Military Review

Light vehicles for special forces

10
Light vehicles for special forces

For the first Dagor car, specially created by Polaris for military use, the suspension is taken from a Trophy Truck truck


The need for vehicles that are always better suited to provide mobility of expeditionary forces, especially when airborne, is a typical and constant requirement of special forces. However, sometimes, when there is no need for special forces, it is also necessary to deploy by air and conventional units. As a rule, these tasks are set for light brigades, amphibious or airborne units that are quickly deployed over long distances.

Over the course of several years, there was only talk of the possibility of transporting such armored vehicles, such as Striker, by plane Hercules. However, the deployment of a battalion-level unit requires a significant amount of transportation, which is not always available. The US Army intends to re-equip part of its 18 airborne corps with new vehicles. Among them, the heavier, tank-like machine is Mobile Protected Firepower (MPF), the initial readiness document of which was discussed by the Council on the Supervision of Army Requirements in October 2014. Two lighter cars are also part of the rearmament plan, which involves replacing the Hummer: one is known under the designation ULCV (Ultra-Lightweight Combat Vehicle), and the other under the designation LRV (Light Reconnaissance Vehicle - light reconnaissance vehicle).

A request for information on the latest vehicle was released in July 2014, with the aim of expanding the combat capabilities of the infantry brigade tactical group through the delivery of a ready-made, slightly modified solution. The vehicle must be transported inside the CH-47 helicopter and is capable of detecting, destroying and withstanding numerous threats from light armored vehicles, dismounted soldiers, fortified enemy bunkers, snipers, chemical / nuclear threats, etc. The car should have a power reserve of more than the current M1025 cars, can conduct silent observation, carry a set of controls, communications and surveillance (C4ISR), also have some kind of protection against kinetic threats and explosions under the bottom, although the level of protection to date has not been voiced. The crew will be six people, each with full equipment and equipment will weigh an average of 160 kg. LRV will have the opportunity to fire day and night, in motion, in any weather and any visibility on difficult terrain to hit the protected threats of its class. A platform demonstration is scheduled for the third or fourth quarter of 2015.

Ultra Light Combat Vehicle, apparently, is the most advanced of the three potential programs, of which none, by the way, has become the object of an approved requirement. The announcement of the search for participants (akin to a request for information) was published at the end of January 2014, and then in March it was clarified. Prerequisites include a maximum dead weight of 2040 kg, a payload capacity of 1450 kg for carrying a nine-person compartment, high mobility to protect personnel and an impact-resistant structure capable of withstanding rollover. The distribution of driving time by types of terrain includes: 10% movement on main roads, 10% on minor roads, 75% on rough terrain and off-road and 5% in urban ruins; the car must also be able to move along sharp edges and edges. With regard to firepower, the threshold requirement includes the use of serviced weapons from the infantry brigade’s roster, although the target requirement is to use weapons medium caliber. The ULCV must be transported inside the CH-47 helicopter together with the compartment and its equipment, or carried on a Blackhawk helicopter suspension; in both cases, in a combat configuration, in the highlands and in conditions of high temperatures. Also dumped in combat configuration on 463L pallets from the C-130 aircraft and using the Dual Row Airdrop System cargo parachute system on the 463L pallets from the C-17 transporter. For the project Ultra Light Combat Vehicle defined range in 400 km.


KMW's offer for the US Army ULCV program is based on the German Bundeswehr Mungo machine.

The need for light vehicles of this type was determined in 2010, when the Office of the Secretary of Defense, together with Darpa (Agency for Advanced Research Defense Projects), appointed the American Army Armored Research Center (TARDEC) as the executive body of the Ultra Light Vehicle program. This led to the creation of a prototype with a hybrid drive, with additional protection, with its own weight of 6,3 tons and carrying capacity of 1,9 tons. The car is equipped with a Subaru Boxer turbo diesel engine with an 175 horsepower. and maximum torque 360 Nm. American Traction Systems' Remy-410HVH HT electric motors rotate the wheels with Baja ATZ Radial 40X14.5R20LT tires, which power the UQM-200 phase generator and inverter, giving the nominal power of 200 kW, as well as the Navumas lithium-ion battery, and a single-piece chi-chi-chum chimeter unit. and rated power 14,2 kW. The car has a maximum speed of 180 km / h, the fuel tank for 65 liters provides a power reserve of 120 km. The power reserve when charging batteries from 114% to 540% is 80 km and on batteries with 20% charge over 19 km. In this case, the duration of silent observation is 100 hours and 33 hours, respectively.

