Military Review

Soviet lunar scientific station "Barmingrad"

21
Currently, Russia is once again returning to the idea of ​​building a manned station on the moon. This project was relevant in 1960-e years. Already in 1962, Soviet designers and cosmonauts began the development of a similar project, which is known today as Barmingrad (named after the general designer and inventor Vladimir Pavlovich Barmin). Barmin was involved in the design of all launch sites for space flights, which were distinguished by their simplicity and reliability. His lunar scientific station was supposed to be the same.


"Barmingrad"

The design team, led by Academician Vladimir Pavlovich Barmin, began developing the lunar station in 1962. Above the project worked Design Bureau of General Engineering, which was located in Moscow on Berezhkovskaya embankment. Space housewarming was planned for the end of the 1980-s. It was planned to use the station for both civil and military purposes. The base could become a unique platform for deploying missiles that would be practically invulnerable from Earth, and special reconnaissance equipment for spying on the United States. The moon also attracted Soviet scientists for its geological features. Already in those years it was known that the natural satellite of the Earth contains large reserves of tritium - the ideal fuel for the thermonuclear power stations of the future. At the same time, the Soviet cosmonaut Alexei Leonov believes that military goals are rather fiction, although the launch positions on the Moon were indeed planned, but for what purposes, military or civil, it did not matter.

In total, several thousand different organizations were involved in the work on the project of the future lunar town. The scope of work was divided into three areas: lunar structures, lunar transport and energy.

The Soviet engineers planned to deploy the base on the moon in the 3 phase:

1. Start to the lunar surface of automatic spacecraft, which would deliver to the Earth samples of lunar soil from the places that were chosen to house the base.

2. Sending to the lunar surface of the first module in the form of a cylinder, a lunar rover and a team of astronauts to conduct on-site primary research.

3. Debugging messages between the Moon and the Earth, delivery of additional equipment to the satellite: new base modules, nuclear power plants, i.e. It was assumed active development of the natural satellite of the Earth.



Soviet astronauts were supposed to work on the moon on a rotational basis - for 6 months for each team of cosmonauts from 12 people. It was planned to populate the lunar town, as noted above, by the end of the 1980s. According to the well-known Soviet cosmonaut Alexei Leonov, who was the first to go to outer space, the readiness of the Barmin project was quite high, even the crews of lunar ships were selected. “Currently it seems to me that in the lunar team there should be from 3-s to 5-ti people in order to provide a more comfortable combination of characters. I am sure that this will be the case on the future Russian base, ”said Alexei Leonov.

The specifics of the first stage of work on the lunar base was that by the time work began, no one had enough experience not only of manned cosmonautics, but even accurate data on the surface structure of the Earth’s satellite. It was clear only that special structures created for research work in the Arctic, studying the depths of the ocean and flying into space are not suitable for use in lunar conditions. To ensure a long stay of people on the Moon, it was not enough to achieve the combination in one design of the strength of deep-sea bathyscaphes, the lightness of Arctic houses and the protection of spacecraft. It was necessary to make the whole structure work in a reliable mode for many years.

A necessary requirement for the creation of stationary lunar structures was the condition for the transformation of the structure. At the initial stage of development, the architects decided to use the usual rectangular shape of the structure. This configuration won over with the convenience of the layout and an acceptable combination of structural elements of a rigid frame with an inner soft shell. At the same time, the power ribbed core was compact during transportation and could easily transform. Filling the cells of the structure with expandable plastics made it possible to obtain reliable and durable lunar structures. However, the appeal to the cubic forms in the lunar architecture turned out to be suboptimal. The main issue of space architecture is the organization of the internal space of cells and the definition of rational size of rooms. The excess volume only worsened the weight characteristics of such premises.



As a result, the architects moved to the spherical and cylindrical shapes of the premises. They planned to fill the interior with inflatable furniture. Considered and the recommendations of psychologists, according to which the living cells were designed for two people. In order to eliminate the effect of a closed space that a person has, a new type of lighting was developed and special combinations of interior coloring were selected. In order to transmit light energy from solar concentrators, hollow and flexible light guides made of film materials were to be used. The efficiency of transmission of light energy for such devices was 80%.

At that time, humanity simply did not have the experience of making long-term space flights. However, worse, psychologists predicted the possible occurrence of depression in the lunar inhabitants. For this reason, much attention has been paid to the questions of the psychological comfort of astronauts on the moon. According to Alexey Leonov, who gave an exclusive interview to Zvezda TV channel, he was attracted to the project of the lunar station in 1967. The cosmonaut was responsible in the project for working on the interior design of the station’s premises and creating psychological comfort for all its inhabitants. Technical support of such very important parameters of the future lunar base was entrusted to Leonov for a reason. The eleventh Soviet cosmonaut was the first to make a spacewalk, so the chief designer of the project always listened to his opinion. In fact, in the Soviet Union for the first time seriously approached the issue of ergonomics and design of residential premises.

