Shep
    Georg Shep 31 March 2015 10: 00
    The unleashing of the fratricidal Civil War in Russia and the policy of terror and genocide against all strata and classes of the Russian people were fully supported by both the leaders of Bolshevism and their world-wide Zion-Cagal masters.
  7. alkt
    alkt 31 March 2015 10: 58
    Lenin wrote about the transformation of the imperialist war into a civil war in the "Theses on the War" in 1914.
    The Civil War, started not by the Reds, but by the White, behind which the Western powers stood. There was no need to start the Civil War - the power was already in their hands.
    Civil war was not conducted between supporters and opponents of the tsar, but between two groups of revolutionaries - "February" and "October", conventionally called "white" and "red".
    It has become fashionable to represent the Whites as people "loyal to honor and oath." This is a completely shameless lie. To whom did these officers and generals take the oath? To the king. Whom did they remove during the February Revolution? The one to whom they swore allegiance. Have they changed their oath? But how.
    The White Guards are classic rebels and traitors supporting the lawless Provisional Government, which was completely illegitimate. And if we take into account the active cooperation with the geopolitical enemies of Russia, including direct service in the armies of foreign states, then the real enemies of Russia and the Russian People, by whose names they hid themselves. The struggle with the whites was a war for Russia.
    1. Ascetic
      Ascetic 31 March 2015 11: 48
      Quite right, if you carefully consider the chronology of events after the October Revolution, it becomes clear that the Bolsheviks did not unleash the war. The period from October 1917 to March 1918 is known in history as the Triumphal procession of Soviet power. In the vast majority of cities and regions, Soviet power was established PEACEFULLY. On the Don, led by Ataman Kaledin and Anglo-Saxon money, a rebellion was organized by United States Secretary of State Lansing in a report to President Wilson: “The most organized force that can end Bolshevism and strangle the government, is the group of General Kaledin ... Its defeat will mean the transfer of the whole country into the hands of the Bolsheviks ... We need to strengthen the hope of the Kaledin’s allies that they will receive moral and material assistance from our government if their movement becomes strong enough. " , the French and British governments provided Kaledin with large sums of money to organize an anti-Soviet rebellion. The American Red Cross mission tried to smuggle armored cars and cars to the Don. Then, with the money of foreign imperialists, the tsarist generals Alekseev and Kornilov began the formation of the White Guard, the so-called volunteer army.
      So, as now, the civil war in Russia is trying to unleash the same characters
      1. alkt
        alkt 31 March 2015 12: 05
        It should be clarified that by that time Kornilov would be called tsarist by mistake.
        March 2, 1917, at the FIRST meeting of the self-proclaimed Provisional Government
        Kornilov was appointed to the key post of the Commander-in-Chief of the troops of the Petrograd Military District, in exchange for the arrested General S. S. Khabalov.
        On March 5, Kornilov arrived in Petrograd. By order of the Provisional Government and Minister of War Guchkov, Kornilov, as commander of the Petrograd Military District, announced the arrest of the Empress and her family in Tsarskoye Selo.
        Despite all the costs, the Russian people in their mass sided with the Reds, which is obvious by the results of the Civil. Moreover, a significant part of the upper classes considered the Soviet Government legitimate. No wonder about a third of the tsarist officers and almost half of the tsarist general staff fought in the Red Army (185 of 425)
      2. dmb
        dmb 31 March 2015 12: 13
        With your permission I will add. In general, you are right, but I cannot agree with the adversaries unleashing in the civil war. The quote you quoted directly says about this: “We need to strengthen the hope of Kaledin's allies that they will receive moral and material assistance from our government if their movement becomes STRONG ENOUGH.” Can you name those strata of the population who will follow the liberals en masse? But if the communists come to power in a peaceful way, then the representatives of the current government, together with the same liberals, and certainly with the active support of the adversaries, will unleash a civil war.
      3. semirek
        semirek 31 March 2015 12: 35
        Dear, what about Moscow --- also in a peaceful way? You do not know the history and especially the facts.
        I don't understand what kind of civil war you are talking about today? In my opinion, communism in 91 has sunk into oblivion, and I have not seen you and the rest, defenders defending the precepts of Marx-Engels-Lenin-Stalin on the barricades. And if you want freebies again , under the name - the power of the proletariat --- your letter train, numbered 1917-1991 "communism is history", long gone, and you will never catch up with it.
        1. Ascetic
          Ascetic 31 March 2015 13: 29
          The facts say, as I said above, that in the majority of cities Soviet power was established peacefully. The period from October 25, 1917 to February 1918 went down in the history of the Soviet state under the name of the period of the "triumphal march of Soviet power." During this period, Soviet power was peacefully established in 79 of the 97 cities of Russia.
          And your pathos in relation to the barricades reminds me of the liberal hysteria of the time when opponents with foam at the mouth were asked where you were on August 21 or October 3. with regards to me, on August 21 I was on combat duty, and on October 3 I just changed and smoothly led the mobile group to strengthen the security and defense of the garrison. These are my barricades.
      4. avt
        avt 31 March 2015 13: 28
        Quote: Ascetic
        Quite right, if you carefully consider the chronology of events after the October Revolution, it becomes clear that the Bolsheviks did not unleash the war.