In working condition, the ULV project vehicle has an 5,06 meter length, an 2,43 meter width and an 2,05 meter height (the height is reduced to an 1,83 meter when transported by air, since ground clearance can vary from 127 to 584 mm due to the adaptive suspension system with compressible fluid Liquid Spring Technologies 457 mm stroke, which is equipped with an integrated elastomeric shock absorber). The car housed five soldiers (four plus shooter) on the energy-absorbing Jankel seats. The internal volume is 4,8 m3, under the bottom protection is provided against mines and roadside landmines of directional action, from the sides from small arms fire, rocket-propelled grenades and charges such as a shock core (Tardec declares levels of protection equal to the levels of protection of Mrap machines). ULV is equipped with complete sets of communications, command and control, situational awareness and jamming. Now the cost is estimated at 260 000 dollars with the release of 15 000 machines, although initially the target value was determined at the level of 250 000 dollars with the production volume of 5000 machines. In order to develop an ultralight car, the Ground System Survivability Ground Survival System (GSS) Research Center of the American Army collaborated with Hardwire LLC. Roush Industries, DRS, DSM Dyneema, Boeing, American Motive Power Systems, Harris, Schott, ArmorLine, GKN, Hutchinson, Loc Performance Products, Navitas Systems and the University of Pennsylvania are also participating in the project. It is clear that the ULV does not meet the requirements for the ULCV project; however, this made it possible to focus more on modern developments in the field of light machines, which would be useful from the point of view of gaining experience that could be used in the following programs.




In the past few years, the American Army Armored Research Center has been working on a prototype Ultra Light Vehicle to study existing and new technologies. In the end, a ULV vehicle with a hybrid power plant was created, which provides maximum crew protection (one of the requirements was protection against RPGs, in this case mesh protection). Mobility was given special attention, work on it was conducted in collaboration with many US companies


Boeing's Phantom Badger ten-way version, who took part in the Fort Bragg XJUMX trial in June on the eve of a future request for information on ULCV

Returning to ULCV, in June 2014 of the year, a demonstration of the platform's characteristics at Fort Bragg was held in order to test the reachability of the design thresholds. Six applicants took part in the demonstration (there are no details about the participants, although it is clear that some GMV 1.1 applicants have developed nine-seat versions of their cars in order to meet the requirements of the army).

Definitely one of these is General Dynamics Ordnance and Tactical Systems, which until May 2014 was obliged to hide information on its GMV 1.1 due to legal issues raised by some applicants. Ultimately, the company made a message, and in detail the car could be seen at Eurosatory. As expected, it is larger compared to the standard Flyer Gen II ALSV, since there was no requirement for transportation inside the convertible V-22. The GMV 1.1 should, however, enter the wider CH-47 helicopter, which means the width of the 1,98 meter, which needed to be reduced in order to leave enough space on the sides for the fixture and crew members to access. Thus, the width of the machine turned out to be a 1,85 meter (or 72 inch). Hence the designation Flyer 72, given to the base machine, from which the GMV 1.1 project actually originates. Likewise, the Internally Transported Vehicle is now renamed the Flyer 60, because its width, limited by the cargo compartment of the V-22 tiltrotor, is 1,52 meters (60 inches). The height is limited by the 1,84 meter, and the length by the 4,62 meter (4,90 meters with a winch and pusher).

Own weight is the same as the Flyer 60 - 2315 kg, but the payload has increased from 1814 kg to 2500 kg. The Euro 5 engine with a dual overhead camshaft with an 195 horsepower, developing 400 Nm torque, is connected to a Tiptronic six-speed automatic transmission. GMV 1.1 has a drive for two or four driving wheels, the car develops a maximum speed of 160 km / h and a power density of more than 39 hp / t. “Actual power reserve” is 563 km. It can overcome 60% slopes and 40% side slopes, a ford without preparing a 0,76 meter and a vertical obstacle 355 mm. Like all Flyer models, the chassis is a tubular frame. The car can carry up to seven people, three in front with the driver in the center two passengers on the sides, two in the second row with an arrow in the center located on the seat with five-point seat belts, and one person on the rear platform, looking back. Flyer 72 has an independent suspension of all four wheels with spring-hydraulic shock absorbers and variable ground clearance. Wheels 12.5x37 R17 with retaining flanges (bedlokami) spacer ring boards or with VFI-resistant inserts, but it is also possible to install wheels 38x17x14.5. The front axle is shifted forward, which made it possible to increase the forward angle of the terrain to 73,4 ° (decreases to 55,5 ° when installing a winch or front bumper-pusher).



