To write this article, I was greatly inspired by the excessive patriotic moods of a significant part of the visitors of the Military Review site, which I respect, and also by the slyness of the domestic media, regularly publishing materials about the unprecedented Soviet military gain, including the Air Force and Air Defense.
For example, in a number of media outlets, including on “VO”, in the section “News"A material was published not so long ago under the title:" Two air defense divisions began to guard the airspace of Siberia, the Urals and the Volga region. "
Which says: “The assistant commander of the troops of the Central Military District, Colonel Yaroslav Roshchupkin, said that two air defense divisions had stepped on combat duty, starting to protect the airspace of Siberia, the Urals and the Volga region.
“The duty forces of the two air defense divisions took up combat duty to cover the administrative, industrial and military facilities of the Volga region, the Urals and Siberia. New connections are formed on the basis of the Novosibirsk and Samara aerospace defense brigades, ”RIA Novosti quotes him.
The combat crews equipped with the C-300PS anti-aircraft missile systems will cover the airspace above the territory of the 29 subjects of the Russian Federation, which are the responsibility of the Central Military District.
An inexperienced reader, after such news, may get the impression that our anti-aircraft missile defense units received qualitative and quantitative reinforcement with new anti-aircraft complexes.
In practice, in this case no quantitative, and even more qualitative enhancement of our air defense, has happened. It all comes down to just a change in staffing and organizational structure. New technology in the troops did not arrive.
The C-300PS modification, mentioned in the publication, with all its merits, can in no way be considered new.
C-300PS with 5В55Р rockets was adopted in the distant 1983 year. That is, more than 30 years have passed since the adoption of this system. But at present, in the anti-aircraft missile defense units, more than half of the long-range air defense systems of the C-300P belong to this modification.
In the near future (two to three years), most C-300PS will have to either be written off or overhauled. However, it is not known which option is economically preferable, modernization of old or construction of new anti-aircraft systems.
An earlier towed version of the C-300PT has already been either written off or transferred "in storage" without any chance of returning to the troops.
The “freshest” complex from the “300th” C-300PM family was put into the Russian army in the middle of the 90's. Most of the anti-aircraft missiles currently in service, was made at the same time.
A new widely advertised anti-aircraft missile system, the C-400, has just begun to enter service. In total, 2014 regimental kits were delivered to the troops as of 10 year. Taking into account the forthcoming mass write-off of this number of combat equipment which has developed its resource, it is absolutely not enough.
Of course, experts, of whom there are quite a few on the site, can reasonably argue that C-400 is significantly superior in its capabilities to the system, which it replaces. However, one should not forget that the means of air attack of the main “potential partner” are constantly being qualitatively improved. In addition, as follows from "open sources", there is still no mass production of promising 9М96Е and 9М96Е2 rockets and XLUMXН40Е ultra-long-range missiles. Currently, the C-6 is used for the 400H48Е, 6H48Е6, 2Н48Е6 RR C-3PM missiles, as well as the 300H400МДМ developed for C-48.
All in all, according to “open sources”, in our country there are about 1500 PU-ZRS of the C-300 family - apparently, taking into account the air defense units of the ground forces that are “in storage” and in service.
Today, Russian air defense forces (those that are part of the Air Force and Air Defense) have a 34 regiment with C-300PS, C-300PM and C-400 air defense systems. In addition, not so long ago, several anti-aircraft missile brigades converted into regiments were transferred to the Air Force and Air Defense from the air defense of the ground forces - two 2 divisional brigades C-300В and "Buk" and one mixed (two divisions C-300В , one division "Beech"). Thus, in the troops we have 38 regiments including the 105 divisions.
However, these forces are extremely unevenly distributed throughout the country, Moscow is best protected, around which there are ten C-300P regiments (as part of two of them there are two C-400 divisions).
Satellite image of Google Earth. Layout of positions ZRK around Moscow. The colored triangles and squares - the positions and areas of basing of the existing air defense missile systems, blue diamonds and circles - surveillance radars, white - currently eliminated SAMs and radars
Not bad covered the northern capital - St. Petersburg. The sky above is protected by two C-300PS regiments and two C-300PM regiments.
Satellite image of Google Earth. The layout of the position of ZRK around St. Petersburg
The SF bases in Murmansk, Severomorsk and Polyarny cover three C-300PS and C-300PM regiments. In the Pacific Fleet in the Vladivostok and Nakhodka regions - two C-300PS regiments, and the C-400 regiment received two divisions. Avachinsky Bay in Kamchatka, where SSBNs are based, is covered by one C-300PS regiment.
Satellite image of Google Earth. ZRS-400 in the vicinity of Nakhodka
The Kaliningrad Region and the Baltic Fleet base in Baltiysk are protected from air attack by a mixed regiment of C-300PS / C-400.
