The armed forces of Bosnia and Herzegovina were formed in 2005 on the basis of the Army of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina and the Army of the Republika Srpska. This was preceded by a merger in 1995 of the Army of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina and the armed forces of the Croatian Defense Council, in accordance with the decisions taken by the Dayton Agreement. Since the West was actively supplying arms to the army of Bosnian Muslims and Croats, after its unification with the army of Bosnian Serbs, the fleet of armored vehicles began to be a monstrous mix of outdated samples of American, French, Soviet, Yugoslav and even Chinese production.
- 71 M-84, the former Bosnian Serb army;
- 50 French AMX-30, delivered from the UAE;
- 45 US M-60А3, delivered in 1996 year under the program of military assistance;
- 155 Soviet T-55, 15 of which are supplied from Egypt.
The list of other armored vehicles is no less varied:
- 10 French AML-90 armored vehicles with 90-mm cannon. Total 1996 — 1997 an 41 machine was obtained from the UAE;
- 24-25 French BMP AMX-10Р;
- 103 Yugoslav BMP M-80A, mainly from the former Bosnian Serb army;
- 80 American tracked BTR M-113;
- 39 Yugoslav wheeled APC BOV -VP, 8 BOV-M, 49 self-propelled ATGM BOV-1, 3 ZSU BOV-3;
APC BOV-VP military police of the armed forces of Bosnia and Herzegovina
- 5 Chinese wheeled armored personnel carriers "type 92" in the version of the tank destroyer with the HJ-8 "Red Arrow" ATGM (10 units were delivered from Pakistan to Bosnian Muslims during the war);
- 2 BTR-50PU;
- 3 BTR-70. History their appearance is unclear, according to one version, they were transferred by Pakistan or Turkey, where they were sold by Germany from the arsenals of the former NNA GDR, according to another, sold by Ukrainian "peacekeepers" from the contingent of UN forces;
- 24 2C1 "Gvozdika", a former Bosnian Serb army;
- 33 ZSU-57-2.
For reconnaissance and in the Bosnian contingent in Afghanistan, various variants of the American M-998 Hammmer are used.
An interesting fact: in the teachings of the army of Bosnia and Herzegovina, mainly Western weapons are used, the Soviet and Yugoslav former Bosnian Serb armies are stored exclusively in the territory, where the majority are Muslims and Croats.
October 5 2000 year during the so-called. "Bulldozer Revolution" was overthrown by Slobodan Milosevic. Pro-Western agents headed by “Serbian Gaidar” Zoran Djindjic came to power, who first of all began to ruin the army and the security services. So, all T-55 tanks, many of which were in good condition, were decommissioned and sent to scrap. The assassination of the special forces detachment of the Serbian Ministry of Internal Affairs Zvezdan Jovanovic did not correct the situation, the collapse of the army continued. Currently, the Serbian armored fleet includes:
- 212 M-84. Tanks are undergoing deep modernization under the symbol M-2001 (M-84AB1 / M-84AS). The upgrade consists of the installation of dynamic protection "Contact-5" and the Shtora-1 optical-electronic suppression system, which were acquired in Russia. Also on the tank was installed a new engine, OMS, KUV (guided weapons complex). The tank in terms of characteristics is generally T-90С and is offered for export to Kuwait and other countries. The modernization was carried out by the company “Ugoimport-SDPR” in collaboration with UVZ and Scientific Research Institute of Steel. The new tank has the ability to fire laser-guided anti-tank missiles through the barrel of the gun, ensuring accurate shooting at targets at ranges up to 6 km. The tank has sub-caliber projectiles with a core of heavy metals, as well as missiles with separable warheads, whose main task is to fight against modern tanks protected by composite armor. In Serbia, it is planned to upgrade all existing M-84 to the level of M-84АС;
Upgraded tank M-2001
- 13 T-72, 48 more tanks in reserve. The option of upgrading the T-55 was also offered for export, which received the name T-55Н;
- 320 infantry fighting vehicles M-80A, another 200 infantry fighting vehicles in reserve. All are upgradeable to the M98 Otter. The main difference between the new M-98 Vidra combat vehicle from the basic configuration is armory tower. It eliminated the main shortcomings of the old version of the M-80: BMP received a new weapons system. Weapon control was now carried out with the help of the SLA, in which an arms stabilizer appeared, which allows aiming to shoot while moving with the help of a 86 mm M30 gun.