At AUSA 2014, GD-OTS unveiled a version of its Flyer 72, armed with an 30-mm cannon, which is offered for the light reconnaissance vehicle program.


In the photo Dagor from Polaris Defense in an open configuration, on which you can install protective panels on the sides

A typical main weapon may be the 12,7-mm machine gun mounted above the rollcage (for example, the Browning or GAU-19 series). The entire safety cage is folded up or removed for air transport, but the car is able to “return to battle” 13 seconds after leaving the helicopter. Each operator on the side seats may have an 7,62-mm M240 machine gun on the trunnion. The same machine gun can be installed on the soldier looking backwards, who covers the rear arc, since the safety cage at the back limits the use of large-caliber weapons on top of this arc. The GMV 1.1 has two independent electrical systems, one with an 14 Volt generator and batteries that power the vehicle itself, and the second consisting of a 28 Volt generator and special batteries that provide silent operation, for example, command and control, silencers, etc. A survival kit, including a reservation, is part of the Special Operations Command’s requirement. Excess weight only affects air transport due to axle load limitations, which the floor of the Chinook helicopter can withstand.

The Flyer 72 for the GMV 1.1 program was developed in parallel with the Flyer 60 for the ITV program, so most of the components are identical, which significantly reduces the amount of logistics.

Currently, ITV is in the middle of the Command evaluation process using special operations, while General Dynamics OTS is preparing to deliver nine GMV 1.1 vehicles that will be tested on the quality of serial products. Both machines are available on the export market in their basic version and can be equipped according to customer requirements.

In the competition ULCV (Ultra Light Combat Vehicle) there were other new cars. Polaris Defense, a well-known brand in the world of off-road vehicles, has many successful projects in the field of special forces. MRZR and MV850 are particularly worth noting. She expanded her portfolio with the new Dagor, which is not only the first specific military project for the company, but also significantly heavier and larger. The car was shown on Marine Day and at AUSA in the fall of 2014; the characteristics of this 4x4 were copied, it seems, from the rough requirements for ULCV, take at least your own weight 2040 kg and carrying capacity 3515 kg. Its development began two years ago and many data are kept secret, as the machine definitely seeks to win the aforementioned program (undoubtedly, it was one of the six projects that were shown in June 2013 of Fort Bragg). One of these secret elements is the engine, which is described as “JP8 turbodiesel” without any indication of power, mass and dimensions, since these are key parameters, while the 800 km power reserve is twice the threshold requirement.

In the car from Polaris Defense used commonly available commercial standard components: transmission and suspension inspired by Trophy Truck. This will allow to cope with the cargo, as well as with difficult terrain, which usually can be overcome only on foot. Up to nine soldiers are stationed in Dagor, two in the front, three in the back, one in the center on a raised seat working as a gunner, and four in the rear cargo area; Duffle bags are attached to the tubular frame. Due to air transport requirements and size restrictions, the designers were forced to stay within the width of 1880 mm and height of 1840 mm (length 4520 mm) for transportation in H-47 Chinook or H-53 Sea Stallion helicopters (two cars in the first and one in the second ), while its own weight allows for transportation on the UH-60 helicopter's suspension. With regard to the landing requirements, the Dagor can be dropped using the Low Velocity Airdrop soft landing system. Dagor is equipped with an additional power connector on the 24 Volta to work with the onboard information management system. As regards weapons, medium-caliber weapons can be installed on the safety cage, while vertical trunnions with small-caliber machine guns can be installed to provide circular coverage in different places. In early October, Polaris Defense announced that Dagor had already won contracts for the US command with special operations forces, as well as international customers, but declined to give details about quantities and countries.



The Humvee armored car is "packaged" in the Low Velocity Airdrop soft landing system

Before leaving the United States, one small note about the Guardian Angel Air-Deployable Recovery Vehicle (Gaarv). The USAF chose Storm 4x4 from HDT Global; The company has now delivered 13 Air Force machines and is currently awaiting additional orders that could bring the total number of vehicles to 61.



