On March 23, the network first appeared photos and videos of the latest Russian a tank T-14 "Armata", and created on the same base BMP "Kurganets-25." True, the cars were covered with a camouflage frame and tarpaulin, and not so much was discerned. In all its glory, new domestic tanks can only be seen during the Victory Parade on Red Square on May 9. While many people froze in anticipation of the official show of the new product, we will try to put together all the facts and expectations about this car, but first we will recall what the new tank has competitors in the world. Tanks of the 3rd generation will be considered in their latest modification. The division into generations is quite arbitrary, the 3rd generation includes tanks that appeared in the 1980s and later, they are characterized by the use of 120 and 125mm guns, the presence of an integrated fire control system, in some cases, reducing the crew to 3 people, failure from attempts to make rocket weapons the main, etc. Tank modifications that have appeared in recent years can already be attributed to the 3+ generation, since modern electronics have been installed on the machines, attempts are being made to create effective active protection systems, etc.
Tank T-14 "Armata". Source: military-informant.com
T-90AM / CM
The most modern of the Russian "ready" tanks. Modification of T-90CM - export. The latest version of the T-90 has a mass 48 tons, the tank is equipped with a diesel engine in a forced-92S2F with power 1130 hp, 125-mm smoothbore pushkoy2A46M5 upgraded, with the possibility of starting the barrel antitank guided missiles (PTUR) "Reflex-M" at a distance of up to 5km. The most modern dynamic protection "Relic" is installed on the tank. For the first time on a Russian tank, the steering is carried out, and the gearbox is automatic. The fire control system has been significantly improved - the Kalina OMS gives the tank commander and gunner new opportunities. The last modification partially solved the main problem of the T-72 line of tanks (namely, its deep modernization is the T-90) - insufficient protection of crew members from detonating the ammunition during armor penetration (T-72 with a detonated ammunition is a terrifying sight - a torn out tower survive for the crew). ON T-90SM that part of the ammunition that is not in the automatic loader (AZ) is placed in a zabashirovanny armored niche, the booking of the AZ itself is strengthened. By the way, it is interesting that on “Western” tanks there is no automatic loader, and because of this the crew makes up 4 man, instead of 3 on Soviet and Russian tanks.
Tank T-14 "Armata". Source: Alexander Smirnov / YouTube
Leopard 2А7 +
The latest modification of the main battle tank of Germany, considered one of the best in the world. The mass of А6 modification is 62 tons, and the new, not yet in service, А7 + is up to 70 tons. The tank has a 12-cylinder diesel engine, horsepower 1500, 120mm L55 Rinmetall smooth-bore gun, with excellent characteristics (sighting range from the spot - 3,5km, with 2,5km running). The tank is equipped with modular armor, improved surveillance systems, including an increased number of external cameras. On the machine can be installed various modules of additional armor - against RPGs, or for additional strengthening of the front projection. The Leopard 2A7 + is equipped with a FLW-200 combat module with remote control, which is equipped with a 5,56, 7,62 or 12,7 millimeter machine gun, as well as an 40-mm automatic grenade launcher. Fire control system and onboard computer systems are also updated. Thus, the main focus of this performance of the Leopard 2 is placed on combat in a variety of conditions, including urban and in local conflicts.
BMP "Kurganets-25". Source: military-informant.com
The basis of the US battle tank. The latest serial modification is the M1A2 SEP V2. The mass of the tank in this modification is 63 tons, the machine uses a gas turbine powerplant AGT-1500 with the power of 1500 hp. The tank cannon is represented by the 120-mm M256 smoothbore cannon (a licensed version of the German Rheinmetall Rh-120 cannon), it has a modern fire control system and other electronics. With comparative tests showed superiority over the "Leopard 2" in night firing, but lost in daytime. The M829А3 shells used by the tank have the highest penetrability among analogues. Installation of special dynamic protection for TUSK urban combat is possible. Depleted uranium is used in the frontal armor, which simultaneously enhances the armor, but is harmful for the crew. Despite its high cost, the tank has enough flaws - a weak undercarriage, a vulnerable external auxiliary power unit, a large tank profile, and far from the best range of aimed shooting. The car, it would seem, ideally manifested itself in the Iraqi campaigns of the United States, but in conditions of relatively equal battle against the forces of ISIS, the Iraqi Armed Forces lost quite a few “Americans”.
The most modern modification of the Israeli main battle tank. It has a large mass - 70 tons, it is equipped with the American diesel engine GD883 of the American company “GeneralDynamics” (licensed production of the German diesel MTU883), power 1500l.s. The tank is equipped with a 120mm MG253 smoothbore gun (a variant of the German Rh-120 gun). From 2008, the Trophy active protection complex (KAZ) is installed on the tank. The radar 4 detects the enemy’s ammunition flying into the tank and is destroyed by an interceptor before meeting the tank’s armor. At the moment it is the only serial tank with KAZ. The tank showed itself very well in battle and provides a good level of security for the crew - even in cases of a tank defeat, the chance of survival is very great. The machine is most suitable for the Middle Eastern conditions, but no one knows how the 70-ton car in the forests and swamps will show itself. Nevertheless, the Merkava is considered one of the most successful tanks in the world.
