Military Review

Self-propelled gun "Condenser-2P" (index 2А3, USSR)


The self-propelled gun "Condenser-2P", index GRAU 2А3 - heavy self-propelled unit weighing 64 tons, capable of sending 570 kilogram projectile at a distance of 25,6 kilometer. Not commercially available, it was all made 4 guns. For the first time, a self-propelled gun was shown at a parade on Red Square in 1957. Shown SAU created a sensation among domestic viewers and foreign journalists. Some foreign experts have suggested that the vehicles shown during the parade were fake, designed for the effect of intimidation, but in reality it was the real 406-mm caliber gun system that was shot at the test site.

The creation of a 406-mm self-propelled gun of special power in the USSR began in the 1954 year. This ACS was designed to destroy conventional and nuclear projectiles of large industrial and military facilities of the enemy, located at a distance of more than 25 kilometers. In any case, the USSR began to develop the 3-x nuclear superorders: guns, mortars and recoilless guns, caliber significantly exceeding the existing atomic guns. The huge caliber chosen was the result of the inability of the Soviet nuclear scientists to produce compact ammunition. In the process of development, in order to ensure secrecy, the artillery system was given the designation “Capacitor-2П” (271 object), and later the gun received its current 2А3 index. The ACS was developed in parallel with the 420-mm self-propelled mortar 2B1 "Oka" (object 273), according to the decree of the Council of Ministers of the year 18.04.1955.

The artillery part of the ACS (guidance and loading mechanism, swinging part) was designed by TsKB-34 under the control of I.I. Ivanov, here it was assigned the index CM-54. The horizontal aiming of the gun was carried out by turning the entire ACS, while the precise aiming was carried out using a special electric motor through a turning mechanism. Vertical guidance of the gun was carried out using hydraulic lifts, the weight of the projectile was 570 kg., The firing range was 25,6 km.

Due to the fact that there was no suitable chassis for mounting such a large gun in the USSR, the OKBT of the Leningrad plant named after Kirov for self-propelled guns 2A3 "Condenser-2P" on the basis of components, parts, technical solutions of the heavy chassis tank T-10M (object 272) a new eight-wheeled chassis was created, which received the designation "object 271". When developing this chassis, the developers focused on the need to perceive large recoil forces when firing a shot. The chassis they developed had descending sloths and hydraulic shock absorbers that were supposed to partially extinguish the recoil energy. The motor-power plant for this self-propelled gun was borrowed from the T-10 heavy tank, almost without any changes.

In 1955, the plant number 221 completed work on the creation of the 406-mm experimental ballistic trunk CM-E124, which was carried out testing of the shots to the CM-54. In August of the same year, the first fully equipped artillery part of the SM-54 gun was ready at the factory. Its installation on the chassis of the Kirov factory was completed on December 26 1956. The tests of the ACS “Condenser-2P” took place from 1957 to 1959 year at the Central Artillery range near Leningrad, also known as “Rzhevsky range”. The tests were carried out in conjunction with the 420-mm self-propelled mortar 2B1 "Oka". Before conducting these tests, many experts were skeptical that this self-propelled artillery gun could survive a shot without destruction. However, the 406-2 “Capacitor-3P” 2-SAU quite successfully passed the test by mileage and shooting.

At the first stage, tests of the ACS were accompanied by numerous breakdowns. So when fired, the recoil force of the CM-54 cannon mounted on the ACS was such that the self-propelled caterpillar cannon rolled back a few meters. When carrying out the first firing using simulators of nuclear projectiles from the ACS, sloths were damaged, which could not withstand the enormous recoil forces of this weapon. In a number of other cases, cases were noted with the equipment installation falling apart, disrupting the gearbox anchorages.

After each shot, the engineers carefully studied the state of the material part, determined the weak parts and components of the structure, and invented new technical solutions to eliminate them. As a result of such actions, the design of the ACS was continuously improved, the reliability of the installation increased. On the tests also revealed low maneuverability and maneuverability ACS. At the same time, it was not possible to defeat all the defects found. It was not possible to completely extinguish the recoil of the gun, when fired the gun drove back a few meters. The angle of horizontal guidance was also insufficient. Due to its significant weight and size characteristics (weight about 64 tons, length along with the gun - 20 meters), it took a significant amount of time to prepare the positions of the 2А3 ACS "Condenser-2П". The specified accuracy of firing the guns required not only accurate guidance, but also thorough preparation of the artillery position. For loading the gun used special equipment, while loading was carried out only in a horizontal position.

