Military Review

Cossacks in the Civil War. Part II. 1918 year. In the fire of fratricidal Troubles

38
The civil war in Siberia had its own characteristics. Siberia in territorial space several times exceeded the territory of European Russia. The peculiarity of the Siberian population was that it did not know serfdom, there were no large landed estates that hampered the ownership of the peasants, and there was no land issue. In Siberia, administrative and economic exploitation of the population was much weaker because the centers of administrative influence spread only along the line of the Siberian railway line. Therefore, the internal life of the provinces, which were located at a distance from the railway line, was almost not affected by this, and the people needed only order and the possibility of a peaceful existence. Under such patriarchal conditions, revolutionary propaganda could succeed in Siberia only by force, which could not but cause resistance. And it inevitably arose. In June, the Cossacks, volunteers and Czechoslovak detachments cleared the Bolsheviks from the whole Siberian railway from Chelyabinsk to Irkutsk. After this, an irreconcilable struggle began between the parties, as a result of which the advantage was established over the power structure formed in Omsk, relying on armed forces numbering around 40 Ltd., half of which were from the Urals, Siberian and Orenburg Cossacks. The anti-Bolshevik rebel detachments in Siberia fought under the white-green flag, as "according to the resolution of the extraordinary Siberian Regional Congress, the colors of the flag of autonomous Siberia were set white and green - as a symbol of the Siberian snow and forests."

Cossacks in the Civil War. Part II. 1918 year. In the fire of fratricidal Troubles
Fig. 1 Flag of Siberia


It should be said that during the 20th century Russian Time of Troubles autonomy was declared not only by Siberia, there was an endless parade of sovereignties. The Cossacks had the same thing. During the collapse of the Russian Empire and the civil war, several Cossack state entities were proclaimed:
Kuban People's Republic
Great Don Army
Tersk Cossack Republic
Ural Cossack Republic
Orenburg Cossack Circle
Siberian-Semirechenskaya Cossack Republic
Transbaikalian Cossack Republic.

Of course, all these centrifugal chimeras arose, first of all, from the powerlessness of the central power, which again happened at the beginning of the 90s. In addition to the national-geographical fault, the Bolsheviks managed to organize an internal split: the formerly single Cossacks were divided into "red" and "white". Part of the Cossacks, especially the youth and the front-line soldiers, were deceived by the promises and promises of the Bolsheviks, and left to fight for the Soviets.


Fig. 2 Red Cossacks


In the Southern Urals, the Red Guards, under the leadership of the working Bolshevik V.K. Blucher and the Red Orenburg Cossacks, brothers Nikolay and Ivan Kashirins, fought surrounded and retreated from Vekhneuralsk to Beloretsk, and from there, reflecting the attacks of the White Cossacks, began a great march along the Ural Mountains under Kungur to join the 3 Red Army. Having fought more than 1000 kilometers in the White backs, the red fighters and Cossacks in the Askino area joined up with the red units. Of these, the 30-Infantry Division was formed, and Blücher was appointed as its commander, and the former Cossack podolesaars of the Kashirins were appointed deputy and commander. All three receive the newly established Order of the Red Banner, and Blucher received it under the number XXUMX. During this period, around 1 thousands of Orenburg Cossacks fought on the side of Ataman Dutov, up to 12 thousands of Cossacks fought for the power of the Soviets. The Bolsheviks created Cossack regiments often on the basis of the old regiments of the tsarist army. So, on the Don for the most part the Cossacks 4, 1 and 15 of the Don regiments went to the Red Army. In battles, the red Cossacks appear as the best fighting units of the Bolsheviks. In June, the Don Red Partisans were reduced to the 32 Socialist Cavalry Regiment (about 1 Sabers) led by Dumenko and his deputy Budenny. In August, this regiment, supplemented by the cavalry of the Martyno-Orlovsky detachment, turned into the 1000 th Don Soviet cavalry brigade led by the same commanders. Dumenko and Budyonny were the initiators of the creation in the Red Army of large equestrian connections. Since the summer of 1, they have persistently urged the Soviet leadership to create equestrian divisions and corps. Their views were shared by K.E. Voroshilov, I.V. Stalin, A.I. Yegorov and other leaders of the 1918 Army. By order of the commander of the 10 army K.E. Voroshilov No. 10 from November 62 28, the Dumenko Cavalry Brigade was reorganized into the Combined Cavalry Division. The commander of the 1918 Cossack Regiment, Army Commander Mironov, also unconditionally sided with the new government. The Cossacks elected him as military commissar of the Ust-Medveditsk District Revolutionary Committee. In the spring of 32, in order to fight the whites, Mironov organized several Cossack partisan detachments, which were then merged into the 1918 division of the Red Army. Starter was appointed Mironov. In September 23 - February 1918 of the year he successfully and famously crushed the white cavalry near Tambov and Voronezh, for which he was awarded the highest award of the Soviet Republic - the Order of the Red Banner under the number XXUMX. However, most of the Cossacks fought for the whites. The Bolshevik leadership saw that it was the Cossacks who made up the majority of the living forces of the white armies. This was especially characteristic of the south of Russia, where two thirds of all Russian Cossacks concentrated on the Don and Kuban. The civil war in the Cossack regions was conducted by the most brutal methods, often practiced the destruction of prisoners and hostages.


Fig. 3 Shooting Cossacks and Hostages


Due to the small number of Red Cossacks, it appeared that all the Cossacks were fighting with the rest of the non-Kazak population. By the end of 1918, it became obvious that in almost every army, approximately 80% of combat-capable Cossacks were fighting the Bolsheviks and about 20% were fighting on the side of the Reds. On the margins of the outbreak of civil war, the white Cossacks of Shkuro were cut with the red Cossacks of Budyonny, the red Cossacks of Mironov fought with the white Cossacks of Mamantov, the white Cossacks of Dutov fought with the red Cossacks of Kashirin, and so on ... A bloody whirlwind swept over the Cossack lands. The grieved Cossacks said: “They shared on whites and reds and let each other chop up to the joy of the Jewish commissars.” The Bolsheviks and the forces behind them, it was only on hand. Such is the great Cossack tragedy. And there were reasons for her. When the 1918 Extraordinary Circle of the Orenburg Cossack Army was held in September 3 in Orenburg, where the first results of the fight against the Soviets were summed up, the chieftain of the 1 district K.A. Kargin with ingenious simplicity and very precisely described the main sources and causes of Bolshevism among the Cossacks. "The Bolsheviks in Russia and in the army were the result of the fact that we have a lot of poor. And neither disciplinary regulations, nor executions do not eliminate discord, as long as we have a poor thing. Eliminate this poor, give her the opportunity to live as a human being - and all these Bolshevisms and other "isms" will disappear. However, it was too late to philosophize, and sharp punitive measures were planned against the supporters of Bolsheviks, Cossacks, non-resident people and their families. It must be said that they differed little from punitive actions of the Reds. The abyss among the Cossacks deepened. In addition to the Ural, Orenburg and Siberian Cossacks in the army of Kolchak were Transbaikalian and Ussuri Cossack troops, who were under the auspices and with the support of the Japanese. Initially, the formation of the armed forces to fight against the Bolsheviks was based on the principle of voluntariness, but in August the mobilization of 19-20 youth was announced; as a result, the Kolchak army began to count up 200 000 people. By August, 1918, only on the Western Front of Siberia, were deployed forces that included up to 120 000 people. Parts of the troops were distributed to three armies: Sibirskaya under the command of Gaida, who broke with the Czechs and made Admiral Kolchak into generals, Zapadnaya under the command of the glorious Cossack General Khanzhin and Yuzhnaya under the command of Ataman of the Orenburg army, General Dutov. The Ural Cossacks, rejecting the Reds, fought battles from Astrakhan to Novonikolayevsk, occupying a front in the 500-600 version. Against these troops, the Reds had people on the Eastern front from 80 to 100 LLC. However, having strengthened the forces by force mobilization, the Reds launched an offensive and on September 9 occupied Kazan, on the 12 of Simbirsk and on October 10 they occupied Samara. By the Christmas holidays, Ufa was taken in red, Siberian armies began to retreat to the east and occupy the aisles of the Ural Mountains, where the armies had to be replenished, put themselves in order and prepare for the spring offensive.

In the south, in the summer of 1918, 25 ages were mobilized into the Don Army and 27 infantry, 000 cavalry, 30 guns, 000 machine guns, 175 aircraft, 610 armored trains were in service, not counting the young standing army. By August, the reorganization of the army was completed. The regiments on foot had 20-4 battalions, 2 bayonets and 3 machine guns in each battalion, the horse regiments were six hundred with 1000 machine guns. The regiments were reduced to brigades and divisions, divisions into corps, which were placed on 8 fronts: the north against Voronezh, the east against Tsaritsyn and the southeast at the village of Velikoknyazheskaya. Of particular beauty and pride of the Don was a standing army of Cossacks of 8-3 years of age. It consisted of: 19st Don Cossack Division - 20 thousand drafts, 1st Plastun brigade - 5 thousand bayonets, 1st rifle brigade - 8 thousand bayonets, 1st sapper battalion - 8 thousand bayonets, technical troops - armored trains , airplanes, armored squadrons, etc. Up to a total of 1 thousand excellent fighters. River was created flotilla from 8 vessels. After bloody battles on July 27, Don units left the army in the north and occupied the city of Boguchar, Voronezh province. The Don army was free of the Red Guard, but further the Cossacks categorically refused to go. With great difficulty, the chieftain managed to carry out the decree of the Circle on crossing the borders of the Don army, which was expressed in the order. But it was a dead letter. Cossacks said: "We will go if the Russians go." But the Russian Volunteer Army was firmly stuck in the Kuban and could not go north. Denikin refused the chieftain. He stated that he should remain in the Kuban until he freed the entire North Caucasus from the Bolsheviks.


Fig. 4 Cossack areas of southern Russia


Under these conditions, the chieftain carefully looked at Ukraine. While in Ukraine there was order, while there was friendship and alliance with the hetman, he was calm. The western border did not require a single soldier from the ataman. With Ukraine went the right exchange of goods. But there was no firm certainty that the hetman would stand. The hetman did not have an army, the Germans prevented him from creating it. There was a good division of the Sich Riflemen, several officer battalions, a very elegant hussar regiment. But it was the parade troops. There was a bunch of generals and officers who were appointed commanders of corps, divisions and regiments. They put on the original Ukrainian zupany, released the oseledy cocks, hung their saber curves, occupied the barracks, issued charters with covers in the Ukrainian language and content in Russian, but there were no soldiers in the army. The entire order was provided by the German garrisons. Their formidable “Halt” silenced all political mongrels. However, the hetman understood that it was impossible to rely on German troops forever and was looking for a defensive alliance with Don, Kuban, Crimea and the peoples of the Caucasus against the Bolsheviks. The Germans supported him in this. On October 20, the hetman and the ataman held talks at Skorokhodovo station and sent a letter to the command of the Volunteer Army, outlining their proposals. But the outstretched hand was rejected. So, the goals of Ukraine, the Don and the Volunteer Army had significant differences. The leaders of Ukraine and the Don considered the main goal of the struggle against the Bolsheviks, and the determination of the structure of Russia was postponed until victory. Denikin adhered to a completely different point of view. He believed that he was on the way only with those who deny any autonomy and unconditionally share the idea of ​​a united and indivisible Russia. It was in the conditions of the Russian Distemper that his enormous epistemological, ideological, organizational and political error, which determined the sad fate of the white movement.

