The Academy of Military Sciences (AVN) was established by presidential decree number 173 of February 20 1995 year in connection with the intensification of public life in the country. In 90, a number of other academies also appeared, which also function on a voluntary basis. A remarkable thought on this subject was expressed in the Program of Actions of the President of the Russian Federation: "Russia needs science not as a subordinate and controlled substructure, but as an independent social partner of the state." In the Address to the Federal Assembly, Vladimir Putin elaborated on this idea, stressing that it was necessary to finance, not science in general, but specific scientific research.
Of course, we must strive for a substantial increase in the subsidization of the scientific sphere, but at the same time we must be aware that, due to the current economic situation in the country, this is only possible in limited sizes. And without an adequate level of development of science and technology, Russia will not be able to be reborn and take up a worthy position in the world.
Exit the situation in two ways. First, due to the improvement and increase of the efficiency and scientific activity of the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS), universities and other scientific state organizations. Secondly, the interests of the state, society and science itself require all-round stimulation of the activities of public organizations and individual scientists who are not members of state scientific structures for various reasons. They should also be able to combine their efforts and cooperate in the scientific field.
This problem is particularly acute in the field of the defense sciences, since there is no department or sector in the Russian Academy of Sciences that is called upon to deal systematically with defense problems. And they should be, especially now, when wars are waged both by military means and by using non-military means.
Recently, one newspaper published an article by Doctor of Military Sciences, Professor Alexei Sinikov, where the words of Kliment Voroshilov were quoted: “Military science as such does not exist, there is military science, which is based on scientific data from all fields of knowledge.”
Such statements are being made by some scientists today. But every new branch of science appeared when such objective phenomena arose that none of the sciences could already fully comprehend. For example, such theoretical foundations of military affairs as the construction of troops for battle, their control in battle and operations, and much more, which no other science can learn, except for military science, have arisen. Of course, in the theory and practice of military affairs, we have to deal with other sciences, for example, with mathematics, physics, etc., but this does not mean that they can be incorporated into military science on this basis. For example, in order to know the essence and origin of war, it is necessary to study not the war itself, but the economic structure of society. And this is a subject of political economy.
Some scholars suggest calling this whole body of sciences "The General Theory of War" or "The Foundations of the General Theory of War." But it is possible to do this within a certain academic discipline, and not in the order of the classification of sciences, as was done, for example, when creating “Natural Science”, “Social Studies”, where excerpts from different sciences are taken during initial training — it is impossible to do when classifying sciences which is based on the specifics of the object and subject of knowledge.
SCIENTIFIC POTENTIAL OF THE ACADEMY
The objective need for the establishment of the Academy of Military Sciences was determined by the following circumstances. First, on the one hand, due to a fundamental change in the geopolitical situation, there was a need to scientifically work out many new problems of defense organization, on the other, due to the collapse of some research organizations, the departure of a large number of military scientists and specialists began to decline. technical potential of the country. Secondly, until now the military-scientific and military-technical activity was carried out mainly through public institutions, the monopolistic position did not stimulate competition, scientific competition in order to more effectively solve scientific and technical problems. Thirdly, it is abnormal that military science, despite their exceptionally large role in the defense of the country, is essentially excommunicated from fundamental academic science. Therefore, scientific research on defense issues is conducted separately and on the scale of the country is not properly coordinated. The creation of the AVN to some extent made it possible to organize system studies covering the whole complex of military knowledge.
The Academy of Military Sciences consists of 12 Moscow scientific departments and 19 regional. Established by presidential decree, the AVN has the state status of a scientific organization, but it functions on a voluntary basis, uniting the leading scientists of the Ministry of Defense, the Ministry of Internal Affairs, the Federal Security Service, the Emergencies Ministry, the military-industrial complex and other security agencies. Its activities make it possible to attract an additional detachment of military scientists, veterans and military commanders to military research, solve research tasks more economically, without special government subsidies, and also create the opportunity to express objective, independent judgments and develop alternative proposals on current defense issues.