The photo shows a half windshield installed by Polaris Defense to protect the driver and commander from the air flow


General Dynamics European Land Systems announced that it is currently selling the Air Transportable Tactical Vehicle (ATTV), an air-transported tactical vehicle developed by the Dutch Defenture BV and introduced by the special forces of this country. The undercarriage is well protected, as it is located inside the central steel chassis; front and rear axles and suspension are identical

Beyond the USA

Although it was well known that the special forces of the Netherlands chose a car designed by a national company, details were not disclosed before the Eurosatory 2014 exhibition. There, General Dynamics European Land Systems showed the Air Transportable Tactical Vehicle (ATTV), an air-transported tactical vehicle, calling it a breakthrough in the world of light vehicles.

In fact, GDELS is promoting ATTV in accordance with an agreement with Defenture BV, a Dutch company from the city of Tiel. Internally, the car is known under the designation CRf-C1, the car has an unusual layout with a central stainless steel chassis in which it is placed and which protects the chassis. The A-arm suspension is made by X-motion Engineering. She collaborates at Defenture with the Rondo Trading Group and the VDL Group (the latter is responsible for production). This suspension is a consequence of the experience gained in the Paris-Dakar rally. The ATTV car was offered with two power units, one based on a Ford five-cylinder diesel engine with an output of 200 hp. and the volume of 3.2 liters, and the other left for the Netherlands. This is a six-cylinder engine Steyr M160053-B with a volume of 3,2 liter, horsepower 220. and 500 Nm torque, it is connected to a six-speed automatic transmission ZF 6HP280. Reducing and boosting drives from a commercial transfer case respectively offer maximum speeds of 170 km / h and 95 km / h, while the power reserve on a level solid surface at lower speeds is 1200 km. The fuel tank is available in two versions of 102 liters or 130 liters, although 140 liters can be added in cans. The car has a permanent all-wheel drive and “shod” in tires 275x65x18. Ground clearance is 300 mm, while the front and rear corners of the terrain are 50 °. ATTV can overcome a vertical scarp more than 300 mm and a ford without preparation 869 mm depth. The layout of the car makes it easy to get different types of enclosures (the ATTV prototype in Paris is one of the solutions). ATTV can overcome the front slope of the 80-90%, its power density is almost 50 hp / t, the total weight reaches 4,5 tons with the same own weight and useful payload. The width of the aluminum hull (without mirrors) 1800 mm allows the ATTV to enter the CH-47 Chinook helicopter due to its height 1841 mm (length 4959 mm). The turning diameter is 13 meters, although the optional turning of all wheels, developed by Defenture, reduces it to just nine meters. At the top of the rollcage, a 12,7-mm machine gun is mounted on the folding mount of the support ring; the support ring is folded inside the machine so that it can be transported in a CH-47 helicopter; there are swivel supports for the assault landing with additional armament in the form of 7,62-mm machine guns. Standard crew consists of four people, and the fifth manages a machine gun. The car has four side doors and a spacious cargo platform at the rear.



The upper part of the SOV was designed and manufactured by KMW based on the Bremach chassis; In the photo, half of the windshield is folded down to get a good sector of shelling for a machine gun



Special Operations Vehicle for Special Operations vehicle from Krauss-Maffei Wegmann was shown in Poland at MSPO 2014. It is based on the requirements of the German special forces Kommando Spezialkrafte

Defenture has teamed up with Tencate, which supplied a ballistic 1 level protection system based on Dyneema material for transparent and opaque surfaces. In addition, a V-shaped bottom plate that provides some protection against mines is available as an option.

As mentioned earlier, the car presented in Paris was a prototype; deliveries of the first two prototypes to the Dutch special forces were expected before the end of 2014. 48 production vehicles will be delivered in 2015 and will replace the Mercedes Benz G280CDI vehicles currently used by special forces. The main armament should be either a Heckler & Koch automatic grenade launcher or a 12,7 mm machine gun. The manufacturer has now started an export campaign. According to some sources, the vehicle has already been tested by the US Special Operations Command.