Satellite image of Google Earth. ZRS-400 in the Kaliningrad region on the former positions of the C-200
Recently, the Black Sea Fleet's anti-aircraft cover has increased. Prior to the well-known events related to Ukraine, a regiment of mixed composition with the C-300PM and C-400 divisions was stationed in the Novorossiysk area.
Currently, there is a significant increase in air defense of the main naval base of the Black Sea Fleet - Sevastopol. It is reported that in November, the Peninsula air defense grouping was replenished with C-300PM air defense complexes. Taking into account the fact that complexes of this type are not currently manufactured by industry for their own needs, they appear to have been transferred from another region of the country.
The central region of our country in terms of anti-aircraft cover resembles a "quilt", in which there are more tears than patches. One regiment of C-300PS is available in the Novgorod region, near Voronezh, Samara and Saratov. The Rostov Region is covered by one C-300PM and “Beech” regiment.
In the Urals, near Yekaterinburg, there are positions of an anti-aircraft missile regiment armed with a C-300PS. Beyond the Urals, in Siberia, there are only three regiments deployed in a giant territory, one C-300PS under the Novosibirsk regiment, in Irkutsk and Achinsk. In Buryatia, not far from Jida station, one regiment of the Buk air defense system is stationed.
Satellite image of Google Earth. ZRS C-300PS near Irkutsk
In addition to anti-aircraft systems protecting the base fleet in Primorye and Kamchatka, in the Far East, there are two more S-300PS regiments covering Khabarovsk (Knyaze-Volkonskoye) and Komsomolsk-on-Amur (Lian), respectively, and one S-300V regiment is deployed in the vicinity of Birobidzhan.
That is, the whole huge Far Eastern Federal District is protected: one regiment of mixed C-300PS / C-400, four regiments of C-300PS, one regiment of C-300В. This is all that remains of the once-powerful 11 Army of Air Defense.
"Holes" between air defense facilities in the east of the country are several thousand kilometers, and anyone and anything can fly into them. However, not only in Siberia and the Far East, but throughout the whole country, a huge number of critically important objects of industry and infrastructure are not covered by any means of air defense.
Atomic and hydroelectric power plants remain unprotected over a large part of the country, airstrikes on which can lead to disastrous consequences. Vulnerability from air attack facilities of the Russian SNF dislocation sites provokes “potential partners” to a “disarming strike” attempt with high-precision weapons of non-nuclear equipment.
In addition, the long-range air defense systems themselves need protection. They need to be covered from the air by short-range air defense. Today, shelves with C-400 receive for this ZRPK "Pantsir-S" (2 per division), but C-300P and B are not covered with anything, except for, of course, effective protection anti-aircraft machine guns caliber 12,7 mm.
Things are no better with the lighting of the air. This should be done by the radio engineering troops, their functional responsibility is the early issuance of information about the beginning of an air attack by the enemy, the provision of target designation for anti-aircraft missile forces and aviation air defense, as well as information for the management of formations, units and units of air defense.
During the years of the “reforms”, a continuous radar field formed during the USSR times was completely lost in some places.
At present, there is practically no possibility of controlling the air situation over the polar latitudes.
Until recently, our political and former military leadership, apparently, was occupied by other more pressing issues, such as the reduction of the armed forces and the sale of "excessive" military property and real estate.
Only recently, at the end of 2014, was Defense Minister General of the Army Sergei Shoigu announced measures that should help remedy the existing situation in this area.
As part of the expansion of our military presence in the Arctic, construction and reconstruction of existing facilities on the Novosibirsk Islands and Franz Josef Land is planned, reconstruction of airfields and deployment of modern radars in Tiksi, Naryan-Mar, Alykel, Vorkuta, Anadyr and Rogachevo are planned. Creating a solid radar field over the territory of Russia should be completed by 2018 year. At the same time, it is planned to update radar stations and data processing and transmission facilities by 30%.
Special mention deserves the fighter aircraft, designed to deal with the means of air attack of the enemy and perform tasks to achieve air superiority. Currently, the Air Force of the Russian Federation formally counts (taking into account the “stored”) about 900 fighters, of which: Su-27 of all modifications - more than 300, Su-30 of all modifications - about 50, Su-35С - 34, MiG -29 of all modifications - near 250, MiG-31 of all modifications - near 250.
It should be noted that a significant part of the fleet of Russian fighters is only nominally in the Air Force. Many aircraft made in the late 80-x - early 90-x, require major repairs and upgrades. In addition, due to problems with the supply of spare parts and the replacement of failed BREO units, part of the upgraded fighters is in fact, as the aviators put it, “doves of peace”. They can still rise into the air, but to fully accomplish the combat mission is no longer.