Ataman stood before the fact of harsh reality. Cossacks refused to go beyond the Don Cossacks. And they were right. Voronezh, Saratov and other peasants not only did not fight the Bolsheviks, but also went against the Cossacks. The Cossacks were not without difficulty able to cope with their Don workers, peasants and non-towns, but they could not win the whole of central Russia and understood this very well. The chieftain had the only means to force the Cossacks to go to Moscow. It was necessary to give them a break from military hardship and then force them to join the Russian people's army, advancing on Moscow. He asked for volunteers twice and was refused twice. Then he began to create a new Russian southern army at the expense of Ukraine and the Don. But Denikin in every way prevented this business, calling it a German venture. However, this army was needed Ataman in view of the extreme fatigue of the Don Cossack troops and the decisive refusal of the Cossacks to march to Russia. In Ukraine, for this army were cadres. After the exacerbation of relations between the Volunteer Army and the Germans and Skoropadsky, the Germans began to hinder the movement of volunteers to the Kuban and in Ukraine there were a lot of people ready to fight the Bolsheviks, but who had no such opportunity. From the very beginning, the Kiev Union “Our Homeland” became the main supplier of personnel for the southern army. The monarchical orientation of this organization sharply narrowed the social base for recruiting the army, since monarchical ideas were very unpopular with the people. Thanks to the propaganda of the socialists, the word king was still a bogey to many people. The peasants inextricably linked the name of the king with the idea of ​​harsh collection of taxes, sale of the last cows for debt to the state, domination of landlords and capitalists, gold miners-officers and officer's stick. In addition, they feared the return of landowners and punishment for the destruction of their estates. Simple Cossacks did not want to be restored, because they connected with the concept of monarchy the universal, long-term, compulsory military service, the obligation to equip themselves and contain combat horses that were not needed in the economy. Cossack officers linked Tsarism with ideas of the devastating "privilege." The Cossacks liked their new independent system, they were embarrassed that they themselves were discussing issues of power, land and subsoil. The king and the monarchy were contrasted with the concept of freedom. It is difficult to say what the intelligentsia was willing and afraid of, for she herself never knows. She is like that Baba Yaga, which is "always against." In addition, General Ivanov, also a monarchist, a man very honored, but already sick and elderly, took the command of the southern army. As a result, little has come of this venture.

And the Soviet government, everywhere suffering defeat, since July 1918, began to properly organize the Red Army. With the help of officers recruited into it, the scattered Soviet detachments were consolidated into military units. In the regiments, brigades, divisions and corps specialists of military affairs were put in command posts. The Bolsheviks succeeded in bringing a split not only among the Cossacks, but also among the officers. It was divided into about three equal parts: for the whites, for the red, and for no one. Here is another great tragedy.


Fig. 5 Mother's tragedy. One son for whites, and the other for red


The Don army had to fight already with an organized militarily adversary. By August, more than 70 000 fighters, 230 guns with 450 machine guns were concentrated against the Don Army. The numerical superiority of the enemy forces created a difficult position for Don. This situation was aggravated by political turmoil. On August 15, after the liberation of the entire territory of the Don from the Bolsheviks in Novocherkassk, the Great Military Circle convened from the entire population of the Don. It was no longer the former "gray" circle of Don's salvation. The intelligentsia and semi-intelligentsia, national teachers, lawyers, clerks, clerks, solicitors entered it, managed to capture the minds of the Cossacks and the Circle broke up into districts, villages, parties. From the very first meetings on the Circle, opposition to Ataman Krasnov, which had roots in the Volunteer Army, opened. Ataman was blamed for his friendly relations with the Germans, the desire for a solid independent power and independence. And indeed, Bolshevism Ataman contrasted Cossack chauvinism, internationalism with Cossack nationalism, and Russian imperialism with Don independence. Very few then understood the significance of Don separatism as a transitional phenomenon. Denikin did not understand this either. He was annoyed by everything on Don: anthem, flag, coat of arms, chieftain, Circle, discipline, satiety, order, Don patriotism. He considered all this to be a manifestation of separatism and fought against the Don and the Kuban by all means. As a result, he cut the branch on which he was sitting. As soon as the civil war ceased to be national and popular, it became a class war and could not be successful for whites because of the large number of the poorest class. First, the peasants, and then the Cossacks fell away from the Volunteer Army and the white movement, and it died. They talk about treason Cossacks Denikin, but it is not, but quite the opposite. If Denikin had not changed the Cossacks, had not cruelly insulted their young national feelings, they would not have left him. In addition, the decision made by the ataman and the Military Circle to continue the war outside the Don intensified anti-war propaganda from the Reds, and in parts of the Cossacks began to spread the ideas that the ataman and the government were pushing the Cossacks to alien conquests outside the Don, which the Bolsheviks did not impose . The Cossacks wanted to believe that the really Bolsheviks of the territory of the Don were not touched and that they could be agreed. The Cossacks reasonably argued: "We liberated our lands from the Reds, let the Russian soldiers and peasants continue the struggle against them, and we can only help them." In addition, for the summer field work on the Don, manpower was needed, and because of this, older ages had to be released and dismissed from their homes, which greatly affected the size and combat capability of the army. Bearded cossacks with their authority firmly united and disciplined hundreds. But despite the machinations of the opposition, popular wisdom and national egoism prevailed on the Circle over the cunning attacks of political parties. The policy of the ataman was approved, and he 12 September re-elected. Ataman firmly understood that Russia itself must save Russia. He did not believe the Germans, much less allies. He knew that foreigners were not going to Russia for Russia, but to snatch as much as possible from her. He also understood that for Germany and France, for opposite reasons, Russia is needed strong and powerful, and England is weak, fragmented into parts, federal.

The fighting on the border of the Don region by the end of the summer concentrated around Tsaritsyn, which also did not enter the Don region. The defense there was headed by the future Soviet leader I.V. Stalin, whose organizational skills now continue to doubt except the most ignorant and stubborn. Escaping the Cossacks with the propaganda of the futility of fighting them outside the Don, the Bolsheviks concentrated large forces on this front. However, the first offensive of the Reds was repelled, and they moved to Kamyshin and the lower Volga. At a time when the Volunteer Army during the summer was fighting to clean the Kuban region from the army paramedic Sorokin, the Don Army ensured its activity on all fronts against the Reds from Tsaritsyn to Taganrog. During the summer of 1918, the Don Army suffered heavy losses, up to 40% of Cossacks and up to 70% of officers. The quantitative superiority of the Reds and the extensive front-line space did not allow the Cossack regiments to leave the front and go to the rear to rest. Cossacks were in constant combat tension. Not only the people got tired, but the horse staff was also exhausted. Severe conditions and the lack of proper hygiene began to cause infectious diseases, typhoid appeared in the troops. In addition, part of the Reds under the command of the Redneck, defeated in battles north of Stavropol, went in the direction of Tsaritsyn. The appearance from the Caucasus of a volunteer army of Sorokin was a threat from the flank and rear of the Don Army, which led a stubborn struggle against the garrison in 50 000 man who occupied Tsaritsyn. With the onset of cold and general fatigue, the Don units began to depart from Tsaritsyn.

But what about the Kuban? The lack of weapons and soldiers of the Volunteer Army was filled with enthusiasm and dashing. In an open field, under hurricane fire, officer companies, striking the imagination of the enemy, moved in orderly chains and drove ten times larger than the Red forces in numbers.


Fig. 6 Attack of an officer company


Successful battles, accompanied by the capture of a large number of prisoners, lifted the spirits in the Kuban villages, and the Cossacks began to en masse weapon. The composition of the Volunteer Army, which suffered great losses, was supplemented by a large number of Kuban Cossacks, volunteers arriving from all over Russia and people from partial mobilization of the population. The need for a unified command with all the forces that fought against the Bolsheviks was recognized by the entire command staff. In addition, it was necessary for the leaders of the White movement to take into account the all-Russian situation prevailing in the revolutionary process. Unfortunately, none of the leaders of the Goodwill, who claimed the role of leaders on the national scale, did not have the flexibility and dialectical philosophy. The dialectic of the Bolsheviks, who, to keep power, gave the Germans more than a third of the territory and population of European Russia, of course, could not serve as an example, but Denikin’s claims for the role of the immaculate and unshakable guardian of “united and indivisible Russia” could only be ridiculous under the conditions of the Troubles. Under the conditions of a multifactorial and merciless struggle of “all with all,” he did not possess the necessary flexibility and dialectics. The refusal of the ataman Krasnov to subordinate to Denikin the administration of the Don Region, was understood by him not only as the personal vanity of the ataman, but also as the hidden independence of the Cossacks. All parts of the Russian Empire, striving to establish order with their own forces, were considered by Denikin to be the enemies of the white movement. The local authorities of Kuban Denikin also did not recognize, and punitive detachments began to be sent against them from the first days of the struggle. Military efforts were scattered, significant forces were diverted from the main goal. The main parts of the population, objectively supporting the whites, not only did not join the struggle, but became its opponents. The front demanded a large number of the male population, but it was necessary to reckon with the demands of internal work, and often Cossacks who were at the front were released from parts for certain periods. The Kuban government freed some ages from mobilization, and General Denikin saw this as “dangerous prerequisites and manifestations of sovereignty”. The army was fed at the expense of the Kuban population. The Kuban government paid all the costs of supplying the Volunteer Army, which could not complain about the supply of food. At the same time, under the laws of wartime, the Volunteer Army claimed for itself the right to all property seized from the Bolsheviks, cargoes going to the Reds, the right of requisition, and more. Other means of replenishing the treasury of Dobromrmii were indemnities imposed on villages, which showed hostile actions against it. To account for and distribute this property, General Denikin organized a commission of public figures of the military-industrial committee. The activity of this commission went in such a way that a significant part of the cargo was spoiled, a part was stolen, among the members of the commission there was a scolding that the commission was made up of persons mostly unprepared, useless, even harmful and ignorant. The immutable law of any army is that everything beautiful, brave, heroic, noble goes to the front, and everything that is cowardly, deviating from battle, all craving not for feat and glory, but for gain and outdoor brilliance, all speculators gather in the rear. People who have not seen a one-hundred-ticket before, they turn in millions of rubles, they are dizzy with this money, they are selling "booty" here, here are their heroes. The front is torn off, barefoot, naked and hungry, and here sit people in cleverly-sewn Circassian coats, in colored towers, French jackets and breeches.