        No. It is useless to find out what came first - an egg or a chicken. Everything is much simpler and more prosaic - "We will destroy the whole World of violence, to the ground, and then - we are ours, we will build a new World ..." and so on. Any revolution , unlike evolution, provides for the immediate destruction of everything that is contrary to the ideals and ideology of this revolution, and it does not matter that a part of the old World suddenly realizes the consequences and tries to glue the social structure already broken by the revolution in the form of a state by force. and everywhere. The ideal of the October 1917 revolution was the construction of a fundamentally new society based on different laws of society and there was no place for the old classes and estates in it and began to be, in accordance with the revolutionary expediency, they had to be destroyed, for the sake of creating the Man of the future
        Quote: Ascetic
        So, as now, the civil war in Russia is trying to unleash the same characters

        Here I agree - revenge on the face, but again there is a certain substitution in the part of the persons involved in the revenge smile Rather, one can speak not of counter-revolution under monarchical or White Guard banners - this is a screen, tinsel, but of a new revolution of 1991.
        1. dmb
          dmb 31 March 2015 13: 59
          Dear avt, what is the revolutionary nature of 1991, based on the concept of "revolution" in general, and not just as applied to our country?
          1. avt
            avt 31 March 2015 14: 30
            Quote: dmb
            Dear avt, what is the revolutionary nature of 1991, based on the concept of "revolution" in general, and not just as applied to our country?

            Everything is according to the classics of the genre - a complete change of the political system and economic structure - the relationship of production forces to the means of production in terms of relation to property. That's just the classic counterrevolution when returning to capitalism, which actually differs somewhat from what it was before 1917 in terms of globalization and transnational corporations, did not work. The descendants of those who were trampled in 1917 after 1991 did not even sell restitution in Russia, as in the Baltic states. And saaavsem another rudders. laughing That’s something so briefly in my mind.
            1. dmb
              dmb 31 March 2015 15: 21
              I can not agree with you "Revolution is a radical revolution in the life of society, which leads to the elimination of the previous social and political system and the establishment of a new government." - Ozhegov's explanatory dictionary. Any other concepts of revolution (scientific and technological revolution, cultural ...) ultimately also boil down to a qualitatively new and higher level of development of human society. And what kind of development can we talk about if we returned to what we already went through. And it does not matter at all who returned, the descendants of old families, or the newly-born nouveau riches. So, that contra in its pure form, if not with a beard and stripes, but in a suit from Cardin and jeans. However, history knows such "returns". Suffice it to recall the same USA, which, while developing capitalism, did not at all disdain slavery.
              1. avt
                avt 31 March 2015 17: 04
                Quote: dmb
                And it doesn’t matter who returned the descendants of the old clans, or the newly arrived nouveau riche.

