Cossacks in the Civil War. Part I. 1918 year. The origin of the white movement

The reasons why the Cossacks of all the Cossack regions for the most part rejected the destructive ideas of Bolshevism and entered into an open struggle against them, moreover under unequal conditions, are not completely clear until now and constitute a riddle for many historians. After all, the Cossacks in the everyday respect were the same farmers, as 75% of the Russian population, carried the same state, if not more, and were under the same administrative control of the state. Since the beginning of the revolution, which occurred after the abdication of the sovereign, the Cossacks within the regions and in the front-line units experienced various psychological stages. During the February rebel movement in Petrograd, the Cossacks took a neutral position and remained outsiders of the unfolding events. The Cossacks saw that in the presence of significant armed forces in Petrograd, the government not only does not use them, but also strictly prohibits their use against the rebels. During the previous insurrection in 1905-1906, the Cossack troops were the main armed force that restored order in the country, and as a result, public opinion earned the scornful title of "gunmen" and "royal satraps and guardsmen". Therefore, in the mutiny in the Russian capital, the Cossacks were inert and left the government to solve the problem of restoring order by the forces of other troops. After the abdication of the sovereign and the entry into government of the Provisional Government, the Cossacks considered the continuity of power to be legal and were ready to support the new government. But gradually this attitude changed, and, observing the complete inactivity of the authorities and even encouraging unbridled revolutionary excesses, the Cossacks began to gradually move away from the destructive power, and the instructions of the Council of Cossack troops operating in Petrograd under the chairmanship of the ataman of the Orenburg Dutov army became authoritative for them.


Inside the Cossack regions, the Cossacks were also not drunk from revolutionary freedoms and, making some local changes, continued to live as before, without making any economic or social upheavals. At the front in the military units, the order for the army, completely changing the bases of the military order, was taken with bewilderment by the Cossacks and continued to maintain order and discipline in the new conditions, most often electing their former commanders and chiefs. There were no refusals in the execution of orders and personal accounts with the commanding staff also did not occur. But the tension gradually increased. The population of the Cossack regions and the Cossack units at the front were subjected to active revolutionary propaganda, which unwittingly had to reflect on their psychology and made them listen carefully to the calls and demands of the revolutionary leaders. In the area of ​​the Don Cossacks, one of the most important revolutionary acts was the dismissal of the ataman Count Grabbe, his replacement by an elected ataman of Cossack origin, General Kaledin, and the restoration of the convocation of public representatives to the Military Circle, according to custom that had existed since antiquity, before the reign of Emperor Peter I. continued to go without much shock. There was an acute question of relations with the non-Kazach population, which, psychologically, proceeded along the same revolutionary paths as the population of the rest of Russia. At the front, among the Cossack military units, powerful propaganda was conducted, accusing ataman Kaledin of counter-revolutionism and having a certain success among the Cossacks. The seizure of power by the Bolsheviks in Petrograd was accompanied by a decree addressed to the Cossacks, in which only geographical names changed, and it was promised that the Cossacks would be freed from the burden of generals and the severity of military service and equality and democratic freedoms would be established in everything. The Cossacks had nothing against it.

Cossacks in the Civil War. Part I. 1918 year. The origin of the white movement
Fig. 1 Region of the Don Cossacks


The Bolsheviks came to power under anti-war slogans and soon began to fulfill their promises. In November 1917, the Council of People's Commissars invited all the belligerent countries to begin peace negotiations, but the Entente countries refused. Then Ulyanov sent a delegation to Brest-Litovsk occupied by the Germans, for separate peace talks with the delegates of Germany, Austria-Hungary, Turkey and Bulgaria. The ultimate demands of Germany shocked the delegates and caused hesitation even among the Bolsheviks, who were not particularly patriotic, but Ulyanov accepted these conditions. The "obscene Brest Peace" was concluded, according to which Russia lost about 1 million km² of territory, pledged to demobilize the army and navy, transfer ships and infrastructure of the Black Sea to Germany fleetpay indemnity in the amount of 6 billion marks, recognize the independence of Ukraine, Belarus, Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia and Finland. The hands of the Germans to continue the war in the west were untied. In early March, the German army on the whole front began to advance for the occupation of territories given by the Bolsheviks under a peace treaty. Moreover, in addition to the agreement, Germany announced to Ulyanov that Ukraine should be considered a province of Germany, to which Ulyanov also agreed. There is a fact in this matter that is not widely known. The diplomatic defeat of Russia in Brest-Litovsk was caused not only by corruption, inconsistency and adventurism of the Petrograd negotiators. The joker played a key role here. A new partner suddenly appeared in the group of contracting parties - the Ukrainian Central Council, which, with all the precariousness of its position, signed a separate peace treaty with Germany in Brest-Litovsk on February 9 (January 27), 1918. The next day, the Soviet delegation with the slogan "stop the war, but do not sign peace," interrupted the negotiations. In response, on February 18, German troops launched an offensive along the entire front line. At the same time, the German-Austrian side tightened peace. In view of the complete inability of the Sovietized old army and the beginnings of the Red Army to withstand even the limited German offensive and the need for respite to strengthen the Bolshevik regime, Russia also signed the Brest Peace Treaty on March 3. After that, the “independent” Ukraine was occupied by the Germans and, as unnecessary, they threw Petlyura “off the throne”, placing the puppet hetman Skoropadsky on it. Thus, shortly before sunk into oblivion, the Second Reich, under the leadership of Kaiser Wilhelm II, captured Ukraine and Crimea.

After the Bolsheviks concluded the Brest Peace, part of the territory of the Russian Empire turned into zones of occupation of the Central countries. Austro-German troops occupied Finland, the Baltic States, Belarus, Ukraine and eliminated the Soviets there. The Allies kept a sharp eye on what was happening in Russia and also tried to ensure their interests, connecting them with the former Russia. In addition, there were up to two million prisoners in Russia who, with the consent of the Bolsheviks, were sent to their countries, and for the Entente powers, it was important to prevent the return of prisoners of war to Germany and Austria-Hungary. For the connection of Russia with allies, ports served in the north of Murmansk and Arkhangelsk, in the Far East of Vladivostok. In these ports were concentrated large warehouses of property and military equipment, delivered on the orders of the Russian government by foreigners. Accumulated cargo was over a million tons worth up to 2 and a half billion rubles. The cargo was shamelessly stolen, including by local revkomi. To ensure the safety of goods, these ports were gradually occupied by the Allies. Since orders imported from England, France and Italy were sent through the northern ports, they were occupied by parts of the British in 12 Ltd. and the allies in 11 LLC man. Imports from the United States and Japan went through Vladivostok. 6 July 1918, the Entente declared Vladivostok an international zone, and the city was occupied by parts of Japan at 57 Ltd. and other allies at 13 000 people. But they did not overthrow the Bolshevik power. On July 29 alone, the power of the Bolsheviks in Vladivostok was overthrown by the White Czechs under the leadership of the Russian General MK Diterikhs.

In the internal policy, the Bolsheviks issued decrees that destroyed all social structures: banks, national industry, private property, land ownership, and often national looting under the guise of nationalization was carried out without any government leadership. The country began the inevitable devastation in which the Bolsheviks blamed the bourgeoisie and the "rotten intellectuals", and these classes were subjected to brutal terror, bordering on destruction. Until now, it is impossible to fully understand how this all-destructive force came to power in Russia, given that power was seized in a country that had a thousand-year history and culture. After all, by the same measures, the international destructive forces hoped to produce an internal explosion in fermenting France, transferring up to 10 million francs to French banks for this purpose. But France, by the beginning of the twentieth century, had already exhausted its limit on the revolution and was tired of them. Unfortunately for the revolutionaries, there were forces in the country that were able to unravel the insidious and far-reaching plans of the leaders of the proletariat and resist them. About this in the Military Review was written in more detail in the article "How America saved Western Europe from the ghost of the world revolution."

One of the main reasons for allowing the Bolsheviks to carry out a coup d'etat and then quickly seize power in many areas and cities of the Russian Empire was the support of numerous reserve and training battalions who did not want to go to the front. It was Lenin’s promise of an immediate end to the war with Germany that predetermined the transition of the Russian army, which had decayed during the “Kerenzchyna” to the side of the Bolsheviks, which ensured their victory. In most parts of the country, the establishment of the Bolshevik government passed quickly and peacefully: from 84 provincial and other major cities only fifteen Soviet power was established as a result of armed struggle. By adopting the “Decree on Peace” on the second day of their presidency, the Bolsheviks ensured the “triumphal march of Soviet power” throughout Russia from October 1917 to February 1918.

The relations of the Cossacks and the rulers of the Bolsheviks were determined by the decrees of the Union of Cossack troops and the Soviet government. 22 November 1917, the Cossack Forces Union submitted a decree in which it informed the Soviet government that:
- The Cossacks are not looking for anything for themselves and do not require anything outside of their regions. But, being guided by the democratic principles of self-determination of the nationalities, it will not tolerate on its territories any other authority than the national one, formed by the free agreement of the local nationalities without any external or external influence.
- Sending punitive units against Cossack areas, in particular against the Don, will bring civil war to the outskirts, where energetic work is underway to establish public order. This will cause a breakdown of transport, will be an obstacle to the delivery of goods, coal, oil and steel to the cities of Russia and worsen the food business, disrupting the breadbasket of Russia.
- The Cossacks oppose any introduction of foreign troops in the Cossack regions without the consent of the military and regional Cossack governments.
In response to the peace declaration of the Union of Cossack troops, the Bolsheviks issued a decree to open military operations against the south, which read:
- Relying on the Black Sea Fleet, carry out the armament and organization of the Red Guard to occupy the Donetsk coal region.
- From the north, from the headquarters of the Commander-in-Chief, move squadrons south to the starting points: Gomel, Bryansk, Kharkov, Voronezh.
- The most active parts to move from the Zhmerinka area to the east for the occupation of Donbass.

This decree created the germ of the fratricidal civil war of Soviet power against the Cossack regions. For the existence of the Bolsheviks badly needed were Caucasian oil, Donetsk coal and bread of the southern suburbs. The mass famine that had begun was pushing Soviet Russia toward the rich south. At the disposal of the Don and Kuban governments, there were no well-organized and sufficient forces to protect the areas. The units returning from the front did not want to fight, sought to disperse from the villages, and the young Cossacks-front-line soldiers entered into an open struggle with the elderly. In many villages this struggle acquired a fierce character, the massacres on both sides were brutal. But the Cossacks who came from the front were many, they were well armed and the tombs, had combat experience, and in most of the villages the victory was left to the front-line youth strongly infected by Bolshevism. It soon became clear that in the Cossack regions strong parts can only be created on the basis of volunteering. To maintain order on the Don and Kuban, their governments used detachments consisting of volunteers: students, cadets, cadets and young people. Many Cossack officers volunteered to form such volunteer units (among the Cossacks they are called partisan), but in the headquarters this business was not well organized. Permission for the formation of such detachments was given to almost everyone who asked. There were many adventurers, even brigands, who simply robbed the population for the purpose of profit. However, the main threat to the Cossack areas turned out to be the regiments returning from the front, as many of those who returned were contaminated by Bolshevism. The formation of volunteer red Cossack units also began immediately after the Bolsheviks came to power. At the end of November 1917, at a meeting of representatives of the Cossack units of the Petrograd Military District, it was decided to create revolutionary detachments from the Cossacks of the 5 Cossack Division, 1, 4 and 14 of the Don regiments and send them to the Don, Kuban and Terek to defeat the counter-revolution and establish the Soviet authorities. In January, 1918, in the village of Kamenskaya, convened a congress of front-line Cossacks with the participation of delegates from 46 Cossack regiments. The congress recognized Soviet power and created Donvoenrevkom, declaring the Don General’s A.D. Kaledin, speaking against the Bolsheviks. Among the commanders of the Don Cossacks, the supporters of Bolshevik ideas were two head officers, troop officers Golubov and Mironov, and Golubov’s closest associate was Podorunkov. In January, 1918 of the Don Cossack Regiment returned to the Don from the Romanian Front. Having elected troop foreman F.K. Mironov, the regiment supported the establishment of Soviet power, and decided not to go home until the counter-revolution led by ataman Kaledin was defeated. But Golubov played the most tragic role on the Don. In February, he occupied Novocherkassk with two regiments of the Cossacks propagating them, dispersed the Military Circle meeting, arrested General Nazarov, the Ataman of the Army who had taken office after his death, and shot him. After a short time, this “hero” of the revolution was shot by the Cossacks right at the rally, and Podtyolkov, who had large sums of money with him, was captured by the Cossacks and was hanged by their sentence. The fate of Mironov was also tragic. He managed to entice a significant number of Cossacks, with whom he fought on the side of the Reds, but, not being satisfied with their order, he decided to go over to the side of the fighting Don with the Cossacks. Mironov was arrested in red, sent to Moscow, where he was shot. But it will be then. In the meantime, Don was a great turmoil. If the Cossack population still hesitated, and only in a part of the stanitsas the sensible voice of the old men took advantage, then the non-Kazach population completely sided with the Bolsheviks. Non-resident population in the Cossack regions always envied the Cossacks, who owned a large amount of land. Standing on the side of the Bolsheviks, nonresidents hoped to take part in the division of officer, landlord Cossack lands.

Other armed forces in the south were detachments of the formed Volunteer Army located in Rostov. 2 November 1917, General Alekseev arrived at the Don, entered into contact with Ataman Kaledin and asked him for permission to form volunteer groups on the Don. The purpose of General Alekseev was to use the southeastern base of the armed forces in order to assemble the remaining stalwart officers, junkers, old soldiers and organize an army of them necessary for establishing order in Russia. Despite the complete lack of funds, Alekseev ardently set to work. On Barochnaya Street, the premises of one of the hospitals were turned into an officer's hostel, which became the cradle of volunteering. Soon the first donation was received, 400 rubles. This is all that in November, the Russian society singled out its defenders. But people were just going to the Don, having no idea what awaits them, gropingly, in darkness, through the continuous Bolshevik sea. They walked to the place where the centuries-old traditions of Cossack freemen and the names of the leaders whom popular rumor associated with Don served as a bright beacon. They came exhausted, hungry, ragged, but not lost in spirit. December 6 (19), disguised as a peasant, arrived on the railway to Don General Kornilov with a false passport. He wanted to go further to the Volga, and from there to Siberia. He considered it more correct that General Alekseev remained in the south of Russia, and he would be given the opportunity to work in Siberia. He argued that in this case they would not interfere with each other and he would manage to organize a big deal in Siberia. He rushed into the open. But representatives of the National Center who came to Novocherkassk from Moscow insisted that Kornilov stay in the south of Russia and work together with Kaledin and Alekseev. An agreement was concluded between them, according to which General Alekseev assumed responsibility for all financial and political issues, General Kornilov assumed the organization and command of the Volunteer Army, General Kaledin continued the formation of the Don Army and the management of the affairs of the Don Army. Kornilov had little faith in the success of his work in the south of Russia, where he would have to create a white case in the territories of Cossack troops and depend on military atamans. He said this: “I know Siberia, I believe in Siberia, it is possible to put business there widely. Here, Alekseev alone can easily cope with the case. ” With all his heart and soul, Kornilov rushed to Siberia, wanted him to be released and treated the work of forming the Volunteer Army without much interest. Kornilov’s fear that he would have friction and misunderstandings with Alekseev was justified from the first days of their joint work. The forced abandonment of Kornilov in the south of Russia was a big political mistake of the “National Center”. But they believed that if Kornilov left, many volunteers would leave behind him and the work begun in Novocherkassk could fall apart. The formation of the welfare advance was slow, with an average of 75-80 volunteers enrolling per day. The soldiers were few, mostly officers, junkers, students, cadets and high school students recorded. Weapons in the Don warehouses it was not enough, it was necessary to take it away from the soldiers traveling to their homes, to train troop echelons passing through Rostov and Novocherkassk, or to buy through buyers in the same echelon. Lack of funds is extremely difficult work. The formation of the Don units progressed even worse. Generals Alekseev and Kornilov understood that the Cossacks did not want to go to restore order in Russia, but they were sure that the Cossacks would defend their lands. However, the situation in the Cossack regions of the southeast was much more complex. The regiments returning from the front were completely neutral in the events that were taking place, and even showed a tendency toward Bolshevism, declaring that the Bolsheviks had done nothing wrong with them.