There are hospitals with doctors, nurses and sisters of mercy. Here is love and jealousy. So it was in all armies, so it was in the white armies. Along with ideological people, the self-seekers walked into the white movement. These self-seekers firmly settled in the rear and flooded Ekaterinodar, Rostov and Novocherkassk. Their behavior cut sight and hearing of the army and the population. In addition, for General Denikin, it was not clear why the Kuban government, freeing the region, put the same people who were under the Bolsheviks into place of the rulers, renaming them from commissars to atamans. He did not understand that the business qualities of each Cossack were determined in the conditions of the Cossack democracy by the Cossacks themselves. However, not being able to bring order to the regions liberated from power by the Bolsheviks himself, General Denikin remained irreconcilable to the local Cossack orders and to the local national organizations, who lived their own customs in pre-revolutionary times. They enrolled in them as hostile “independent criminals”, and punitive measures were taken against them. All these reasons could not contribute to attracting the population to the side of the white army. At the same time, General Denikin, both during the Civil War and in emigration, thought a lot, but to no avail, about the completely inexplicable (from his point of view) epidemic spread of Bolshevism. Moreover, the Kuban army, geographically and by origin, was divided into the army of the Black Sea Cossacks, resettled by the decree of Empress Catherine II after the destruction of the Dnieper army, and the lineans, whose population was displaced from the Don region and from the Volga Cossack communities.

These two units, making up one army, were different in character. In both parts they were kept historical past. The Black Sea people were heirs to the troops of the Dnieper Cossacks and Zaporozhye, whose ancestors, due to their many times demonstrated political instability, turned out to be destroyed as an army. Moreover, the Russian authorities only completed the destruction of the Dnieper Army, and Poland began it, under the rule of the kings of which the Dnieper Cossacks were for a long time. This unstable orientation of the Little Russians has brought many tragedies in the past, it is enough to recall the inglorious fate and death of their last talented hetman Mazepa. This turbulent past and other features of the Little Russian character imposed strong specifics on the behavior of the Kuban in the civil war. The Kuban Rada was divided into 2 trends: Ukrainian and independent. The leaders of the Rada Bych and Ryabovol suggested merging with Ukraine, the independent people stood for the establishment of a federation in which the Kuban would be completely independent. And they both dreamed and sought to free themselves from Denikin's care. He, in turn, considered them all traitors. The moderate part of the Rada, the front-line soldiers and the chieftain Filimonov held on to volunteers. With the help of volunteers, they wanted to free themselves from the Bolsheviks. But the chieftain Filimonov had little authority among the Cossacks, they had other heroes: Pokrovsky, Shkuro, Ulagai, Pavlyuchenko. Kuban people liked them very much, but their behavior was difficult to predict. The behavior of numerous Caucasian nationalities was even more unpredictable, which determined the great specifics of the civil war in the Caucasus. Frankly, with all their zigzags and freaks, the Reds used all this specificity much better than Denikin.

Many hopes of whites were associated with the name of Grand Duke Nikolai Nikolaevich Romanov. Grand Duke Nikolai Nikolaevich lived all this time in the Crimea, not openly entering into political events. He was strongly oppressed by the idea that by sending his telegram to the sovereign with a request for renunciation, he contributed to the death of the monarchy and the destruction of Russia. The Grand Duke wanted to make amends for this and take part in the combat work. However, in response to General Alekseev's lengthy letter, the Grand Duke responded with just one phrase: “Be calm” ... and General Alekseev 25 September passed away. The High Command and the civil part of the administration of the liberated territories were fully united in the hands of General Denikin.

Heavy continuous battles exhausted both sides of the belligerents in the Kuban. The Reds also fought among the high command. The commander of the 11 Army, the former paramedic Sorokin, was eliminated, and the command was transferred to the Revolutionary Military Council. Not finding support in the army, Sorokin fled from Pyatigorsk in the direction of Stavropol. 17 October, he was caught, imprisoned, where he was killed without any trial. After the killing of Sor-kin, as a result of internal squabbles among the red leaders and from impotent rage to the stubborn resistance of the Cossacks, also wanting to intimidate the population, an exemplary 106 hostage was carried out in Mineralnye Vody. Among those executed was General Radko-Dmitriev, a Bulgarian in the Russian service, and General Ruzsky, who so persistently urged the last Russian Emperor to abdicate the throne. After the sentence, General Ruzsky was asked: "Do you now recognize the great Russian revolution?" He replied: "I see only one great robbery." It should be added to this that the beginning of the robbery was laid by him at the headquarters of the Northern Front, where violence was made over the will of the emperor, who was forced to abdicate the throne. As for the bulk of the former officers who were in the North Caucasus, it turned out to be completely inert to the events taking place, showing no desire to serve either white or red, which decided their fate. Almost all of them were "just in case" red destroyed.

In the Caucasus, the class struggle was heavily mixed in on the national question. Among the numerous peoples inhabiting it, Georgia had the greatest political importance, and in the economic sense - Caucasian oil. In political and territorial terms, Georgia was primarily under pressure from Turkey. Soviet power, but to the Brest peace, ceded Turkey Kars, Ardahan and Batum, which Georgia could not recognize. Turkey recognized the independence of Georgia, but the territorial demands were made even more severe than those of the Brest Peace. Georgia refused to carry them out, the Turks launched an offensive and occupied Kars, heading for Tiflis. Not recognizing the Soviet power, Georgia sought to ensure the independence of the country by armed force and began the formation of the army. But Georgia was ruled by political figures who took an active part after the revolution as part of the Petrograd Soviet of Workers 'and Soldiers' Deputies. These same people now ingloriously tried to build the Georgian army on the same principles that at one time led the Russian army to decomposition. In the spring of 1918, the struggle for Caucasian oil began. A German cavalry brigade and several battalions were withdrawn from the Bulgarian front by the German command and transferred to Batum and Poti, which was rented by Germany for 60 years. However, the Turks were the first to appear in Baku, and the fanaticism of Turkish Mohammedanism, ideas and propaganda of the Reds, the strength and money of the British and Germans collapsed there. Since ancient times, there was irreconcilable hostility between Armenians and Azerbaijanis in the Transcaucasus (at that time they were called Turco-Tatars). After the established power of the Soviets, the age-old enmity was intensified by religion and politics. Two camps were created: the Soviet-Armenian proletariat and the Turkish-Tatars. Back in March, 1918, one of the Soviet-Armenian regiments, returning from Persia, seized power in Baku and slaughtered whole blocks of Turkish-Tatars, destroying people to 10000. For several months, the power in the city remained in the hands of the Red Armenians. In early September, a Turkish corps under the command of Mursal Pasha arrived in Baku, dispersed the Baku commune and occupied the city. With the arrival of the Turks, the massacre of the Armenian population began. Muslims triumphed.

Germany, after the Peace of Brest, was fortified on the shores of the Azov and Black Seas, in whose ports part of their fleet was deployed. In the coastal cities of the Black Sea, German sailors, who sympathized with the unequal struggle of the Goodwill with the Bolsheviks, offered their help to the army headquarters, which Denikin contemptuously rejected. Georgia, separated from Russia by a mountain range, had a connection with the northern part of the Caucasus through a narrow strip of coast that formed the Black Sea gubernia. Having attached the Sukhum district to its territory, Georgia advanced by September an armed detachment under the command of General Mazniev in Tuapse. This was a fatal decision when, in the Civil War, they threw in the yeasts of the national interests of the newly emerged states with all their acuteness and intractability. Against the Volunteer Army towards the Tuapse, the Georgians sent a detachment to 3000 people with 18 guns. The Georgians began to erect fortifications on the coast to the north, while a small German landing force landed in Sochi and Adler. General Denikin began to reproach the representatives of Georgia for the difficult and humiliating situation of the Russian population in Georgia, plundering the Russian state property, the invasion and occupation by the Georgians, together with the Germans, of the Black Sea province. To which Georgia replied: “The volunteer army is a private organization ... In this situation, the Sochi district should become part of Georgia ...”. In this dispute between the leaders of the Goodwill and Georgia, the government of the Kuban was completely on the side of Georgia. The Kubanians had friendly relations with Georgia. It soon became clear that the Sochi district was occupied by Georgia with the consent of Kuban, and that there were no misunderstandings between Kuban and Georgia.

Such turbulent events that developed in the Transcaucasus did not leave any room for the problems of the Russian Empire and its last stronghold, the Volunteer Army. Therefore, General Denikin finally turned his gaze to the East, where the government of Admiral Kolchak was formed. An embassy was sent to him, and then was followed by Denikin’s admiral Kolchak’s recognition as the Supreme Ruler of national Russia.

Meanwhile, the defense of the Don continued on the front from Tsaritsyn to Taganrog. Throughout the summer and autumn, the Don Army, without any outside help, conducted heavy and constant battles on the main axes from Voronezh and Tsaritsyn. Instead of the Red Army gangs, the Workers 'and Peasants' Red Army (RKKA), which had just been created by the efforts of military experts, had already fought against the people's Don Army instead of the Red Guard gangs. By the end of the 1918, the Red Army already had 299 regular regiments, including on the eastern front against Kolchak, there were 97 regiments, on the northern against the Finns and Germans of the 38 regiments, on the western against the Polish-Lithuanian forces 65 regiments, on the southern 99 regiments, of which on the Don front there was the 44 regiment, on the Astrakhan 5 regiments, on the Kursk-Bryansk 28 regiments, against Denikin and the Kuban 22 regiment. The army was commanded by the Revolutionary Military Council led by Bronstein (Trotsky), the Defense Council led by Ulyanov (Lenin) became the head of all the country's military efforts. The headquarters of the Southern Front in Kozlov received in October the task to demolish the Don Cossacks and take, by all means, Rostov and Novocherkassk. Front commanded by General Sytin. The front consisted of Sorokin’s 11 Army, headquarters in Nevinnomyssk against volunteers and Kuban troops, Antonov’s 12 Army, Astrakhan headquarters, Voroshilov’s 10 Army, Tsaritsyn Headquarters, General Egorov’s 9 Army, Balashov Headquarters, Balashov Headquarters, 8 Army, General Army Yegorov’s headquarters, Balashovo XNUMX Army, headquarters in Tsaritsyn, XNUMX Army, Antonov X. XNUMX th army of General Chernavin, headquarters in Voronezh. Sorokin, Antonov and Voroshilov were remnants of the previous electoral system, and the fate of Sorokin had already been decided, Voroshilov was looking for a replacement, and all the other commanders were former headquarters officers and generals of the imperial army. Thus, the situation on the Don front was composed in a very formidable way. The ataman and army commanders, Generals Denisov and Ivanov, were aware that the times when one Cossack was enough for ten Red Guards passed and understood that the period of “handicraft” operations was over. Don Army was preparing to fight back. The offensive was stopped, the troops moved away from the Voronezh province and entrenched in the fortified belt along the border of the Don Army. Relying on the left flank of the Ukraine, occupied by the Germans, and right on the difficult-to-reach Trans-Volga region, the ataman hoped to keep the defense until the spring, during this time, strengthening and strengthening his army. But man proposes, and God disposes.