This gun appeared as the development of the M56 anti-aircraft gun. Two-feed Rate of fire - 600 v / min. Rate of fire: three-mode: 5, 10 shells in line and unlimited rate of fire. Ammunition 200 shells (120 OFZ and 80 - BT). Despite the impressive size of the ammunition 30x220 mm, its characteristics are generally consistent with the TTX ammunition 30x173.
The M86 cannon uses two types of projectiles: Currently, it is high-explosive incendiary (initial speed 1050 m / s) and armor-piercing (1150 m / s). The maximum range of the projectile 6.900 m and the effective firing range: for lightly armored targets 1.500 m, for manpower 3.500 m, the upper limit of damage to air targets to 2.300 m. Today it is known that the gun is developing BOPS with a penetration of 11 / 10 / 8 / 5 cm at various distances.
Instead of two old separate sights, a new one appeared - NS-30 / 1, where day and night channels were integrated. The efficiency of fire at night has increased 1,6 times. ATGM "Baby" got a semi-automatic control with a separate sight. The ATGM itself received two head units: high-explosive and cumulative. The minimum firing range is now 170 meters, the maximum 2800 m.
The smoke screen can be installed not only by fuel injection into the system, but also by the presence of six 81-mm aerosol grenades;
- 12 BTR-50PU, used as command vehicles in tank and mechanized battalions and brigades. Another 28 in reserve. The option of upgrading the BTR-50S with the M91E turret from the BMNXX BMP Otter with the 98-mm automatic cannon, the 30-mm machine gun, two Launch 7,62М9М Malyutka and four smoke grenade launchers;
- 58 wheeled APC BOV VP (military police);
- 96 self-propelled ATGM BOV-1.
BOV-M10, an artillery monitoring and control system, and BOV-M11, an armored reconnaissance vehicle, offered with 155-mm self-propelled howitzer B52 on a wheelbase, were created on the basis of the BOV armored car. The machines are commercially successful and are sold to Kenya, Myanmar and Bangladesh.
Also on the basis of the armored car BOV developed KSHM commander of the battalion MRČKB.
Despite the fact that the 85 units of the BOV-3 ZSU are in reserve of the Serbian army, there is an option to upgrade it under the designation M09 BOV-3, on the sides of the tower of which are installed 4 MANPADS "Strela 2M";
- 36 BRDM-2, 40 is still in reserve.
There is an upgrade option for the BRDM-2, called "Wolf" ('' Kurjak '). The combat compartment of the armored car was rebuilt by removing the central auxiliary wheels and wheel arches, so that in addition to the permanent crew members from the 4, people could receive an infantry assault landing - a reconnaissance squad from the 4's. Special attention was paid to the increase in armor protection. Installed a new, more modern diesel engine 128kW (174 hp), which significantly increased the dynamic characteristics of the machine. The speed increased to 110 km / h, while the machine retained the ability to move on water. Due to the increase in the net volume, they abandoned the water cannon, replacing it with two external propellers. You can also see the most notable changes, which includes multitouch surveillance devices - TOMS. In combination with the commander’s observation system and GPS devices, this device allows you to expand the visual observation of the battlefield during daylight hours, as well as the possibility of observing at night and in difficult meteorological conditions;
- For intelligence, the Americans transmitted the 21 M-998 "Hummer";
- 72 122-mm CH 2C1 "Carnation";
- 32 artillery control vehicles based on MT-LB and SNAR-10 radar.
An attempt was made to upgrade even the outdated M-53 / 59 “Prague” ZSU into self-propelled howitzers with the D-122 howitzer installed in the wheelhouse behind the 30-mm howitzer.