Leonov proposed to create inside the station premises imaginary windows on which painted landscapes were painted. The picture in these “windows” was supposed to change in accordance with the seasons and time of day. He also thought of placing a special screen in front of the exercise bike. During the classes, the astronauts would be able to observe on it stills taken on Earth - driving on the highway, winding road, descents and ascents. “At present, this does not seem to be some kind of innovation, but in those years my idea was perceived with a bang,” the cosmonaut noted. Alexey Leonov is convinced that in the newly developed Russian scientific station on the Moon his ideas in the same or more advanced form will be necessarily preserved. He has new offers. In particular, he advised to organize a pool on the lunar base. “Let it be even small - 2х5 meters, but with a directed stream of water in order to increase the load,” says Alexei Leonov.

Soviet lunar scientific station "Barmingrad"


In various research institutes, various variants of future transformable structures were studied. For example, even self-hardening buildings. Considered and tape designs. In the transport state, they should have resembled a cylindrical metal sheath, only twisted and deflated into a roll. Directly on the spot, it had to be filled with air, puffing and keeping the shape in the future. Of greatest interest were the structures that would be built from biomaterials - materials with thermal "memory". The finished structures from such materials were planned to be flattened in a special way, actually turning into a cake, and sent to the Moon in this form. On site under the influence of high temperature, the design would take its original appearance. However, all these fantastic designs could not overcome even the stage of mock tests. As a result, Barmin chose precisely the ordinary cylindrical module-barrel.

The full-size prototype of the lunar module was built in the General Mechanical Engineering Design Bureau, and the layout of the future modules of the lunar base was tested. Various options were considered for a long time. But in the future, for unknown reasons, they decided to start up the model for scrap, and as a result only photographs of not the best quality came to us from it. The very first Soviet lunar base was supposed to consist of 9 separate modules (each with a length of 4,5 meters). All these modules had to be gradually delivered to the natural satellite of the Earth by means of transport ships.

The ready and assembled station from above was planned to be covered with a meter layer of lunar soil. According to its characteristics - it was the perfect heat insulator, as well as excellent protection from radiation. In time, an entire city should appear on the moon, which would have its own observatory, cinema, science center, gym, workshops, greenhouse, dining room, garages for lunar transport, a system for creating artificial gravity and even its own nuclear power plant. Especially for the lunar city, it was planned to create an 3 type of lunar transport — a heavy and light lunar rover and the multipurpose machine “Ant”. Its development was engaged in Leningrad VNIITransMash, which was known for the creation of armored products. Part of the created lunar vehicles had to work from solar energy, and some of the batteries. Machines that were designed to carry out long hikes, it was planned to equip the atomic small-sized reactors.



However, all plans to create a lunar base was never to be realized. Work on the design of the lunar city was in full swing, when 24 November 1972 of the year at 9 o'clock in the morning crashed the fourth lunar rocket H-1. Its three previous launches also ended in disaster. At that time, the Americans had already 3, walking freely on the moon. The leadership of the Soviet Union eventually decided to curtail the program H-1, which became the loudest failure of the Queen, and without a lunar launch vehicle, the project of the lunar base lost all meaning.

New stages of the lunar path

In the XXI century in Russia they again returned to the question of designing the lunar station. These works are just beginning, but it is already clear that the stages of research and exploration of the moon will differ little from what Vladimir Barmin offered. In any case, there will also be three stages of these.

The first stage, from 2016 to 2026 years, involves the study of the natural satellite of the Earth with the help of automatic devices. It is supposed to land in the areas of the South Pole of the Moon the automatic interplanetary stations Luna-25 and Luna-27. The study of the physical conditions in the polar region, as well as the regolith will have to do the station "Luna-26". And the delivery of lunar soil samples to our planet will be carried out by the Luna-28 station. As a result of these studies, scientists are going to find out the physicochemical properties and composition of the lunar polar regolith, as well as determine the most promising areas in the South Pole of the Moon for future deployment of the lunar test site and lunar base.



The second stage of the lunar program involves manned flights in the near-moon space, as well as the deployment of the necessary elements of the lunar space infrastructure. Including the creation of the Russian lunar polygon by the deep-space exploration program is planned later than 2030. Within two years, from 2030 to 2032 years, it is planned to start landing Russian cosmonauts on the moon, which could begin construction and construction of the base.

The third phase of exploration and exploration of the moon is scheduled for 2036-2050 years. There is no exact information on what exactly will happen at this stage. But it can be assumed that during this time the installation and adjustment should be completed on the moon, as well as the commissioning of all the necessary elements of the Russian lunar base.