In November, for the Don, exclusively adverse events of a general political nature took place. The Allies defeated the Central Powers, Kaiser Wilhelm abdicated the throne, a revolution and disintegration of the army began in Germany. German troops began to leave Russia. German soldiers did not obey their commanders, they were already ruled by their Soviets of Soldiers' Deputies. More recently, the formidable “Halt” harsh German soldiers stopped crowds of workers and soldiers in Ukraine, but now they humbly allowed themselves to be disarmed by the Ukrainian peasants. And then Ostap suffered. Ukraine boiled up, began to stir up revolts, in each volost there appeared their own "batko" and the civil war famously rolled around the country. Hetman, Haidmatchin, Petliurism, Makhnovshchina ... All this was heavily mixed in Ukrainian nationalism and separatism. Many works have been written about this period and dozens of films have been shot, including incredibly popular ones. If you remember "Wedding in Malinovka" or "Red Devils", then you can vividly imagine ... the future of Ukraine.

And then Petlyura, having united with Vinnichenko, raised a revolt of the Sich archers. There was no one to suppress the rebellion. The hetman of his army was not. The German Council of Deputies concluded a truce with Petliura, who urged the trains, and the German soldiers loaded into them, abandoning their positions and armaments, and sent home. Under these conditions, the French command on the Black Sea promised to the hetman of the 3-4 division. But at Versailles, on the Thames and the Potomac, they looked at it quite differently. Big politicians saw in united Russia a threat to Persia, India, the Middle and Far East. They wanted to see Russia destroyed, fragmented and burned over slow fire. In Soviet Russia they followed the events with fear and trepidation. Objectively, the victory of the Allies was the defeat of Bolshevism. Both commissioners and Red Army men understood this. As the people of Don said that they could not fight with the whole of Russia, the Red Army men understood that they could not fight against the whole world. But to fight and did not have to. In Versailles, they did not want to save Russia, did not want to share the fruits of victory with it, so they postponed help. There was another reason. Although the British and French said that Bolshevism is a disease of the defeated armies, and they are winners and their armies are not touched by this terrible disease. But this was not the case. Their soldiers did not want to fight any more with anyone, their armies were already being eaten away by the same terrible gangrene of war tiredness as the others. And when the allies did not come to Ukraine, the Bolsheviks had hope of victory. To protect Ukraine and the hetman remained a hastily formed squad of officers and junkers. Hetman's troops were defeated, the Ukrainian Council of Ministers surrendered Kiev to the Petliurists, bargaining for the right of themselves and the officers to evacuate the Don and Kuban. Getman escaped.

The return of Petliura to power was colorfully described in the novel “Days of the Turbins” by Mikhail Bulgakov: chaos, murder, violence against Russian officers and simply over Russians in Kiev. And then the stubborn struggle against Russia, not only against the red, but against the white. Petliurists in the occupied territories staged a terrible terror, massacre and genocide of Russians. The Soviet command, having learned about it, moved the army of Antonov to Ukraine, which easily defeated the Petliura gangs and occupied Kharkov, and then Kiev. Petliura fled to Kamenetz-Podolsk. In Ukraine, after the Germans left, huge stocks of military property remained, which went to red. This gave them the opportunity to form the ninth army from the side of Ukraine and direct it against the Don from the west. With the departure of the German units from the borders of the Don and Ukraine, the position of the Don was complicated in two respects: the army was deprived of the replenishment of armaments and military supplies, and a new, western frond was added with a stretch of 600 vers. For the command of the Red Army, there were ample opportunities to use the prevailing conditions, and they decided to first defeat the Don Army, and then destroy the Kuban and Volunteer armies. All the attention of Ataman Don Cossacks now was drawn to the western borders. But there was a belief that the allies would come and help out. The intelligentsia was disposed to the allies lovingly, enthusiastically and looked forward to them with impatience. Due to the widespread Anglo-French education and literature, the British and French, despite the remoteness of these countries, were closer to the Russian educated heart than the Germans. Especially Russians, for this social stratum is traditionally and firmly convinced that there can be no prophets in our Fatherland by definition. The simple people, including the Cossacks, had other priorities in this regard. The Germans enjoyed sympathy and liked simple Cossacks as a serious and hardworking people; ordinary people viewed the Frenchman as a frivolous creature with some contempt, an Englishman with great distrust. In the Russian people there was a firm conviction that during the period of Russian successes, “the Englishwoman always shits.” It soon became clear that the Cossacks faith in the allies turned out to be an illusion and a chimera.

Denikin's attitude towards Don was ambivalent. While Germany’s affairs were good, and supplies went to Ukraine from the Don, the attitude of Denikin to Ataman Krasnov was cold, but restrained. But as soon as it became known about the victory of the Allies, everything changed. General Denikin began to avenge the ataman for independence and to show that now everything is in his hands. On November 13 in Ekaterinodar, Denikin convened a meeting of representatives of the Dobronarmiya, Don and Kuban, at which he demanded that 3 should resolve the main issues. On a single government (dictatorship of General Denikin), a single command and a single representation in front of the allies. The meeting did not come to an agreement, and relations became even more aggravated, and with the arrival of the Allies, a cruel intrigue began against the ataman and the Don Cossacks. Denikin’s agents among the allies, the ataman Krasnov, had long been represented as a figure of “German orientation.” All attempts of the chieftain to change this characteristic have not been successful. In addition, when meeting foreigners Krasnov always ordered to play the old Russian anthem. At the same time, he said: “I have two possibilities. Or play in such cases, "God Save the Tsar," without attaching meaning to the words, or a funeral march. I deeply believe in Russia, because I cannot play the funeral march. I play the Russian anthem. ” Ataman for it abroad was considered also a monarchist. As a result, Don had no help from the allies. But the ataman was not up to parry intrigue. The military situation has changed dramatically, the Don Army threatened death. Attaching special importance to the territory of the Don, by November the Soviet power against the Don army concentrated four armies numbering 125 LLC fighters with 468 guns and 1337 machine guns. The rear of the Red armies were reliably covered by railway lines, which ensured the transfer of troops and maneuvering, and the units of the Reds increased in numbers. Winter was early and cold. With the onset of cold weather, diseases developed, and typhoid began. 60-thousandth Don Army began to numerically melt and freeze, and there was no place to take replenishments. The resources of manpower on the Don were completely exhausted, the Cossacks were mobilized from 18 to 52 years, and were older as volunteers. It was clear that with the defeat of the Don Army, the Volunteer Army would also cease to exist. But the front was held by the Don Cossacks, which allowed General Denikin, taking advantage of the difficult situation on the Don, to wrestle the war against the ataman Krasnov through members of the Troop Circle. At the same time, the Bolsheviks resorted to their tried and tested means - the most tempting promises, for which there was nothing but unprecedented treachery. But these promises sounded very attractive and humane. The Bolsheviks promised the Cossacks peace and the full immunity of the borders of the Don Cossacks, if the latter lay down their arms and go home.

They pointed out that the allies would not help them, even on the contrary, they help the Bolsheviks. The struggle against the times of the enemy forces that were superior to 2-3 oppressed the morale of the Cossacks, and the Red’s promise to establish peaceful relations in some parts began to find supporters. Separate parts began to leave the front, exposing him, and, finally, the regiments of the Upper Don District decided to enter into negotiations with the Reds and ceased resistance. The truce was concluded on the basis of self-determination and friendship of peoples. Many Cossacks went home. Through the ruptures of the front, the Reds penetrated into the deep rears of the defending units and without any pressure the Cossacks of the Khopyorsk region rolled back. The Don army, leaving the northern districts, retreated to the line of the Seversky Donets, surrendering the village of Mironovskii to the village behind the stanitsa. The chieftain had not a single free Cossack, everything was sent to the defense of the western front. The threat arose over Novocherkassk. Only volunteers or allies could save the situation.

By the time the front of the Don Army collapsed in the Kuban and North Caucasus regions, they had already been freed from the Reds. By November 1918, the armed forces in Kuban consisted of 35 thousands of Kuban and 7 thousands of volunteers. These forces were free, but General Denikin was in no hurry to assist the exhausted Don Cossacks. The situation and the allies demanded a unified command. But not only the Cossacks, but the Cossack officers and generals did not want to obey the royal generals. This collision needed to be solved somehow. Under pressure from the allies, General Denikin invited the ataman and the Don government to meet for a meeting in order to clarify the relationship between Don and the Command of the Goodwill. December 26 The 1918 year in Torgovaya gathered for a meeting Don commanders Donisov, Polyakov, Smagin, Ponomarev on the one hand and generals Denikin, Dragomirov, Romanovsky and Shcherbachev on the other. The meeting was opened by the speech of General Denikin. Starting with a presentation of the broad perspectives of the struggle against the Bolsheviks, he urged those present to forget personal insults and insults. The question of unified command for all commanders was a vital necessity, and it was clear to everyone that all the armed forces, incomparably smaller in comparison with enemy units, should be united under one common leadership and directed towards one goal: the destruction of the center of Bolshevism and the occupation of Moscow. Negotiations were very hard and constantly came to a standstill. There were too many differences between the command of the Volunteer Army and the Cossacks, in the field of politics, tactics and strategy. Still, with great difficulty and big concessions, Denikin managed to subjugate the Don Army.

In these difficult days, the ataman received the military mission of the Allies, led by General Pull. They examined the troops in positions and in reserve, factories, workshops, stud farms. The more I saw the Bullets, the more I realized that help was needed immediately. But in London there was a completely different opinion. After his report, Pull was removed from the leadership of the mission in the Caucasus and replaced by General Briggs, who did nothing without a team from London. And there were no teams to help the Cossacks. England needed Russia weakened, exhausted and immersed in the permanent unrest. Instead of helping the French mission, the ataman and the Don government issued an ultimatum in which they demanded that the ataman and the Don government be fully subordinated to the French command on the Black Sea and fully compensated for all the losses of French citizens (read coal miners) in the Donbas. Under these conditions, a campaign against the ataman and the Don Cossacks continued in Ekaterinodar. General Denikin maintained contacts and conducted ongoing negotiations with the Chairman of the Circle Kharlamov and other leaders from the opposition ataman. However, realizing the seriousness of the situation of the Don Army, Denikin sent a division of May-Mayevsky to the region of Mariupol and another 2 Kuban divisions were echeloned and waited for an order to speak. But there was no order, Denikin was waiting for the decision of the Circle regarding the ataman Krasnov.