                request And yet, these current nuances of PERSONALLY ME convince me precisely that in 1991 there was a new, capitalist revolution, the then capitalism was too different in structure and composition from the current, obviously the framework of the counter-revolution is cramped. But again - my opinion is not the truth in the latter instance, and maybe it’s not worth it to bother very much in terminology.
            2. Rastas
              Rastas 31 March 2015 22: 06
              There is the concept of revolution, but there is counter-revolution. 1991 - this is such a counter-revolution in its incomplete form. Its inferiority lies in the fact that it was committed by a former party activist. In principle, this counter-revolution is not completed, but continues to this day, because there is a gradual dismantling of the social successes of the Soviet period.
  8. MrK
    MrK 31 March 2015 12: 12
    In Russia, neither the 1905 revolution of the year nor the February 1917 revolution of the year were able to resolve the agrarian question.
    It was decided only by the October 1917 of the year, which, in fact, was not a socialist, but an agrarian-peasant revolution, because according to the “Land Decree”, all landlords, tsars, churches, and monasteries were confiscated along with equipment and buildings and transferred to peasant committees for distribution among peasants.
    As a result, the peasantry received over 150 million acres of land, freed from the annual payment of 700 million rubles. gold for rent of landowner land and from debts of 3 billion rubles.
  9. MrK
    MrK 31 March 2015 12: 17
    Let’s think: why does the revolutionary need money? The answer is simple: firstly for the purchase of weapons, and secondly, for conducting revolutionary propaganda and agitation. And the real revolutionary will take this money even from hell. Everything that benefits the revolution and brings its bright moment closer is moral. This simple rule was guided not only by the Bolsheviks, of whom scapegoats were made with naive eyes, and all up to a single party and movement, not necessarily Russian. The question is not who to get from. The question is - what will give after the revolution?
    It should be recalled that in April 1917 of the year in St. Petersburg there was even an abundance of weapons, because the war was on. As for agitation and propaganda, in the 1905 year, newspapers and leaflets needed to be carried out from abroad. In April of 1917, the Pravda newspaper and other Bolshevik newspapers were published, openly, and even brought a small profit. A check of Pravda’s accounts, conducted by counterintelligence at the direction of Kerensky, showed that it exists on donations, including ... industrialists and bankers.
  10. MrK
    MrK 31 March 2015 12: 18
    It should be noted that the myth of "German gold" is closely intertwined with the theme: "a sealed wagon with Lenin." One of the main arguments resorted to by the proponents of the “German gold” version is as follows. If I was traveling through Germany in a “sealed carriage”, it means that the German spy took money from the Germans.
    And to the question of the “sealed wagon”, on which the Bolsheviks arrived in Sweden. The fact, as they say, took place. However, it is less known that, in addition to a couple of dozen Bolsheviks, 169 members of other parties — Mensheviks, Socialist-Revolutionaries, Anarchists, Bundists, Social Democrats, Finnish nationalists, etc. — also got through Germany from Switzerland to Sweden through Germany. So, by analogy with Lenin, all of them can also be called "German spies." But the current liberals are modestly silent about this.
    1. voyaka uh
      voyaka uh 31 March 2015 18: 04
      for MPARC:
      This fact is known. And he has an explanation.
      German intelligence needed to disguise
      transportation of the main and only agent - Lenin,
      transporting several dozen harmless socialists
      all stripes. Lenin's receipts about the money received and
      detailed reports on their use for the revolution
      (he did not appropriate anything) published.
      Lenin was an ideological man: he was united with Germany
      only a temporary coincidence of tasks - the withdrawal of Russia from the war.
      1. MrK
        MrK 31 March 2015 18: 59
        Dear warrior! There is not a single genuine receipt from Lenin. This fact has been proven by hundreds of studies. Already after 1991 year. If you believe in these fakes, then believe in the fact that in the 1939 year the CPSU Central Committee decided to shoot the Poles in Katyn. Now remember in what year the CPSU (b) became the CPSU.
        And all this catastrophe with German money began, with the fact that in April of the seventeenth on the front line they detained the ensign wandering from German captivity of the 16 Siberian Rifle Regiment Ermolenko. During interrogation in counterintelligence, he began to tell that the insidious Germans, two officers of the General Staff, recruited him and sent him to Russia to campaign in favor of a separate peace with Germany, by all power to undermine the people's confidence in the Provisional Government.
        Moreover, these two Teutons told him in a friendly manner that similar German campaigns had been carried out for a long time on German money by old German agents - the chairman of the Ukrainian section of the Union for the Liberation of Ukraine Skoropis-Ioltukhovsky, Ulyanov-Lenin and several other socialists.
        Well, can a sober-minded person, more or less, believe in this nonsense
        familiar with the principles of the secret services - especially German intelligence, is not at all stupid and not weak.
        For an analogy: let’s imagine that in the forty-fourth year, the Soviet military counterintelligence Smersh whipped up the German sergeant major and sent him off the front line to count the tanks of the Dead Head division. And at the same time they blurted out:
        - Yes, you will be in Berlin, go to the standartenfuhrer Stirlitz. He’s not Shtirlits, but our man, Colonel Isaev, if anything, you will follow him there for Partigenoss Bormann ...
        And the last one. the Menshevik Tsereteli understood this as early as the seventeenth year better than other today's critics. And he wrote: “In order to use the services of the German government to travel to revolutionary Russia, Lenin had no need to assume the obligation of cooperation with the German headquarters. He knew well the motives that dictated actions to the German headquarters aimed at facilitating the return of defeated emigrants to Russia, whose work, in the opinion of this headquarters, could only disorganize the Russian military forces. And he openly used the calculations of the external enemy, believing and declaring that his own calculations would be more correct, according to which the Bolshevik organization in Russia would serve as an incentive for a similar revolution in Germany and other warring countries and would lead to the defeat of the established order in these countries and to a social revolution ".