The current academic staff consists of: 839 full members, 432 corresponding member, 2201 professor, 91 honorary member of the academy, of whom 70% are generals, admirals and officers in retirement and reserve, 30% are military scientists serving in military service . In recent years, on the instructions of the Security Council, the Federation Council, the State Duma, the Government of the Russian Federation, the Ministry of Defense and other departments, 120 carried out major research works, developed and published 65 theoretical works and more 250 other scientific works. Expert evaluations were made and detailed conclusions and proposals on 85 bills were given.
The main efforts of the AVN team are now focused on analyzing the threats that arise for Russia, including with the further expansion of NATO, the study of ways to prevent wars and conflicts, the problems of national security, forecasting development prospects weapons, military equipment, on the search for ways to more economically and effectively solve defense tasks, on studying the nature of warfare.
Recently, we all see the increased role of political and economic factors in the information struggle, the role of "indirect strategic actions." In the development of military doctrine and other conceptual documents, we achieve greater openness. Historical experience shows that military doctrine, like military reform, takes root in society and the Armed Forces and becomes vital if it is not just imposed from above, but prepared and internally accepted by those who will implement it.
First of all, it is important to understand that, in view of the changes in the nature of warfare, the content of military science and military art, including strategy, operational art, and tactics cannot but change. They should be enriched with new ideas and regulations. In accordance with this, the content of the work, the functions of the General Staff and other government bodies should also change so that they cover new phenomena and issues, including the information warfare.
Much attention is paid to military-historical aspects and, above all, to the study of the greatness and uniqueness of military art of outstanding military leaders, the lessons and conclusions of their military heritage for modern conditions. It should be noted the active work of the members of the academy on military-historical issues. They made a number of articles on problematic issues of the Great Patriotic War, actively opposed various kinds of falsifications of the history of the war. Members of the Academy of Military Sciences actively participate in the preparation of the 12-volume fundamental work on the history of the Great Patriotic War. Participated in international and other scientific conferences. In this regard, the most instructive was the conference dedicated to the 70 anniversary of the Belarusian operation "Bagration", held in Minsk. And in April this year, in conjunction with the leadership of the Armed Forces, a military scientific conference dedicated to the 70 anniversary of the Victory in the Great Patriotic War is planned.
The works of scientists - members of our Academy on military, technical, legal, medical, educational and educational issues are counted in dozens of dozens. Actively contribute to our work of the editorial offices of magazines and newspapers "New and Newest History", "Military Thought", "Military History Journal", "Red Star", "Independent Military Review", "Military Industrial Courier", etc.
The team of the Academy of Military Sciences, having accumulated 20 years of experience in scientific, creative and research activities, is determined to persevere in this work. But one has to admit that efficiency largely depends on how military research in the Armed Forces is treated and how much it is in demand.
As the Minister of Defense Sergey Shoigu noted, the fundamental improvement of scientific work, even in the face of existing financial difficulties, carries with it great additional possibilities for increasing the efficiency of solving defense tasks. In general, the scientific work in the Armed Forces has been developed, a number of important studies are being conducted on the broad aspect of the urgent problems of the construction and training of the Armed Forces. At the same time, it is impossible not to see that its effectiveness does not quite correspond to the increased difficulties of modern defense tasks. What measures should be taken to remove the brakes hindering the development of military science?
WAYS TO IMPROVE MILITARY SCIENTIFIC WORK
We must resolutely change the attitude to the science of military leadership, bearing in mind that genuine scientific work is not something abstract, but it is the most important part of the main work associated with in-depth analysis and thinking through urgent problems, creative search for non-standard ways to solve them. What is especially important in military affairs, because in this area practically any new scientific position, any undertaking can be carried out only with the consent and approval of the senior commander. It is possible to have the greatest scientific achievements and discoveries, but if a leader does not stand on top of modern scientific knowledge, he is not able to apprehend, let alone implement them.
In addition, a systematic approach to the consideration of military scientific knowledge and planning of scientific work is necessary. To do this, it is important to imagine the modern system of knowledge about the war and the defense of the country in an integral form. Every knowledge system should reflect real life, the needs of objective reality.
The Academy of Military Sciences has developed and published in the newspaper "Independent Military Review" priority themes of basic research in the field of defense security. But they provide only general guidelines for scientific research. Now they need to be specified by branches of science, by types of the Armed Forces and the types of troops. At the same time, we proceed from the unity of military science, within the framework of which naval, aerospace and other private sciences are legitimate by type of Armed Forces.