The Big Military Circle gathered on February 1. It was not the same circle as August 15 in the days of victories. The faces were the same, but the expression is not that. Then all the front-line soldiers were in uniform, orders and medals. Now all the Cossacks and junior officers were without epaulets. The circle in the person of its gray part was democratized and played under the Bolsheviks. 2 February The Circle expressed mistrust to the commander and chief of staff of the Don Army, Generals Denisov and Polyakov. In response, the ataman Krasnov was offended for his comrades-in-arms and resigned as the ataman. The circle did not accept it at first. But in the lobby dominated the opinion that without the resignation of the chieftain there would be no help from the allies and Denikin. After that, Krug accepted his resignation. In his place was elected chieftain General Bogayevsky. 3 February Circle was visited by General Denikin, where he was greeted with stormy applause. Now the Volunteer, Don, Kuban, Terek armies and the Black Sea Fleet were combined under his command called the Armed Forces of Southern Russia (VSYUR).

The truce of the North Don Cossacks with the Bolsheviks continued, however, not for long. A few days after the ceasefire, the Reds appeared in the villages and began to produce wild reprisals among the Cossacks. They began to take away bread, steal cattle, kill the rebellious and produce violence. In response to the February 26, an uprising began that swept the villages of Kazan, Migulinskaya, Veshenskaya and Elanskaya. The defeat of Germany, the elimination of the chieftain Krasnov, the creation of the All-Union Socialist League and the rebellion of the Cossacks began a new stage in the struggle against the Bolsheviks in southern Russia. But this is a completely different story.

Materials used:
Gordeev A.A. - History of the Cossacks
Mamonov V.F. and others. - History of the Cossacks of the Urals. Orenburg-Chelyabinsk 1992
Shibanov N.S. - Orenburg Cossacks of the XX century
Ryzhkova N.V. - Don Cossacks in the wars of the early twentieth century-2008
Brusilov A.A. My memories. Military Publishing. M.1983
Krasnov P.N. Great Don army. "Patriot" M.1990
Lukomsky A.S. Origin of the Volunteer Army. M.1926
Denikin A.I. How the struggle against the Bolsheviks began in the south of Russia. M.1926
Author:
Articles from this series:
Siberian Cossack Epic
Old Cossack ancestors
Cossacks and the annexation of Turkestan
Education Volga and Yaitsky Cossack Troops
Cossacks in Time of Troubles
Seniority (education) and the formation of the Don Cossack troops in the Moscow service
Azov seat and the transition of the Don troops in the Moscow service
Formation of the Dnieper and Zaporizhia troops and their service to the Polish-Lithuanian state
The transfer of the Cossack army hetman to the Moscow service
Treason of Mazepa and the pogrom of Cossack liberties by Tsar Peter
The uprising of Pugachev and the elimination of the Dnieper Cossacks by Empress Catherine
Cossacks in World War 1812 of the year. Part I, pre-war
Cossacks in World War 1812 of the year. Part II, the invasion and expulsion of Napoleon
Cossacks in World War 1812 of the year. Part III, foreign campaign
Formation of the Kuban Army
The feat of the young Platov (Battle of the Kalalah on the third of April, 1774)
Education Orenburg Cossack troops
Cossacks before the World War
Cossacks and the First World War. Part I, pre-war
Cossacks and the First World War. Part II, 1914 year
Cossacks and the First World War. Part III, 1915 year
Cossacks and the First World War. Part IV. 1916 year
Cossacks and the First World War. Part V. The Caucasian Front
Cossacks and the February Revolution
Cossacks and the October Revolution
Cossacks in the Civil War. Part I. 1918 year. The origin of the white movement
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  1. drop1
    drop1 16 March 2015 08: 01
    +4
    It would be good to reveal who actually organized and financed this unrest, set his brother against his brother and reaped the benefits ...
    For what purpose did the Sverdlov DIRECTIVE appear on the total extermination of the Don Cossacks?
    1. dmb
      dmb 16 March 2015 09: 31
      +1
      And you do not read it in the retelling of Volgin and his ilk, then maybe you will understand. There is no mention of any extermination of the Cossacks as a social group. All points of the directive are aimed exclusively at those who are actively resisting the Soviet Government., Which was the power of the majority. What ends the inability of the authorities to defend themselves is well known.
      1. drop1
        drop1 16 March 2015 10: 17
        +3
        Quote: dmb
        And you do not read it in the retelling of Volgin and his ilk



        But would you consider it hard to bring her (this directive) here for review, maybe the people themselves would figure out whose ears stick out?
        By the way, I would like to note that in Ukraine the Slavic people were pitted among themselves and are carrying out its destruction.
        In the 17th year after the revolution and in subsequent years, a civil war was fought in Russia as well, and the brother also destroyed his brother. Who was behind this you can reveal?
        1. dmb
          dmb 16 March 2015 11: 36
          +1
          I will not consider it. I did not find a photocopy. The proposed copy-paste is also doubtful, given the date of publication under the leadership of Yakovlev, but even from it you can’t make a conclusion about the total extermination. ABOUT STORY »
          “The latest events on various fronts in the Cossack regions — our advancement deeper into the Cossack settlements and the expansion among the Cossack troops compel us to give instructions to party workers about the nature of the work in the reconstruction and strengthening of Soviet power in these areas. It is necessary, taking into account the experience of the year of the Civil War with the Cossacks, to recognize as the only right the most merciless struggle against all the tops of the Cossacks by means of their complete extermination. No compromises, no half way is unacceptable.
          Therefore it is necessary:
          1. To carry out mass terror against the rich Cossacks, exterminating them without exception;
          to conduct a ruthless mass terror against the Cossacks in general, who took any direct or indirect part in the struggle against the Soviet power. It is necessary to apply all those measures to the average Cossacks that give a guarantee against any attempts on his part to new actions against the Soviet power.

          2. Confiscate the bread and force to pour all the excess in the specified points. This applies to both bread and all other agricultural products.
          3. Apply all measures to assist the relocating alien poor, organizing resettlement where possible.

          4. Equalize alien "nonresident" to the Cossacks in the land and in all other respects.
          5. Conduct complete disarmament, shooting everyone who will be found weapons after the deadline.
          6. To issue weapons only to reliable elements from non-resident.

          7. Armed detachments to leave in the Cossack villages until the establishment of full order.
          8. All commissars appointed to one or another Cossack settlement are invited to show maximum hardness and to steadily carry out these instructions.
          The Central Committee decides to carry out, through the appropriate Soviet institutions, the obligation of the People's Commissariat to develop, in a hurry, actual measures for the mass relocation of the poor to Cossack lands.
          Y. Sverdlov.
          (Izvestia Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union journal (1989, N 6. S. 177-178).
          1. semirek
            semirek 16 March 2015 14: 15
            +2
            Moreover, the Soviet government took revenge on the Cossacks after the civil war: whole villages were sent to us in Kazakhstan, specifically in the Karaganda region, for the fact that they did not want to join collective farms.
            I’m not talking about the Semirechye Cossacks — they were gone, this outpost on the southern borders of the empire: mass slandering of those Cossacks who took Soviet power, dispossession of land as a result of the land-water reform of 21 years, and in addition the full renaming of the villages --- is it not genocide.
            1. dmb
              dmb 16 March 2015 18: 39
              -2
              If it was a monologue, then I don’t dare to interfere, but if the answer is to my comment, I recommend re-reading it again, reading the concept of genocide in the explanatory dictionary, and at the same time explaining where the Cossack population in the Rostov Region, Stavropol and Krasnodar Territories came from . And what communion infection came up with the names of the villages: Barrier, Nevinnomysskaya, Watchdog, Starocherkasskaya, etc., which existed before the era of democracy.
              1. semirek
                semirek 16 March 2015 20: 44
                +2
                And why this sarcasm?
                1. dmb
                  dmb 17 March 2015 08: 34
                  0
                  And it depends on the answer to my question. In the second case, my sarcasm refutes the pathos of your comment, that's all.
    2. vladkavkaz
      vladkavkaz 16 March 2015 10: 10
      +1
      drop1
      SEPARATISM in its purest form. And if so, then they raped everything that they fought for, RUSSIA, those who are trying to destroy it, are severely punishing.

      Kuban People's Republic
      Great Don Army
      Tersk Cossack Republic
      Ural Cossack Republic
      Orenburg Cossack Circle
      Siberian-Semirechenskaya Cossack Republic
      Transbaikalian Cossack Republic.
      1. drop1
        drop1 16 March 2015 10: 31
        +1
        Quote: vladkavkaz
        SEPARATISM in its purest form.



        Good afternoon Vlad!
        I am postponing events after 17 to today's Ukraine with personalities in mind. Everything collapsed, and set one against the other, and after 17 and in Ukraine today.
        Who benefits from the destruction of industry and the destruction and crowding out of the people? For what?
        1. vladkavkaz
          vladkavkaz 16 March 2015 11: 54
          -1
          drop1
          There are no parallels between 17 and what is happening in Ukraine now.
          Direct and absolutely unquestionable, parallel with the events in Germany at 30.
          Absolute, because as the dominant ideology of the Kiev regime, the characters of that era were chosen - all these Bandera, Shukhevych, Konovalets and other scum.
          The destruction of the industry of Donbass and the crowding out, genocide of the Russian, generally Slavic population of Donbass, is the work of the Anglo-Saxons in order to defeat Russia, this is happening from century to century.
          Only the deaf-deaf-mute is not clear that DONBASS will not return to the current Ruin in any form, and the question of a different Ukraine, absolutely friendly to both Russia and Belarus, with the same state of Donbass in it, a different project, our project, realizing this, The current owners of the Ruins, hammered the Donbass into the Stone Age according to the US prescription.
          In the same way as the Nazis did, in 1943 when they were trampled from the Donbass.
          For people reading, it’s no secret that Germany 30 is the same project directed again against Russia. And a considerable number of newly built enterprises in Germany were created by the efforts of England and the USA, the result is known.
          And the destroyed Donbass is a blow both to the Donbass itself and to Russia, which was forced to spend quite a lot of money to prevent the destruction of both people and the entire infrastructure there.
          To give up the Donbass means to strengthen the brown abscess, to please the United States on our borders.
    3. slovak
      slovak 16 March 2015 18: 55
      -1
      There is literature, for example: Anthony Sutton: Wall Street and the Bolshevik Revolution. Moscow 1998.
      1. vladkavkaz
        vladkavkaz 16 March 2015 19: 38
        -1
        slovak

        And what does it say?
        Isn't that whether- "Summing up his research, the author directly accuses the American financial elite of selfish betrayal of national interests and close communication with the totalitarian system, whose help allowed to create a potential gravedigger of Western civilization." International finance prefers to deal with centralized governments. the last thing he wants is a free economy and decentralized power, as this dissipates power. ”[p. 212] ... the Morgan-Rockefeller complex, presented at 120 Broadway and 14 Wall Street, entered the battle for the Bolsheviks in Washington - and won. Soviet totalitarian regime In the 1930s, foreign firms, mainly from the Morgan-Rockefeller group, carried out five-year plans and continued to build Russia both economically and militarily [p. 216].

