"And instead of the" heart "- a fiery motor 5-th generation"
After the demonstration of the fifth-generation Russian fighter PAK FA at the public premiere in the air, again, it seems, parity remains. Nevertheless, according to the aircraft makers, the PAK FA demonstrated only thirty percent of its aerobatic capabilities. According to the developers, the potential of the flight qualities of the fighter and its engines was not fully revealed. The “heart” of the fighter is the fifth generation engine, developed and manufactured by NPO Saturn. The association is part of the Oboronprom company Rostekhnologii.
In the aviation world, the roar of turbine fighters made a lot of noise. In the dispute between the Russian "T-50" and the American "F-22" the majority prefers our fighter. According to experts, the potential of the aircraft and innovative engines is inexhaustible. Engine developers are confident that if you do not create the engine now, which will be the best in a decade, then we can confidently say that the lag will no longer be possible to catch up.
Yuri Shmotin, the chief designer of NPO Saturn, says: “What is the engine's uniqueness? So this monowheel is of rather large diameter, with a very high degree of compression and with the highest characteristics not only at the operating point, but also in all the lines of the origin of the gas-dynamic processes. This is what is unique. And I can say that the domestic industry of propellers with such characteristics has never done before. ”
The working name of this engine is “Product 129”. Its design and characteristics are still being improved, for the impossibility of detecting an aircraft by enemy radars a flat nozzle is being developed. Demonstrating the engine "PAK FA", especially its design elements - is strictly prohibited. Everything is classified. But already many of the latest developments are transferred to civil projects. The flagship here will be the power unit "SaM146" for "Sukhoi Superjet-100". Serial production of these engines was adjusted last year. And already last summer, the first airliners started from the runways of the airfields.
Ilya Fedorov, managing director of NPO Saturn, says: “We are particularly pleased that the plane is silent and comfortable. Feelings are comparable with the 320 series and with Boeing 737, even better, quieter, and the speed is quite decent. They even told me that these machines managed to overtake planes that flew lower or higher in echelons. ”
Excellent engine design solutions are laid in Rybinsk KB. The main pride of designers are the original compressor blades.
Pavel Chupin, head of the Saturn Research and Design Bureau, says: “There are practically no secrets in it, all the secret developments are inside. We carefully protect them with our patents. ”
It's all in the intra-duct special channels through which air flows.
Then Pavel Chupin explains: “This blade model is grown using special plastics on special machines that are irradiated with a laser. You can see a lot of such channels. They are called ribing. Air passes in the channels along the blade and thus heat transfer and cooling of the metal surface of the blade is guaranteed. ”
It is thanks to this cooling of the blade surface that it is possible to increase the combustion temperature of the fuel and, consequently, the engine thrust. For it, all the engine developers are fighting in the first place. In order to establish the production of such delicate parts, the factory completely re-equipped the production. The thinnest holes and channels in titanium parts up to 0,3 mm are made on EDM machines.
“Four paddles and 37 holes are made at the same time. Not such an impossible task - to drill two holes at the same time. But all 37, and in the appropriate coordinates, according to the pilots, is already “aerobatics,” said Roman Lobyrev, Deputy Head of the Workshop No. XXUMX.
Such engines are required to raise the Russian aircraft industry to a new peak. Plans are already being developed to install the SaM146 on the amphibious "Be-200" and regional An-158. In Russia, no one produces better engines for aircraft of such dimensions. Immediately, in Rybinsk itself, the engines for the forefather “Sukhoi Superjet 100”, the famous Tu-154, were also produced. But "SaM146" - one of the first Russian aircraft engine, manufactured according to international standards.
Managing Director of NPO Saturn Ilya Fedorov says: “Everything goes right on schedule and everything goes like LEGO. It means complete interchangeability. Any engine is not considered unique, as in the Soviet Union. Then almost every detail was made by hand. Now - everything is automated. Robotic machines have no bad mood, and marriage is a rather rare exception than the rule. ”
Further, Mr. Fedorov continued: “This is a completely different reliability, other possibilities, initially the resource is twice as high at SaMe and, naturally, the approach is completely different. That is, working with SaM in the process of operation is much faster and easier. The time spent on a simple aircraft is an order of magnitude less than when operating the TU-154 and IL-76 engines. ”
Mikhail Sasarin, head of the workshop for the serial assembly of the SaM146 engine No. XXUMX, explains: “You can change a module in the engine if something happens in it or a proper resource is developed. Elementary, you can change such a module without returning the entire engine to the assembly shop, and continue its further operation. ”
After the engine is assembled, it is sent for bench tests. Running in SaMa takes place on the ground. The assembly itself is trusted, as is customary all over the world, to human hands.
Roman Lyubimov, head of the test room No. XXUMX, said: “The value of the tests on the stands cannot be overestimated. This is a prerequisite for an aircraft engine for a civilian aircraft to be able to be installed on this airliner. Of course, the test result must be only positive. Provided that the result will be negative, the engine will immediately return to the assembly shop for the elimination of comments or repairs. ”
On the arteries of this SaM146 run kerosene. His shoulder blades will already begin their work in Komsomolsk-on-Amur, when another serial Superjet leaves the factory for the airline. Once, even "Saturn" engines prevented the tragedy on regular flights.
General Designer NPO Saturn Yuri Shmotin says: “There was such a case. During the flight, the plane collided with a flock of birds. And not one, but several birds were in the engine. After the engine was tested, no defect was found. This case is unique and once again proved the reliability of the equipment produced at NPO Saturn.
In a similar situation was two years ago. A-320 failed engines. Then the airliner had to land on the Hudson Bay. Only due to the skill of the pilots, the catastrophe was avoided.
The engine SaM146 still in 2010 year was tested for birds flying into it. Then, proceeding from the rigid European generally accepted norms, he simultaneously “had lunch” with four ducks at once. But also successfully survived the ingress of ice and hail.
Roman Lyubimov, head of the test building No. XXUMX, says: “This did not lead to the loss of engine controllability, the loss of main characteristics below the permissible limits. This is, in fact, the result that was confirmed by certification testing at the open test stand in Poluevo. ”
This stand will work again soon. There are scheduled tests of the latest Russian aircraft engine. Saturn took part in the work on the breakthrough PD-14 engine, which is being developed for the mainline MC-21.
Yury Shmotin, the chief designer of NPO Saturn, said: “This will be a completely new propeller blade design - a hollow titanium. It should be noted that today, as the use of a hollow blade, the use of composite materials must be considered. Here we are obliged to follow the favorites in the field of engine-building - General Electric. They are already using composite propeller blades in the manufacture of engines. ”
Efficiency and environmental friendliness - these are the main components for which engineers and aircraft designers around the world are fighting. However, for the passenger of the aircraft the most important criterion will be - speed, convenience and silence in the cabin. Will such a flight in the future? We will see.
Noticed a mistake Highlight text and press. Ctrl + Enter