The state should have a unified military strategy, within the framework of which it is possible to consider naval and other aspects of a common military strategy. Such an approach to the system of military knowledge will allow for more systematic and purposeful planning of research, determining the structure of scientific organizations, developing scientific research, as well as developing educational programs in organizations providing training.
All this should be taken as the basis for the development of a plan of scientific work of the Armed Forces, where it is advisable to clearly define which problems should be investigated.
Of course, all existing scientific problems cannot be solved in one year or even in five years. Therefore, the plan of scientific work should include the most relevant of them, requiring their really urgent research. This requires setting a number of major research works, each of which must be penetrated by a single concept, on the basis of which operational-strategic, military-technical, moral-psychological and other aspects of the problem and their components are studied by type of armed forces and combat arms and close interaction between them. At the same time focus on the most pressing issues.
IN WHAT THE INDIGENOUS MEANING OF SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH
Much depends on how clearly and specifically the questions are defined on this issue at the moment, what needs to be investigated, which specific questions to answer. Clearly set a goal largely determines the final result. However, this aspect of the matter is clearly underestimated. Often the subjects, goals and objectives of the research are determined by the performers themselves. At the same time, the goals and objectives are set so vaguely and indefinitely that then after the deadline it is impossible to ask for the results of research work (R & D).
Reports on scientific work usually list the number of scientific research work carried out, conferences and other events held, and a list of published works. But, in essence, nothing is said, what new scientific ideas, discoveries, conclusions or suggestions have arisen. When in academies or research institutions you ask such a question, they are sometimes even offended and surprised that it seems that all this has no direct relation to scientific work. Usually in such cases list the names of the research that they perform. Due to the lack of due demanding, some heads of scientific institutions and military scientists began to simply forget what the meaning of scientific work is. In many research reports, many of the findings and statements are repeated from year to year throughout 10 – 15 years. The law on science says: scientific activity is an activity aimed at obtaining and applying new knowledge.
There was a time when reports on research activities were discussed at the General Staff or at the main headquarters of the Armed Forces and returned several times for revision. This caused a lot of resentment and discontent, but ultimately somehow increased responsibility for the quality of work. This practice could be revived.
To overcome this weak spot, greater clarity and concreteness are needed in the planning and formulation of scientific problems in order to increase responsibility and fulfill more stringent demand for research results.
EXPANSION OF SCIENTIFIC FRONT
To expand and deepen research, it is necessary to more clearly delineate the functions and tasks of all bodies that are called upon to directly engage in scientific work. In addition, the interests of the case require not only improving leadership, but also expanding the front of scientific research, led by the General Staff of the Armed Forces, commanders of the branches and types of troops.
First of all, this is an increase in the share of scientific work in the headquarters of all degrees and other governing bodies. On the one hand, this is caused by the fact that only the relevant authorities can have some data due to their increased closeness, and therefore only they can fully investigate the problems associated with them. On the other hand, the development of a new image of the Armed Forces or the basics of preparing and conducting operations at the General Staff is impossible without preliminary research and verification of their main points at the exercises. All this requires that the authorities not only give tasks, but also themselves carry out a certain part of the research, which, apart from them, no one can perform. What is especially important in connection with the increased value of the military-economic substantiation of scientific findings.
Another area is the enhancement of the role of military educational organizations in scientific research, both on operational-strategic and military-technical issues. This will make it more creative and educational activities in organizations that provide training.
Taking into account what the authorities and academies will do scientifically, the tasks and structure of research centers and institutes should be clarified. Their main purpose should be to carry out specialized studies, where it is necessary to connect specialists of various profiles, use powerful computer systems, simulate the studied processes, conduct bench and field experiments and tests.