The main battle tank of the UK ground forces. The combat weight of the vehicle is 62,5 tons, the tank uses a diesel engine rated at 1200л.с. Unlike other modern MBTs, the Challenger uses a 120mm rifled gun. Armor tank - the main strength of the "British". The composite armor “Chobham” is used, which showed itself well during the Iraqi 2003 campaign - tanks easily transferred hits from RPGs, only one case of armor penetration was recorded. The situation is worse with firepower - the tank’s accuracy rate is one of the worst among its peers.
Type 99 (ZTZ-99)
Chinese MBT, which is based on development, in the first place, of the Soviet T-72 and T-80, as well as "Western" tanks. Nevertheless, the differences are very serious - a new welded turret was installed on the tank, a new multi-layered armor, the dynamic protection was reworked. The tool is used old and proven - a clone of the Soviet 125-mm gun (unlicensed copy of 2A46М). The mass of the tank, compared with the T-72B, has grown from 44,5 tons to 54 tons. At the moment, a diesel engine with power 1200 hp is used, there is information about the development of a more powerful powerplant in the 1500 hp. What is the level of the fire control system is difficult to assess, most of the information is classified. Of the interesting features - the Chinese say that they were able to install the JD-3 laser countermeasure system for the latest modification of the tank. The system detects the source of irradiation of a tank with a laser (for example, an ATGM), is automatically guided on it and blinds the optics and eyes aiming with a response laser beam. Similar systems are being developed in the USA and the Russian Federation, but so far they have not gone to the series. Find out what is actually the quality of the Chinese tank is still difficult.
The best tank 3-his generation
We briefly reviewed a few of the most famous and most popular 3 tanks of his generation. Note that they are not all listed - there are such excellent cars as the Ukrainian BM Oplot, the French Leclerc, the Japanese Type-90, the South Korean 2 Black Panther, etc. Nevertheless, it is already becoming clear that it is not possible to single out any one among them - all of them have their own shortcomings and advantages. A real comparison is possible only when they meet on the battlefield, which, fortunately, has not yet happened. And hopefully not happen. Nevertheless, it is also clear that the modernization potential of the used assemblies is rapidly approaching its end.
4 generation - what awaits us?
Let's try at least to outline what the criteria for a new generation tank should meet.
1. The tank turret is uninhabited, the crew is located in an isolated armored vehicle at the bottom of the vehicle. This will allow an increase in crew survival by an order of magnitude, as well as slightly lowering the profile of the tank, making it less noticeable on the battlefield.
2. The crew of the tank should be 2-3 person. In any case, the role of loader must be fulfilled by AZ, since the crew in the tower is no more. In the future, due to the development of electronic systems, it may be possible to abandon one more crew member. For example, the tank commander will be able to begin to perform also the functions of the gunner.
3. Wide use of KAZ and adaptability to urban combat. As we have already noted, the serial KAZ is used so far only on the Israeli Merkava. For a new generation tank, this should be a must-have device. Greater attention should be paid to booking the upper hemisphere of the tank and sides.
4. The mobility of the tank must be high - with an estimated mass of 55 tons, engine power must be at least 1500 hp
5. Further development of tank electronic systems and fire control systems. All 4-generation tanks must be equipped with a combat information and control system (BIUS), with the definition of "friend or foe", panoramic, multi-spectral sight, etc. All information from all sensors and cameras should be available to the commander in an interactive form on color displays.
6. The tank gun will most likely remain the same caliber - 120 / 125 mm, although earlier there were speculations about the use of more powerful guns of the 140 caliber, or 152mm. The firepower should increase due to an increase in the barrel life and rate of fire, accuracy and aiming range, which will depend on both the fire control system and the gun itself and the ammunition used.
T-14 "Armata" - the first tank 4-th generation
The modernization potential of the T-64 / T-72 / T-80 logically ends first - after all, this trio began to serve in the 1967 year (T-64)! The most common T-72 entered service at 1973. In fact, the USSR created its own tank 3-its generation more than 10 years earlier than others. It is logical that we will set the “mode” this time. According to the photos that have appeared on the network, it is already possible to draw several conclusions that give grounds for optimism:
1. The tank tower will indeed be uninhabited, since the tank has an open hatch located in front of the turret. Another evidence of this is the absence of an ejector on the gun barrel, which is responsible for the discharge of powder gases after the shot. It is no longer necessary to remove them, since the crew is in no way connected with the tower.
2. The new tank is definitely not a further upgrade of the T-72 line. In addition to the above, this is indicated by the presence of 7 track rollers on each side, whereas their 72 6.
3. Presumably, the tank will use a new diesel engine with power from 1200 to 1500 hp, which is configured in any of these modes, to adjust the resource.
4. Armata will most likely be equipped with the Afganit active protection complex, equipped with an active phased-array radar. The system will detect and destroy enemy ammunition flying at a distance of 20-30 meters from the tank. In addition, the radar will allow you to automatically monitor objects at a distance of 100km.
5. The tank's BIOS and the fire control system, apparently, will be a further development of those installed on T-90А — that is, fully meeting modern requirements.
6. The price, in comparison with the previous Russian tanks, is not small. Especially before the start of mass production. Nevertheless, representatives of Uralvagonzavod declare that they will be able to provide production at a cost that is half the price of modern Western tanks. Presumably we are talking about 5-6 million dollars per unit.
The rest we will probably find out only 9 in May and later, when the details of the project will be declassified. So in the 2015 year, perhaps the most interesting Victory Parade from 1991 is waiting for us.