At the same time, the Russian program of studying and researching the Moon acquires not only real features, but also cost. The project “Long-term deep space research program” was sent to the Russian government for approval, for which a record amount of 2050 trillion rubles could be spent before the 12,5 of the year. In this case, the numbers can still be revised. And private Russian companies also declare their interest in developing the lunar base. For example, the Russian company Lin Industrial (a resident of Skolkovo), announced its readiness to deploy a base on the Moon during 10 years after the decision had been taken.

Information sources:
http://tvzvezda.ru/news/forces/content/201501091737-jhw3.htm
http://tainy.net/11846-barmingrad.html
http://www.popmech.ru/technologies/6861-kosmos-novosti-7-13-sentyabrya-2007-g/#full
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  1. svp67
    svp67 18 March 2015 05: 12 New
    +9
    A person should DREAM. That is why he is a Man. And it's good that he is looking for ways to make his dreams come true. Good luck to the builders of "Barmingrad"
    1. almost demobil
      almost demobil 18 March 2015 12: 16 New
      0
      Are they allowed to build sleepwalkers? And then I, you know, have read all kinds of things, including that the Moon is an artificial creation and inside is empty, and the mattress covers are pulled out from there, and all kinds of objects fly into the holes at the poles and fly out. belay
  2. astronom1973n
    astronom1973n 18 March 2015 06: 04 New
    +6
    Or maybe it is worth mastering the endless waters of the ocean depths? Although the lunar program is good and necessary! The main thing is that the main "nanotechnologist" is not involved in these projects, and the "iPhone" is not entrusted with control.! lol
    1. avt
      avt 18 March 2015 09: 17 New
      0
      Quote: astronom1973n
      Or maybe you should master the vast waters of the depths of the oceans?

      When N-1 was closed and the program was curtailed, KBOM proposed to use the developments specifically for underwater stations, but they immediately received a refusal. By the way - well, I've never heard of the name "Barmingrad".
  3. Nitarius
    Nitarius 18 March 2015 06: 39 New
    -8
    How tired I am of reading such nonsense!
    DO NOT get it wrong .... reading a lot of technical articles and owning some information. That only ONE comes to mind ... the technological development of the WORLD is controlled entirely by the rulers of corporations. or our valiant millionaires. because there is from fuel-free technology to anti-gravity.
    But to know that the LESS people knew .. they are not allowed into the MASS.
    So that the flock managed by the SHEEP - in the form of people does not disperse all over the planet. but sat in SPECIFIC CITIES and manufactured products.

    And there is technology for a long time .... PEOPLE IN THE EARS ARE SCARED only ... and INTO FORCE THAT IS GOING ON - DEINDUSTRIALIZATION OF THE WORLD. then there is nothing surprising here.

    and with regards to the moon ... ANOTHER PORTION OF LIES! for a long time there Civilization ... only those GODS who rule the Earth nation already)))





    and the most interesting OTHER ... WHY THE MILITARY FOR TANKS were even forbidden to PUT and APPLY Similar TECHNOLOGIES))) ??
    1. Alexander Romanov
      Alexander Romanov 18 March 2015 06: 42 New
      +4
      Quote: Nitarius

      and with regards to the moon ... ANOTHER PORTION OF LIES! long ago there Civilization ...

      What a bad habit to print half the text with a capsule. Reading this is inconvenient and generally a caps means this scream.
      1. ICT
        ICT 18 March 2015 08: 01 New
        +4
        Quote: Alexander Romanov
        What a bad habit to print half the text with a caps

        learn to control the masses lol

        Quote: Nitarius
        valiant millionaires. because there is from fuel-free technology to anti-gravity.

        and then I’m breaking my head winked ) ё -mobile did not go to the masses
    2. kit_bellew
      kit_bellew 18 March 2015 08: 12 New
      +5
      The future will grow through the present anyway. Three hundred years ago, all sorts of Luddites and other levellers also sabotaged industrial production - and where are those Levellers now?
      Although, of course, they finally dealt with Tesla, yes. But if all his projects are fundamentally possible, then sooner or later they will be implemented. And it would be better early, and it would be better with us))
    3. Petrix
      Petrix 18 March 2015 10: 04 New
      +2
      Quote: Nitarius
      and with regards to the moon ... ANOTHER PORTION OF LIES! for a long time there Civilization ... only those GODS who rule the Earth nation already)))

      What is true is true.

      Dozens of years of work by scientists, the development of technology and the study of lunar soil from the first landings on the moon and
      ... As a result of these studies, scientists are going to find out the physicochemical properties and composition of the lunar polar regolith.

      are still going to find out in a decade ???