Therefore, it is permissible to reiterate: if we consider defense security in a broad sense, then it is impossible to try to solve all scientific problems only by the forces of the Ministry of Defense. It is necessary to more widely involve other civilian scientific organizations in defense research of the Russian Academy of Sciences. At the time, the Russian Academy of Sciences published a “List of priority areas for basic research” in Nezavisimaya Gazeta. All the branches of the humanities, natural sciences and technical sciences are mentioned in this list, but nothing is said about their defense problems, military science is not mentioned at all. But in real life, all this is and constitutes a significant part of the defense knowledge, thanks to which the first-class weapons of the Great Patriotic War were created and strategic parity with the USA was achieved in the 70-s.
What character is the study depends on the approach to it. If, for example, ways are being developed to improve the organization of military service and strengthen discipline, based on the existing conditions. - this is applied research. If you try to penetrate the deep essence of these phenomena, find out how the fundamental principles of military service and military discipline themselves must change with the new character of Russian society and the state, you will inevitably face serious fundamental research.
First of all, it is necessary to unite the efforts of those members of the RAS who are already working on defense issues, to include in the lists and research plans some important fundamental defense problems, without solving which it is impossible to purposefully solve other particular tasks. The expansion and deepening of research on defense topics can also contribute to the inclusion of public scientific organizations.
ON MAIN DIRECTIONS
It is necessary to focus more firmly on the study of the most pressing, key problems that are crucial for determining the prospects for the development of the Armed Forces and defense security in general. One of these problems was put forward by the President of Russia in the Address to the Federal Assembly: “Russia ... gives priority to preventing political wars and armed conflicts from political, diplomatic, economic, and other non-military means. But to protect the interests of the country, we must be prepared to use the Armed Forces and the entire defense power of the state. "
These problems are interdependent, and the necessary amount of defense power is largely determined by how quickly and effectively the first part of the conflict prevention task is being solved.
Last year, the scientific conference of the Academy of Military Sciences discussed ways to solve this problem. It is necessary to continue its research, as well as defense security on a nationwide scale, through the joint efforts of the Russian Academy of Sciences, the Center for Central and National Strategic Research, the All-Russian Military Intelligence Service, the RARAN, AVN, analytical centers of other law enforcement agencies and expert communities.
In the field of the theory of military art and the construction of the Armed Forces, the most acute problem is how to resist possible aggression in the conditions of the overwhelming technological superiority of potential aggressors, especially in high-precision weapons, and how to counter it with non-contact operations. There are two ways: the first is the accelerated creation of our own new types of weapons, so that we, where it is possible, use such operations, and the second way is to develop methods of operational and strategic actions that would neutralize the advantages of the enemy and impose on him that he avoids , namely - decisive and rapid contact actions. Both of these areas need in-depth research with the subsequent development of specific proposals.
In many scientific research institutes operational-tactical divisions are liquidated. For example, in our previous years it was very difficult to create automated control systems, and one of the reasons for this, along with the general technological lag, was that we, with our backward management methods, tried to get into automated systems with cumbersome documentation. control systems. At the same time, the development of new management tools is required to be combined with the simultaneous process of radical improvement of the organizational structure of management bodies and their working methods.
In this regard, a systematic approach to research is especially important. It is necessary to talk about the problems of electronic warfare. Indeed, in the same formulation, this problem was repeatedly considered in earlier times. But if even when there were incomparably large financial and production capabilities, there was no cardinal improvement in the state of affairs, then how are we going to solve this problem in the present distress, and even with the previous approaches. And here it is necessary to emphasize - the issues of EW, communications, intelligence and guidance, automated control systems and others should be considered and solved not in isolation from each other, but in a common system.
The main reason for our weakness in all these areas is one - the general lag in the element base and the technology of its production. This means that a major government decision is needed to overcome this lag with the same decisive concentration of scientific forces and financial resources, as was done in 40 – 60-s when creating nuclear missiles. Hence, one of the priorities in the development of science-based proposals, together with representatives of the defense industry.
There are many such problems that require systemic consideration, in the study of the nature of warfare, the combat use of the Armed Forces in the new organization of information warfare, moral and psychological, operational, logistical, technical support, etc.
SCIENCE AND PRACTICE
Further improvement of the organizational structure of research institutes, the system of stimulation and financing of scientific work is required. To do this, it is necessary to define research tasks and, on the basis of them, determine what organizational structure, personnel, material and technical support and financing are needed for this.