4 copies of 406-mm ACS “Condenser-2P” were made, all of them were shown in 1957 during the parade on Red Square. Despite the skepticism of a number of foreign military and journalists, the installation was militant, although it had a number of significant flaws. The mobility of the artillery system left much to be desired, it could not pass through the streets of small cities, under bridges, along country bridges, under power lines. According to the parameters and in its firing range, it could not compete with the divisional tactical missile "Luna", therefore, in service with the forces of the SAU 2А3, the "Capacitor-2P" never arrived.
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  1. Tyumen
    Tyumen 26 October 2013 09: 10 New
    Tsar Cannon in Soviet times. An excellent symbol of the power of a bygone great country.
    1. bask
      bask 26 October 2013 09: 20 New
      The large caliber was chosen exclusively, because of the tactical YAZ, in 640 mm, they could not make less.

      In the USA, there were also similar projects. 240 mm self-propelled guns T-92.
      Management, in the bow, MTO in the center, the fighting compartment in the stern.
  2. vladstro
    vladstro 26 October 2013 09: 17 New
    yeah incredible fool-gun
    1. Old bear
      Old bear 28 October 2013 08: 11 New
      The predecessor of Kuzkin's mother lol
  3. 31231
    31231 26 October 2013 09: 39 New
    Good mallet. One shell to carry many shelves.
  4. Jellyfish
    Jellyfish 26 October 2013 10: 18 New
    "Or maybe we bang? We bang more than once ... the whole world is in dust ... but then." ©
    The caliber is impressive.
    1. Canep
      Canep 26 October 2013 17: 28 New
      The gun seems to have been screwed from the Japanese battleship.
      1. sso-xnumx
        sso-xnumx 28 October 2013 20: 43 New
        From the unbuilt battleship "Sovetsky Soyuz" there were 4 barrels left after the war and they tried to adapt them for vigorous ammunition ...
  5. zennon
    zennon 26 October 2013 10: 28 New
    I saw it in the tank museum in Kubinka. Impressive. I understand that this is the fruit of gigantomania, but it's still a pity that it is not in service ... recourse
    1. loft79
      loft79 26 October 2013 12: 18 New
      Quote: zennon
      I understand that this is the fruit of gigantomania

      This is not the fruit of gigantomania, but the specifics of the 460 mm speaker at that time. Well, unfortunately in no other way. Later in the 70s, they were able to make a 240-mm speaker, and 2C4 Tulip. IMHO

      A "Capacitor-2P" looks unreal for this world smile
      As if it came from Warhammer
      1. AX
        AX 26 October 2013 13: 21 New
        Time puts everything in its place ...
      2. loft79
        loft79 26 October 2013 13: 33 New
        Quote: loft79
        and the specifics of the 460 mm speaker at that time

        sorry, 406 mm lol
      3. zennon
        zennon 26 October 2013 20: 31 New
        This is not the fruit of gigantomania, but the specifics of the 460 mm speaker at that time. Well, unfortunately in no other way

        No, it’s gigantomania. An attempt to achieve the result by primitive means, on the forehead, increasing the caliber. It can and should be otherwise.OTR.
        According to these parameters and in its firing range, she could not compete with the divisional tactical missile Luna, therefore, she did not enter the armament of the SAU 2A3 Condenser-2P troops.

        The tactical missile system 2K6 "Luna" was put into service in 1959. It was removed from service in the 82nd. Well, and later, in the early 70s, 9K79 "Tochka" appeared ...
        Well, here's even cooler - "Oka".
        1. loft79
          loft79 27 October 2013 04: 42 New
          Quote: zennon
          The 2K6 Luna tactical missile system was put into service in 1959

          Not so simple.
          "73 missiles were launched with different types of warheads (the 29th launch was unsuccessful - 2.5 km instead of 10 km due to inaccurate ballistic tables, the 72nd launch - a rupture of the front solid propellant rocket at the start due to a powder checker defect)"
          AS is simpler and more reliable. But a more complex "trigger", if I may say so.
          "The time limit for reloading a rocket from a transport vehicle is 60 minutes ....."