In addition, within the Cossack regions there was a hard struggle with a non-resident population, and in the Kuban and Terek regions also against the highlanders. The military atamans had the opportunity to use the well-trained teams of young Cossacks, who were preparing to be sent to the front, and to organize the call-up of regular ages of youth. General Kaledin could have had support in this from the side of the old men and the front-line soldiers who said: "We have served ourselves, now we must call others on." The formation of the Cossack youth from the draft age could give up to 2-3 divisions, which at that time was enough to maintain order on the Don, but this was not done. In late December, representatives of the British and French military missions arrived in Novocherkassk. They asked what had been done, what was planned to be done, after which they declared that they would be able to help, but so far only with money, in the amount of 100 million rubles, in tranches of 10 million per month. The first payment was expected in January, but was never received, and then the situation changed completely. The initial funds for the formation of the Dobroarmy consisted of donations, but they were scanty, mainly because of the greediness and stinginess of the Russian bourgeoisie and other propertied classes unimaginable for these circumstances. It should be said that the stinginess and avarice of the Russian bourgeoisie is simply legendary. Back in 1909, during the discussion in the State Duma on the issue of the kulaks, P.A. Stolypin uttered prophetic words. He said: “... there is no more greedy and shameless fist and bourgeois than in Russia. Not by chance in the Russian language in the course of the phrase "fist-world-eater and the bourgeois-world-eater." If they do not change the type of their social behavior, big shocks are waiting for us ... ”. He looked into the water. Social behavior, they have not changed. Almost all the organizers of the white movement point to the low usefulness of their appeals for material assistance to the property classes. Nevertheless, by the middle of January, a small Volunteer Army (about 5 thousand people) was turned out to be a very militant and morally strong army. Sovnarkom demanded the issuance or dispersal of volunteers. Kaledin and Krug answered: “There is no issue from the Don!”. The Bolsheviks, in order to liquidate the counter-revolutionaries, began to force their loyal troops from the Western and Caucasian fronts to the Don region. They began to threaten Don from the side of Donbass, Voronezh, Torgovaya and Tikhoretskaya. In addition, the Bolsheviks tightened control on the railways and the influx of volunteers dropped sharply. At the end of January, the Bolsheviks took Bataysk and Taganrog, on January 29, horse units moved from the Donbas to Novocherkassk. Don was defenseless against the red. Ataman Kaledin was taken aback, did not want bloodshed and decided to transfer his authority to the City Duma and democratic organizations, and then ended his life with a shot at the heart. It was a sad but logical outcome of his activities. The first Don Circle gave the first an elected ataman, but did not give him power.

At the head of the region was put the Military Government of the 14 elders, elected from each district. Their meetings had the character of a provincial duma and left no trace in the history of the Don. On November 20, the government appealed to the population with a very liberal declaration, convening a Cossack and peasant population congress on December 29 to arrange the life of the Don Region. In early January, a coalition government was created on a parity basis, 7 seats were provided to the Cossacks, 7 nonresident. The involvement of demagogues-intellectuals and revolutionary democracy into the government finally led to the paralysis of power. Ataman Kaledin ruined his trust in the Don peasants and non-residents, his famous "parity". He failed to glue together diverse pieces of the population of the Don region. Don, when he split into two camps, the Cossacks and Don peasants, along with non-resident workers and artisans. The last with a few exceptions were with the Bolsheviks. The Don peasantry, which constituted 48% of the population of the region, fascinated by the broad promises of the Bolsheviks, was not satisfied with the measures of the Don power: the introduction of zemstvos in the peasants' districts, the involvement of the peasants to participate in the village self-government, their wide acceptance in the Cossack class and the endowment of millions of ten thousand in their households, and in a massive number of ten thousand. Under the influence of the new socialist element, the Don peasantry demanded a general division of the entire Cossack land. The numerically smallest working environment (10-11%) was concentrated in the most important centers, was the most restless, and did not hide its sympathy for Soviet power. The revolutionary-democratic intelligentsia did not outlive its former psychology and, with surprising blinding, continued its destructive policy, which led to the demise of democracy on an all-Russian scale. The bloc of Mensheviks and Socialist-Revolutionaries reigned in all peasant and non-resident congresses, all sorts of thoughts, councils, trade unions and inter-party meetings. There was not a single meeting where resolutions on mistrust of the ataman, the government and the Circle, protests against their adoption of measures against anarchy, criminality and banditry would not be made.

They preached neutrality and reconciliation with the force that openly declared: "He who is not with us is against us." In the cities, working-class settlements and peasant settlements, the uprisings against the Cossacks did not subside. Attempts to put the divisions of workers and peasants in the Cossack regiments ended in disaster. They betrayed the Cossacks, went to the Bolsheviks and took the Cossack officers with them to torment and death. The war acquired the character of a class struggle. Cossacks defended their Cossack rights from the Don workers and peasants. The death of Ataman Kaledin and the occupation by the Bolsheviks of Novocherkassk end in the south during the Great War and the transition to a civil war.


Fig. 2 Ataman Kaledin


On February 12, the Bolshevik detachments occupied Novocherkassk and the army foreman Golubov in “thanks” for what General Nazarov once saved him from prison, and shot the new ataman. Having lost all hope of keeping Rostov, on the night of 9 (22) in February, the Dobronarmiya of the 2500 fighters left the city on Aksai, and then moved to the Kuban. After the establishment of the power of the Bolsheviks in Novocherkassk, terror began. The Cossack units were prudently scattered throughout the city in small groups, dominance in the city was in the hands of non-resident and Bolsheviks. On suspicion of having connections with Dobroarmiya, merciless executions of officers were carried out. The robberies and robberies of the Bolsheviks forced the Cossacks on their guard, even the Cossacks of the Golubovsky regiments took a wait. In the villages, where the power was seized by nonresident and Don peasants, the executive committees began to divide the Cossack lands. These atrocities soon caused Cossack uprisings in the stanitsas adjacent to Novocherkassk. The head of the Reds on the Don, Poditykov and the head of the Antonov punitive detachment, fled to Rostov, then were captured and executed. The occupation by the White Cossacks in April of Novocherkassk coincided with the occupation of Rostov by the Germans and the return of the Volunteer Army to the Don Region. But from the 252 stanitsas, Donskoy troops only 10 were liberated from the Bolsheviks. The Germans firmly occupied Rostov and Taganrog and the entire western part of the Donetsk district. Outposts of the Bavarian cavalry stood 12 versts from Novocherkassk. Under these conditions, Don faced four main tasks:
- immediately convene a new Circle, in which only the delegates of the liberated villages could take part
- to establish relations with the German authorities, find out their intentions and negotiate with them
- to recreate the Don Army
- establish relationships with the Volunteer Army.

April 28 held a general meeting of the Don government and delegates from the villages and military units who took part in the expulsion of Soviet troops from the Don region. The composition of this Circle could not have a claim to resolve questions for the whole Army, and therefore limited its work to the organization of the struggle for the liberation of the Don. The assembly decided to declare itself the Circle of Don's salvation. It had 130 people. Even in the Democratic Don it was the most popular assembly. The circle was called gray because there was no intelligentsia on it. The cowardly intelligentsia sat at this time in the cellars and basements, shook itself in its life, or fawned before the commissioners, enrolling in the council service or trying to get innocent in institutions for education, food and finance. She was not in the mood for elections in this troubled time, when both voters and deputies risked their heads. The circle was chosen without party struggle, it was not before. The circle was chosen and exclusively Cossacks were elected to it, who passionately wanted to save their native Don and were ready to give their lives for this. And these were not empty words, because after the elections, having sent their delegates, the electors themselves dismantled their weapons and went to save Don. This Circle did not have political physiognomy and had one goal - to save the Don from the Bolsheviks, by all means and at any cost. He was truly popular, meek, wise, and businesslike. And this gray, from the greatcoat and paltovy cloth, that is truly democratic, the Circle was saved by the Don people's mind. Already by the time of the convocation of the full military circle 15 of August 1918, the Don Land was cleared of the Bolsheviks.

The second urgent task for the Don was the settlement of relations with the Germans who occupied Ukraine and the western part of the land of the Don Army. Ukraine also claimed the Don lands occupied by the Germans: Donbass, Taganrog and Rostov. Attitudes towards the Germans and Ukraine were the most pressing issue, and 29 of April, the Circle decided to send an authorized plenipotentiary embassy to the Germans in Kiev to ascertain the reasons for their appearance on the territory of the Don. Negotiations took place in calm conditions. The Germans said that they were not going to occupy the region and promised to clear the occupied villages, which they soon fulfilled. On the same day, the Circle decided on the organization of a real army, not from partisans, volunteers or combatants, but obedient laws and discipline. So, around and around what for years the ataman Kaledin trampled down with his government and the Circle, consisting of talkers-intellectuals, and the gray circle of Don's salvation decided at two meetings. The Don Army was only in the project, and the command of the Volunteer Army already wished to bend it under itself. But the Circle clearly and concretely replied: “The high command of all without exception the military forces operating on the territory of the Don Cossacks should belong to the ataman of the troops ...”. Such an answer did not satisfy Denikin, he wanted in the face of the Don Cossacks to have large replenishments with people and material part, and not to have a “allied” army nearby. The circle worked intensively, meetings were held in the morning and in the evening. He was in a hurry to restore order and was not afraid of reproaches for striving to return to the old regime. 1 May Circle ruled: "Unlike the Bolshevik gangs, which do not wear any external distinction signs, all units involved in the defense of the Don immediately take on their military look and wear shoulder straps and other insignia." May 3 as a result of a closed vote 107 votes (13 against, 10 abstained), Major General P.N. was elected as ataman. Krasnov. General Krasnov did not accept this election before the Circle passes the laws that he considers necessary to be introduced in the Don Army for the possibility of fulfilling the tasks set for him by the Circle. Krasnov said at the Circle: “Creativity has never been the lot of the team. Raphael Madonna created Raphael, not the committee of artists ... You are the owners of the land of the Don, I am your manager. It's all about trust. If you trust me, you accept the laws proposed by me, if you do not adopt them, it means that you do not trust me, you are afraid that I use the power you have given to the detriment of the army. Then we have nothing to talk about. Without your complete trust, I cannot rule the army. ” On the question of one of the members of the Circle, whether he could not propose to change or alter in the laws proposed by the ataman, Krasnov replied: “You can. 48,49,50 articles. You can offer any flag except red, any coat of arms other than the Jewish five-pointed star, any anthem except the International ... ". The very next day, the Circle reviewed all the laws proposed by the ataman and adopted them. The circle restored the old pre-Petrine title “The Great Don Army”. The laws were almost a complete copy of the basic laws of the Russian Empire, with the difference that the rights and prerogatives of the emperor passed on to ... ataman. And there was no time for sentiment.

Before the eyes of the Don Salvation Circle there were bloodied ghosts of the shot dead ataman Kaledin and the shot ataman Nazarov. Don lay in the rubble, he was not only destroyed, but dirtied by the Bolsheviks, and German horses drank the water of the Quiet Don, sacred to the Cossacks river. The work of the former Circles led to this, and Kaledin and Nazarov fought against the resolutions, but could not win because they had no power. But these laws have created ataman many enemies. As soon as the Bolsheviks were expelled, the intelligentsia crawled out of the cellars and basements and climbed out and arranged a liberal howl. Nor did these laws satisfy Denikin, who saw in them the desire for separatism. 5 May Circle dispersed, and the ataman was left alone to rule the army. That same evening, his adjutant, Esul Kulgavov, went to Kiev with handwritten letters to Hetman Skoropadsky and Emperor Wilhelm. The result of the letter was that the German delegation came to the Ataman 8 in May, stating that the Germans did not pursue any aggressive goals towards Don and would leave Rostov and Taganrog as soon as they saw that the Don Region had been restored to full order. May 9 Krasnov met with the Kuban chieftain Filimonov and the delegation of Georgia, and May 15 met in the village of Manychskaya with Alekseev and Denikin. The meeting revealed deep differences between the Don Ataman and the Command of the Goodwill in both tactics and the strategy of fighting the Bolsheviks. The purpose of the rebellious Cossacks was the liberation of the land of the Don from the Bolsheviks. They had no further intention to wage war outside their territory.


Fig. 3 Ataman Krasnov, PN


By the time Novocherkassk was seized and the ataman was elected around the Don rescue circle, all armed forces consisted of six foot and two cavalry regiments of different numbers. The junior officers were from the villages and were good, but there were a shortage of hundreds and regimental commanders. Having experienced many insults and humiliations during the revolution, many senior commanders at first had a distrust of the Cossack movement. Cossacks were dressed in their paramilitary dress, lacking boots. Up to 30% were dressed in supports and sandals. Most wore epaulets, caps and hats all wore white stripes to distinguish it from the red guard. Discipline was fraternal, the officers ate with the Cossacks from the same cauldron, because they were most often relatives. The headquarters were small, for economic purposes there were several public figures from the villages in the shelves who solved all logistical issues. The fight was transient. Trenches and fortifications were not built. There was little of a shanty tool, and natural laziness interfered with digging into the Cossacks. The tactic was simple. At dawn, the attack started with liquid chains. At this time, an intricate route moved roundabout in the flank and rear of the enemy. If the enemy was ten times stronger, it was considered normal for the offensive. As soon as a roundabout column appeared, the Reds began to retreat and then the Cossack cavalry rushed at them with a wild, chilling geek, overturned and captured. Sometimes the battle began with a mock retreat of twenty versts (this is an ancient Cossack Venter). Red rushed to pursue, and at this time roundabout columns closed behind them and the enemy found himself in a firing bag. With such tactics, Colonel Guselshchikov with regiments in 2-3 thousands of people crushed and captured entire Red Guard divisions in 10-15 thousands of people with transports and artillery. The Cossack custom demanded that officers go ahead, therefore their losses were very great. For example, the commander General Mamantov was wounded three times and all in chains. In the attack, the Cossacks were merciless, were also merciless to the captive Red Guards. Particularly harsh were the captive Cossacks, who were considered traitors to the Don. Here the father used to sentence his son to death and did not want to say goodbye to him. Sometimes and vice versa. At that time, the echelons of the Red forces, which had fled to the east, continued to move across the territory of the Don. But in June, the railway line was cleared of the Reds, and in July, after the Bolsheviks were expelled from the Khopersky District, the entire territory of the Don was freed from the Reds by the Cossacks themselves.

In other Cossack regions the situation was no easier than on the Don. A particularly difficult situation was among the Caucasian tribes, where the Russian population was scattered. The North Caucasus was raging. The fall of the central government caused a more serious shock here than anywhere else. Reconciled by the royal power, but not outdated by age-old discord and not forgotten old offenses, the multi-tribal population became agitated. The Russian element that united it, about 40% of the population consisted of two equal groups, the Terek Cossacks and non-resident. But these groups were separated by social conditions, reduced their land accounts and could not oppose the Bolshevik danger of unity and strength. While the ataman Karaulov was alive, several Terek regiments and some ghost of power remained. On December 13, at the station of the Cool crowd of Bolshevik soldiers, by order of the Vladikavkaz Soviet, uncoupled the ataman car, drove off to a long dead end, and fired at the car. Karaulov was killed. In fact, on the Terek, power passed to local councils and gangs of soldiers of the Caucasian front, who flowed from the South Caucasus in a continuous stream and, not being able to penetrate further, to their native places, due to complete blockage of the Caucasian highways, settled as locusts on the Terek-Dagestan edge. They terrorized the population, implanted new soviets or hired the service of existing ones, bringing fear, blood and destruction everywhere. This stream served as the most powerful conductor of Bolshevism, which seized the Russian population nonresident (because of the thirst of the land), hurt the Cossack intelligentsia (because of the thirst for power) and embarrassed the Terek Cossacks (because of the fear of “going against the people”). As for the mountaineers, they were extremely conservative in their way of life, in which social and land inequality was very poorly reflected. True to their customs and traditions, they were governed by their national councils and were alien to the ideas of Bolshevism. But the mountaineers quickly and willingly perceived the applied sides of the central anarchy and intensified violence and plunder. By disarming passing troop trains, they had a lot of weapons and ammunition. On the basis of the Caucasian native corps, they formed national military formations.


