By virtue of their geo-strategic position, the Soviet Union, and then Russia, have traditionally focused on shaping the structure of the SNF on their ground component. The leading role of the Strategic Missile Forces in the strategic nuclear triad is determined not only by their prevalence by the number of deployed carriers (more than 60 percent) and the number of nuclear warheads (up to two-thirds of the total number), but also by the highest operational readiness for combat missions, all-weather solution and control stability under the conditions of possible countering the aggressor.
The Strategic Missile Forces include three rocket armies (RA): 27-I Guards (headquarters in Vladimir), 31-I (headquarters in Orenburg) and 33-I Guards (headquarters in Omsk). At the end of 2014, they included 12 rocket divisions that were armed with a total of about 400 launchers (launchers) of missile systems (RK) of the mine and mobile basing. The number of deployed intercontinental ballistic missiles (ICBMs) is on the order of 350 units with approximately 1200 nuclear warheads (YABZ) placed on them. Up to 96 percent of this shock group is contained in readiness for immediate use.
Mine RK "Voivod" developed in the Yuzhnoye Design Bureau (Dnepropetrovsk) It was deployed in 1988 – 1992. The MBR RS-20B (P-36М2, SS-18) is a two-stage liquid-propellant rocket with a launch mass of 211,1 tons (heavy class), can carry up to 10 YaBZ (there is also a version of the monoblock rocket), the firing range is up to 11 thousand kilometers with equipment monoblock head - up to 16 thousands of kilometers. Production was carried out at the Southern Machine-Building Plant in Dnepropetrovsk. The initial warranty period for the PC-20B is 15 years. Currently, a set of measures is being carried out to preserve it in the Strategic Missile Forces grouping up to 2022. Since the summer of 2014, Yuzhnoye Design Bureau and other Ukrainian enterprises have been withdrawn from cooperation providing technical support to the Voivode RC. Nowadays, the parent company is the State rocket center named after academician Makeev (Miass, Chelyabinsk region).
Mine RK "Stiletto" was developed at the Scientific and Production Association of Mechanical Engineering (Reutov, Moscow Region). It was deployed in 1979 – 1984. MBR RS-18 (UR-100N UTTH, SS-19) - a two-stage liquid-propellant rocket with a launch mass of 105,6 tons, can carry up to six YABZ, firing range - up to 10 thousands of kilometers. Production was carried out at the Khrunichev Machine-Building Plant (Moscow). The initial warranty period for the PC-18 was 10 years. It is currently extended to 35 years. The complex of measures for maintaining RK “Stilet” in technical readiness will allow, as it is supposed, to keep this complex in the Strategic Missile Forces grouping until 2019.
The mobile soil RK “Topol” was developed at the Moscow Institute of Thermal Engineering. It was deployed in 1985 – 1992. The MBR RS-12M (SS-25) is a three-stage solid-fuel rocket with a launch mass of 45 tons, carries one YABZ, firing range - up to 10 500 kilometers. Production was carried out at the Votkinsk engineering plant (Udmurtia). The initial warranty period for the PC-12М is 10 years. It is currently extended to 25 years. Measures are being taken to increase it for another two years, which will allow to keep the Topol RK in the Strategic Missile Forces grouping up to 2019.
Mine RK "Topol-M" was also developed at the Moscow Institute of Heating Engineering. It was deployed in 1997 – 2012. MBR RS-12М2 (SS-27) is a three-stage solid-fuel rocket with a launch mass of 47,2 tons, carries one YABZ, firing range - up to 11 500 kilometers. The production of rockets was carried out at the Votkinsk engineering plant. The initial warranty period for the PC-12М2 is 15 years. Currently, the deployment of the mine RK "Topol-M" is stopped, but a set of measures is being taken to preserve it in the Strategic Missile Forces grouping until the end of the next decade.
The mobile soil RK Topol-M is a mobile modification of the mine RK Topol-M. It uses a modified PCB-12М1 MBR with the same performance characteristics as the PCB-12М2. Deployment of the mobile groundwater topol-M RK, which began in the 2006 year, was also discontinued. It is supposed to keep this complex in the grouping of the Strategic Missile Forces until the beginning of the 30-s of this century.
The Moscow Institute of Thermal Engineering developed and mobile ground RK "Yars", the deployment of which began in the year 2010. MBR RS-24 (SS-29) - a three-stage solid-fuel rocket with a launch mass of 46,5 tons, can carry up to six YABZ, firing range - up to 10 500 kilometers. Production is carried out by Votkinsky machine-building plant. The initial warranty period of the PC-24 is 15 years. It is believed that the mobile ground RK "Yars" will remain in the grouping of the Strategic Missile Forces until the middle of 2030-x.