      We (humanity) that have been sleeping all this time? "There is no world behind the scenes, there are no global conspiracies, there are no aliens, ....." What is there? To admit that we are stupid and lazy, want to have fun and play war games?
      No, brethren, there is POWER (POWER) that governs the development of civilization. It is large, but not comprehensive. But if there is action, then there is opposition. And it seems to me that the main thing in counteraction is our FREE WILL.
  4. saag
    saag 18 March 2015 07: 14 New
    +1
    It would be nice to start with the problem of obtaining oxygen from regolith, obtaining useful materials such as aluminum, iron, titanium, silicon and a finished product oriented to extraterrestrial needs, 3-D printing in vacuum ...
  5. qwert
    qwert 18 March 2015 08: 14 New
    0
    Quote: saag
    It would be nice to start with the problem of obtaining oxygen from regolith, obtaining useful materials such as aluminum, iron, titanium, silicon and a finished product oriented to extraterrestrial needs, 3-D printing in vacuum ..

    If the country had not been destroyed, we would have decided.
  6. Oleg1080
    Oleg1080 18 March 2015 08: 38 New
    +1
    Here I am dur.ak, did not buy a plot on the moon, now probably the price and demand will trample! laughing
  7. Yun Klob
    Yun Klob 18 March 2015 09: 11 New
    +2
    In 1996, I saw at the Academy of Logistics and Transport (St. Petersburg) a list of dissertations from Soviet times and caught my eye - "Building roads on the moon". Also, probably from this topic.
  8. tchoni
    tchoni 18 March 2015 09: 18 New
    +1
    It’s nice that they don’t push serious science in the ass ..... In general, the moon is a rich topic .... It's nice, they’ve returned to it ...
  9. srha
    srha 18 March 2015 09: 20 New
    +3
    I disagree with the assessment of the author of the article: "... the N-1 program, which became the loudest failure queen"!

    Firstly, Korolev died in 1966, and the lunar program was finally closed by his rival Glushko in 1974. With the living Korolev, he could hardly have done it.
    Secondly, Korolev in the lunar program chose a hydrogen liquid propellant rocket engine, which was a prospect, since theoretically the specific impulse is 25% higher than other types of fuel.
    Thirdly, technically the program has already practically begun - it has passed through the first most difficult problems, and the closure was associated with the loss of political interest in the Moon and the pulling in of Glushko’s economic flows.

    So Korolev has absolutely nothing to do with this "failure"!
  10. holgert
    holgert 18 March 2015 10: 36 New
    0
    Maybe it’s better to do earthly affairs after all ???? We have so many unresolved issues !!!! And let the lunar ones wait ...
  11. rotor
    rotor 18 March 2015 11: 50 New
    +4
    Earth and the reverse side of the moon. The dark spot visible in the photo in the center of the lunar disk is the sea of ​​Moscow. A dark crater in the lower part of the disk, with a bright spot in the center is the Tsiolkovsky crater.
  12. rotor
    rotor 18 March 2015 12: 15 New
    +1
    The option offered by Roscosmos to use the heavy “Angara” in the lunar program will be very expensive. In addition, it will slow down the development of more promising areas, writes Military-Industrial Courier.

    "With this approach, expeditions to deep space turn into absurdity, since only a one-time lunar landing mission will require about 40 launches of the Angara-A5V carrier rocket, and this is provided that it is capable of launching the declared 35 tons into low orbit. comparisons: to implement a similar mission will require up to eight 75-ton vehicles. "
  13. Tektor
    Tektor 18 March 2015 15: 09 New
    +1
    What I saw is not completely thought out: any surface that was in contact with external objects should not be brought into the residential perimeter. The spacesuits should remain in a certain buffer volume. The exit from the spacesuit and the entrance to it should exclude contact with the outer surface of the spacesuit, including separation by air. The Americans solved this problem with a special transition compartment, to which the spacesuit is hermetically sealed outside, the surface of the spacesuit lock on the perimeter is sealed with a protective cap with a vacuum suction cup, which, after applying atmospheric pressure, rotates to the side, for example, like a door that enters an additional closing niche. Then you can open the gateway of the transition compartment and enter / exit to / from the spacesuit / a.
  14. Aleksiy
    Aleksiy 18 March 2015 18: 10 New
    0
    The plans, dreams and POSSIBILITIES of the USSR to modern Russia, alas, are of little use.
  15. Asadullah
    Asadullah 18 March 2015 23: 43 New
    +1
    At that time, the Americans had been walking freely on the moon for 3 years.


    Nu-nu.

    Without focusing on the economic aspect, I would like to know how a manned spacecraft will protect astronauts from external radiation spheres? Although cut, I do not find any material that can absorb such energies with a small mass.
  16. lilian
    lilian 17 June 2015 08: 18 New
    0
    Will I live to see a manned flight to the moon?
    In Soviet books it was so optimistic about this. They planned to fly to Mars by the year 2000.

    If I lived in the USSR, I would be sure that I would survive, and now I distrust all these projects. How many of these projects were there.