Fig. 4 Cossack areas of Russia

After the death of Ataman Karaulov, the overwhelming struggle against the Bolshevik detachments that filled the region and the aggravation of controversial issues with neighbors - Kabardians, Chechens, Ossetians, Ingushs - the Terek Army was turned into a republic that was part of the RSFSR. Quantitatively, the Terek Cossacks in the Terek region accounted for 20% of the population, non-residents - 20%, Ossetians - 17%, Chechens - 16%, Kabardians - 12% and Ingushs - 4%. The most active among other nations were the smallest — the Ingush, who set out a strong and well-armed detachment. They robbed everyone and kept Vladikavkaz in constant fear, which they captured and plundered in January. When 9 March 1918 was established in Dagestan, like on the Terek, Soviet power was established, the Council of People's Commissars set the first goal to break the Terek Cossacks, destroying its special advantages. Armed expeditions of the highlanders were sent to the stanitsa, robbery, violence and murder were made, land was taken and transferred to the Ingush and Chechens. In this difficult situation Terek Cossacks fell spirit. While the mountain peoples created their armed forces by improvisation, the natural Cossack army, which had well-organized regiments of 12, decomposed, dispersed and disarmed at the request of the Bolsheviks. However, the excesses of the red led to the fact that the 18 of June 1918 of the year begins the uprising of the Terek Cossacks under the leadership of Bicherahov. The Cossacks defeat the Red troops and block their remnants in Grozny and Kizlyar. On July 20 in Mozdok, the Cossacks were convened at a congress, at which they decided to launch an armed uprising against Soviet power. The Tertians established contact with the command of the Volunteer Army, the Terek Cossacks created a fighting unit to 12 000 people with 40 guns and resolutely took the path of fighting the Bolsheviks.

The Orenburg Army under the leadership of Ataman Dutov, the first to declare independence from the power of the Soviets, was the first to undergo an invasion of detachments of workers and red soldiers who began robbery and repression. A veteran of the fight against the Soviets of Orenburg Cossack General I.G. Akulinin recalled: “The stupid and harsh policy of the Bolsheviks, their undisguised hatred of the Cossacks, abuse of Cossack shrines and, especially, massacres, requisition, indemnity and robbery in the villages - all this opened the eyes to the essence of Soviet power and forced to take up arms . The Bolsheviks could not lure the Kazakov. The Cossacks had land, and they returned the will in the form of the widest self-government in the first days of the February revolution. ” In the mood of the ordinary and front-line Cossacks, a turning point gradually came, it began to speak more and more actively against the violence and arbitrariness of the new government. If in January 1918, the ataman Dutov, under pressure from the Soviet troops, left Orenburg, and he had barely three hundred active fighters, then on the night of April 4, more than 1000 Cossacks made an attack on the sleeping Orenburg, and on July 3 power again in Orenburg passed into the hands of the chieftain.


Fig.5 Ataman Dutov


In the area of ​​the Ural Cossacks, resistance proceeded more successfully, despite the small size of the Army. Uralsk was not occupied by the Bolsheviks. Since the beginning of the birth of Bolshevism, the Ural Cossacks did not accept its ideology and, in March, the local Bolshevik revolutionary committees easily dispersed. The main reasons were that there were no nonresident people among the Urals, there was a lot of land, and the Cossacks were Old Believers, who kept their religious and moral principles more strictly. Cossack areas of Asian Russia in general occupied a special position. All of them were few in composition, most of them historically formed under special conditions by state measures, for purposes of state necessity, and their historical existence was determined by insignificant terms. Despite the fact that these troops did not have well-established Cossack traditions, attitudes and skills to the forms of statehood, they all turned out to be hostile to the advancing Bolshevism. In the middle of April, 1918, from Manchuria in Transbaikalia, troops of Ataman Semyonov launched an offensive around 1000 bayonets and sabers against 5,5 thousands of Reds. At the same time, the uprising of the Trans-Baikal Cossacks began. By May, the troops of Semenov approached Chita, but they could not immediately take it. The fights between the Cossacks of Semenov and the red detachments, consisting mainly of former political prisoners and captured Hungarians, in the Transbaikalia went with varying success. However, in late July, the Cossacks defeated the red troops and 28 of August took Chita. Soon the Amur Cossacks drove the Bolsheviks out of their capital, Blagoveshchensk, and the Ussuri Cossacks took Khabarovsk. Thus, under the command of their atamans: Zabaikalsky-Semenov, Ussuriysky-Kalmykov, Semirechensky-Annenkov, Ural-Tolstova, Siberian-Ivanov, Orenburg-Dutov, Astrakhan-Prince Tundutov, they entered a decisive battle. In the fight against the Bolsheviks, the Cossack regions fought exclusively for their lands and the rule of law, and their actions, by definition, by historians, were in the nature of a partisan war.


Fig. 6 White Cossacks

A huge role throughout the Siberian railway track was played by the troops of the Czechoslovak legions, formed by the Russian government from Czech and Slovak prisoners of war, numbering up to 45 LLC man. By the beginning of the revolution, the Czech corps was standing in the rear of the South-Western Front in Ukraine. In the eyes of the Austro-Germans, legionnaires, like former prisoners of war, were traitors. When the Germans attacked Ukraine in March 1918, the Czechs put up strong resistance to them, but most Czechs did not see their place in Soviet Russia and wished to return to the European front. Under an agreement with the Bolsheviks, Czech echelons were sent to Siberia for boarding ships in Vladivostok and sending them to Europe. In addition to the Czechoslovakia, there were many captured Hungarians in Russia who mostly sympathized with red. With the Hungarians, the Czechoslovakians had a centuries-old and fierce hostility and enmity (as in this connection, one cannot recall the immortal works of J. Hasek). Due to the fear of attacks in the way of the Hungarian red units, the Czechs resolutely refused to obey the Bolshevik order to surrender all weapons, which is why the Czech legions were decided to disperse. They were divided into four groups with a distance between groups of trains in 1000 kilometers, so that the trains with the Czechs stretched across Siberia from the Volga to Transbaikalia. The Czech legions played a colossal role in the Russian civil war, since after their rebellion the struggle against the Soviets intensified sharply.


Fig. 7 Czech Legion on the way to Transsib

Despite the agreements, there were considerable misunderstandings in the relations between the Czechs, the Hungarians and the local revolutionary committees. As a result of 25 in May 1918, 4,5, thousands of Czechs rebelled in Mariinsk, and on May 26, the Hungarians provoked an uprising of 8,8 in thousands of Czechs in Chelyabinsk. Then, with the support of the Czechoslovak troops, the power of the Bolsheviks was overthrown by 26 May in Novikolayevsk, 29 May in Penza, 30 May in Syzran, 31 May in Tomsk and Kurgan, 7 June in Omsk, 8 June in Samara and 18 June in Krasnoyarsk. The formation of Russian military units began in the liberated areas. July 5 Russian and Czechoslovak troops occupy Ufa, and July YNK take 25. The Czechoslovak legionaries themselves at the end of the 1918 year began a gradual withdrawal to the Far East. But, participating in battles in the army of Kolchak, they will finally finish the withdrawal and go from Vladivostok to France only at the beginning of the 1920 year. In such conditions, the Russian white movement began in the Volga region and Siberia, not counting the independent actions of the Ural and Orenburg Cossack troops, who began the struggle against the Bolsheviks immediately after their coming to power. On June 8, a Constituent Assembly Committee (Komuch) was created in the Samara liberated from the Reds. He declared himself a temporary revolutionary power, which, having spread over the entire territory of Russia, was to transfer the control of the country to the legally elected Constituent Assembly. The rising population of the Volga region began a successful struggle against the Bolsheviks, but in the liberated places the administration was in the hands of the fleeing fragments of the Provisional Government. These heirs and participants of the destructive activity, having formed the government, carried out the same pernicious work. At the same time, Komuch created his own armed forces - the People's Army. 9 June in Samara, a detachment in 350 man began to command Lieutenant Colonel Kappel. The replenished squad in mid-June takes Syzran, Stavropol Volzhsky (now Togliatti), and also inflicts a heavy defeat in red near Melekes. July 21 Kappel takes Simbirsk, defeating the superior forces of the Soviet city commander Guy defending the city. As a result, by the beginning of August 1918, the territory of the Constituent Assembly extends from west to east on the 750 versts from Syzran to Zlatoust, from north to south on the 500 versts from Simbirsk to Volsk. On August 7, the troops of Kappel, after having crushed the red river flotilla that had come out towards them, took Kazan to the mouth of the Kama. There, they capture part of the gold reserves of the Russian Empire (650 million gold rubles in coins, 100 million rubles by credit signs, gold bars, platinum and other valuables), as well as huge warehouses with weapons, ammunition, medicines, ammunition. This gave the Samara government a solid financial and material base. With the capture of Kazan, the full-staff Academy in the city of General Staff, headed by General A. I. Andogsky, entered the anti-Bolshevik camp.


Fig. 8 Hero Komucha Lt. Col. Kappel V.O.

In Yekaterinburg, a government of industrialists was formed, in Omsk, a Siberian government, in Chita, the government of Ataman Semyonov, who led the Trans-Baikal army. The Allies dominated Vladivostok. Then General Horvain arrived from Harbin, and as many as three authorities were formed: from the Allies' appointees, General Horvath, and from the board of the railway. Such fragmentation of the anti-Bolshevik front in the east required unification, and a meeting was convened in Ufa to select a single authoritative state authority. The situation in parts of the anti-Bolshevik forces was unfavorable. The Czechs did not want to fight in Russia and demanded that they be sent to the European fronts against the Germans. There was no confidence in the Siberian government and members of Komuch among the troops and among the people. In addition, the representative of England, General Knox, said that until a firm government was created, the delivery of supplies from the British would be stopped. Under these conditions, Admiral Kolchak joined the government and in the fall he made a coup and was proclaimed head of the government and supreme commander with the transfer of all his power.

In the south of Russia, events developed as follows. After being red at the start of Novocherkassk’s 1918, the Volunteer Army retreated to the Kuban. During the march to Ekaterinodar, the army, having endured all the difficulties of the winter campaign, later called the “ice march”, continuously fought. After the death of General Kornilov, who was killed near Yekaterinodar on 31 of March (13 of April), the army again broke through with a large number of prisoners to the territory of the Don, where by then the Cossacks revolted against the Bolsheviks and began clearing their territory. The army only by May got into conditions that allowed it to rest and replenish for further struggle against the Bolsheviks. Although the relationship between the command of the Volunteer Army and the German army was irreconcilable, it did not have the means of armament and tearfully begged the ataman Krasnov to send the Volunteer army the weapons, shells and ammunition he received from the German army. Ataman Krasnov, in his colorful expression, receiving military equipment from hostile Germans, washed them in the clear waters of the Don and transferred part of the Volunteer Army. Kuban was still occupied by the Bolsheviks. In the Kuban region, the gap with the center, which occurred in the Don due to the collapse of the Provisional Government, occurred earlier and sharper. Even 5 of October, with a decisive protest of the Provisional Government, the regional Cossack glad took a decision on the allocation of the territory in an independent Kuban republic. At the same time, only the Cossack, the mountain population and the old-age peasants were given the right to choose the self-government body, that is, almost half of the region’s population was deprived of voting rights. At the head of the socialist government was a military ataman, colonel Filimonov. The discord between the Cossack and non-resident population took more and more acute forms. Not only non-resident population, but also front-line Cossacks, were against the Rada and the government. Bolshevism came to this mass. The Kuban units, returning from the front, did not go to war against the government, did not want to fight the Bolsheviks, and did not obey the orders of their elected government. An attempt to model the Don on the basis of "parity" ended in the same paralysis of power. Everywhere, in every village, village, a red guard from non-resident gathered, a part of the front-line Cossacks, poorly subordinate to the center, but following exactly his policy, joined them. These undisciplined, but well-armed and violent gangs set about planting Soviet power, redistributing the land, withdrawing grain surpluses and socializing, and simply plundering the well-to-do Cossacks and decapitating the Cossacks — persecuting officers, non-Bolshevik intelligentsia, priests, authoritative old men. And above all to disarmament. It is surprising that the Cossack villages, shelves and batteries gave up their rifles, machine guns, and guns with complete nonresistance. When the stanitsas of the Yeisk Department revolted in late April, it was a completely unarmed militia. The Cossacks had no more than a hundred 10 rifles, the rest were armed with what they could. Some attached daggers or scythes to long sticks, others took pitchforks, others spears, and others simply shovels and axes. Punitive detachments with ... Cossack weapons came out against defenseless villages. By the beginning of April, all villages of other cities and 85 from 87 villages were Bolshevik. But the Bolshevism of the villages was purely external. Often, only the names changed: the ataman became a commissar, the stanitsa gathering - by the council, the stanitsa government - by the party.

Where executive committees were seized from other cities, there was a sabotage of their decisions, re-electing every week. There was a stubborn, but passive, without enthusiasm and enthusiasm, the struggle of the age-old structure of the Cossack democracy and life with the new government. There was a desire to preserve the Cossack democracy, but there was no daring. All this, in addition, was heavily mixed in on the pro-Ukrainian separatism of the part of the Cossacks who had Dnieper roots. The pro-Ukrainian leader Luka Bych, who was at the head of the Rada, said: "To help the Volunteer Army is to prepare Russia for the absorption of the Kuban again." Under these conditions, Ataman Shkuro assembled the first partisan detachment located in the region of Stavropol, where the Council met, stepped up the struggle and presented an ultimatum to the Council. The uprising of the Kuban Cossacks quickly gained momentum. In June, the 8 thousandth Volunteer Army began its second campaign against the Kuban who had completely rebelled against the Bolsheviks. This time, White was lucky. General Denikin consistently defeated Kalnin’s thousandth army under White Clay and Tikhoretskaya 30, then in the fierce battle near Yekaterinodar, 30, the thousandth army of Sorokin. July 21 white occupies Stavropol, and August 17 Ekaterinodar. Blocked on the Taman Peninsula, the 30 thousandth grouping of Reds under the command of Kovtyukh, the so-called "Taman Army", along the Black Sea coast with fights, breaks through the Kuban River, where the remnants of the defeated armies of Kalnin and Sorokin fled. By the end of August, the territory of the Kuban army was completely cleared of the Bolsheviks, and the number of the white army reached 40 thousand bayonets and sabers. However, having entered the territory of the Kuban, Denikin issued a decree addressed to the Kuban chieftain and the government, demanding:
- full tension from the Kuban for his speedy release from the Bolsheviks
- all the primary units of the Kuban military forces must henceforth be part of the Volunteer Army to perform national tasks
- in the future by the liberated Kuban Cossacks no separatism should be manifested.

Such a blatant interference by the command of the Volunteer Army in the internal affairs of the Kuban Cossacks was negative. General Denikin led an army that did not have a certain territory, a people under his control and, even worse, a political ideology. The commander of the Don Army, General Denisov, in his hearts even called the volunteers "wandering musicians." The ideas of General Denikin focused on the armed struggle. Not having sufficient funds for this, General Denikin demanded that the Cossack regions of the Don and the Kuban be subordinated to him for the struggle. Don was in better conditions and absolutely not bound by Denikin’s instructions. The German army was perceived on the Don as a real force, helping to get rid of Bolshevik domination and terror. The Don government entered into contact with the German command and established fruitful cooperation. Relations with the Germans turned into a purely business form. The exchange rate of the German mark in 75 kopecks of the Don currency was established, the rate of the Russian rifle with 30 cartridges in one pood of wheat or rye was made, other supply agreements were concluded. For the first month and a half, the Don army received from the German army: 11 651 rifle, 88 machine guns, 46 troops, 109 thousands of artillery shells, 11,5 millions of rifle cartridges, from which were transferred to the Volunteer Army 35 thousands of artillery shells and manufacured ammunition shells and manufacterers of numerical artillery shells, thousands of artillery shells, and 9 rifle cartridges. At the same time, the whole shame of peaceful relations with an implacable opponent fell solely on the ataman Krasnov. As for the High Command, then, according to the laws of the Don Army, it could only belong to the Military Ataman, and before his election, to the traveling Ataman. This discrepancy led to the fact that Don demanded the return of all Donians from the Donor Army. Relations between Don and Dobromrmiya were not allied, but relations of fellow travelers.