Mine RK "Yars" - stationary modification of rolling ground RK "Yars". Its deployment in the Kozelsk Rocket Division began in 2014. It is equipped with the same ICBM as the mobile ground RK Yars. It can be expected that the RK "Yars" will remain in the grouping of the Strategic Missile Forces until the end of the 30-s of this century.
Naval strategic nuclear forces
The strategic nuclear forces form the bulk of the potential for a deep retaliatory strike by the strategic nuclear forces of Russia, since they are a priori inherently enhanced survivability due to the high stealth of actions while at sea. Weaknesses of strategic nuclear forces, and not only Russian ones, are considered to be the vulnerability of strategic missile submarine cruisers (SSBNs) when they are at basing points, as well as the low reliability of communicating to them orders of centralized combat control in submerged position. In addition, as a result of the significant weakening of the potential of the general forces of the Navy in 1999-2010 fleet (Navy) of Russia the Russian SSBN in the ocean expanses is characterized by significantly lower combat stability than similar American ballistic missile submarines (SSBNs).
SSBNs equipped with a shipborne missile system (KRK) with submarine-launched ballistic missiles (SLBMs) are part of two Russian fleets, the Northern and Pacific (headquarters in Severomorsk of the Murmansk region and Vladivostok, respectively).
As of the end of 2014, there were four types of 12 SSBNs in the Russian Navy: two were from the 667BDR project (Kalmar), six were from the 667DRM project (Dolphin), one was from the 941U project (Shark) and three were from the 955 project ("Borey"). All submarine cruisers of the 667BDR and 667BDRM projects and one 955 project (“Yuri Dolgoruky”) had ballistic missiles on board (144 deployed SLBMs with more than 400 YaBZ deployed on them).
The development of all SSBNs was carried out by the central design bureau of marine equipment "Rubin" (St. Petersburg), and their construction was carried out by the Northern Machine-Building Enterprise (Severodvinsk).
The two SSBNs of the XNUMBDR project are part of the division of atomic submarines of the command of the submarine forces of the Pacific Fleet, which is based in Vilyuchinsk (Krasheninnikov Bay, Kamchatka Peninsula). Submarine cruisers of this type were introduced into the Navy in the 667 – 1976 years (a total of 1982 units were built). They are armed with the KR-D-14Р with 9 PU SLBM RSM-16 (Р-50РКУ, SS-N-29) developed by the Engineering Design Bureau (Miass, Chelyabinsk Region). Currently, the Design Bureau is called the Academician Makeyev State Rocket Center. The RSM-18 SLBM is a two-stage liquid-propellant rocket with a launch mass of 50 tons, can carry up to three YABZ, the firing range is up to 35,3 kilometers. Production was carried out at the Krasnoyarsk Machine-Building Plant. It is planned that the SSBN of the 6500BDR project in the next few years will be withdrawn from the combat fleet of the Pacific Fleet.
The six SSBNs of the 667BDRM project are part of the nuclear submarine division of the command of the submarine forces of the Northern Fleet (SF). This compound is based in the village of Gadzhiyevo (Yagelnaya Bay, Kola Peninsula). The SSBN of the 667BDRM project was introduced into the Navy in 1985 – 1991 (seven units were built in total). They are armed with the D-9PM KRK with the 16 PU SLBM RSM-54 (R-29RMU, SS-N-23) developed by the Engineering Design Bureau. The RSM-54 SLBM is a three-stage liquid-propellant rocket with a launch weight of 40,3 tons, can carry up to four YABZ, the firing range is up to 8300 kilometers. Missiles were manufactured at the Krasnoyarsk Machine-Building Plant. In 1999, their production was resumed in a modernized version, known as Sineva. In 2012, it was tested, and at the beginning of 2014, an improved modification of the RSM-54 SLBM, called the Liner, was put into service. This rocket can carry up to low power 10 YABZ. Information about its deployment on SSBN project 667 BDRM is missing.
SSBN of the 941 (heavy class) project was introduced into the Navy in 1981 – 1989 (six units were built in total). They are armed with the D-19 CRC with the 20 PU submarine launch vehicle RSM-52 (P-39U, SS-N-20) developed by the Engineering Design Bureau. The RSM-52 SLBM is a three-stage solid-fuel rocket with a launch mass of 90 tons, capable of carrying up to 10 YABZ at a distance of up to 8300 kilometers. Deactivated after the expiration of the service life in 2004. To date, five of the six 941 projects built by SSBNs have been withdrawn from the Navy. The only exception is the head Dmitry Dmitriy Donskoy SSBN, which has been converted for use as a test platform for testing the RSM-56 SLBM ("Bulava"). He is known as the submarine cruiser project 941U and is assigned to the Severodvinsk naval base.