At MSPO 2014, Krauss-Maffei Wegmann unveiled its new Special Operations Vehicle, the result of a collaboration with Italian-based chassis company Bremach. In the mid-2000s, KMW tested the Italian T-Rex chassis, which is based on a tubular structure that has much greater durability than a stamped profile, and asked Bremach to develop a military chassis - the base of the machine, which could be transported in the CH-47. This chassis passed full tests in Germany in 2008-2009 and then was finalized; it is currently the backbone of KMW's Special Operations Vehicle 4x4. It meets the requirements of the German special forces Kommando Spezialkrafte (KSK) and even enters the army helicopter aviation CH-53GA Sea Stallions. The arc that protects when turning over allows you to disconnect the windshield from the part that supports the heavy machine gun. When folding everything and weapons onto the hood, the height decreases from 2,63 meters to 1,87 meters, which allows a car with a width of 1,935 meters to enter the helicopter.

Given the overall length of the 4,99 meter, both Chinook and Sea Stallion helicopters can carry only one car at a time. A car may carry a load equivalent to half its own mass of five tons, for example, it allows you to have sufficient stock for additional reservations, (protection currently corresponds to 1a level mine protection). The medium caliber machine gun mounted above the guard arch on a power-driven support ring has an 600 ammunition load. The other two machine guns, either 5,56 mm or 7,62 mm, can be mounted on pedestrian installations, one to the right of the commander and one on the rear platform for the shooter. The test vehicle at MSPO was equipped with two types of grenade launchers: two twin Wegmann 76-mm grenade launchers in front to the right and left on the bumper tips and four twin-rear 40-mm grenade launchers. A five-ton winch with a steel cable 25 meters long is installed in the front. The machine is equipped with a 3-liter diesel engine with an 176 horsepower. Iveco, allowing to get power density over 22 hp / t. On rough terrain, the range exceeds 800 km. This car has 255 / 100 R16 wheels with armor resistant inserts; the front axle is shifted forward, allows you to get the front corner of the cross-country 42 °, while the rear corner of the cross makes the 37 °. Turning radius is less than 13 meters. The number of crew varies from three to six people, the prototype has two front seats, two seats in the back row, one seat in the rear end looks back; guides on the rear platform allow quick reconfiguration. The car, shown in Kielce, was the first prototype and, since last July, has been tested by the company in Europe. Additional prototypes are being made and some may be supplied to the Bundeswehr Technical Center for Weapons and Ammunition (WTD91), and then to the KSK for field tests. KMW plans to develop variants in the form of an armored personnel carrier with an open roof, a fully armored pickup truck and an armored cabin with a flat-bed platform.

Materials used:
www.armada.ch
en.wikipedia.org
www.army-technology.com
www.darpa.mil
www.gd-ots.com
www.polaris.com
www.kmweg.com
www.defenture.com
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  1. AlNikolaich
    AlNikolaich 11 March 2015 08: 05
    +1
    Sculpt, sculpt, shushpantsery sculpt!
    Something that the idea of ​​gantrucks is popular among Western "partners"!
    Meanwhile, complex independent suspensions, hybrid power
    installation, and other nishtyaki!
    Breaks down in the field, and what to do?
    1. mirag2
      mirag2 11 March 2015 09: 16
      +1
      About 3 years ago, on the Discovery Channel, they showed a workshop that made small caterpillar conveyors on their knees for one or two riders, then they seemed to say that everything was great, the military became interested, and silence. Maybe in DARPA now those tracked mini amerikosy transports hang all sorts of shnyaga-for democrats.
  2. erased
    erased 11 March 2015 08: 32
    0
    An interesting selection. What do we have besides "Scorpio"?
  3. Rex
    Rex 11 March 2015 11: 25
    0
    Does anyone know - will Polaris accept private orders?
    And why is this transport?
  4. tchoni
    tchoni 11 March 2015 13: 32
    +2
    Well, honestly, the idea of ​​such semi-closed super-duper cars is not entirely clear ... Just transporting drugs? - so what are we inventing a bicycle for? how to convert commercial jeeps into military ones and vice versa we don’t need to learn not us (forever green UAZ) not them (the same hamer. heliks and tayots are different).

    And, if it's no joke, then there is a feeling that Western "special operations specialists" make excessively broad demands on the machines: 10 people + junk carry, transport by helicopter, protect from mines, bullets and almost RPGs ... And what a super drag the gun on yourself .... Sorry, but this is a wunderwaffle.