In addition to tactics, there were also large discrepancies in the white movement in strategy, politics, and war aims. The goal of the Cossack masses was to liberate their land from the invasion of the Bolsheviks, establish order in their area and provide the Russian people with the opportunity to arrange their own destiny. Meanwhile, the forms of civil war and the organization of the armed forces returned military art in the era of the XIX century. The successes of the troops then depended solely on the qualities of the commander who directly controlled the troops. Good commanders of the XIX century, the main forces were not scattered, and directed to one main goal: the seizure of the political center of the enemy. With the seizure of the center, the paralysis of the government of the country takes place and the conduct of the war is complicated. Sovnarkom, who was sitting in Moscow, was in extremely difficult conditions, reminiscent of the position of Muscovite XIV-XV centuries, limited to the Oka and Volga rivers. Moscow was cut off from all types of supplies, and the goals of the Soviet rulers were limited to obtaining basic food and a piece of sustenance. In the pathetic calls of the leaders there were no longer high motives emanating from the ideas of Marx, they sounded cynical, figurative and simple, as they once sounded in the speeches of the national leader Pugachev: "Go, take everything and destroy everyone who stands in your way" . Commissar Bronstein (Trotsky) in his speech on 9 June 1918, pointed out simple and clear goals: “Comrades! Among all the questions that worry our hearts, there is one simple question - the question of our daily bread. Over all thoughts, over all our ideals, one concern now dominates, one anxiety: how to survive tomorrow. Everyone involuntarily thinks about himself, about his family ... My task is not to conduct only one campaign among you. We need to seriously talk about the food situation of the country. According to our statistics, in 17, the year of excess bread in those places that produce and export bread, was 882 LLC LLC poods. On the other hand, there are areas in the country where there is not enough bread. If you count, it turns out that they lack 322 LLC LLC poods. So, in one part of the country there are 882 LLC LLC pounds of excess, and in the other 322 LLC LLC poods are not enough ...

In the North Caucasus alone, there is now no less grain surplus than 140 000 000: we, in order to satisfy hunger, need the whole country 15 000 LLC pounds per month. So think for it: 140 000 000 pounds of surplus, located only in the North Caucasus, may be enough for ten months for the whole country. ... Let each of you now promise to provide immediate practical assistance in order for us to set up a campaign for bread. ” In fact, it was a direct call for robbery. Due to the complete lack of publicity, the paralysis of public life and the complete fragmentation of the country, the Bolsheviks nominated people for leadership positions for whom in normal conditions there is one place - a prison. Under such conditions, the task of the white command in the struggle against the Bolsheviks should have had the shortest goal of seizing Moscow, without being distracted by any other secondary tasks. And to accomplish this main task, it was necessary to attract the widest sections of the people, primarily the peasants. In reality, it was the opposite. Instead of going to Moscow, the volunteer army was firmly bogged down in the North Caucasus, the Ural-Siberian white troops could not get over the Volga. All the revolutionary changes beneficial to the peasants and the people, economic and political, were not recognized as whites. The first step of their civil representatives in the liberated territory was a decree repealing all orders issued by the Provisional Government and Council of People's Commissars, including those relating to property relations. General Denikin, having absolutely no plan to establish a new order capable of satisfying the population, consciously or unconsciously, wanted to return Russia to its original pre-revolutionary position, and the peasants were obliged to pay for the occupied lands to their former owners. After that, could whites rely on the support of their activities by peasants? Of course not. Cossacks also refused to go beyond the Don Cossacks. And they were right. Voronezh, Saratov and other peasants not only did not fight the Bolsheviks, but also went against the Cossacks. The Cossacks, not without difficulty, were able to cope with their Don peasants and non-townspeople, but they could not defeat the entire peasant central Russia and understood this perfectly.

As the Russian and non-Russian history shows us, when cardinal changes and decisions are required, we need not just people, but extraordinary personalities, which unfortunately did not turn out during the Russian timelessness. The country needed a power that could not only issue decrees, but also have wit and authority, so that these decrees were carried out by the people, preferably voluntarily. Such power does not depend on state forms, but is based, as a rule, solely on the abilities and authority of the leader. Bonaparte, having approved the power, did not look for any forms, but managed to force him to obey his will. He forced France to serve both the representatives of the Korolev levies and those who came from sans-culottes. There were no such consolidating personalities in the white and red movement and this led to an incredible split and bitterness in the ensuing civil war. But that's another story.

Materials used:
Gordeev A.A. - History of the Cossacks
Mamonov V.F. and others. - History of the Cossacks of the Urals. Orenburg-Chelyabinsk 1992
Shibanov N.S. - Orenburg Cossacks of the XX century
Ryzhkova N.V. - Don Cossacks in the wars of the early twentieth century-2008
Brusilov A.A. My memories. Military Publishing. M.1983
Krasnov P.N. Great Don army. "Patriot" M.1990
Lukomsky A.S. Origin of the Volunteer Army. M.1926
Denikin A.I. How the struggle against the Bolsheviks began in the south of Russia. M.1926
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  1. Gans1234 13 March 2015 06: 41 New
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    +1
    Wah, what a topic !!!
    We dug up a terribly interesting topic, ATP, we will read.
    I don’t know much about the citizen - I don’t like reading about her, only recently I overpower myself - it’s wildly painful and sad to study those terrible events
    1. insafufa 13 March 2015 11: 45 New
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      +2
      Quote: Gans1234
      Wah, what a topic !!!
      We dug up a terribly interesting topic, ATP, we will read.
      I don’t know much about the citizen - I don’t like reading about her, only recently I overpower myself - it’s wildly painful and sad to study those terrible events


      In those days, everything was ambiguous and difficult for us to judge.
      The stigma in the fluff of those and others was
      They told me about the grandmother that they both robbed and raped
      So for ordinary people there was no difference am
    2. Alekseev 13 March 2015 15: 02 New
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      Quote: Gans1234
      Wah, what a topic !!!

      Yes ...
      Surprisingly, for "certain civilians" the reasons why the Cossacks of all Cossack regions for the most part rejected the destructive ideas of Bolshevism and entered into an open struggle against them are still not quite clear.
      "Quiet Don" forgot what? Or, most likely, they didn’t read the term. Half of the great epic, by the way, is equally recognized both in the USSR and in the West (M.A.Sholokhov and Stalin and Nobel laureates yes ) is devoted to a description of the reasons that, you see, for historians? laughing "make up the riddle."
  2. Darkness 13 March 2015 07: 24 New
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    Yes Yes Yes.
    Bolsheviks are bad
    Cossacks (white) are good.
    The article somehow does not smell good.
    1. Jaros81 13 March 2015 07: 59 New
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      Well, who? The Cossacks were not fluffy, but it was the Bolsheviks who unleashed the civil war. They bear most of the responsibility. Lenin said: "Let us turn the imperialist war into a civil war." You can blame the tsar and Cossacks for the collapse of the country as much as you like, but it was the Bolsheviks and Lenin who brought civil and hunger.
      1. dmb
        dmb 13 March 2015 09: 04 New
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        And can you find out what such a profound conclusion is based on? Give arguments other than "everyone who read the newspaper" Nagayka "knows."
        1. Jaros81 13 March 2015 09: 29 New
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          Yes, easily.
          - transfer of Germany to Ukraine, Belarus and the Baltic states, exit from the Entente, which was regarded as a national betrayal;
          - The introduction of a food dictatorship (essentially a total robbery of peasants) and kombedov in May - June 1918;
          - establishment of a one-party system - July 1918;
          - constitutional consolidation of the dictatorship of the proletariat and the power of the Bolsheviks - 10 July 1918 g .;
          - execution of the king and his family - 17 July 1918 g .;
          - nationalization of all industry (in fact, the Bolsheviks appropriation of all private property in the country) - 28 July 1918
          1. Darkness 13 March 2015 09: 46 New
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            Those. you don’t know a damn, but use the propaganda of liberals 90's?
            1. Jaros81 13 March 2015 10: 06 New
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              this is not agitation, these are facts. Dates are given ..
              1. Darkness 13 March 2015 10: 28 New
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                So you don’t understand what you know. It is necessary to look at the consequences of actions, and not of the actions themselves.
              2. vladkavkaz 13 March 2015 17: 20 New
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                Jaros81
                Data?
                is it facts? - "- the transfer of Germany to Ukraine, Belarus and the Baltic states, the exit from the Entente, which was regarded as a national betrayal;"? This is not a fact, but an unproven juggling of events that took place, without considering the cause and consequences. A hint at Brestky the world, so it is canceled, soon, and by 39 the lost is completely returned.
                In addition, only an absolutely undeveloped individual who does not know the postulate that for the sake of more, one must sometimes sacrifice small ones, at that time and under those conditions, would lose everything at all.
                Oh, what a pearl- "the introduction of a food dictatorship (essentially total robbery of peasants) and comedians in May - June 1918;" - ATTENTION that the food service was introduced even under the incompetent Nikolashka, and after the Provisional Government, and for the sake of the survival of cities, I had to take pretty tough measures, or following your stupidity, you had to kill for example the population of Moscow, St. Petersburg?
                Another nonsense ... "- the establishment of a one-party system - July 1918 g.;" - And who m, s corrected the screw in your head, so that you recall, for example, the actions of the Socialist-Revolutionaries in inciting and supporting Civil and direct rebellions? And the anarchist banditry ? Not to mention all sorts of Directories and other supreme transmitting countries such as Kolchak and K.
                Amazingly, it’s necessary to anneal this way - “the constitutional consolidation of the dictatorship of the proletariat and the power of the Bolsheviks - 10 July 1918 g.” - And WHO should have been in power if the REDs had the intention to rebuild the country despite the efforts of any white rabble and their ANTANTA owners? give-Kolchak, Deniknin, Wrangel,? As it turned out to none of them, in general, the people, the government did not want to give.
                Heh, he gave out - "the execution of the king and his family - 17 July 1918 g .;" - CITIZEN, who has the rank of colonel by the name of Romanov, nothing more, and shed tears on him when, due to his spinelessness and frankly speaking unsuitability, the country as a whole, it lost 15 million, including here, both the losses of the First World War and the Civil, for nothing, on his conscience the blood and tears of millions of them sent to the war, for absolutely other interests.
                What a shame, the factory was not left- "nationalization of all industry (in fact, the Bolsheviks' appropriation of all private property in the country) - 28 July 1918 g." - ABSOLUTELY true act.
          2. avt
            avt 13 March 2015 10: 16 New
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            Quote: Jaros81
            - execution of the king and his family - 17 July 1918 g .;
            I agree besides this. Sverdlov seems to be about Nikki # 2, and maybe Ulyanov / Lenin, I don’t remember, said, “Nobody will know what we did with him.” A scam with burying and digging up skulls of a major KGB with a writer and subsequent burial in a pile in Petropavlovka to consider it solely as an excuse for dividing the property of the Romanov’s house abroad. By the way, the vice-receiver, freshly shot on the Moscow bridge, also played an active role. request that EBON stepped on its own feet, and the Russian Orthodox Church never recognized the remains either.
            Quote: Jaros81
            . Lenin said: "Let us turn the imperialist war into a civil war."

            good And quite publicly and openly! Feeling free no one.
            Quote: Georg Shep
            . It is time to fully pay tribute to our glorious ancestors.

            An avatar like Kornilov’s from the Ice Campaign? And the truth about Kornilov’s visit to Rostov on the Don, well, when the same Kaledin shot himself in shame from shame, and who with him went on that campaign did you actually leave too? And about Krasnov, how did he, he gloriously defended the borders of Russia? Or will you justify lasciviously, they say he’s not like this, but such a life, and specifically the Bolsheviks? As it is now, the truth often looks like GlavPuroski, but with the opposite sign - Earlier they said only ,, A ”, but now only ,, B”, but it’s not very good to say something like that in succession, there are more and more spells about the “truth”, and pastoral pictures, “happy life by way of life.”
          3. dmb
            dmb 13 March 2015 10: 54 New
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            Still, from the "Nagayka" arguments. Let's go. The 27.01 separate peace treaty is signed by the Ukrainian Central Council, and the Bolsheviks only signed the Brest Treaty on the 3 of March, after the start of the German offensive, which there was simply nothing to oppose. Obviously you, as a “patriot,” would be more comfortable with the Germans' occupation of the entire European part of Russia. An unforgettable Nikolasha introduced the food spread. And the "robbed" peasants, having joyfully robbed the landowners, were somehow greatly indignant at the fact that the power that had given them landowner land. in exchange, she demanded that they support this power in a war. About one-party system, it’s good, it would be much better in the conditions of the same war, without gaining strength, in less than half a year to return everything that is possible, and continue to listen to the balabol Kerensky and the like. Costuitability of consolidation? Do you obviously believe that the absence of new laws would have an exceptionally beneficial effect on the existence of the state? Nationalization? Is your surname not Ryabushinsky? Of course, it turned out to be wrong with Batyushka, though when you consider that the White Guards offensive was the reason for his execution, this argument is the weakest as an argument for starting the war. The funny thing is that none of the arguments explains why these evil-minded people (Bolsheviks) had to start a war if they had already taken power. So from the "Nagayka".
            1. Jaros81 13 March 2015 11: 34 New
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              once again the dates are indicated. And my ancestors still served that “tsarist” Russia faithfully, and Soviet as well. So not from the whip. The surplus was introduced by Nikolai. Please indicate the date. As for the fact that the German could occupy the entire European part of Russia. Complete nonsense. By 1917, only Poland was occupied by the Germans. As a result of two revolutions, the front collapsed and the Germans also occupied Ukraine.
              26 October 1917 year was issued by the Bolsheviks "Decree on Peace", according to which was supposed to be "a world without annexations and indemnities." The appeal was sent to all the warring powers. The contents of secret agreements between the Russian Empire and the Allies were published. For obvious reasons, the proposal was accepted only by Germany.
              Negotiations about peace began (the so-called Brest Peace).
              Lenin instructed Trotsky to sign the treaty if the Germans issued an ultimatum. Which is what happened.
              The contract was signed. Their whole "world without annexations and indemnities" resulted in this:
              An area of ​​780 thousand square meters was torn away from Russia. km with a population of 56 million people (one third of the population of the Russian Empire) and on which (before the revolution) were located: 27% of the cultivated agricultural land, 26% of the entire railway network, 33% of the textile industry, 73% of iron and steel was smelted, 89% of coal and coal were mined 90% sugar was made; 918 textile factories, 574 breweries, 133 tobacco factories, 1685 distilleries, 244 chemical factories, 615 pulp mills, 1073 machine-building plants were located and 40% of industrial workers were located.
              Separately, it should be noted that Russia paid 6 billions of marks of reparations plus the payment of losses incurred by Germany during the Russian revolution - 500 million gold rubles.
              The criminal connivance of the Bolsheviks led to famine and civil war.
              1. dmb
                dmb 13 March 2015 12: 22 New
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                Leave the deceased Surplus Survey 2.12.2016, then 25.03.2017 alone. Minsk, Polotsk, Pskov, Gomel, Chernihiv, Mogilev and Revel, all this is entirely the territory of Poland. I’m not even talking about Kiev. Or did the Bolsheviks also create a parliament? The fact that from the "unleashing" of the Civil War by the Bolsheviks you have moved to "connivance" is already comforting. There were such facts. None of the white leaders particularly prevented the creation of military force to overthrow Soviet power. I can imagine how the peasants would have happily greeted the “liberators”, from whom they would begin to take back the land and grand piano from the manor of the estate.
              2. Alexey RA 13 March 2015 16: 11 New
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                Quote: Jaros81
                The criminal connivance of the Bolsheviks led to famine and civil war.

                The famine brought about the collapse of the Empire’s transport network, which occurred even with the good priest-king.
                For reference: at the beginning of 1917 in the Empire, from 20 239 steam engines were serviceable 10 215. Of 590 000 wagons, only 166 684. While the Mobilization Plan (No. 19) provided for the need for 19 856 freight and 4 000 passenger locomotives.
                And in addition to rolling stock, more rails were required ...
                During the First World War, metallurgical plants switched to the production of metal for military purposes, and its production for the needs of the railroads decreased from 41 million pounds in 1913 to 28 million in 1916. Orders of the Ministry of Railways were not systematically carried out .
                The allies rejected the request of the tsarist government for the supply of ferrous metal. In 1916, the railway crisis became apparent.
                1. semirek 13 March 2015 17: 00 New
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                  But after all, we were not ready for war by the 14 year, and only by the 16 year, according to Shulgin, the gun had 100 parks of shells (ammunition) and Russian artillery could freely slaughter Germans and Austrians. It was a pity that at that time there was no fighting structure with sabotage in the rear, otherwise we would have ended the war by the year 17. But this is our country - and the mistakes of the Great War were taken into account in the next war.
                  1. Alexey RA 13 March 2015 17: 26 New
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                    Quote: semirek
                    But after all, we were not ready for war for the 14 year, and only for the 16 year, according to Shulgin, the gun had 100 parks of shells (ammunition) and Russian artillery could slaughter Germans and Austrians without hindrance.