        A rather interesting commentary on Sutton's book was left by publicist Mikhail Nazarov, heading it as: “Behind the Scenes of the“ Russian ”Revolution” (p.303). A key factor in this commentary is the Jewish footprint in the financing of the Russian revolution. Unlike Sutton, Nazarov unequivocally, referring to the Jewish Encyclopedia and a number of other sources, speaks of the key role of the Jewish banker J. Schiff and his company Kuhn, Loeb and Co in financing subversive activities in Russia on the basis of infringement of the rights of international Jewry [p ... 309]. "
        In other words, in Russian and without equivocation, what Wall Street hoped for through Trotsky did not work, Lenin and Stalin outplayed them- HERE and all the price of Sutton’s labor.
        1. dmb
          dmb 16 March 2015 20: 12
          0
          Dear Roman, I read your comments with interest, and I fully share your vision of the future of Russia as a socialist state. However, I cannot agree with individual comments. In particular, even the works of Marx and Lenin, based on the same ML theory, are not saints. Therefore, neither Sutton's book nor Nazarov's commentary is worth praying, but it is worth giving them the same critical assessment. In particular, Wall Street could well rely on the Bolsheviks, but only at the moment when he realized that they were serious and for a long time, and it was possible to make a profit by mutually beneficial trade with them, but not by war. But for a fig "the mercenary of bank capital" Trotsky was to create the Red Army, which deprived the same bankers of the territories promised to them by the Kolchaks and Denikins, there is no intelligible explanation. What has been said does not mean that Bronstein was a Russian hope, but it still does not exist.
        2. slovak
          slovak 16 March 2015 22: 42
          0
          vladkavkaz
          The question was who organized and financed, but not about further development.
          1. vladkavkaz
            vladkavkaz 17 March 2015 10: 12
            -1
            slovak
            The question has long been agitated and historians who have not been engaged for a long time and understand who was interested in what and when.

            February happened before October, if you have ever studied the calendar, along with Sutton. Your Sutton is written like Prince Lvov, and this is by no means a bolevik who was given huge sums for those times as Kerensky, who also has nothing to do to the Bolsheviks, but both in February fussed quite a bit.
            And when the neo-Trotskyists scream in defense of their idol, Trotsky, they say he’s out of business, it’s clear for a long time what’s more in business, through Schiff and Parvus, not Lenin and the Bolshevik party in general.

            A long time ago there were documents, even the Provisional Government, which did not find the slightest sign of German financing of the Bolsheviks.
            loud quibbles to Sutton, they say, the most "scientists" of that period - LOOK the date of the publication of his book, as well as the op of those who rely on him, right in time for the beginning of the operation to collapse the Union. And such booklets, stuffing, at that time to a minimum 95 years old, they poured a shaft into the heads of people who did not quite understand why this was done.
            Everyone thinks of themselves as counters, princes, at least merchants and industrialists, screaming about the alleged need for a revolution as such, forgetting that if you delve into your genealogy, then the overwhelming number of screaming, it turns out, in 17, his great-grandfather was a black-cut peasant, with one horse, a bunch of children and gloomy prospects of life, and only that same October, gave very many a ticket roughly speaking to life, and not to live in manure.

            So all these Suttons and K, all the fitulkiny letters designed for gullible ...

            Once again, you are forced to repeat, the Bolsheviks overplayed all the speculations of the arrogant Saxons, under the leadership, first of Lenin, and then, his faithful follower I. Stalin, who should be happy and not throw lumps of dirt taken from lousy, arrogant Saxon sources.
            http://leninism.su/lie/4098-tajnyj-soyuznik.html?start=8

            And this, if someone is really interested
            http://oko-planet.su/history/historysng/156343-byl-li-lenin-nemeckim-shpionom-il
            i-mif-o-nemeckom-zolote.html
            1. slovak
              slovak 17 March 2015 10: 58
              0
              Vladkavkaz

              In my opinion, February and October are not two separate events, and October is a continuation of February.
              It is not essential whether October gave some new opportunities; the life of the majority of the population is essential. And UTB did not win, especially the peasants, not to mention the lost millions of lives.
  2. avt
    avt 16 March 2015 08: 41
    +1
    ,,. Denikin's agents among the allies ataman Krasnov has long been presented as a figure of "German orientation". All attempts of the chieftain to change this characteristic were unsuccessful. In addition, when foreigners met, Krasnov always ordered to play the old Russian anthem. At the same time, he said: “I have two options. Either play in such cases, "God Save the Tsar," without attaching importance to the words, or a funeral march. "------ laughing Well, what can you say - the author is just like a propagandist from the eternally remembered 37, well, all around the agents are in vain to shine the image of the creator of the Cossacks! But you can't wash a black dog to white - just like a German lackey, so he died with a hemp tie on the neck. The author played the costume games of the re-enactment. Just like that, according to the commandment of General Chernoti - "Well, Paramon! I am a sinful person, I would enroll in the Bolsheviks, shoot you and quickly write back."
  3. Vladimir1960
    Vladimir1960 16 March 2015 08: 50
    +3
    Richly presented informational material. A lot of interesting facts and details. The ideological orientation and interpretation of events is alarming. "Why is that," the poorest segments of the Russian population went after the Bolsheviks? And somehow it happened that the Bolsheviks won by intrigue and vile moves! In my opinion, the Monarchy fed the Cossacks, endowing them with lands and freedoms, and the Cossacks did not give a damn about the rest of Russia. They did not even consider themselves Russian, they are Cossacks! "The Cossacks said:" We will go if the Russians go. " Together, they brought Russia to collapse, and the Bolsheviks were to blame.
    1. semirek
      semirek 16 March 2015 14: 01
      +2
      And you don't think my dear, if the monarchy did not feed the Cossacks, then the Russian possessions would not have spread beyond the Volga. Whoever sat on these "bitter" lines defending new cities, communications and resettled peasants. All lands beyond the Volga and the Urals were annexed to the empire by the Cossacks.
  4. Asily 50
    Asily 50 16 March 2015 09: 11
    0
    Even in discussions about the nobility or * holiness * * white * movement there is no shadow of doubt about the right of the nobles to punish those who disagree, and to punish * high moral * cattle as they like. They were brought up, given a better education, even the crosses were not simple, they consecrated the higher priests. And what they did .... They were not afraid of their own abomination, they destroyed all only the suspected. The cardinal difference of precisely the SOVIET AUTHORITY is that all investigations of white follies are clearly documented and evidence-based. No assumptions or tolerances. Let not always literate, but always with evidence. Even in the article there were tolerances, as in * democrats *: -he wanted to, - he thought, and so on. Everyone was rewarded on business, among them there were trying to preserve the crumbs of humanity, but were among the executioners and got along with them that it was too bad for them ?
    1. Gomunkul
      Gomunkul 16 March 2015 12: 21
      0
      Even in the article there were tolerances, as in * democrats *: -he wanted to, - he thought, and so on. Everyone was rewarded on business, among them there were trying to preserve the crumbs of humanity, but were among the executioners and got along with them that it was too bad for them ?
      Any war gives rise not only to heroes, but also to antiheroes, and to say that white is better and red worse is not right, as the opposite is true. Both warring parties are wrong, because couldn’t agree on peace, and this only confirms once again that the contradictions between these groups are very great, i.e. one of the warring parties does not want the other side to remain in the country in which they are at war. Nicholas II, no matter how we are portrayed, some are bloody, others are saints, is to blame for the fact that (like Yanukovych), through inaction, he plunged the country into chaos. hi
      1. semirek
        semirek 16 March 2015 13: 15
        +2
        Quote: Gomunkul
        Even in the article there were tolerances, as in * democrats *: -he wanted to, - he thought, and so on. Everyone was rewarded on business, among them there were trying to preserve the crumbs of humanity, but were among the executioners and got along with them that it was too bad for them ?
        Any war gives rise not only to heroes, but also to antiheroes, and to say that white is better and red worse is not right, as the opposite is true. Both warring parties are wrong, because couldn’t agree on peace, and this only confirms once again that the contradictions between these groups are very great, i.e. one of the warring parties does not want the other side to remain in the country in which they are at war. Nicholas II, no matter how we are portrayed, some are bloody, others are saints, is to blame for the fact that (like Yanukovych), through inaction, he plunged the country into chaos. hi

        But he would also be condemned for the action, we are used to blaming all the troubles of Russia on specific individuals, we are all bad both yesterday and the day before today.
      2. Asily 50
        Asily 50 17 March 2015 17: 37
        0
        Your reasoning of the level of equal responsibility, they rob me - I’m guilty myself, I didn’t give it right away and on my knees, I was raped by a woman - nothing is to blame ...
      3. Asily 50
        Asily 50 17 March 2015 17: 37
        0
        Your reasoning of the level of equal responsibility, they rob me - I’m guilty myself, I didn’t give it right away and on my knees, I was raped by a woman - nothing is to blame ...
    2. The comment was deleted.
    3. semirek
      semirek 16 March 2015 13: 36
      +2
      Quote: Asily 50
      Even in discussions about the nobility or * holiness * * white * movement there is no shadow of doubt about the right of the nobles to punish those who disagree, and to punish * high moral * cattle as they like. They were brought up, given a better education, even the crosses were not simple, they consecrated the higher priests. And what they did .... They were not afraid of their own abomination, they destroyed all only the suspected. The cardinal difference of precisely the SOVIET AUTHORITY is that all investigations of white follies are clearly documented and evidence-based. No assumptions or tolerances. Let not always literate, but always with evidence. Even in the article there were tolerances, as in * democrats *: -he wanted to, - he thought, and so on. Everyone was rewarded on business, among them there were trying to preserve the crumbs of humanity, but were among the executioners and got along with them that it was too bad for them ?