        1. voyaka uh
          voyaka uh April 2 2015 14: 23
          Money was transferred through a Swedish bank.
          And they got to Petersburg in a very simple way.
          Counterintelligence of the Provisional Government
          Lenin’s people are already at the stage of sending money at desks. cells.
          It was not for nothing that Lenin fled to the Spill with Zinoviev. The evidence and witnesses were
          1. vladkavkaz
            vladkavkaz April 4 2015 18: 08
            voyaka uh
            The Commission of the Provisional Government, could not prove ANYTHING.
            So all the same, you shouldn’t lie. Maybe in Israel they believe lies, because this is state policy, but your comments are a figment of an inflamed imagination ...
  11. MrK
    MrK 31 March 2015 12: 36
    Lenin did not call for the defeat of Russia. He called for the defeat of the Russian government. Assuming that the workers and peasants took power in their hands, they will quickly win back everything.
    The article is interesting with facts. But, the influence of academic historian Igor Chubais (red-haired bro) and the desire to lick the anus for these two people is clearly traced. There is a glorification of the White Guards. Well, the Reds are always cruel, bloody ghouls.
    Kornilovets Trushnovich recalls: “What is the reason for the defeat of the victorious and better armed Volunteer Army? I received an exhaustive answer in the very first village beyond Oboyan, where I spent the night with my machine-gun team. It consisted in one phrase, said to me by a simple peasant: - If only they gave the land to the peasant, but if only they did not rob! This means that the reason for the defeat of the former White Army is the unresolved agrarian issue and moral decay. "
    And the last one. The author, apparently, is from princes, counts, barons, landowners, breeders who lost everything in the 1917 year. It hurts, he protects them.
    Please read: "Damned Soviet power ...", A. Kurlyandchik on Prose. RU. There is more objectivity.
    1. semirek
      semirek 31 March 2015 12: 49
      Quote: mrark
      Lenin did not call for the defeat of Russia. He called for the defeat of the Russian government. Assuming that the workers and peasants took power in their hands, they will quickly win back everything.
      The article is interesting with facts. But, the influence of academic historian Igor Chubais (red-haired bro) and the desire to lick the anus for these two people is clearly traced. There is a glorification of the White Guards. Well, the Reds are always cruel, bloody ghouls.
      Kornilovets Trushnovich recalls: “What is the reason for the defeat of the victorious and better armed Volunteer Army? I received an exhaustive answer in the very first village beyond Oboyan, where I spent the night with my machine-gun team. It consisted in one phrase, said to me by a simple peasant: - If only they gave the land to the peasant, but if only they did not rob! This means that the reason for the defeat of the former White Army is the unresolved agrarian issue and moral decay. "
      And the last one. The author, apparently, is from princes, counts, barons, landowners, breeders who lost everything in the 1917 year. It hurts, he protects them.
      Please read: "Damned Soviet power ...", A. Kurlyandchik on Prose. RU. There is more objectivity.