                    Heh heh heh ... the monarchist Shulgin prudently does not disclose the presence of these shells in the troops and the distribution of calibers. Due to the crisis on the train, these shells remained largely in the central warehouses - they were later shot to the start of the 50's.
                    In addition, the "average temperature in the hospital" was fueled by 3 shells (half of which were shrapnel), while 42-linear guns, 48-linear howitzers and 6-guns lacked shells. But for hacking, even field defense is needed OFS caliber of at least 122 mm.
                    In total, state-owned and private factories manufactured all kinds of shells for the army’s needs in 1914, 104 900, in 1915, 9 567 888, in 1916, 30 974 678, and in 1917, 24 413 552 shells, which amounted to total 65 061 018 shells of which 76-mm - 53 525 400.

                    Quote: semirek
                    It is a pity that at that time there was no structure to combat sabotage in the rear, otherwise we would have finished the war by 17.

                    No Cheka will be able to correct the lag in industry in a couple of years. The railway crisis didn’t happen because the evil capitalists did not want to produce rails, steam locomotives and wagons for the tsar’s tsar — ​​but because these factories or their allies were occupied with other orders for the front. Russia's industry simply did not have enough power reserve.
                    This lesson was taken into account by the Bolsheviks who replaced them - excessive redundancy has become the norm: mobilized materials, strength reserves of structures and mechanisms in factories, simplified mobilization models of weapons and equipment to reduce the load on industry.
                    1. semirek 13 March 2015 18: 12 New
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                      On the one hand, you are right: whether Russia is royal or Bolshevik or modern, it remains Russia and the next rulers must learn from the mistakes of their predecessors.
                      As for the discussion, my opinion is this: the Russian tsars were not fools and pushed their borders not just because of a whim, but from understanding the threat that comes from the west, so that in case of war give the long-hardening Russian man time to concentrate. during the three years of the Great War, Russia did not lose a single inch of its national lands. But in the next war, which turned out to be the unfinished previous us. by July of 42, 70 million of the population and everything else had lost ---- what is the effectiveness of the Bolshevik administration?
                      1. Alexey RA 13 March 2015 19: 15 New
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                        Quote: semirek
                        Look: in the three years of the Great War, Russia did not lose a single tip of its national lands. But in the next war, which turned out to be the unfinished previous one. by July of 42, 70 million of the population and everything else had lost ---- what is the effectiveness of the Bolshevik administration?

                        The effectiveness is that we survived the second war with the Reich - in contrast, by the way, from the best army of the continent, winners in the last war with Germany. And unlike the Empire / Republic, which in WWI to 1917 stood out from the last forces. Even without the 1917 revolution, defeats at the front were inevitable. It is very difficult to fight without a normal transport from the rear. And it’s doubly more difficult - if your industry produces three to five times less than the enemy, who exactly at that time mobilized his industry in full.

                        Also, the effectiveness is that after 4 years of the hardest war, the country did not gobble up itself from the inside and did not collapse like a house of cards from the slightest push. Moreover, the country still had enough strength to repay a hundredfold to the Japanese and force the former Allies to put aside all their "unthinkable" plans.
                      2. azkolt 13 March 2015 21: 09 New
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                        You are talking nonsense and nonsense !!!!! On May 17, the tsarist General Staff planned a general offensive. Preparation was in full swing, and ammunition and ammunition were procured in sufficient quantities. Even the uniform, the famous budenovki, were prepared then. The Germans were already on the verge of defeat. they were bloodless, famine was already beginning in the country. In addition, special landing divisions were created for landing on the Bosphorus under the leadership of Kolchak. In short, the war should already end in the summer of 17! Russia became the winner and reaped the benefits in the form of access to the Bosphorus and the Balkans.
                        I also want to remind you that Russia also fought with Turkey and inflicted a number of serious defeats on it. While the British twice firmly received from the Turks. It's me that they were good warriors at that time.
                      3. devastator 13 March 2015 22: 21 New
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                        Quote: azkolt
                        You are talking nonsense and nonsense !!!!! On May 17, the tsarist General Staff planned a general offensive.

                        I apologize for the poverty of the syllable, but by May 2017 the tsarist General Staff had already become the institution, as they say, "chickens to laugh." And not even because the generals and officers who were in it were bad strategists, operational managers or tactics, but because the king in 2017, in 2014, and in 2005 was a real degenerate! And the rest, subordinates, either had to rebel (which few dared to), or follow in the wake of the liquidated “supreme leadership”, without being distracted by their own (sometimes, by the way, even outstanding) professional competence.
                        The words written by Gumilyov about the Chinese Sui Empire come to my mind: "The vast majority of Chinese, strong and weakly passionate, aspired to a national upsurge and supported the principles of Sui, but the crowned degenerate paralyzed their efforts, and won the Civil War 614-619. ... "
                        Well, Nicholas could not win! The degenerate’s karma was like that! And even the genius of Brusilov, Kolchak and many others, even the heroism of the Russian soldiers could not overcome this!
                        All! The era is over!
              3. azkolt 13 March 2015 20: 53 New
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                I wonder what the Red Army fought 4 of the Civil War.
              4. swertalf April 9 2015 19: 19 New
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                The only question is: why did you have to start this war? The next war was really both Great and Patriotic - liberation - and this "great" was a gamble - the soldiers repaid French loans with their lives, oh yes the Dardanelles would give us to occupy, maybe then ... maybe like the allies promised ... on in words - that would have healed after the "victory".
            2. azkolt 13 March 2015 21: 00 New
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              Dear, when writing, then clarify that the famine in St. Petersburg! And it’s hard to call it hunger, there wasn’t only white bread, there was plenty of black. It was a provoked occasion. An example, an occasion with the entry into the EU in Ukraine. The "technologists of the crisis" developed and provoked it ... or do you really think that the people groaning under the heel of tsarism with a powerful hand overthrew the damned regime? My great-grandmother, who died in the 70's and who was under 100 years old, said that under the tsar the peasants lived better!
              1. semirek 14 March 2015 00: 26 New
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                My grandfather also spoke.
              2. vladkavkaz 14 March 2015 07: 23 New
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                azkolt
                All your arguments about the “victory”, especially about the Bosphorus, are not worth a damn, for the reason that neither England nor France were interested and would not have admitted under any pretext this very “victory”.
                “Crisis technologists” - what do you all go around, not wanting to see that such a technology, with the notorious deficit of everything and everything, was scrolled by the Judas in the 90 years of the last century in the Union? It is enough to read the cries of Gavrila Popov in the 1989 year about the creation of the very same deficit in state trade and understand the technology, which Gorbachev, using all the power of the state, brought down that very state.
                RI-in the analogue, again shy to say that RI was overwhelmed by the aristocracy and Jewish gesheftmahmery, industrialists, merchants, whom the old system began to interfere with the development as they saw it.
                So your grandmother, as an argument, is worth nothing, since her opinion is akin to the opinion of a mole crawled out under a bush, but reasoning about the forest as a whole.
                And the maxim that under the tsar, peasants lived better — you didn’t make a mistake by resource? Such statements will be made somewhere for example at RAIN in the morning, but here, people are literate, they know where and how to look for confirmation or refutation of your speculation.
                The surplus appraisal, BEGIN under Nicholas 2, probably from the fabulous life of the peasants, in a warring country with food the crisis in large industrial centers has come?
          4. semirek 13 March 2015 16: 48 New
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            My question is: why did the Bolsheviks even need this power over Russia? why shoulder this overwhelming burden? for what? to make a world revolution? Do not tell people - money must be worked out including the Brest Peace (the most disgraceful world in Russian history).
            1. devastator 13 March 2015 22: 31 New
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              Quote: semirek
              My question is: why did the Bolsheviks even need this power over Russia? why shoulder this overwhelming burden? for what? to make a world revolution? Do not tell people - money must be worked out including the Brest Peace (the most disgraceful world in Russian history).

              And you, when you write itDo you fully understand the objective reality of that moment?
              If not - well, with whom does not happen.
              If so, then I would really like to play the game with you. Handcuff you in a non-residential building intended for demolition, on the third floor, handcuffed to a ring embedded in the wall, hand out a hacksaw for metal, and put an explosive device weighing a kilogram in 300, with a timer for 5-8 minutes.
              Be able to survive in such circumstances - excellent!
              Do not qualify - so no shame, because "the dead do not shame!"

              All this, of course, is indescribably unpleasant. But on the other hand, if suddenly (which is unlikely) you survived, you would have every moral right to condemn the Brest Peace from the “high belfry”.
              1. semirek 14 March 2015 00: 23 New
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                And here it’s an interesting hitch: why did you decide that Russia was on the verge of death more than Germany, I’m not talking about Austria-Hungary, on the eve of the Brest Peace, but of course the Bolsheviks greatly decomposed Russian units with the murder of officers (it’s clear for what was being done) there were strong fronts and units, for example, the Romanian front. In Germany at that time there was almost famine and simply collapse, and the Brest Peace was signed “on time”, isn’t it strange?
        2. semirek 13 March 2015 16: 40 New
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          Dear, It is necessary to distinguish between different facts: you say that the surplus appraisal was introduced by Nikolai, but it is true that she also assumed the seizure of food and other goods necessary for the front (and the front of the Great War is comparable to the front of the Great Patriotic War), but the difference with the Bolshevik surplus surplus is that. that for the seized property they paid right away with money, unlike the robber-detachments.
      2. Alexey RA 13 March 2015 13: 24 New
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        Quote: Jaros81
        - transfer of Germany to Ukraine, Belarus and the Baltic states, exit from the Entente, which was regarded as a national betrayal;

        I still wildly apologize, but how then to regard Krasnov’s letter to Wilhelm? For a minute, an officer of the Russian army who does not recognize the Brest worlds there and does not leave the Entente, writes a letter to the head of the state formally at war with Russia, asking him to recognize the independence of the separatist formation he leads and help with weapons in exchange for getting out of the war and delivering food to Germany.
        The Ataman of our Winter Village at the court of Your Imperial Majesty is authorized by me to ask your Imperial Majesty recognize the rights of the Great Don Army to independent existence, and with the release of the last Kuban, Astrakhan and Terek troops and the North Caucasus, the right to independent existence of the entire federation under the name of the Don Caucasian Union.
        To ask your majesty to facilitate the accession to the Army for strategic reasons of the cities of Kamyshin and Tsaritsyn of the Saratov province and the city of Voronezh and the station Liski and Povorino and draw the border of the Don Army, as indicated on the map available in the Winter Village.
        To ask Your Majesty to exert pressure on the Soviet authorities of Moscow and force them to clear the limits of the All-Great Army of the Don and other powers that have entered the Don Caucus Union from the robber detachments of the Red Guard and give an opportunity to restore normal, peaceful relations between Moscow and the Don Army. All losses of the population of the Don, Trade and Industry Troops resulting from the invasion of the Bolsheviks should be compensated by Soviet Russia.
        Request Your Imperial Majesty to help our young state with guns, rifles, ammunition and engineering equipment and, if you recognize it as profitable, to establish within the framework of the Don Don Army gun, gun, shell and ammunition plants.
        The Great Don Army commits itself to the service of Your Imperial Majesty to observe complete neutrality during the world struggle of peoples and not to allow armed forces hostile to the German people on its territory, to which the ataman of the Astrakhan army, the prince Tundutov, and the Kuban government, and upon joining the rest of the Don Caucasus Union, gave their consent.
        The Great Don Army provides the German Empire the right to preferentially export excess to meet local needs of bread, grain and flour, leather goods and raw materials, wool, fish products, vegetable and animal fats and oils and products thereof, tobacco products and products, livestock and horses, grape wine and other gardening products and farmingin return, the German Empire will deliver agricultural machinery, chemicals and tanning extracts, expedition equipment for the procurement of government papers with an appropriate supply of materials, equipment for cloth, cotton, leather, chemical, sugar and other factories and electrical equipment.
        1. azkolt 13 March 2015 21: 15 New
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          You bring some strange letters! This letter was written when the Germans were already on the threshold of the Don troops launched there by the Bolsheviks. It’s strange for me to hear people who turn a blind eye to obvious facts !!!. The slogan of the Bolsheviks was the development of the imperialist war in the CIVIL. They did it! They signed the raunchy Brest Peace, having deleted Russia from the list of victors and plunged it into a bloody civil war. And these are facts, everything else is DEMAGOGY!
          1. vladkavkaz 14 March 2015 07: 25 New
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            azkolt
            You now deign to deceive this stupidity out of ignorance?
            So you do not want to go to school, dear?
            Why then again, to engage in balabolstvo, telling myths to no one needed?
  3. Darkness 13 March 2015 09: 47 New
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    Do you have an understanding of what a civil war is, how it begins, how it goes and how it ends? Or didn’t they go beyond the school curriculum?
  4. UrraletZ 13 March 2015 10: 05 New
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    Not the Bolsheviks started the Civil War, but picked up power from the land from the puppet Provisional Government, which included those who betrayed the Tsar. These traitors later led the White movement, sponsored by the Entente. The Cossacks kept themselves aloof from the rest of the Russian people, considering themselves "below dignity" to feel themselves on an equal footing with the "peasant". With the abolition of the estates, the Cossacks rose. But not all. It turned out like in the rest of Russia - the rich and wealthy for the whites, and the poor and the poor for the reds. All the leaders of the White Cossacks then acted on the side of Hitler. If they were for Russia, they would not go against the common people for separation from the rest of Russia, and then for Hitler.
    1. Darkness 13 March 2015 10: 30 New
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      Right now patriots-Cossacks will bite you)))
    2. avt
      avt 13 March 2015 10: 40 New
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      Quote: UrraletZ
      , and picked up power from the earth from the puppet Provisional Government, which included those who betrayed the King.

      Well, yes - a fact.
      Quote: UrraletZ
      Not the Bolsheviks launched the Civil War,

      laughing You don’t seem to trust Lenin and his statement about the imperialist and its transfer to civilian?
      Quote: UrraletZ
      . With the abolition of the estates, the Cossacks rose.

      Well, here you are! The author of an article of a completely different opinion, well, in particular ------ ,, After the death of Ataman Karaulov, an overwhelming struggle with Bolshevik detachments that filled the region and aggravation of controversial issues with neighbors - Kabardin, Chechens, Ossetians, Ingush - Terskoye The army was turned into a republic, which was part of the RSFSR. " wassat The picture of Donetsk airport is direct - cyborgs are on the defensive, and on them are crowds of Pskov paratroopers with Altai armored police and Kadyrov's Chechens.
      Quote: UrraletZ
      . All the leaders of the White Cossacks then acted on the side of Hitler. If they were for Russia, they would not go against the common people for separation from the rest of Russia, and then for Hitler.

      Well, let’s put quite specific personalities, who, like Vlasov, need to be given a clear assessment, without inducing harlots about Stalinism, Bolshevism, and the “irreconcilable struggle with it”
    3. Free Cossack 13 March 2015 10: 45 New
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      You're not right. Not all White Cossacks and leaders of the white movement adopted the position of Nazi Germany. I will give only a part of them: Denikin A.I. (not a Cossack, but a white revered Cossack leader); Cossack lieutenant general Peter Pisarev; A native of the village of Lugansk region, Don troops
      General Baranov; general from the cavalry, ataman of the Don Troops Peter Popov; the commander of the 9th Don Brigade, Major General Fedor Markov; Lieutenant General Pavel Kusonsky. This is only part of the leaders of the White Cossacks who not only did not accept Nazi Germany, many of them fought with Nazi Germany, but on the side of either the French resistance or the English army. You can’t blame unfoundedly. You need to know history, but you need to love the history of your country!
      1. RUSS 13 March 2015 13: 34 New
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        Quote: Free Cossack
        You're not right. Not all White Cossacks and leaders of the white movement adopted the position of Nazi Germany.