      Again, the eternal stereotype: the victorious side of the law, the white executioners are the red favorite of the people. I understand that in Soviet times it was an axiom of the ruling system, but I'm sorry, isn’t it interesting to know what was really then, the author is trying to answer this question . Why be so zombie?
      For example, I was interested to know that the White Army was not 100% noble, that the White leaders were not nobles. Among the White there were a lot of workers and peasants and sailors, why is there a large percentage of noblemen among the leadership of Red Russia? Why are the founders of the Red Cossack units, who have done a lot for the Soviet government, such as: Mironov and Dumenko bleli destroyed by the Soviet government --- I want to know about it, and not stupidly repeat the spell: white executioners - red darlings.
  5. Nagaibak
    Nagaibak 16 March 2015 09: 31
    +3
    Out of respect for the work of authorship, I did not set a minus. The same Gordeev, Mamonov, Shibanov in the materials used.))) After all, there are scientific works on this topic and not only Soviet, but also modern.
    "During this period, about 12 thousand Orenburg Cossacks fought on the side of Ataman Dutov, up to 4 thousand Cossacks fought for the power of the Soviets."
    It is not clear where the participation figures of the Cossacks come from.)))
    Author. You have a great article about everything. And about nothing at the same time.))) In general, it made sense to consider the participation of the Don, Kuban, Tersky separately, the Cossack troops of the Urals and Siberia separately. The rebellion of Dutov and his Turgai campaign did not remain illuminated at all. The situation in all Cossack troops was the same. Initially, no one wanted to fight against the Reds. Arriving from the front, arms were handed over to the Soviet authorities. For example, in the OKW, the number of those supporting Ataman Dutov barely numbered 2000 in all units. And only the grossest mistakes and miscalculations of the local Soviet power in relation to the Cossacks led to their support for the white movement.
  6. semirek
    semirek 16 March 2015 09: 34
    +1
    The second part is not better than the first --- cut, but rather torn from different sources, the author constantly throws inaccuracies in the situation of those years - everything is mixed. The author, although he tried to concisely state the "Cossack question" - in a nutshell, cover all that unexplored mass of information , I did not take into account one thing: the topic of the Cossacks is so unexplored, so slanderous that it is simply impossible to shed light on the events of those years with a small article - a lot of research work is needed.
    it was written in the late 80s, when memories of that time were fresh, the Soviet archives were opened and there was no Internet, I advise you to read.
    1. Gomunkul
      Gomunkul 16 March 2015 12: 05
      +2
      By the way, there is a novel by the writer Znamensky "Red Days" about that time on the Don (author from Khopra)
      There is also "Quiet Don" by M. Sholokhov.
      it was written in the late 80s, when memories of that time were fresh, the Soviet archives were opened
      Not correct, the 80s are far from fresh. About the novel "Quiet Don":
      Sholokhov conceived a big novel about the people and revolution in the mid-20s. The desire to create a novel about the Don, to show the Cossacks during the period of dramatic events preceding the 1917 revolution arose among the writer while working on Don stories and has not left him ever since. With this desire, Sholokhov returned to the Don to be among his heroes. In October 1925, he began work on a novel called the Donshchina. The work was not easy.

      In an interview with the Izvestia newspaper correspondent, Sholokhov recalled how work on the novel began: “I started writing the novel in 1925. And initially I did not think to deploy it so widely. The task was to show the Cossacks in the revolution. I began with the participation of the Cossacks in the campaign of Kornilov to Petrograd ... Don Cossacks were in this campaign as part of the third cavalry corps. He wrote sheets of 5-6 printed. When I wrote, I felt: something was wrong ... It remains incomprehensible to the reader - why did the Cossacks take part in the suppression of the revolution? What are these Cossacks? What is the Don Army Region? Therefore, I quit my work. He began to think about a wider novel. ”

      At the beginning of work on the novel, Sholokhov faced great difficulties. He doubted that he would cope with the task at hand, and also that he had chosen the right path. Having started work on the novel, the writer did not suspect that his plan would result in an epic narrative about the fate of the people in the revolution. Having written several chapters, Sholokhov put aside the manuscript of the Don region for some time. After the first book of The Quiet Don was finished and the duration of the novel touched upon the events in Petrograd, the Kornilovshchina, the writer returned to The Don region and included parts of the first version of the novel in the second book of Quiet Don. Sholokhov could not confine himself to what he began with - the depiction of Kornilov's campaign against Petrograd, the defeat of the rebellion. Even then, he saw his task in "showing the Cossacks in the revolution."

      PS The minus is not mine. hi
      1. semirek
        semirek 16 March 2015 13: 50
        +3
        And I said something against "Quiet Don" and personally against M. Sholokhov.
        I'm interested in the details: for example, I live near those places on Khopr where there was a breakthrough in Mamantov's corps --- I'm interested, Sholokhov does not have this, and that now there is nothing to read about yours except "Quiet Don"
    2. The comment was deleted.
    3. Accidentally
      Accidentally 16 March 2015 18: 52
      0
      they cheered ---- and who put Budeshki's horsemen under the hooves of their war horses in the Salskie Steppes in 1918 and who put them again under the hooves of their war horses, under the village of Zlodeiskaya (Kirovskaya) in 20 ??? and ethnos the vaunted Budeshka stormed the village of Bataysk for half a year, and then took it with difficulty ---- you can comment on the entom beaten twice by Cossacks with shame on the battlefield of the vaunted St. George cavalier ..
      1. vladkavkaz
        vladkavkaz 16 March 2015 19: 15
        -1
        Accidentally
        How loud, pathos, and, in fact, historically, WITHOUT where all the beaten Cossacks ended up more than once?
        The latter, like insignificant meat, as completely unnecessary, in Killhole’s operation, were given out in LINET, on this the story of the white-Cossack serving the Nazis ended.
  7. MrK
    MrK 16 March 2015 12: 03
    +3
    The desire of modern "historians" to lick the anus of "academician" Chubais (red-haired bro) is simply amazing. And Chubais historians got divorced. After all, without this you cannot make a career. If red, then always mobilization, only violent. If white, then the people go voluntarily and with songs. As if there was no Sholokhov and “Quiet Don”.
    The article is sheer lies, but with claims to be scientific. Much has been written well and artistically about the red and white terror, Cossacks, etc. Although without any attempts at Chubais's science of science.
    For the umpteenth time, I say: read the book of the young author A. Kurlandchik - “THE CURSED SOVIET AUTHORITY” AND THE RESULTS OF REFORMS IN RUSSIA on Proza.ru. Recommend. There everything is reasonably shown and with numbers.
    1. semirek
      semirek 16 March 2015 14: 32
      +1
      How to understand you dear? you contradict yourself: you urge yourself not to read modern historical books and at the same time advertise your author --- what's the trick?
      1. MrK
        MrK 16 March 2015 18: 55
        +2
        Я don't urge do not even read Chubais. Otherwise how to find out what they are writing about. My commentary is not a call not to read, but a criticism of what was written by a "professional" historian. Who is he? This is a man who, after school, entered the Faculty of History. I memorized 100 books on the program there, received certain knowledge and a diploma of a Historian. But along with knowledge, he loaded into his head a number of ideological clichés corresponding to the time period in which he studied. For example: since 1956 - Stalin is a tyrant and executioner. Marshal Tukhachevsky is an innocent victim. And since 1991 - the USSR is a bandit state, guilty of all sins ... And so on. It is these Chubais cliches that rule the minds of modern "historians".

        And an interesting question: if all the Cossacks were killed by the Reds, then from whom were the Cossack regiments and divisions formed from the 1936 of the year in the USSR.
        1. semirek
          semirek 16 March 2015 20: 58
          +2
          It is impossible to kill all Cossacks. You just need to distinguish between the stages of the Soviet state --- where the Cossacks are enemies of the Jewish Bolsheviks (for example, Leo Bronstein-Trotsky or Yankel Sverdlov) and where is I. Stalin in the honorary Cossacks.
  8. Asily 50
    Asily 50 16 March 2015 12: 06
    -4
    SOVIET AUTHORITY was accepted by ALL RUSSIA, even the Bukhara emir.
    1. semirek
      semirek 16 March 2015 14: 18
      +3
      And why then Frunze fought with the emir of Bukhara?
      1. The comment was deleted.
      2. Asily 50
        Asily 50 16 March 2015 19: 40
        -3
        Judging by the nickname you are from the seven rivers, then you must know exactly when the Basmachism came about and for whose money. The emir of the Bukhara base in Afghanistan had before the revolution of the 5th year. Advisers from England and France had a bunch of weapons. He fled in 1918.
        1. semirek
          semirek 16 March 2015 20: 23
          +2
          I don’t have a nickname, you are gloating in vain --- this is a tribute to the Semirechye Cossacks, who for simplicity were called the Semereki, as well as the Don Don. I, though not a Cossack, come from the Seven Rivers. As for the Seven Rivers and Turkestan, these are two different things: between Tashkent and Verny - the Kurdai pass, the road took 2 weeks. The Seven Rivers had their troubles - over the mountains of China, and the bloody Kyrgyz uprising in 16 had to be suppressed by the Semerika - there were enough of their Basmachis.
          1. The comment was deleted.
          2. The comment was deleted.
  9. creak
    creak 16 March 2015 13: 46
    0
    Quote: asilius 50
    SOVIET AUTHORITY was accepted by ALL RUSSIA, even the Bukhara emir.

    What did he accept after Frunze stormed Bukhara?
    1. vladkavkaz
      vladkavkaz 16 March 2015 20: 22
      -2
      creak
      And in your opinion, should Central Asia be left as a nest of Basmachi banditry, with an inevitable entrance there, England so torn there for centuries?

      For you, every enemy of the Soviet Government, including the outspoken bandit and basmach, Emir of Bukhara, dear friend?
      Even if this emir, he cut the heads of ordinary Russians and not only hard workers? Working out English money?

      It turns out that you are your friend, choose the frank enemies of Russia, it does not matter what it was called, the RSFSR, the USSR, it’s all Historical Russia, and so you, its original ill-wisher, that you have all kinds of emirs, all kinds of sellers of land as friends, like for example Kolchak, who took the oath of England and signed a bamazha about the division of Russia into 4 protectorates?
  10. creak
    creak 16 March 2015 13: 46
    +1
    Quote: asilius 50
    SOVIET AUTHORITY was accepted by ALL RUSSIA, even the Bukhara emir.

    What did he accept after Frunze stormed Bukhara?
  11. sigdoc
    sigdoc 16 March 2015 14: 15
    +4
    I wonder what to do with the intervention?
    Which of the white "patriots" fought with the interventionists - the British in the North, the Americans and Japanese in the Far East, the Czechoslovakians on the Trans-Siberian, the Finns in Karelia, the Germans in the Ukraine and Belarus, the Turks in Asia?
    1. semirek
      semirek 16 March 2015 14: 52
      +2
      As far as I remember from Soviet history: interventionists came to Russia to overthrow the power of the Bolsheviks and were allies of the white movement.
      And why did the interventionists need to overthrow the Bolsheviks - and everything was simple: there was a world war, and when your ally makes peace with the Germans, giving them food, territory, finances, but most importantly, all the forces on the Russian front are transferred to the West by the Germans, how to conduct yourself the Entente countries bound by Russia with allied obligations and not only? Naturally abolish Soviet power - which was demonstrated.
      I don’t understand one thing: having concluded the Brest Peace, the Bolsheviks found a new war with 20 countries, wouldn’t it be better to bring the war with the Germans to a logical end, preserving their face as a serious power.
  12. sigdoc
    sigdoc 16 March 2015 15: 54
    0
    That is, it turns out White helped the interventionists restore capitalism in Russia and return the country to the First World War massacre for the sake of the Entente.
    1. semirek
      semirek 16 March 2015 19: 13
      +1
      Н
      Quote: sigdoc
      That is, it turns out White helped the interventionists restore capitalism in Russia and return the country to the First World War massacre for the sake of the Entente.