      This is the second time you’ve talked about Chubais, you’ve gotten it licking, it’s not clear already, I don’t read the post-Soviet classics - they all grew out of one overcoat, just like you and me. You need to look for information in archives, memoirs, orders --- but for this takes time, and which of us will go through the archives in order to give figures here on the near-scientific forum.
      1. MrK
        MrK 31 March 2015 19: 14
        semireku. I want you to understand a simple thought. History may be a science, or it may be a public girl of politics. If History is a science, then this is a preceding experience: without knowing the history, you will make mistakes already committed before you, without knowing the history, you may not find profitable solutions to the problems of today.
        Today, everyone is rewarded with history. And under the guidance of academics. You that respect the redhead. So his bro is no better. The same Sislibov tear.
        But if you are also one of them, then I'm sorry. I didn’t mean to offend you.
    2. avt
      avt 31 March 2015 14: 37
      Quote: mrark
      Lenin did not call for the defeat of Russia.

      No. Yes, he generally did not care what would happen to Russia. For him, Russia with all its people was a means of achieving the construction of a new society in accordance with the ideological setting in the whole world as a result of the World Revolution. This is only then a "step back" and building in a single country, but even then with an eye again on World, but from the "besieged fortress" to make "two steps forward."
      1. MrK
        MrK 31 March 2015 19: 26
        Of course on the drum. Only by the 50 year, or even earlier, did Russia become the second power in the world. Despite its natural socialist costs and THREE SCARY WARS, THROUGH OUR SPACES FOR 50 YEARS OF THE XX CENTURY.
        1. avt
          avt 31 March 2015 21: 05
          Quote: mrark
          . Only by the year 50, or even earlier,

          Earlier .But "Lenin's Guard" for the most part was already reassured, And Athez, despite all the Marxist entourage, was building a completely imperial project for himself, in which he undoubtedly succeeded. However, he could not, despite the sometimes harsh measures , to create an elite in accordance with the moral principles declared by the Marxists. So then, in more comfortable conditions that do not require a monstrous effort, both in war and post-war construction on the brink of destruction ,,, The children of former elders, and majors, rose to poor fats, because from those corridors they thought it was more convenient down. " And the elite, having lost faith in the ideals it preached, betrayed them along with the Country, like that biblical hero the birthright for lentil stew.
  12. asadov
    asadov 31 March 2015 13: 08
    So, the dry residue of the article:
    1. During the war, the Reds were able to form combat-ready fighting forces that could grind all opposing opponents - white, green, black, Cossacks, as well as independents.
    2. They were able to win over the masses of the people, maybe with lies and promises, but they could.
    3. They were also able to attract the military of the tsarist army that formed the initial backbone of the army.
    4. The ability to use the available resource, both human and technical and economic, led the Reds to victory in the Civil War.
    5. The whites were let down by blind faith and hope for "allies", inability to negotiate with the local population, lack of a single command and a single goal.