        The statement about the massive nature of the transition of the Cossacks to the side of the German army in World War II - Lying! In reality, only a few atamans took the side of the enemy, and on the side of the Red Army fought Cossack cavalry divisions, 40 Cossack cavalry regiments, 5 tank regiments, 8 mortar regiments and divisions, 2 anti-aircraft regiment and a number of other units, all of which were fully staffed. Several Cossack tanks were built with the money of the Cossacks - “Don Co-Operator”, “Don Cossack” and “Osoaviahimovets Don”.
        For their accomplishments and heroism, shown in battles with the enemy, thousands of Cossacks were awarded military orders and medals, and 262 Cossacks became Heroes of the Soviet Union.
        1. semirek 13 March 2015 17: 28 New
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          Only one battle near Kushchevskaya means what it means. But Lionz, too, is not sucked out of his finger.
      2. semirek 13 March 2015 18: 25 New
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        Respected! A.I. Denikin --- Honorary Cossack - this title was awarded by the grateful residents of the villages of the Don for their liberation from the Bolsheviks.
        Many don’t know that there weren’t any volunteers in the Don, and don’t be free from the Bolsheviks. It was the volunteers who liberated the villages from the Bolsheviks during their base in Rostov and during the Ice Campaign, since the Cossacks no longer had moral or physical strength for this.
    4. semirek 13 March 2015 17: 16 New
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      Unfortunately, dear, you are wrong: the Provisional Government was temporary for the period of the election of the Constituent Assembly (at which the future of Russia should be determined: its structure and principles of land management) and it did not have special powers to conduct state affairs. After the democratic elections to the Constituent Assembly that all Russia was looking forward to --- the Bolsheviks know that they are shining from the power of 17 percent, and they will not see the majority in principle, they organize a coup and seize power, they play a farce in the Tauride Palace.
    5. semirek 13 March 2015 17: 24 New
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      Denikin is the grandson of the serf, Kornilov the son of Kalmyk and Cossack, Kolchak the son of a naval officer ---- something does not seem rich for white, and the workers of Izhevsk and Votkinsk from the famous Izhevsk division under the command of General Molchanov, who fought in white ranks with a red banner ---- here, brother is not so simple as it seems.
    6. azkolt 13 March 2015 21: 20 New
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      The Bolsheviks did not pick up, but took power from the Provisional Government by force. In January, a sequential meeting was to be convened, which would deal with issues of further power. And what kind of power should be in the country should have been decided by the people through a plebiscite. I understand your brains during the time of the Soviet regime, but they were brains to turn them on, especially now there is a lot of information about that time. I recommend reading Sutton's Wall Street and the Bolshevik Revolution.
  5. bombardir
    bombardir 13 March 2015 13: 23 New
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    Quote: Jaros81
    Lenin said: “Let us turn the imperialist war into a civil war”
    Yeah, he said, there are only a couple of nuances: it was said in the 14 year and addressed to the citizens of ALL warring states - this is the first.
    And the second:
    when Lenin speaks of the destruction of the family, he speaks of the destruction of the BOURGEOISE family, and not the family as such;
    when Lenin speaks of the destruction of nations, he speaks of the destruction of bourgeois nations, i.e. the bourgeois constituent nation — the class of the bourgeoisie;
    when Lenin speaks of the annihilation of the kulaks or the nobility — he does not speak of physical annihilation, but of their annihilation as classes — everything comes down to a class approach.

    When Lenin speaks of a civil war, he does not speak of a war where everyone will knead everyone, but of a class war, that soldiers, workers and peasants stop shooting at each other and hate each other, turn bayonets towards their exploiters , their governments, and would force them to abandon capitalism, which is robbery, extortion and fascism in one bottle (will the civil class war enter the hot phase in this case, or will opponents of the new government give a word that they will not interrupt it and go with peace m - deal 10-e)

    but before civil
    Started with Ice Hike

    and it was the Bolsheviks and Lenin who brought the famine
    And the underdevelopment of the farms for the 17 year — are these also Bolsheviks?
    And the famine in Poland, Germany, the United States in the same periods-also the Bolsheviks?
    1. semirek 13 March 2015 18: 34 New
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      Let me ask you, dear, what is the actual underdevelopment of agriculture in Russia in 17? 100mln tons then, and 100mln now - maybe now underdevelopment in Russia? And I'm interested because my grandfather has a Stolypin migrant in Altai - and I know a lot about that time.
      1. bombardir
        bombardir 13 March 2015 19: 21 New
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        Quote: semirek
        maybe now underdevelopment in Russia?
        Now definitely, especially in terms of cattle breeding.

        In Russia in the 1913 year, 30,3 pounds of grain were collected per capita, then in the USA - 64,3 pounds, in Argentina - 87,4 pounds, in Canada - 121 pounds. Thus, in collecting grain per capita, the United States was two times ahead of tsarist Russia, Argentina was three times ahead, and Canada was four times ahead.
        http://www.situation.ru/app/j_art_164.htm
  6. devastator 13 March 2015 22: 00 New
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    Quote: Jaros81
    ... but it was the Bolsheviks who unleashed the civil war. They bear most of the responsibility. Lenin ...

    Lenin, if that, not having at the start no resources managed win.
    And the millions of “housekeepers” could only die, or kiss the boots of his commanders and brigades.
    The only question is - where did these divisional commanders and brigades (along with divisions and brigades) come from? After all, Lenin started, as we recall, actually "from scratch"!
    In terms of understanding this, I was most impressed by the “Memories” of Makhno, “My Life” by Trotsky (Bronstein) and “Sketches of Russian Troubles” by Denikin.
    Already only these works are enough to understand a lot!
    The correct answer: "The Bolsheviks honestly deserved victory! All the others honestly deserved defeat!". Well, what would bоsubsequently, Stalin launched the greater part of the "Bolsheviks who deserved victory" into the spray - this is even more honest! But to understand such details, it is already required to read documents on the history of the French Revolution (which for most plus and minus minders is a completely excessive, unattainable intellectual effort).
  7. Boatsman_Palych 16 March 2015 15: 20 New
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    No, the civilians began the generals released by the Bolsheviks on parole - the Ice Campaign in March 1918. Cossacks practically did not participate in this campaign. There were two pages about the Civil War in your history textbook, and half of them were pictures, sir.
  8. Boatsman_Palych 16 March 2015 15: 49 New
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    No, the Civils were launched by the generals, released on parole by the Bolsheviks, - by the Ice Campaign in March 1918. Don Cossacks did not participate in it. In your history textbook, sir, there were two pages about the Civil War, of which half the area was used for pictures.
  • Georg Shep 13 March 2015 09: 30 New
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    Himself = you do not smell very well.
  • Wii
    Wii 13 March 2015 11: 09 New
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    And what in those dashing years in the minds of people was a complete blanket, as a result they beat each other .. the father of his son, etc. ...
  • devastator 13 March 2015 21: 47 New
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    Quote: Darkness
    Yes Yes Yes.
    Bolsheviks are bad
    Cossacks (white) are good.
    The article somehow does not smell good.

    Cossacks clearly showed everyone who knows how to listen (or read) what "Makhnovism", "Maidan", "circle", etc.!
    The fact that they were later arranged for stumbling is extremely deserved! This is just some unprecedented manifestation of “supreme heavenly justice” right on earth!
    Do not know how to decide on a leader? Sure, "your hut from the edge"? "Checker in the ground"?
    Fine! It is you who will be banged by the second / tenth / hundredth / thousandth after the leader whom you betrayed! Yes Yes exactly! They will take us away, behind the outskirts, and slap them from the three-ruler, or from the “revolutionary Mauser”! And, strictly speaking, they will do absolutely right! After all, this is exactly what should be done with such "personalities" at crucial moments in history!
    Dear fellow citizens! Read the story! Go deep, try to understand how the world works!
    Cossacks, "volunteers", "Bolsheviks", "Kolchak", "Wrangel", and many others in the 1917-1922 years showed us beautiful, just reference historical examples! And "as it should," and "as it is not necessary!"
    Any smart person will learn the right lessons from all this!
  • sledge 13 March 2015 07: 59 New
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    The origin of the white movement.

    About the birth of the White movement, it is worth reading the memoirs of one of the founders of this movement - A. I. Denikin, who stood at the very origins.
  • Loki_2 13 March 2015 08: 26 New
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    The author is beautiful. Pearls in the style: "... the destructive ideas of Bolshevism ..." characterize him very much.
    Instead of a neutral position, Sergei Volgin takes one of the sides of the conflict he describes. In my opinion, the article from this becomes one-sided and loses a lot.
    1. Georg Shep 13 March 2015 09: 34 New
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      Not true. For decades, the Soviet agitprom poured dirt on the Russian Cossacks and its true role in defending the borders of Russia and military Cossack valor. It is time to fully pay tribute to our glorious ancestors.
      1. Darkness 13 March 2015 09: 45 New
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        Cho really? But can you tell me who supported the countries of the Entente, and later Hitler?
        White or red?
        1. Georg Shep 13 March 2015 10: 29 New
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          And do not tell me who started the genocide against the Russian people in 1917 year? And who destroyed the entire class of our people? And not just the Cossacks.
          1. The comment was deleted.
          2. bombardir
            bombardir 13 March 2015 13: 42 New
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            Quote: Georg Shep
            But can you tell me who started the genocide against the Russian people in 1917?
            Genocide (from the Greek. Genos - clan - tribe and Latin caedo - kill) - actions aimed at the complete or partial physical destruction of a national, ethnic, racial or religious group.

            So can you enlighten - who and for what purpose in the 17 year in Russia physically destroyed people on a national (Russian) basis?

            And who destroyed the whole estates of our people? And not just the Cossacks.
            Are you a supporter of the caste system? Maybe in the serfs do not mind?
      2. Nagaibak 13 March 2015 10: 24 New
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        Georg Shep "Russian Cossacks and its true role."
        Interestingly, the author will touch upon the true role of the Cossacks in the civil war in defeating the entire white movement?))))) Will he cover the Kuban and Don separatism, which played a key role in this defeat?)))) I don’t like the bombastic phrases about heroic, impeccable Cossacks and white officers.))) People were different, they fought in different ways. Former Red Army soldiers who switched to white or Cossacks of Budyonny’s cavalry army.))) There were cowardly officers waiting for them))) ... there was a brave student youth from the white.))) Etc. The Civil War in Russia is not a black and white chessboard.) )) This is a colored canvas, a palette like anyone else.
        WHO DOESN'T UNDERSTAND THIS AND TILL TIME RAISES Tears ON ONE OF THE PARTIES - THERE IS NEEDED TO BE LIMITED.)))) IT IS SIMPLE TO UNDERSTAND THAT THIS WAR IS A TRAGIC PAGE OF HISTORY OF OUR MOTHERLAND. Everyone was good there.))) I equally respect the white and red commanders.))) It’s the generals, that is, those who led the regiments into battle. I DO NOT CONSIDER WORTHY TUKHACHEVSKY, ANNENKOV WELCOME. AND EVEN THOSE WHO BECOME TRANSFERRED TO FASCIS TYPE KRASNOV. If we analyze the history of the civil war, then we must consider everything in a complex, without snot and angry howl about what kind of Russia we lost.)))) If we consider military operations, then we identify the errors of both sides, identify the reasons for the successes and failures of different parties . Let's continue to understand these difficult pages of our history, but only calmly, without shortcuts and whining.
        1. Darkness 13 March 2015 10: 32 New
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          I agree, perhaps.
        2. bombardir
          bombardir 13 March 2015 13: 52 New
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          Quote: Nagaibak
          The civil war in Russia is not a black and white chessboard. This is a colored canvas, a palette like anyone else.
          It depends on the subject of the assessment: if you evaluate situations taken out of the general context, the actions of individuals, pay attention to particulars, immersed in emotions, then yes - it is.
          Not if you look globally and evaluate GOALS - only black and white remains.
          1. Nagaibak 13 March 2015 16: 46 New
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            bombardir "Not if you look globally and evaluate GOALS - only black and white remains."
            What are your global goals?)))) I clearly wrote in my opinion.)))
  • Gomunkul 13 March 2015 09: 31 New
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    During the February rebellious movement in Petrograd, the Cossacks took a neutral position and remained outside spectators of the unfolding events.
    The author did not wonder why, according to his words, the Cossacks remained outside viewers? If the author undertakes to cover this topic, then it is necessary to begin its coverage with reasons! And the main reason for the 1917 revolution is the land issue! The country was agricultural and the bulk of the population lived in villages. The Stolypin reform was precisely aimed at solving the problem of landless peasants in the overpopulated European part of Russia. The Cossacks had the same problems, they were especially acute among the Don and Kuban. So, the article is not a minus from me. As they say: the topic is not fully disclosed. hi
    1. Nagaibak 13 March 2015 10: 29 New
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      Gomunkul "And the main reason for the 1917 revolution is the land issue! The country was agrarian and the bulk of the population lived in the villages."
      Maybe this is not interesting to the people?))) Many seriously believe that the Russian people of that time lived in chocolate, and then the Bolsheviks came and ruined everything.))))
      1. Gomunkul 13 March 2015 11: 48 New
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        Maybe this is not interesting to the people?))) Many seriously believe that the Russian people of that time lived in chocolate, and then the Bolsheviks came and ruined everything.))))
        That is why it is impossible to relate "superficially" to the study of the civil war 1918-1922gg. Please note that in time it lasted no less than the Great Patriotic War, and this can only mean one thing: the contradictions within the country were too deep and what sponsors financed this war. We now see on the example of Ukraine who wants peace, and who wants war. A century has passed, and the sponsors of that war are still ready to plunge Russia through Ukraine into the chaos of the civil war. hi
      2. The comment was deleted.
  • Severomor 13 March 2015 09: 47 New
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    AUTHOR, and so:
    Nikolka. Why is there no shooting?
    Myshlaevsky. Quietly, politely go. And without any fight!
    Lariosik. And most importantly, most surprisingly, everyone is happy, even the bourgeois undercut. Until then, Petlyura was tired of everyone!
    Nikolka. I wonder how the Bolsheviks look?
    Myshlaevsky. See, see.

    Interestingly, the Cossacks are now mostly shown in the White Movement, but it’s worth reading “The Quiet Don”, yes this is a novel, but nevertheless, the author is an eyewitness
    And in the cavalry of Budyonny and other cavalry. parts of the SC of workers from factories, I think there were not many, the number of Cossacks was IMHO - almost everything!
    Somehow everything is one-sided, for fans of the White movement.
    1. Darkness 13 March 2015 10: 00 New
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      The author does not understand what a civil war is.
    2. semirek 13 March 2015 10: 38 New
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      You forget that after the legendary raid of K.K. Mamontov on the rear of the Reds in July 19go --- Trotsky issued an order: the proletarian-mounted horse, which resulted in the formation of red, mounted armies.
      1. Severomor 13 March 2015 11: 07 New
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        Of course, I understand that in addition to horses, there were armored trains, cars, armored cars, artillery, and machine guns in the Horse Army. I think that proletarians necessarily served in the cavalry units. It is in parts. And on a horse, they could learn to ride .... a matter of time and how to learn (quality)?
  • report4 13 March 2015 10: 04 New
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    Some noodles in the author’s head.
    It should start with the fact that the Cossacks in the civil war are all traitors, at first the tsarist government - becoming neutral in the February coup, then Russia - becoming allies of the Western interventionists.
    Again, the "white terror" in the author somehow did not set aside ... well, the first concentration camps, gangs of white "free Cossacks."
    Getting involved in a hopeless World War I is the fault of the Reds? Duck, the Cossacks would march on it and defend the borders, and not sit assholes at home.
    1. avt
      avt 13 March 2015 10: 54 New
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      Quote: report4
      Some noodles in the author’s head.

      no The author is quite clearly determined to cut from the modern Russia, “Cossack” according to Krasnov’s testament and Kuchma’s method - “Cossacks I’m not Russia.” Hence, all this pastoral with “heavenly”, well, it’s just an angelically pure army that guards the borders, trampled into the mud by hordes of alien orcs - Bolsheviks, who supported them with local, “nonresident” and other nationalities. And what happens when, one small, but proud bird said - ,, Personally, I will fly right to the Sun! "" The author can see in present Ukraine There, Russians are also to blame, and Putin specifically, like Kadyrov’s Cheche ntsy.
      1. Nagaibak 13 March 2015 12: 41 New
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        avt ,, Cossacks I’m not Russia. "From here, and all this pastoral with ,, heavenly", well, just an angelically pure army, "guarding the frontiers", trampled into the mud by hordes of newcomer orcs - Bolsheviks, who supported them with local, non-resident "and other nationalities"
        AWT Respect !!!))) ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ +++++++++++++++++++++++
        ++
  • semirek 13 March 2015 10: 18 New
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    The article is clearly written by an amateur --- assembled from pieces of different "works" of different authors. There are so many inaccuracies, for example: the author claims that the chieftain of the Semirechensky Cossacks was the chieftain of the Annenkov --- this is not so, Annenkov was the commander of the Semirechensky front, and the ataman of the Semirekov was Ionov. Also with Mironov inaccuracies.
  • Darkness 13 March 2015 10: 38 New
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    Then the Russian Orthodox Church again excelled.
    They restored the memorial to Krasnov with a company in the territory of the Church of All Saints on the Falcon.
    The policy of the Russophobic ROC is becoming more understandable
    1. Severomor 13 March 2015 12: 41 New
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      Not much is wrong, the name is the Reconciliation of Peoples Memorial at the Temple of All Saints on the Falcon.