      Not everything is so simple. Although you are essentially right, the white movement depended heavily on Western countries in terms of armaments. But we must also take into account that the White movement participants had their own specific principles, not all of course, but in the end it is their country and they had a right to exist.
      Now I am reading an interesting book by Georgy Venus "seventeen months with the Drozdovites", the author himself went this way, was in exile, returned to Soviet Russia, a well-known writer of that time, unfortunately, fell under the hammer of 37. A very interesting book.
  13. 3axap
    3axap 16 March 2015 18: 03
    +1
    Over the course of a month, this is not the first article on the topic of the Civil War. Many thanks to the authors for this. Until it’s too late, it is necessary for us living now to understand, so as not to repeat the mistakes of our grandfathers and great-grandfathers. Here I caught the participants of those events alive. I asked them, tried to fetch something from them that was not in print. Regarding: Quiet Don, grandfather said, 40 percent is true. Regarding: Clouds are going down the wind, 30 percent is true. And what did you want a grandson to write the whole truth in the country that killed the Cossacks. Grandfather didn’t whom he didn’t blame. He always remembered after those events, he said, the Civil War is the most cruel and senseless. hi
    1. 3axap
      3axap 16 March 2015 20: 03
      +1
      And the disadvantages were put by those who believe that the Civil War is fun and a proper event? I am very happy for them. hi
      1. vladkavkaz
        vladkavkaz 16 March 2015 20: 17
        -2
        3axap (
        Minus put to you in the case.
        Did your grandfather say that?
        And my friend, remembering how the Cossacks, led a convoy of red captives and chopped out of curiosity and vulgarity who like what and what, with screams, chop like that, chop some sort, on the way to the Minvody.

        Probably such a thing, did not add respect to the Cossacks, among the workers, for example, the Depot of the Art. Minvoda?

        And all the more so, it did not cause any respect for the Cossacks, the GORGEOUS robbery, where the Cossack units of Krasnov and Shkuro, Mamantov passed, and so that the convoy of the loot of 40 versts stretched, a sort of horde campaign to Voronezh ..
        The truth is you need ..
        So the truth is that WHITE, swept out of the country, did you decide to rewrite History?

        The truth is that many of those fleeing abroad returned, and most of those who did not return, one way or another later served Hitler.
        So, who took up arms against the PEOPLE from the People and received a well-deserved punishment.

        Why is it now to tear up the past, looking for some special, Cossack, so-called truth, if it was the snail of some of the heirs of the White Cossacks, in Nazi fluff ..
        Today, a certain Vodolatsky from United Russia, strives for SS monuments to put an ataman, they have cooled his head heated up with insanity in time.
        And it would be worth remembering other Cossacks who served in the Red Army not for fear, but for conscience, fighting with honor and destroying Nazi evil, but something about them, more and more silent, more groans about white Cossacks and their Nazi service .. in defense of Judas .

        MAY 9, this year, a Cossack box will pass through Red Square, whose really are the heirs of the SS-ataman Krasnov and K, the geeks who served with the Nazis, or still the heirs of those who served in the Red Army?
        1. 3axap
          3axap 16 March 2015 20: 37
          +3
          vladkavkaz (6) SU Today, 20:17 p.m. ↑ ...... I have never told here about what my grandfather who went through this garnil told. And I have never said which side he fought on. I only I’m trying to convey to you the meaning of all my conversations about the Civil War from a participant in those events. And your example of cruelty under Art. Minvody. What can I say, I wasn’t there, and we ename about it from someone else’s story. In my city, the former village of Kamenskaya, there are many stories about cruelty on both sides. But despite this, I try to inform people or interlocutors that the Grazhda Skye war -velechayshee zlo.Mne just wondering why you think that's henchmen nemechko fascist invaders in the Don decided to immortalize. hi
          1. vladkavkaz
            vladkavkaz 16 March 2015 20: 46
            0
            3axap (
            To the greatest shame, in the village of Veshenskaya, in the courtyard of a private household, since they were not allowed to erect this Nazi trash in another place, there is still a monument to Krasnov. And in Moscow-Pannwitz-lived ... little people who have forgotten who they are and from where, many, as well as those who know exactly whom their ancestors served, now erect monuments to their "heroes" even if these "heroes"
            carried the split of the country, death and destruction, and enslavement by strangers.
            This is so, unfortunately.
            Civic is not sugar, yes, but Civic is a reminder to some rabid people how it will end for them.
            BEREZIN wrote, a visionary book about Ukraine, everything came true, someone wants to see a repeat with us when he pops into VO articles with the glorification of all evil spirits — it’s from the article, very, very bad, as well as some comments.
            1. 3axap
              3axap 16 March 2015 21: 13
              0
              vladkavkaz (6) SU ........ To my great shame, I will learn about this from the pages of the forum. Honestly, there are no words. hi
              1. vladkavkaz
                vladkavkaz 16 March 2015 21: 51
                -1
                3axap
                Well ... the TRUTH of this kind, the screamers from the "Cossacks" do not like it and do not really need it, although the screams about heroism that take place among the Cossacks are ATTRIBUTED and interpreted exclusively in an anti-Soviet vein, including with stories about the total destruction of the Cossacks and concentration camps for 2 million (and this is in their arsenal), but with clear why the hidden fact, Crimes, PARTS, not the best, frankly, the Cossacks who dared to fight A) against the Russian people, B) In a foreign Army, C) in the interests separate quasi-states under the auspices of different Masters, from Germany to others .. And this is an indisputable fact, higher on the branch, are given the names of separatist formations that did not fit into the single body of Russia, it was under these slogans that the White Cossacks of the South fought.
                And Krasnov is the most striking reminder, as well as the end of this Judah, hanged like a scumbag dog, according to the Tribunal, for war crimes with a bunch of accomplices, including Vlasov.
                Understand, using bad examples, NOTHING is being built, the example of Ukraine, where at the forefront, the national heroes made a katov-bandera and Shukhevych, another proof of the viciousness of the ideas of these Volgins and other mumblers about some kind of "holy Cossacks", supposedly only and only they served Rossii..podpleka, the essence of the entire writings of Volgin as an author and commentators like the seven, is completely different.
                THESE, they want a civilian repetition, not understanding that repetition will again not be in their favor, for they will not find understanding in most society. Even if they are so screaming about anti-communism, anti-Sovietism, all this is tinsel, external surroundings, and the essence is SPLIT countries, splitting of the united Russian people, into all sorts of invented tribes.
  14. Georg Shep
    Georg Shep 16 March 2015 18: 12
    +1
    Glory and eternal memory to all Russian people who fought against Zion-Bolshevism! Motherland - keeps your memory.
  15. tundra
    tundra 16 March 2015 18: 31
    +1
    Quote: semirek
    the interventionists came to Russia to overthrow the power of the Bolsheviks and were allies of the white movement.

    What nonsense.
    They didn’t give a damn about both white and red
    They came to completely ruin Russia
    Mladen Cotraia Albright just voiced ancient
    the dream of the Angles that there are enough 60 million people in Russia
    to serve their interests
    Now for whom and against whom is the West drooling toward Russia?
    So it was, it will be so while the Angles exist
    And the United States must be destroyed.
  16. tundra
    tundra 16 March 2015 18: 39
    +1
    Quote: asilius 50
    SOVIET AUTHORITY was accepted by ALL RUSSIA, even the Bukhara emir.

    As well as Tambov peasants, Kronstat sailors and a lot of people participating in smaller uprising.
    1. vladkavkaz
      vladkavkaz 16 March 2015 19: 21
      -1
      tundra
      In numerical and percentage terms, the number of those opposed, the number of those who spoke in favor, are not comparable, and therefore they swept away all the white ness with the interventionists from the country. We would have thought ...
    2. semirek
      semirek 16 March 2015 19: 31
      +2
      He was always fond of history, especially in childhood - he was for ours, the Reds, he was always tormented by this question: why the most advanced detachment of revolutionary Russia, the vanguard of Bolshevism, could rebel against the communists? Here on the forum there are many "comrades" and sympathizers - maybe they can clarify the situation, what kind of mystery is this Kronstadt uprising of 21 years.
    3. Asily 50
      Asily 50 16 March 2015 19: 44
      -1
      The brothers who raised the Tambov uprising are a direct analogue of Makhno and Makhnovism. The struggle with the SOVIET AUTHORITY resulted in atrocities against teachers, doctors, and government officials. They were destroyed along with their families.
      1. semirek
        semirek 16 March 2015 20: 35
        +2
        Quote: Asily 50
        The brothers who raised the Tambov uprising are a direct analogue of Makhno and Makhnovism. The struggle with the SOVIET AUTHORITY resulted in atrocities against teachers, doctors, and government officials. They were destroyed along with their families.

        And here the "comrades" approached. And it does not seem to you that it is not so easy to raise 30000 peasants to an anti-Bolshevik uprising, So there were compelling reasons, Or maybe the peasants were already taken out by predatory surplus appropriation?
      2. vladkavkaz
        vladkavkaz 16 March 2015 20: 49
        0
        Asily 50
        Do not argue with this ... this is an apologist for the Nazi rabble, the Krasnov SS-Cossacks

        "semirek SU Today, 20:35 | Cossacks in the Civil War. Part II. 1918. In the fire of fratricidal Troubles.
        Quote: Asily 50
        The brothers who raised the Tambov uprising are a direct analogue of Makhno and Makhnovism. The struggle with the SOVIET AUTHORITY resulted in atrocities against teachers, doctors, and government officials. They were destroyed along with their families.
        And here the "comrades" have approached. And it does not seem to you that it is not so easy to raise 30000 peasants to an anti-Bolshevik uprising, So there were good reasons, Or maybe the peasants were already taken out by the predatory surplus appropriation? ""

        LIES, always and everywhere.
        It was not for nothing that he hid in an emergency after being beaten once.
        1. Asily 50
          Asily 50 17 March 2015 02: 21
          0
          You are right, I don’t even want to communicate with a notorious liar.
        2. The comment was deleted.
    4. The comment was deleted.
  17. semirek
    semirek 16 March 2015 18: 51
    +1
    Quote: tundra
    Quote: semirek
    the interventionists came to Russia to overthrow the power of the Bolsheviks and were allies of the white movement.

    What nonsense.
    They didn’t give a damn about both white and red
    They came to completely ruin Russia
    Mladen Cotraia Albright just voiced ancient
    the dream of the Angles that there are enough 60 million people in Russia
    to serve their interests
    Now for whom and against whom is the West drooling toward Russia?
    So it was, it will be so while the Angles exist
    And the United States must be destroyed.

    Dear I agree with you, but the short-sighted policy of Britain of those years strikes me: having carried out a successful operation to overthrow the throne and rocked the situation in Russia and wanting to take over everything --- as a result, they got nothing, and instead of the former country an even more powerful state appeared. -the exact same situation --- the collapse that we see further: the strengthening of the country in all respects. Therefore, I believe that the country's leadership is pursuing the right policy: the achievements of the Soviet period go side by side with the long history and glory of the Russian state and.