Three SSBNs of the 955 project, bearing the names of “Yuri Dolgoruky”, “Alexander Nevsky” and “Vladimir Monomakh”, were introduced to the Navy in 2013 – 2014. The submarine cruiser “Yuri Dolgoruky” is part of the Federation Council, and the submarine cruisers “Alexander Nevsky” and “Vladimir Monomakh” are assigned to the Pacific Fleet, but are temporarily based in the village of Gadzhiyevo. Their inter-fleet transition to the permanent base in Vilyuchinsk was planned for this summer and autumn. The cruisers are armed with the KRK with the 16 PU LBM RSM-56 (P-30, SS-NX-32) developed by the Moscow Institute of Thermal Engineering. The RSM-56 SLBM is a three-stage solid-fuel rocket with a launch mass of 36,8, can carry from 6 to 10 YABZ, firing range when equipped with six warheads - 9300 kilometers, ten - 8000 kilometers. Production is carried out at the Votkinsk engineering plant.
At present, only the submarine cruiser Yury Dolgoruky is a member of the standing forces.
Taking into account that all XPSBDRMs of the SSBN in the recent past underwent rehabilitation overhaul with rearmament of the new Sineva SLBMs, and three SSNS of the 667 project have already been introduced into the Navy, today the equipment of the NSNF with modern weapons is estimated at 955 percent.
aviation strategic nuclear forces
The ANSF is rightfully considered a flexible means of both global and regional nuclear deterrence. No other components of the strategic nuclear triad possess such capabilities. The weak side of the Russian ANSF is the limited airfields based on heavy bomber (TB) and tanker aircraft.
As of the end of 2014, there were 66 TBs in the combat structure of Russia's strategic aviation: X-NUMX bombers Tu-11 and 160 Tu-55MS. All of them, like the regiment of tankers Il-59M, are part of the command of long-range aviation of the Air Force. The permanent bases of TB are the airbases in the city of Engels in the Saratov region and the village of Ukrainka in the Amur region, and the refueling aircraft are the air base in Ryazan.
A regiment of TB Tu-160 and TB Tu-95MS are deployed in Engels, and in Ukrainka there are two regiments of Tu-95MS TB. At these bases, 200 – 300 of long-range nuclear air-launched cruise missiles (ALCMs) intended for installation on TB are stored. The total stock of nuclear ALCMs for TB, taking into account the 12-th Main Directorate of the Ministry of Defense of Russia stored in the arsenals, is about 800 units.
All TBs have been developed by the Andrey Tupolev Design Bureau.
Serial production of TB Tu-95MS was carried out in 1984 – 1991 at the aircraft factory in Kuybyshev (now Aviacor). This bomber is a free-carrying monoplane with a middle-winged swept wing, swept tail and a three-post landing gear with a nose wheel. Maximum take-off weight - 185 tons. The power plant consists of four NK-12MP turboprop engines (each with 15 000 HP). Maximum flight speed - 910 kilometers per hour, cruising - 800 kilometers per hour. Practical flight ceiling - 12 000 meters. The crew - seven people. The bomber strike armament in the Tu-95MX6 version consists of six nuclear ALCOM X-55, which are located in the bomb bay at the multi-position ejection unit (MKU). The bomber version, denoted as the Tu-95MS16, can additionally carry up to 10 ALCM X-55, placed on pylons under the wings of the aircraft. But at the same time, its flight range is significantly reduced - from 10 500 to 6500 kilometers without refueling in the air.
Serial production of TB Tu-160 was carried out in 1984 – 1992 at the aviation plant in Kazan (at present, Gorbunov Kazan Aviation Production Association). In 1999, the production of this bomber was resumed (two aircraft were produced in 2000 and 2008). TB Tu-160 is an aircraft, the glider of which is made according to the normal aerodynamic scheme with an integral layout of the center section. The wing of variable geometry provides flight along various profiles, including at low altitudes in the mode of following the terrain. The chassis has a steerable two-wheeled nose and two six-wheel main struts. Maximum take-off weight - 275 tons. The power plant consists of four NK-32 twin-turbojet engines (each with 25 000 power, hp), which are housed in two nacelles under the fixed wing parts, and there is also an onboard auxiliary power unit. Maximum flight speed - 2200 kilometers per hour, cruising - 2000 kilometers per hour. Practical flight ceiling - 15 000 kilometers. Flight range without refueling in the air with a maximum combat load - 10 500 kilometers, with a normal combat load - up to 14 000 kilometers. Crew - four people. Impact armament includes 12 nuclear ALCM X-55CM, which are located on two MKU, six units each in two intra-fuselage bomb-compartments.
ALCM X-55 (RKV-500А, AS-15А) was developed by the machine-building design bureau Raduga (Dubna, Moscow Region). The maximum flight distance to the target is 3500 kilometers. The production of rockets from 1983 of the year was carried out by the Dubninsky machine-building plant. A variant of the X-55CM rocket (RKB-500B, AS-15B), which has increased flight range due to the installation of additional fuel tanks, was also developed. In the year 1999, tests of a modernized version of the rocket, which became known as X-555 (a non-nuclear ALCM, which can be equipped with Tu-160 TB), were carried out.