      But then .... just a song: A symbolic tombstone to the White generals, Cossack chieftains and the German anti-Nazi general Helmut von Pannwitz was created by a group of WWII veterans in 1998 and was erected at the All Saints Church with the blessing of Archbishop Tikhon Bronnitsky - rector of this Temple 1995-2000 years.

      Just sobbing with emotion and words, anti-Nazi general :))))))))

      Threat Gloom - You are already minus a sergeant (in the article about Evpatiy Kolovrat there were minus corporal) ... and by the way, who is more minus corporal or minus sergeant?
      1. Severomor 13 March 2015 12: 50 New
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        Here is the memorial. By the way, is it not time for Vlasov to set?
        1. Asily 50
          Asily 50 13 March 2015 21: 39 New
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          What kind of cap is there? Oath: to the king, temporary, British, Americans. With every oath I received another rank from the owners. Tales of an idealist struggling with ....., utter stupidity. A very gifted and talented person, but no citizen. Realized and accepted the execution. I read what is available from interrogations * in the dungeons *. Awareness of involvement in the destruction of their Fatherland, their ideals of service.
        2. Asily 50
          Asily 50 13 March 2015 21: 39 New
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          What kind of cap is there? Oath: to the king, temporary, British, Americans. With every oath I received another rank from the owners. Tales of an idealist struggling with ....., utter stupidity. A very gifted and talented person, but no citizen. Realized and accepted the execution. I read what is available from interrogations * in the dungeons *. Awareness of involvement in the destruction of their Fatherland, their ideals of service.
          1. semirek 14 March 2015 00: 40 New
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            Trotsky, after all, also came from America - perhaps he also swore allegiance to someone, not for nothing that he promised to give Kamchatka to the Americans.
  • 020205 13 March 2015 10: 53 New
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    Quote: UrraletZ
    All the leaders of the White Cossacks then acted on the side of Hitler

    Well, yes, especially Denikin, there was such a direct fascist that I couldn’t directly
  • 020205 13 March 2015 10: 54 New
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    Again, White Terror
    And the red terror in your head did not postpone?
    1. Darkness 13 March 2015 11: 22 New
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      There was red terror and white. This is normal for a civil war.
    2. semirek 13 March 2015 17: 37 New
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      Speaking of terror: read S. Melgunov's 1922 of the year in the original “Red Terror in Russia” --- and everything will fall into place.
  • Asily 50
    Asily 50 13 March 2015 11: 12 New
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    But how to correlate the ideals of the white movement with the division of Russia? Service for the money of the interventionists? All white movement is another desire to secure * a true piece of land * at least a piece of land with slaves. In this context, it is interesting to read Deniken’s memoirs, he only stated that RUSSIA was not the estate of the Romanovs and quickly ceased to be a reliable fighter against Bolshevism. It is interesting to look into the temporarily political treaties of the temporary Entente. Publications abroad are somehow not credible. The temporary ones look too disgusting in them, as if they are justifying themselves for the betrayal of the temporary, now the same thing is happening in Ukraine. Already declare a revision of relations in the light of deception * of the community * in the West. There is a fait accompli that the Tsar was overthrown by the richest and most influential * Russians *, everyone has their own motives, from idealistic (as they later wrote about themselves) to frankly selfish, or for payment. And all discussions about white idealists about their * Wishlist * in no way correlate with their deeds.
  • Astartes 13 March 2015 11: 20 New
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    economic reasons, the first decree of the Soviet government back in 17 was the Land Decree, when every peasant could take as much land as he could cultivate, for the peasants of Russia this was a decisive factor in supporting the Bolsheviks. Cossacks, however, never had problems with receiving and cultivating land, and therefore did not support it. By the way, the civil war began precisely because the representatives of the "white" movement decided to prove by force that they did not agree with the decrees of the Red Government, so think about who unleashed. The Bolsheviks simply didn’t wipe it off but “disproportionately used force” like Russia in Georgia in 2008)) Well, it started, so who is to blame ???
    1. Free Cossack 13 March 2015 12: 07 New
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      Unfortunately you are wrong. Let me explain: - Yes, the Bolsheviks issued a decree on the land, which, since its announcement, has been in effect for only two years. First, there was a surplus appropriation that turned all the barns of the poor peasants inside out, and then collectivization completely “killed” all the thoughts of the peasantry about the land; - Who exactly started the civil war can now be argued hoarsely. But the facts are as follows: the country is at the stage of war with Germany and Austria-Hungary; in the country, the provisional government first comes to power and issues the treacherous Decree No. 1; chaos and desertion begin in the army; troops loyal to the Oath, the basis of which the Cossacks continue to wage war with Germany, and in addition to this, units are distracted by the suppression of uprisings in the capital and cities, but do not have time; As a result of the armed coup, the Bolsheviks came to power; The regular army, based on which the Cossacks (I repeat) does not recognize the new government and is torn between two fires, decides to restore order in the country and return legal power. This is as if briefly. Now put yourself in their place and think, what would you do?
      1. Alexey RA 13 March 2015 13: 28 New
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        Quote: Free Cossack
        troops loyal to the Oath, the basis of which the Cossacks continue to wage war with Germany, and in addition to this, units are distracted by the suppression of uprisings in the capital and cities, but do not have time; As a result of the armed coup, the Bolsheviks came to power; The regular army, based on which the Cossacks (I repeat) does not recognize the new government and is torn between two fires, decides to restore order in the country and return legal power.

        Ahem ... and what oath was the ataman Krasnov loyal to when he wrote a letter to Emperor Wilhelm asking him to acknowledge the dismemberment of Russia and the secessionist formation he led in exchange for Krasnov’s refusal of all Entente agreements (the Don Army became neutral and began to deliver to Germany food)?
        1. Free Cossack 13 March 2015 14: 06 New
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          Yes, I don’t argue, but he wrote this letter already on 28 of June 1918 of the year, and in March of that year the Bolsheviks signed the Brest-Litovsk Peace, i.e. the army practically does not exist, and the state has not existed for almost a year, well, etc. etc. In no case do I justify him. And I’m not trying to convince anyone that the white Cossacks are white and fluffy, and the red demons. I am just reasoning based on historical realities. If you remember (from history, of course), the bulk of the Cossacks took Bolshevik power in 1917, but in connection with the "Red Terror" already at the beginning of 1918. there was a Cossack rebellion, which quickly overthrew the Bolshevik power, and pay attention to this without the participation of the Volunteer White Army. Again, if you remember (from history, of course), it was the Cossack troops, without the participation of the Volunteer White Army, having driven the Red Army to the borders of the Don Army, that intended not to continue further hostilities in Russia. But then the Volunteer White Army merged with the Don Army, and the former began to control the latter. Then what happened is what happened.
          1. Alexey RA 13 March 2015 15: 45 New
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            Quote: Free Cossack
            Yes, I don’t argue, but he wrote this letter already on 28 of June 1918 of the year, and in March of that year the Bolsheviks signed the Brest-Litovsk Peace, i.e. the army practically does not exist, and the state has not existed for almost a year, well, etc. etc.

            So it’s all the Bolsheviks did. And Krasnov is a Russian officer, who by default should be for one and indivisible. smile
            Even separatism of the Cossacks in general, and Krasnov in particular, even repeatedly complained.
            Quote: Free Cossack
            Again, if you remember (from history, of course), it was the Cossack troops, without the participation of the Volunteer White Army, having driven the Red Army to the borders of the Don Army, that intended not to continue further hostilities in Russia. But then the Volunteer White Army merged with the Don Army, and the former began to control the latter. Then what happened is what happened.

            The merger there was rather arbitrary. Again, Deninkin complained that the All-Great Army not only did not provide him with reinforcements, but also selected those Cossacks who were already in units subordinate to him. And when the Cossacks began to dictate a strategy (demanding from Denikin to support the strike on Tsaritsyn - Krasnov’s dream, judging by the letter) and tried to put a paw on Drozdovtsy ...
            The most complicated question was with the detachment of Colonel Drozdovsky. Arriving in Novocherkassk on 25 in April, Drozdovsky the same day informed me that "the detachment has arrived at my disposal" and is "awaiting orders." But time passed, the 2th Kuban campaign was brewing, and it all had to be postponed: more than a third of the entire army — the Drozdovsky brigade — remained in Novocherkassk. This circumstance prevented its organizational merger with the army, violated all my calculations and did not allow me to prepare the operation, which was agreed upon with General Krasnov on May 15 [meeting in Manychskaya]. At the request of Krasnov, Drozdovsky’s detachment was scattered in parts of the region: cavalry fought in the Salsky District, infantry was used to “cleanse the Bolsheviks” of Rostov and Novocherkassk on punitive expeditions to peasant villages in the north of the region. I demanded the joining of the brigade; Drozdovsky petitioned for a respite for rest, organization and replenishment. Krasnov begged Drozdovsky not to leave Novocherkassk - in public, at a parade in front of the ranks, and more intimately in personal conversations with Drozdovsky.

            The most terrible enemy of the White Movement in the first couple of years was precisely the internal enemy - the inability to set a common goal and set aside its internal showdowns and local interests in the name of this goal.
            Actually, this was one of the main reasons for the victory of the Reds - with all the factionalism of the Red Movement, the principle "if the Bolshevik party made a decision, then it must be implemented"with a creak, but acted. For after the non-fulfillment a good comrade in leather, on an armored train, with faithful nukers could come and arrange a revolutionary show with purges and decimations.
            1. Free Cossack 13 March 2015 16: 33 New
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              The most terrible enemy of the White Movement in the first couple of years was precisely the internal enemy - the inability to set a common goal and set aside its internal showdowns and local interests in the name of this goal And you know, I agree with you. The lack of specific goals, a mess in staffing, the reluctance of most front-line Cossacks to continue the war away from their farms and villages, and ultimately led to their defeat.
  • Asily 50
    Asily 50 13 March 2015 13: 20 New
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    The real Cossacks took place as * defenders of the fatherland * only in literature. In reality, Cossack * brothers * for a denyuzhka small hired to rob, namely to rob anyone. The tsarist government, having strengthened, hired robbery professionals to rob neighbors, to distract from its territory. Those who did not agree to the hiring, the Cossacks and part of the Donetsk people, were destroyed. The predatory instincts remained, the First World War showed it in all its glory. Civil also allowed to dream of impunity robbery. And as we crushed the Cossacks, foreign advisers, weapons and the government appeared at once. And all in debt.
  • 1z1961gjgjd
    1z1961gjgjd 13 March 2015 14: 14 New
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    Indeed, EVERYTHING is simple enough, Cossacks by nature are anarchists. The 1917 revolution did not bring “WILL” to the Don, unlike the rest of Russia, the Don had the most democratic self-government, possibly even more developed than now. The motto: “For God, Tsar and Fatherland” was not a simple expression for the Cossacks, but personified the Cossacks. The war of 1914 showed the rottenness of the regime, and the king’s abdication of the throne introduced confusion in the minds of the Cossacks.
    1. RUSS 13 March 2015 15: 48 New
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      Quote: 1z1961gjgjd
      After all, everything is quite simple, Cossacks by nature are anarchists

      Before writing about the fact that the Cossacks are anarchists, bother to clarify for yourself what anarchy is.
      1. 1z1961gjgjd
        1z1961gjgjd 17 March 2015 18: 12 New
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        For your information, what is anarchy Kropotkin studied the issue of 1907 g price 0,7cop.
        And I consider myself an anarchist myself, I advise you to read what genuine anarchism is.
  • semirek 13 March 2015 16: 25 New
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    If the topic is about the Cossacks of those years --- do not forget about such a moment:
    1. Nagaibak 13 March 2015 16: 49 New
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      semirek "Kohl topic of the Cossacks of those years --- do not forget about such a moment."
      Take these people, put on them budenovki and also do not forget about this moment. And then the white did not shoot anyone.))) And the Cossacks sometimes chopped.))))
      1. semirek 13 March 2015 18: 49 New
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        When terror becomes a national ideology in relation to half of the country's population who do not profess Bolshevik, or maybe no principles at all, then this state can be called criminal. At least there was no cannibalistic ideology --- to destroy all those who are against them. said from the leaders of the White Cause - if we fought and thought like red, we would not be white.
        1. Alexey RA 13 March 2015 19: 35 New
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          Quote: semirek
          When terror becomes a national ideology in relation to half of the country's population who do not profess Bolshevik, or maybe no principles at all, then this state can be called criminal.

          What horrors are you telling.
          Can you tell me - and how does the total gold mining in the Red Headquarters of the Civilian era combine with the ideology that you have declared "total terror against all who do not profess Bolshevik ideas"?
          1. semirek 13 March 2015 21: 34 New
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            Let me tell you, as I tell you, it turned out that illiterate soldiers cannot command armies, and what should I do? you just need to take the former officers (whom your own soldiers did not have time to kill) and force them to serve on the Reds, all the more so since the latter actually had no special choice.
      2. semirek 13 March 2015 19: 01 New
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        Peasants are state criminals!
        "the peasants far from all understand that free trade in bread is a state crime: I made bread; this is my product, and I have the right to trade: this is the opinion of the peasant, of habit, of old age.
        And we say that this is a state crime.
        Lenin 19 November 1919
        (Lenin V.I., complete.soch.t.39 p.315)
        This is the spirit of the time --- the whole essence of the Bolshevik regime.
        1. Severomor 13 March 2015 19: 14 New
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          The essence of the Bolshevik regime? Hmm ... .. well, they endured civil and devastation. Something they managed to do in 19 years .... not so much ... they just restored the country, built cities and heavy industry, overcame illiteracy, and built an army. As Stalin defined: they are 50 years behind, a breakthrough is needed. They fought again, again with all of Europe. They won. Then restored. ALL. We are invaders, but yes we capture and build roads, hospitals, cities, and industry.
          Is it the whole essence of the Bolshevik, communist or what kind of regime is it?
          1. semirek 13 March 2015 21: 19 New
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            Quote: Severomor
            The essence of the Bolshevik regime? Hmm ... .. well, they endured civil and devastation. Something they managed to do in 19 years .... not so much ... they just restored the country, built cities and heavy industry, overcame illiteracy, and built an army. As Stalin defined: they are 50 years behind, a breakthrough is needed. They fought again, again with all of Europe. They won. Then restored. ALL. We are invaders, but yes we capture and build roads, hospitals, cities, and industry.
            Is it the whole essence of the Bolshevik, communist or what kind of regime is it?

            And at what cost? not interested by accident? at the cost of the liquidation of the Russian peasantry, as such, the liquidation of Russian thinking and the Russian way of life for the sake of the celebrated internationalism.
            And where is the Russian man and the Russian spirit now, and how did the Caucasian and Asian “brothers” thank us in the 90, and where are your vaunted Bolshevik communists?
            1. vladkavkaz 13 March 2015 22: 10 New
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              semirek
              For two comments, about the same thing, is it too lazy to insert?

              PRICE say?

              And what price did your white Cossacks make, and then the SS Cossacks, with all the rabble in Europe, pay that price.

              If it were not for your white rabble, but the Nazi invasion, such as you and your kind, it would be unlikely that they would carry any nonsense on the Internet, the media and TV.
              What have you proposed and done, the heirs of the traditions of the WHITE and the NATIONS, who defeated the country in 90? What are your successes in LOSS in people, comparable to the losses in World War II along with the Civil and World War I, losses in industry, agriculture, are comparable with losses in the war with Hitler, but only in power in 909, turned out to be like you and you like loafers and drones of a liberal (white-blue with a brown blot) color.