The past year 2014 was significant in terms of the unprecedented volumes of supplies to the Russian armed forces since the days of the USSR.
In 2014, our Air Force received the 24 multifunctional Su-35С fighter produced by the Yu.A. Aviation Plant. Gagarin in Komsomolsk-on-Amur (branch of "Company" Sukhoi "):
Su-35S at Dzemgi airfield, photo of the author
Twenty of them became part of the reconstructed 23 th Fighter Aviation Regiment of the 303 Guards Mixed Aviation Division of the 3 th Command of the Air Force and Air Defense of Russia at the Dzemgi airfield jointly with the Khabarovsk Territory.
All these fighters were built under a contract dated August 2009, with the Russian Ministry of Defense for the construction of X-NUMX Su-48C fighters. Thus, the total number of machines manufactured under this contract reached 35 by the beginning of 2015.
The production of Su-30SM fighters for the Russian Air Force is conducted by Irkut Corporation under two contracts for 30 machines each, concluded with the Russian Ministry of Defense in March and December of the year 2012. After the delivery of 18 machines in 2014, the total number of Su-30CM supplied by the Russian Air Force reached 34 units.
Su-30M2 at the Dzemgi airfield, photo of the author
Another eight Su-30М2 fighters were produced by the Yu.A. Aviation Plant. Gagarin in Komsomolsk-on-Amur.
Three fighters of this type entered the newly formed 38 th Fighter Regiment of the 27 th mixed aviation division of the 4 th command of the Air Force and Air Defense of Russia at the airfield Belbek (Crimea).
Su-30М2 aircraft were built under a contract dated December 2012 for the supply of 16 Su-30М2 fighters, bringing the total number of vehicles built under this contract to 12, and the total number of Su-30М2 in the Russian Air Force to 16.
However, this significant by today's standards amount is absolutely not enough to replace in the destructive regiments of the aircraft due to the complete physical wear and tear of aircraft.
Even with the current rate of deliveries of aircraft to the troops, according to forecasts, in five years, the destructive fleet of domestic air forces will shrink to about 600 vehicles.
Over the next five years, about 400 Russian fighters will probably be written off - up to 40% of the current payroll.
This is primarily with the upcoming write-off in the very near future of the MiG-29 of the old building (about 200 units). Due to problems with the airframe, about 100 airplanes have already been rejected.
Su-27SM at the Dzemgi airfield, photo of the author
Unmodernized Su-27 will also be written off, the flight resource of which ends in the near future. More than half the number of interceptors MIG-31. As part of the Air Force, it is planned to leave the 30-40 MiG-31 in modifications DZ and BS, another 60 MiG-31 will be upgraded to version BM. The rest of the MiG-31 (about 150 pcs.) Plan to write off.
Part of the shortage of long-distance interceptors should be resolved after the start of the massive deliveries of the PAK FA. It was voiced that the PAK FA before 2020 was planned to be purchased before 60, but so far these are only plans that are likely to undergo a significant adjustment.
The Russian Air Force has 15 ARLO A-50 airplanes (still 4 in “storage”), they have recently been supplemented with 3 upgraded A-50U.
The first A-50U was delivered to the Russian Air Force in 2011 year.
As a result of modernization works within the greatly increased the functionality of the aviation complex airborne early warning and control. The number of simultaneously tracked targets and simultaneously induced fighter improved detection range of different aircraft.
The A-50 DRLO A-100 aircraft based on the Il-76МД-90А with the PS-90А-76 engine should replace the A. The antenna complex is built on the basis of an antenna with an active phased array.
At the end of November 2014, TANTK them. G. M. Beriev received the first Il-76MD-90А aircraft for conversion into ARLO A-100 aircraft. Russian Air Force shipments are scheduled to begin in 2016.
All domestic DRLO aircraft are based on a permanent basis in the European part of the country. Outside the Urals, they appear quite rarely, for the most part during large-scale exercises.
Unfortunately, strong statements from high tribunes about the revival of our Air Force and Air Defense often have little to do with reality. In the “new” Russia, absolute irresponsibility for the promises made by high-ranking civilian and military officials has become an unpleasant tradition.
As part of the state armaments program, it was supposed to have twenty-eight X-NUMX-divisional regiments of the C-2 and up to ten divisions of the latest C-400 air defense missile system (the latter should perform tasks not only of air defense and tactical missile defense, but also of strategic missile defense) by 500. Now there is no doubt that these plans will be foiled. The same fully applies to plans for the production of the PAK FA.
However, for the disruption of the state program, no one, as usual, will incur serious punishment. After all, we are "its not we pass," and "we do not 37-Year", is not it?
PS All information given in the article concerning the Russian Air Force and Air Defense is taken from open public sources, a list of which is given. The same applies to possible inaccuracies and errors.
Satellite images courtesy of Google Earth.