And even create on its base self-propelled air defense missile system with two UR P-60 "air-to-air"
However, Serbian companies have proven that they can not only modernize, but also develop new equipment. In 2008, the organization “Ugoimport-SDPR” presented its project “Lazar BWT”. The BTR has an eight-wheel all-wheel drive chassis with hydraulic suspension. The combat vehicle’s own armor provides level III protection according to the STANAG 4569 standard and withstands hitting the armor-piercing bullet of the NATO 7,62x51 cartridge. On the armored case, additional protection modules can be installed that correspond, as stated, to the fifth standard level (hit of an 25-mm armor-piercing projectile). The characteristic V-shaped bottom of the new combat vehicle provided protection for the crew and the assault force from the blast of a six-kilogram charge of TNT, which had been blown up under the wheel. In front of the armored hull of the Lazar BVT armored personnel carrier is a 440 diesel engine with horsepower. This powerplant allows the 16-ton car to accelerate to the highway to 90 km / h and travel on one refueling to 600 kilometers. Machine guns of the 7,62 and 12,7 caliber of millimeters, 30-mm automatic grenade launcher, 20-mm automatic cannon or launcher for anti-tank missiles are offered as weapons of the armored personnel carrier. Smoke grenade launchers are also provided.
A further development of the vehicle was the Lazar 2 BTR, which has an armored hull shape more close to modern wheeled armored personnel carriers. Lazar 2 is equipped with Zastava Arms developed by the company armored uninhabited (optional) turret with a new 30-mm automatic gun developed by the same company and with ATGM launchers. Declares the ballistic and anti-mine protection of the machine, corresponding to the level of the NATO standard STANAG 4269 Level 4. The combat mass of the Lazar 2 24,3 tons, the machine can accommodate three crew members and ten paratroopers. The length of the 7,4 machine is meters, the width of the 2,75 meter, the height of the roof of the 2,4 meter body. 480 hp diesel engine allows you to reach speed on the highway to 100 km / h, power reserve to 800 km. The car is a commercial success, as Pakistan, partly financing the development of Lazar, ordered 2014 20 BTR in February for the Sindh Provincial Police Department (administrative center - Karachi) totaling 1,24 billion Pakistani rupees (about 12 million). According to Serbian media, a number of other countries, including Bangladesh and Kenya, are showing interest in acquiring a new BTR.
And another Serbian company, Azimut DPS, created a lightweight light armored personnel carrier, the Palanca Negra (Giant Saber Antelope). Machine weight - five tons, two crew and up to six paratroopers. The protection meets the requirements of the STANAG_4569 level. Angola is already showing interest in buying it.
The Serbian gendarmerie has its own armored vehicles, and there are some very interesting examples there, for example, the Dutch armored personnel carrier YRP-765 of the Serbian gendarmerie. How he got to Serbia is not known, but it is rumored that he previously belonged to the Dutch UN peacekeepers in Bosnia and was captured as a trophy ...
It is also not known where her British AT-105 Saxon came from, since there is no official contract for their purchase.
The first Macedonian tanks were five T-34-85 and 10 anti-tank SAU M18 Hellet, remaining after the withdrawal of the YNA units in March of the 1992. In 1998, 100 T-55 and BRDM-2 were received from Bulgaria, and from Germany - BTR-70 and TM-170 Hermelin. After fighting with Albanian militants in 2001, the leadership of Macedonia set out to strengthen its army. Currently, the Macedonian armored fleet includes:
- 31 tank T-72 (30 T-72A and 1 T-72AK), delivered from Ukraine in 2002 year;
- 11 BMP-2, delivered in 2001 year from Ukraine;
- 60 BTR-70, delivered by Germany from the arsenals of the former NNA GDR in 90-s;
- 12 BTR-80;
- 11 MT-LB, delivered from Bulgaria;
- 115 TM-170 Hermelin.
The reserve - 30 American BTR M-113, delivered from Italy and 10 Greek Leonidas-2 (Greek copy of the Austrian Saurer 4K 4FA), and "Leonidas" participated in the battles with the Albanians in the summer of the year 2001.
Macedonian soldiers at the Leonidas-2 armored personnel carrier with self-made anti-cumulative rubber screens during battles with Albanian gangs in the summer of 2001
For intelligence and the Macedonian contingent in Afghanistan, the 56 of the American HMMWV and donated by the LME Otokar Cobra are used by Turkey.
From the 62 T-55 tanks inherited by Montenegro from the Yugoslav Army, after gaining independence, the 61 tank was destroyed in the 2007 year to reduce military expenses (as obsolete). The only remaining tank is stored exclusively as a museum piece. Although armed with a number of Yugoslav wheeled armored personnel carriers BOV-VP and Austrian lBM Achleitner RCV Survivor and 1 self-propelled ATGM BOV-1. Montenegrin contingent in Afghanistan uses the American "Hummers".
Teachings of the army of Montenegro
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