              Nothing lasts forever, but your age, in Russia, turns out to be so short, you are already hardly accepted, and even the heirs of the SS-Cossacks, other rabble, will play out completely, you will have to carry out reorganization in society, the sky will seem like a sheepskin to you. .
              1. semirek 13 March 2015 22: 45 New
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                Don’t depart from the topic, topic: Cossacks in a civil war --- I think your agony has already begun, you come out with saliva /
                1. vladkavkaz 13 March 2015 22: 48 New
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                  The theme is SIMPLE like five cents.
                  The PEOPLE, united in the Red Army, drove your whole flock to hell out of the country.
                  Then, now you’re starting out on pus, bubbling up in vain hope to justify the killers who served in the White rabble armies.
                  The story took place the way it did, and no matter how you fuss about it, you won’t change it; the punishers of Semenov, Dutov, Krasnov, Mamantov and other Ungerns are still remembered.
          2. semirek 13 March 2015 22: 01 New
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            Quote: Severomor
            The essence of the Bolshevik regime? Hmm ... .. well, they endured civil and devastation. Something they managed to do in 19 years .... not so much ... they just restored the country, built cities and heavy industry, overcame illiteracy, and built an army. As Stalin defined: they are 50 years behind, a breakthrough is needed. They fought again, again with all of Europe. They won. Then restored. ALL. We are invaders, but yes we capture and build roads, hospitals, cities, and industry.
            Is it the whole essence of the Bolshevik, communist or what kind of regime is it?

            And what price were you not interested in by chance? The Russian people paid very dearly for these Bolshevik experiments: the Russian peasantry disappeared as such, the Russian spirit and Russian way of life disappeared. Instead of raising the Russian people the standard of living ---- raised Asia and the Caucasus from feudalism that we and "thanked" in 90.
            1. bombardir
              bombardir 14 March 2015 01: 22 New
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              Quote: semirek
              the Russian spirit and the Russian way of life disappeared
              Are you talking about bast shoes, illiteracy, forced work for an uncle, and monstrous (especially childish) mortality?
        2. The comment was deleted.
  • Aleksys2 13 March 2015 18: 15 New
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    Quote: semirek
    If the topic is about the Cossacks of those years --- do not forget about such a moment:

    "Talking" began even under the reign of Ataman Krasnov, who set the task to destroy all supporters of Soviet power. The corresponding decree against the Red Cossacks was adopted by the Don Rescue Circle in May 1918, almost a year before the directive of the Organizing Bureau of the Central Committee of the RCP.
    According to documented materials of the Special Investigation Commission for the Investigation of the Bolshevik Atrocities, the number of people shot by the Reds in the second half of the 1918 — 1919 years. in the territory of the Don, Kuban and Stavropol troops amounted to 5 598 people, of which 3 442 people were shot in the Don, 2 142 people - in the Kuban and in the Stavropol Territory. In the same period, during the white terror conducted under the regime of Krasnov, according to various sources, from 25 to 40 thousands of Cossacks were destroyed.
    1. semirek 13 March 2015 21: 06 New
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      And more about these data.
      1. vladkavkaz 13 March 2015 22: 19 New
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        semirek
        Remind of Operation Killhol?
        Remind who these executioners were?
        Or do you seriously believe that this rabble is worthy of respect and memory?
        Are you trying to write down these criminals who called themselves Cossacks and served the Nazis?
        The Jude were so dead, even the British did not bother about this rabble.
        1. semirek 13 March 2015 22: 40 New
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          Where did I say that? Please quote
  • Asily 50
    Asily 50 13 March 2015 18: 32 New
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    Oh, what a picture. Cossacks to be shot, women at home, bury. After the Kaledinians, Mamontovites, and other Russian guardians, there was no one to bury, they were cut out by entire families. And then they are not surprised at the love of the Cossacks. By the way, the estate * Cossack * nation identified, from here and their hatred of RUSSIAN people. In the 1905 year, barricades in Moscow arose when the Cossacks entered the city, and what they did - * Mitkov * do not mind a lot of them * - and drafts. Of course, among them were smart and recollected, bloody waste to any person not to their heart. Gratitude to them is eternal, they defended their homeland, including from fellow countrymen. Others, bloodstained with blood, before the loss of humanity, left the owners abroad, leaving their relatives behind. Knowing for sure that they will not be responsible for the terrible and bloody deeds of their kin. By the way, we were pleased with the good old days - in what year the corporal punishment of the lower ranks in the tsarist army was abolished? Take an interest.
  • MrK
    MrK 13 March 2015 19: 08 New
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    A simple explanation of Jarosu81.
    1. Yes, Lenin said: "Let us turn the imperialist war into a civil war." It was assumed that the workers and peasants, taking power into their own hands, would quickly win back everything. So they won back.

    2. The harsh truth of history is that the young republic simply had no strength or opportunity to fight. First of all, because no one wanted to fight. By the way, according to the memoirs of F. Raskolnikov, it was not the Bolshevik critics who coined the term “obscene”, nor even Lenin was the first to use it: delegates from the front, reaching the rostrum, repeated one thing in their voices: “Give peace, even obscene!”.
    It would be suicide to fight Germany - also a devastated and exhausted war, but in all respects in a much better position. Lenin and his supporters understood this perfectly.
    After fierce discussions and a heated collision of opinions at the Congress of Soviets, the Leninist point of view prevailed, which Trotsky voiced equally cynically (but by no means so simple-heartedly): “We approached the peace talks with the hope of rocking the working masses of both Germany and Austria-Hungary, and Entente countries. To this end, it was necessary to drag out negotiations as long as possible in order to give European workers time to perceive, as follows, the very fact of the Soviet revolution and, in particular, its peace policy. ”
    In other words, there was only a temporary retreat, which the stubborn Bukharinites did not understand. And today they don’t understand Jaros81 with their comrades. They would only shit on the Bolsheviks. All the ideas of democratic snuffles of the 90's have been absorbed. Now defecate.

    3. The book “White Terror in Russia”, published by Patriot Publishing House, is a famous historian, doctor of historical sciences P. A. Golub, clearly shows that there are those responsible for the civil war. The documents and materials collected in it do not leave stone upon stone fiction and myths widely circulating in the mass media and publications on the historical theme, which are given out as uninformed Russian hoaxes as historical truths.
    As shown in the book, it was the White Guards who initiated the Civil War, with the submission of the Left Social Revolutionaries.
    And the impetus for the war, as one of the leaders of the White Movement A. Denikin admitted, was the rebellion of the Czechoslovak corps, which was largely caused and supported by Western "friends" of Russia. Without the help of these “friends”, the leaders of the white Czechoslovakians, and then the White Guard generals, would never have achieved serious success.
    For the tenth time I say: read the book of the young author A. Kurlandchik - “THE CURSED SOVIET AUTHORITY” AND THE RESULTS OF REFORMS IN RUSSIA on Proza.ru. Recommend. There everything shown is reasoned with numbers.
    1. semirek 13 March 2015 21: 03 New
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      And for some reason I read Melgunov.
  • zubkoff46 13 March 2015 19: 17 New
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    We have a dashing story. Whenever you look, "And the horses all gallop and gallop ... and the huts burn and burn ..." Brothers, how many years have passed, and we won’t figure it out between ourselves. I read the comments on the article, it became terribly looking at the radicalism of our thinking. Ready to fight. This is probably due to the fact that to this day our history by "technologists" is being reversed to the requirements of the "current moment". Great country, great shocks, long-suffering people, great victories.
    1. vladkavkaz 13 March 2015 22: 43 New
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      zubkoff46
      And you propose to reconcile with the descendants of the Krasnodar and Vlasov ???
      Uh, no, they have a place, at best in a landfill, but not in the most respected members of society, to be.
      Especially for those who still consider themselves the heiress of the exploits of this scumbag, dared in a foreign army, for the interests of others, against the Motherland in arms to fight.
  • sigdoc 13 March 2015 21: 02 New
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    I am for the Bolsheviks !!!!!!! soldier
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    2. semirek 13 March 2015 21: 43 New
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      For the Jews chtoli?
      1. vladkavkaz 13 March 2015 22: 20 New
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        semirek
        Against singing along with the Nazi, whom you are here.
        1. semirek 13 March 2015 22: 38 New
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          What are you?
          1. vladkavkaz 13 March 2015 22: 41 New
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            semirek
            Unlike you, singing along to the national flock, a RUSSIAN soldier who has already broken your neck once, we will break this time.
            So your libel, in VO, you can squeeze for a long time tediously and stubbornly, but the TRUTH, you do not.
  • 89067359490 13 March 2015 21: 45 New
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    Correct the mistake. This is General Sergey Leonidovich Markov
  • sigdoc 13 March 2015 22: 25 New
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    Yes, even for the Jews, but against the Anglo-Saxons, Americans, Germans and French who were served by such "heroes" as Krasnov, and others.
  • The comment was deleted.
    1. vladkavkaz 14 March 2015 10: 36 New
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      sijoi
      What kind of nonsense are the descendants of the Tambov Cossacks?
      If there are certain leaders from the Socialist Revolutionaries and the kulaks?
      To school, talent ... to school and learn lessons. In history, you do not even have a deuce, count.

      In this regard, I want to end with a quote from the immortal M.E. Saltykova-Shchedrina: “He did not know anything about the process of river formation, nor about the laws by which they flow down, not up, but he was convinced that it was only necessary to indicate: from these places to the present - and probably throughout the measured space there will be a mainland, and then, as before, right and left, the river will continue to flow ...
      But since there was no force in nature that could convince a scoundrel of ignorance of anything, in this case ignorance was not only equivalent to knowledge, but even in a certain sense was stronger than it. ”
      1. sijoi
        sijoi 14 March 2015 10: 55 New
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        Quote: vladkavkaz
        What kind of nonsense are the descendants of the Tambov Cossacks?
        If there are certain leaders from the Socialist Revolutionaries and the kulaks?


        Learn historical facts, not Soviet propaganda.
        1. vladkavkaz 14 March 2015 10: 56 New
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          sijoi
          Young man, before you study science, like termite to Mars. You can sharpen what you sit on, but do something useful, alas, not yours.

          V. And Lenin (Ulyanov):
          1. "The army, ..... when she did not know what she was fighting for, and dimly felt that she was fighting for the interests of others, this army fled, and no forces in the world could keep it."
          2. "Any revolution only then is worth something if it knows how to defend itself, but not immediately the revolution learns to defend itself.
          The revolution was an awakening to the new life of millions. In February and March, these millions did not know why they were going to continue the massacre into which the tsars and Kerensky drove them and whose purpose was disclosed only in December by the Bolshevik government. They clearly understood that this was not their war, and it took about six months for the turning point to come. This turning point has come; he changes the power of revolution. "


          Joint meeting of the All-Russian Central Executive Committee, the MOSCOW COUNCIL, FACTORY COMMITTEES AND TRADE UNIONS OF 22 OCTOBER 1918)
          http://leninism.su/works/76-tom-37/1372-obedinennoe-zasedanie-vczik-moskovskogo-

          soveta-fabrichno-zavodskix-komitetov-i-professionalnyx-soyuzov.html

          “They will never defeat the people in which workers and peasants for the most part have learned, felt and saw that they are defending their own, Soviet power — the power of the working people, that they are defending a cause whose victory will provide them and their children with the opportunity to enjoy all the benefits of culture, by all creatures of human labor ”,
          http://leninism.su/works/115-conspect/4269-v-i-lenin-ob-inostrannoj-voennoj-inte

          rventsii-i-grazhdanskoj-vojne-v-sssr.html? showall = 1 & limitstart =
          1. sijoi
            sijoi 14 March 2015 11: 04 New
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            You urgently need a haloperidolchik and sleep.
            1. vladkavkaz 14 March 2015 11: 07 New
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              sijoi
              Why are you describing to me the drugs that the doctors will teach you in between your escape from the ward to the ward?
              In the ward, sick, in the ward, you should not participate in such conversations, due to the weakness of your intellect.
              1. sijoi
                sijoi 14 March 2015 11: 11 New
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                Do you specifically discredit Soviet ideology with your aggressive and manic behavior?
                1. vladkavkaz 14 March 2015 15: 20 New
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                  sijoi
                  Change the training manual, the troll.
                  Or at least turn the page, too predictable.
  • The Burglar 14 March 2015 08: 36 New
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    I read an article that claims to be the name of a historical - journalistic essay. But she reminded me of the paid-up "historical" opuses from the time of the collapse of the USSR, in which a lot of slop poured on the socialist system and our Soviet past. In this article, the author follows the same beaten-up Svanidze path: the Bolsheviks are all alcoholics, criminals, murderers, etc., and the Cossacks are all cherubs. So the article is a fat minus. Now is the time when we must unite, and not slop our past, lowering some of them below the plinth, and raising others to saints! There was already enough civil, really history does not teach anyone, it is impossible to promote your personal views and beliefs under the guise of historical works. History must be impartial.
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      1. vladkavkaz 14 March 2015 10: 35 New
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        sijoi
        History is impartial-RED in Civil Victory, throwing all the white evil, this is an UNKNOWABLE fact.
        The Reds won the 1945, over the entire European brown rabble, along with a handful of white servants serving them.

        No matter how you try, play and juggle with concepts, but you will not succeed, draw an analogy between the events in UKRAINE, where there is a DIRECT ANALOGY of Germany in the 30 years, with the events of October and the following.

        You also will not succeed in instilling the idea that the Belykh leaders, all these noblemen, merchants, long-maned and others, are something that was of value to the overwhelming majority of the country's population, the CHOICE of the People was not in your favor.

        The socialist system, no matter how much you blame it, is much better, both in terms of the human and in terms of the development of society in general, your liberal dregs in Russia have completely exhausted themselves, showing complete lack of talent.

        And the moaning of all monarchists, and the moaning of the fool Masha, over the broken jug by her own stupidity.
        A sign of SLAVERY is your relationship, the OWNER and the employee, which is now more visible than ever, the payoff from 1,5 to 3 million per day, against the background of the monthly salary of an 10000 employee.
        So who is there something muttering about slavery?

        The minus of my past is that I did not heed the warning of the Great Ruler of the Russian Land, Stalin, with the development of socialism, the class struggle takes place to the escalation, which is what was observed in 90 and we see it absolutely right now.
        And if you think that your liberal bunch, with slogans from the king of peas to the cries of the clicks of the liberal abomination of Chubais, is deceiving someone else in society, you are seriously mistaken, your time is already running out.

        And the last, CHINA, no matter how you mutter here, it has a strictly defined path of development, SOCIALISM, the First is essentially the Power of the world.
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          1. vladkavkaz 14 March 2015 15: 19 New
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            sijoi
            You take your doctor’s prescriptions exactly and on time so that you don’t carry any nonsense here in VO.

            A liberal nationalist, that’s how you should be called, and your concerns about us, about the Russian people as a whole and about Russia in general, no one needs.

            All your "care" in the last 30 years has consisted in the formula-LIE, LIE and THIEVE, so to speak, somewhat modernized the formula of your predecessor and spiritual guru Goebbels.

            And you don’t have to moan, on the subject of “the human tragedies of the Russian people that happened in the 20 century.” -On your conscience, these tragedies are immeasurably more like White accomplices, Nazi accomplices, Liberal accomplices, losses in people, territories, in everybody speaks against you and your strained ideology.

            Objectivity says faces and ideology that came to power in the country in 92, is destructive for the country, deadly for the people, the bearers of this ideology are corrupt, vain and empty, always serve Alien interests, and do not try to make excuses, all these Chubais, Kokhi, Yeltsins, Gaidars, Potkins and Co., etc., are the essence of your cannibalistic idea ..
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  • Gangrena gangrena 4 November 2019 20: 32 New
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    The reasons why the Cossacks of all Cossack regions for the most part rejected the destructive ideas of Bolshevism and entered into an open struggle against them, and under completely unequal conditions, are still not completely clear and constitute a mystery to many historians.
    The author does not confuse anything about the "Cossacks of all Cossack regions"? And 1 horse of whom consisted of? Budyonny himself was whom? if you are about to write on a topic, well, at least they would read Denikin and Krasnov. they wrote a lot of things about the "rejection of the ideas of Bolshevism" by the Cossacks))) Complete nonsense. Well, and separately about the "destructive ideas of Bolshevism." The author, probably, dreams of a 12-hour working day, parish education, hunger due to low land and other amenities? Or does the author of the counts truly believe that this is not for his lordship? And here I am from the plow and appreciate the improvement of working conditions and educational program, and industrialization, and even collectivization (because you can’t plow a lot of plow on a piece), and other "destructive ideas."