    So what won the one who is smarter, more persistent, more flexible and stronger.
    1. The centurion
      31 March 2015 14: 33
      Quote: asadov
      So, the dry residue of the article

      Yakshi - very well
      Nice to write for smart people !!!!!!!!!!!!!!
  13. alkt
    alkt 31 March 2015 14: 35
    Quote: avt
    Well, let’s put it like this immediately over the whole country they didn’t take power and it was quite expected that the Civil War would be waged in accordance with the installation of Lenin himself.

    Who started the Civil War and when? The answer to these two questions is obvious to everyone - both communists and liberals. The first claim that after the Great October
    socialist revolution and the "triumphal march of Soviet power" whites and interventionists began the Civil War, but the time of its beginning varies from the end of 1917 (the rebellion of Kaledin) to June 1918 (the rebellion of Czechoslovakians). Liberals are of the opinion that the Bolsheviks organized the Civil War, but the dates of its beginning are left unchanged)
  14. sigdoc
    sigdoc 31 March 2015 16: 22
    Interestingly, the "father of the white movement" Alekseev before his death regretted that in March he helped the bourgeoisie to overthrow the Tsar?
  15. bulanash
    bulanash 31 March 2015 17: 17
    Quote: 3axap
    Quote: RUSNAC
    "... So the winner is the one who is smarter, more persistent, flexible and stronger ..." but not more honest.

    The one who won won, but in spite of such a cruel and fratricidal war, And Stalin somehow managed to connect the broken pot again. And the Nazis were defeated together and the country was lifted from ruins. Here is how the feats of our ancestors could not be stunned. Whatever they say about the / leading role / but all this was done by our grandparents. For meager salaries and workdays. hi

    But I cannot agree with the thesis that the people won the war, and that’s why. There were times when Stalin was not, but the people of Russia have always been. However, in the 50s of the century before last, not only was the war against the whole lousy Europe, but even the Anglo-French landing in the Crimea, this people could not throw into the sea. The Russian people surrendered, agreeing to surrender territory to Turkey and drown their Black Sea fleet. And at the beginning of the last century, this people could not defeat little Japan and gave it the Kuril Islands and half of Sakhalin, and, especially offensively, Japan in that war lost significantly more soldiers than the Russian people, nevertheless, it was the Russian people who requested mercy . And in the First World War, just a year later, a million deserters fled from the Russian Army, although the Russian people were not only England, France and the United States, but even the same Japan as allies. And the Russian people miserably lost the First World War, giving the Germans huge territories and millions of prisoners. Then, the selected Russian people, composed of strong masters-fists and desperate Cossacks, led by the valiant nobility, overshadowed by the best priests, having 14 states in the allies, failed to win the war against some "Yids and village loafers with artisan drunk."

    end of quote.
    1. 3axap
      3axap 31 March 2015 17: 59
      bulanash RU Today, ...... the end of the quote .... If you don’t like this people, why do you live in a place with it.? You yourself don’t feel sick from what the people / traitor / did. hi
      1. bulanash
        bulanash 31 March 2015 21: 06
        I cannot but love him, I am part of my people. I cited this precisely as a quote in which the main idea is correct - a great people is capable of great achievements only with a great organizing and directing personality.
  16. SAVA555.IVANOV
    SAVA555.IVANOV 31 March 2015 19: 09

    Here are the consequences of the destruction of the Cossacks, reap the benefits.
    Soon you will be punished by fate for those refugees from Ukraine whom you actually drove back and for those who are forced to sit half-starving and with a bunch of problems.
    1. The comment was deleted.
    2. The comment was deleted.
  17. avia12005
    avia12005 April 4 2015 17: 31
    About the absence of serfdom in the Ukraine - it is strong. Little lies gave birth to a great distrust ...
  18. Samarskiy
    Samarskiy April 9 2015 16: 21
    Good material!