          At that time, tactical missiles were a novelty; the barrel artillery was well known. In the end, she lost, but at that time it was a logical decision (the creation of speakers and Sau). hi
    2. sub307
      sub307 26 October 2013 22: 59 New
      The fruit is NOT gigantomania, but the desire to equip the receiver artillery with nuclear munitions of the required power. It turned out with smaller calibers later. In practice, in past wars, designs and large calibers were used to a limited extent, but their time passed.
  6. ramsi
    ramsi 26 October 2013 11: 28 New
    a sense of gigantomania is a clear sign of the limit reached
  7. Dimka off
    Dimka off 26 October 2013 11: 59 New
    it would not hurt to have such an armament now. What a terrible power of ammunition, plus a strong psychological impact. Enemies are coming in a convoy and then a huge explosion from nowhere. Such a tool is needed)
  8. Romanychby
    Romanychby 26 October 2013 12: 23 New
    Unfortunately, many interesting projects are gathering dust on shelves.
  9. Sour
    Sour 26 October 2013 13: 03 New
    Typical "iron kaput".
    It is not clear what tasks this self-propelled guns could solve, especially considering the fact that aviation and tactical missiles were developing rapidly at that time.
    No wonder it didn't go into production. The same Luna M complex was probably more mobile, passable, and hardly more expensive.
    1. Dimka off
      Dimka off 26 October 2013 17: 16 New
      certainly, without good air defense there will be no business. And where is it possible now without air defense?
  10. wei
    wei 26 October 2013 14: 00 New
    After each shot, the engineers carefully studied the condition of the material, identified weak parts and components, and came up with new technical solutions to eliminate them.

    among other things, this is the improvement of both engineering and production technologies

    PS The dark thought occurred to me alone to shoot out of it with direct fire, let’s say on a tank am
    1. Sour
      Sour 26 October 2013 15: 03 New
      Quote: wei
      PS The dark thought occurred to me alone to shoot out of it with direct fire, let’s say on a tank

      Probably for you alone.
      What is the minimum firing range for this gun? I strongly doubt that it is capable of direct fire at close targets, and also at moving targets.
      1. lelyk72
        lelyk72 28 November 2013 16: 53 New
        Are you sure that you need to get from THIS to the tank?
  11. Mikhail3
    Mikhail3 26 October 2013 14: 37 New
    Stunned, what a weapon! Proud of our gunsmiths! The only thing I didn't understand about this thing (and with the "flowers" is also not clear) is the absence of a separate lowering plate behind with a set of hydro and pneumatic compensators for the perception of recoil. The chassis has been reinforced ... that's all. It's a strange story ...
  12. Sour
    Sour 26 October 2013 15: 05 New
    Quote: Mikhail3
    What a strange story ...

    Given that the installation was done not for war, but for a single parade, it’s not very strange.
  13. Witold
    Witold 26 October 2013 19: 10 New
    Quote: bask
    The large caliber was chosen exclusively, because of the tactical YAZ, in 640 mm, they could not make less.

    The wiki says 406mm.
  14. zub46
    zub46 27 October 2013 01: 04 New
    This was our forced response to the Americans, who had previously put into service the Davy Crockett recoilless gun, which fired an over-caliber mine with a tactical nuclear charge. Their firing range was about 5 km, the calculation was actually suicide bombers, but no less. The gun was mounted on an all-terrain vehicle platform with all the ensuing mobile advantages.
  15. svskor80
    svskor80 27 October 2013 09: 03 New
    This weapon is ideal for shelling a city before an assault; for a nuclear charge, the range is clearly not enough.
    1. Sour
      Sour 27 October 2013 14: 41 New
      Sorry, I do not agree with any of your words.
      The ideal weapon for firing at squares are the multiple launch rocket launchers. If you need to hit specific targets, for example, tactical missiles or weapons like this one:
      And there are many other such systems.
      And this "condenser" is ideal only for throwing human labor into the wind.
      As for the firing range, it is quite sufficient for tactical nuclear weapons. If anything, the "Msta" range is even less, but it is considered as a carrier of tactical nuclear weapons. American "nuclear" M-65 guns had a firing range of 22-28 km, also no more than this "capacitor". For strategic forces, the range is certainly too small. But this was out of the question initially. The disadvantages of this self-propelled guns are not in the firing range, it is just on the level.
      1. Lopatov
        Lopatov 27 October 2013 14: 50 New
        You are missing one point. When the "Condenser" was created, the troops did not yet have tactical missile weapons capable of delivering a nuclear weapon with due precision. The country's leadership did not begin to put eggs in one basket, and allowed the parallel development of missile and artillery delivery vehicles. With the appearance of the first, work on the "Condenser" was discontinued.