With the most rational organization of scientific work, the quality of staffing capable of carrying out scientific research at a higher level will be crucial for its effectiveness. In such cases, the question of the level of management of scientific work, from the organizational point of view, of the staff categories of employees in military-scientific bodies and research institutions is immediately raised. This, of course, matters, and this question must be solved taking into account who goes there to work and what we want to get from them.
In this regard, it would be possible to recall once again that the highest level of leadership in military scientific work was when the Defense Minister Marshal of the Soviet Union Georgy Zhukov was in office. He established the post of First Deputy Minister of Defense for Military Science, appointing Alexander Vasilevsky, Marshal of the Soviet Union, and created the Main Military Scientific Directorate headed by General of the Army Vladimir Kurasov.
The heads of the departments were colonel-generals and lieutenant-generals, department heads and even leading researchers — major generals. They were assigned 10 – 15 commanders and corps commanders who had left the war. It would seem that there is no place higher.
All of this has benefited. The main military-scientific directorate did a great job of generalizing the experience of war, describing the most important operations and developing new combat regulations.
But the most interesting thing about this experience for us today is that the Main Military Scientific Directorate, despite its staffing with knowledgeable experienced personnel, did not fully justify hopes for researching and developing the problems of the armed struggle of the future. And the main reason for this was the isolation of the Main Military Scientific Directorate from the practice of strategic planning and operational command and control, operational and combat training. After the departure of G.K. Zhukov employees of the management ceased to provide data on new types of weapons and equipment. And without all this, any military-scientific or research body, even with the most conscientious work, is doomed to engage in very far from business, abstract military-theoretical research.
In any organization, the main work is carried out by officers, research staff, and they must be interested. Now, in accordance with the state of affairs, captains, majors, lieutenant colonels, that is, from the post of commander or chief of staff of a battalion, officers of a brigade headquarters, can go to the military scientific body. To work in the military-scientific bodies, in the centers of operational and strategic research of the General Staff, types of aircraft, it is necessary to attract experienced officers from operational, organizational and other departments, extend their service life and assign higher salaries.
Everyone recognizes the importance of the defense issues of social, natural and technical sciences. And indeed, it is more profitable to order the necessary research in this area to institutes of the Russian Academy of Sciences or other civilian scientific research institutes than to try to solve all scientific problems on your own. So, you need to provide the relevant articles to pay for these works. On military-technical issues, a meager, but some payment for registered R & D is provided. But on operational-strategic, military-political issues there is no such possibility. Thus, the improvement of the financing system is one of the most important conditions for increasing the effectiveness of scientific work.
According to the experience of a number of research centers abroad, it is desirable to make the organizational structure of research institutions more flexible so that research teams can be created to solve certain major problems. The tasks have changed, and the organization of scientific units for new complex research should change.
In a word, in all these matters it is necessary to remove the shackles that have accumulated over the years and to achieve greater flexibility and rationality.
For the timely development of new scientific knowledge, it is also necessary to establish systematic information on new military knowledge; organize a full operational and combat training.
If we talk about the information side of the case, then we get systematic military-theoretical information from the Red Star, our military journals. At the same time, Voenizdat in recent years has produced almost no military theoretical literature. Even what is written by some military scientists have to be published in private publishing houses.
Once we had the opportunity to get acquainted with translations of foreign military literature. Now this work has stopped, and not only for financial reasons. In each academy, scientific research institutes there is a translation bureau, but they are dispersed, and their activity is not coordinated.
At one time, VNU and TsVSI GSH for the command staff of the Armed Forces sent analytical reports on the innovations of military science, which we have not seen in recent years.
All this suggests that there is a great need to eliminate the noted shortcomings and organize systematic military-scientific and military-technical information and organize work on the development of new knowledge by officers in universities, troops and fleets.
In the US Army and some other countries, there is a practice when, by order of senior commanders, 20 – 25 books are recommended that everyone should read during the year. Then the officers are interviewed on read books. Something that needs to be done with us.
In the submitted proposals, all issues are interdependent, and they must be resolved as a whole. If, for example, the issue of stimulating scientific work is not resolved, other proposals will not be implemented. All these questions require their solution in a common system.