    If we talk about a light chassis, it seems to me that, for starters, it should not be positioned as special equipment ... It should be a single machine for reconnaissance units, airborne and other light units.
    It seems to me that this should be a car for 4 people with light armor, capable of withstanding up to 12 millimeters in a circle (although 7.62 may be enough), a close RPG gap, and a mine within 1.5-3 kilos. The machine should provide easy dismounting (say 2 passengers go back, while the front and rear passengers sit with their backs to each other (but this is one of the options))
    allow conversion into an easy supply conveyor (by dismantling, say, seats) or an arms carrier (installation of an appropriate module (machine gun, light gun, mortar, assault rifle, recoilless, AGS) and crew reduction)
    Have a weight of up to 3 tons (ideally up to 2x)
    and dimensions that allow the transportation of such a device (ideally two) using the Mi-8
    1. APASUS
      APASUS 11 March 2015 19: 23
      +2
      Quote: tchoni
      ... Sorry, but it’s a prodigy.

      That's it, for what purpose is such a strange unit?
      We began to move away from Gas-66, although the car is just golden in its performance characteristics (except for fuel consumption, of course). The car and similar wunderwaffles in their performance characteristics are the same, but the shishiga will be just at a fabulous price. And the fact that this papilac does not protect against anything so this is nonsense.
      1. vladkavkaz
        vladkavkaz 11 March 2015 19: 33
        +3
        APASUS (
        I absolutely agree.
        The machine, for three minutes, if the specialists were opened, and the cost is like a Brandenburg type airship ..
        On our 66 put a different engine, for example, a diesel engine with a box reinforcement, and that’ll crawl where these beautiful, but in real life useless toys, move no.
        In general, the whole matter is in DUTTERS, the manufacturer sells the Army, which is more expensive, the Army pretends that it needs such prodigies, capitalism, however, where can there be such a profit?
      2. tchoni
        tchoni 12 March 2015 09: 25
        0
        Well, about shishigu, the conversation is separate. She was just nobody but the paratroopers, and was unnecessary ....
  5. lukke
    lukke 11 March 2015 16: 53
    +1
    massively in the troops this crap, not a single super-economics budget will not stand. And it is probably real to vparivat one by one to elite deltas and those who dry on them (ala from the Hollywood series - we are at war and advertise, as we have in the us special forces, everything is great). Plus the tendency to "master" the budget in the tradition of the Pentagon has not been canceled. In general, it looks beautiful and can be convenient, but ... as practice has shown in South Ossetia and partly in the Donbass, when there is an emphasis on tanks and MLRS - all this remains a good means of transportation to disperse the Papuans armed with sticks. We remember the Georgian super hamers and Ukrainian shellfish - you can't get enough of them for the whole war)))
    1. Serg 122
      Serg 122 11 March 2015 20: 21
      0
      On the other hand, is the use of such a technique possible? Tanks are good, but you can't use them everywhere! It seems to me that (for example) in the absence of aviation, such light "rogues" may be useful. The price of them is certainly not small, but the quantity is not large either. hi
  6. S-cream
    S-cream 11 March 2015 21: 21
    +1
    What is their combat use? The absence of a reservation with the simultaneous presence of combat modules implies a tactic either bounced-shot-bounced (jihad mobiles), or to shoot back in case of a sudden attack / combat contact. However, in the second case, I won’t put a penny broken into cars of this type, because there is no armor protection, the crew is open to all lead winds.
    Intelligence service? I beg you ... Patrol? Also doubtful - an excellent target for a high-explosive war. Transportation of goods and drugs? Not even funny.
    This text does not apply to cars in photographs No. 3, 4, 5.
  7. Quadra
    Quadra 12 March 2015 01: 08
    +1
    Dear friends and defenders of UAZs and 66th Lawns, you have never ridden such a technique and therefore you say so about it. I already have quite solid experience in the repair, tuning and off-road preparation of all sorts of sophisticated units and I will tell you that where your famous "super-all-terrain vehicles" travel 5 km / h and shake out all living things from the crew, a normally made trophy truck (it is essentially a product Bombardier from the article) flies at least a hundred without spilling coffee from a cup on a torpedo. So you don't have to write something that you don't know and have never compared. Mobility is not only the ability to drive through some place, but also the time it takes to do it and the state of the crew afterwards. And if he is half-dead after 4 hours of driving (for which they have overcome 20-30 km), then he has nothing to enter into battle, he is especially incapable of combat.