        Design of the Luna 2K6 began in 1956, and the Condenser in 1954
  16. mr.Man
    mr.Man 27 October 2013 16: 25 New
    With the advent of guided projectiles and new technologies, some will try to revive such mastodons ... wink
    Guided missile is cheaper than a rocket with equal warhead ... repeat
    1. GastaClaus69
      GastaClaus69 27 October 2013 21: 41 New
      Purely hypothetically, who do you think this could be?
  17. GastaClaus69
    GastaClaus69 27 October 2013 21: 35 New
    I immediately remembered how I saw the first photograph. Something similar, even the stars are almost there painted.
    1. Lopatov
      Lopatov 27 October 2013 21: 39 New
      No resemblance. Let's start with the main thing: the "Condenser" barrel looks back.
      1. GastaClaus69
        GastaClaus69 27 October 2013 21: 54 New
        Externally! Just the first thought without any technical aspects.
  18. Asan Ata
    Asan Ata 27 October 2013 23: 11 New
    It is interesting, and at what maximum height did these "Condenser and" Oka "fire, who knows?
  19. Asan Ata
    Asan Ata 27 October 2013 23: 14 New
    It is interesting, and at what maximum height did these "Condenser and" Oka "fire, who knows?
    1. Vasia kruger
      Vasia kruger 29 October 2013 16: 31 New
      It is unlikely that you can shoot at satellites)))))))

      In general, enchanting colossus, that capacitor, that the Eye.
      A capacitor alone stands in Moscow at the Museum of the Armed Forces. I had a chance to climb on it in childhood.
  20. Earnest
    Earnest April 1 2017 01: 13 New
    She didn’t shoot anywhere, or rather, but only once. From the recollections of the technical opponent of the project, the head of the testing department of the Kirov Plant, OKBT, Leningrad, Yury Mikhailovich Mironenko:
    "... Among the overwhelming majority, as they say, of designers from God, the OKBT had a considerable number of lazy people, hack-workers and figures who, by chance sweating, were in a hurry to appear to the authorities. In my opinion, the weakest link before Albert Kazimirovich Dzyavgo arrived there, earlier worked in the Kolomenskoye KBM with the famous B.I. Shavyrin, there was a settlement department.I will only talk about two cases in which I had to voluntarily take part as an opponent to personally verify my complete technical illiteracy .
    The first case was a vivid example of the carelessness of the work of the counters, who "not enough" took into account the length and the huge dynamic pullback force acting on the tracked chassis when firing an 406 mm rifled gun. This without any calculations was visible when looking at the 271 object, but the meters, apparently, were staring in the opposite direction at that time.
    The 271 object (SAU "Condenser-2П") made its first and last shot at the Rzhev artillery range a couple of kilometers from tram ring No. 10.
    So, a self-propelled gun in a firing position. Crew, designer, testers and military in concrete shelter meters in 40 from the gun. Shot! The impression, as Arkady Raikin said, is specific, and even too much. Visibility is zero. Everything that covered the earth in a radius of 50 meters is in the air. And the 64-ton self-propelled monster that fired the 570-kilogram shell is not visible. The nerves of the lead engineer of this object can not withstand stress, and he rushes to the place where the machine should stand.
    Four people, and I am among them, follow the same path. As we move forward, the dust gradually dissipates and we, involuntarily slowing down, stop in deep thought at the sight of what remains of the formidable self-propelled guns. In order not to completely upset the “leader,” I decide to get out of sight. He and without me - “opponent”, was not sweet.
    Structurally correcting the “mistakes” made in the process of creating the 271 object was useless, although they were undertaken. In the end, the work was completed with a shot and the stage of “combing” prototypes for participation in parades on Red Square. In the 1960 - 1963 years, at military parades in Moscow, they marched alongside the stands for “guests” and made an indelible impression on “some people” (see photo). This was a US response to information about their creation of the 280 mm atomic gun.
    There was a cold war, and both warring camps misinformed each other as best they could.
    In this particular case, an unconditional victory was won not only over a probable opponent, but over a historical, evil and treacherous enemy. It is only a pity that the many years of work of talented workers of the Volgograd factory "Barricades" and the Leningrad "Kirov factory" ended to no avail.

    But, as they say, a negative result is also a result. Thanks to the experience gained from the results of this work, the unique 203mm self-propelled artillery mount “Peony” (2С7) was adopted by the same factories and design bureaus in record time.
    In the creation of Peony, I was no longer an “opponent”, but a direct participant, for which in 1975 I was awarded the Order of the Red Banner of Labor.
    Made in metal and donated to me by the Kirovsky Zavod, a copy of the self-propelled guns "Peony" has been standing in my apartment in the most prominent place for many years. "