Under the START-3 agreement
At present, the construction and development of the Russian Strategic Nuclear Forces is carried out taking into account the restrictions imposed by the Russian-US Treaty START-3 2010 of the year, which came into force on February 5 of 2011. According to Article II of this treaty, each party reduces its intercontinental ballistic missiles and launchers, submarine ballistic missiles and their launchers, heavy bombers (TB), ICBM warheads, SLBM warheads and nuclear weapons TB in such a way that seven years after entry by virtue of the contract and later on until its expiration, the total quantities did not exceed 700 units for deployed ICBMs, SLBMs and TB; 1550 units for warheads on deployed ICBMs, SLBMs and nuclear warheads counted for deployed TB; 800 units for deployed and non-deployed launchers of ICBMs, launchers of SLBMs and TB.
According to the latest exchange of notifications (on 1 of September of 2014 of the year), in total, Russia had 911 units of deployed and non-deployed strategic offensive weapons, and the US had 912. Of these deployed carriers: Russia has 528 units with 1643 warheads counted for them, the US has 784 units with warheads 1642 counted behind them.
This ratio suggests that the current Russian strategic nuclear forces retain a balance of combat capabilities with respect to US strategic offensive forces. However, in order to comply with 5 February 2018 of the year in 700 units of deployed carriers, Russia has to solve a complex dual problem: removing from the SNF combat personnel carriers with the developed operational resources, to introduce in return a number of new ones that would not only compensate for these losses, but also covered the difference formed by 1 September 2014 of the year in more than 170 units from the level established by the START-3 Agreement for the deployed carriers. The United States is much easier to comply with the terms of the START-3 Treaty: they will have to reduce the excessive number of carriers and remove the excess number of warheads from the remaining deployed carriers.
During 2013 – 2014, Russian President Vladimir Putin held a series of meetings with senior officials of the Defense Ministry and representatives of the military-industrial complex on the state and development of the Armed Forces. Much attention was paid to the discussion and development of measures, the implementation of which, at reasonable costs for the state, will ensure the ability of our country to carry out reliable nuclear deterrence of any aggressor. The president gave targets for the quantitative and qualitative characteristics of the country's nuclear forces for the period up to 2020 and for the future.
The founding documents and instructions of the Supreme Commander allow us to formulate three main directions of the prospective construction of the strategic nuclear forces before the 2020 year. First, the creation and deployment of ground-based and sea-based missile systems (RK), the modernization of existing heavy bombers (TB), which should ensure that the share of promising and modern weapons in the components of the SNF are up to 90 – 95 percent, and for some types to 100. Secondly, it is the development and creation for strategic carriers of advanced equipment with specialized warheads and effective means of overcoming anti-missile defense (ABM). And finally, the third direction is the improvement of the centralized control system of the strategic nuclear forces with ensuring guaranteed delivery of orders to strategic carriers in any environment.
Only modern and promising
The improvement and enhancement of the combat capabilities of the Strategic Missile Forces grouping is connected with the creation of promising RK and the increasing pace of commissioning of modern complexes.
Entering into the Nizhniy Tagil, Novosibirsk and Kozelsk missile divisions in 2014, the three missile regiments re-armed at the Yars RC with their combat duty allowed to increase the share of modern RK in the Strategic Missile Forces grouping to 50 percent. In 2015, it is envisaged to continue rearmament of the above-mentioned missile divisions on the RV Yars, and also to begin the deployment of this RK in a mobile version in the Yoshkar-Olai missile division. In the future, the pace of rearmament of the missile divisions currently armed with Topol and Stilet is at Yars, it is planned to significantly increase in order to complete this process by the end of 2020.
With regard to promising RK, there are currently three experimental development works (R & D) on their creation.
As part of one of these development projects, the development of a mobile ground-based RV Yars-M with an intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM) RS-26 is being completed. This solid-fuel rocket was developed by the Moscow Thermal Engineering Institute based on the ICBR RS-24. It is equipped with a split head with maneuvering warheads. The breakthrough design solutions adopted during the creation of the PCB-26, together with the use of nanotechnology and high-energy fuel, ensured a significant reduction in weight and size characteristics. This, in turn, made it possible to reduce the size and weight of the equipped self-propelled launcher, thanks to which the Yars-M RC received excellent maneuverability and maneuverability. Adoption of the Yars-M RK is planned in 2015, and its deployment in the Irkutsk Rocket Division will begin with 2016.
According to another OCD (“Sarmat”), the cooperation of Russian industrial enterprises headed by Viktor Makeyev State Rocket Center is developing a mine shaft with a heavy-duty ICBM. This will be a qualitatively new RK with characteristics exceeding in many respects the RK "Voevoda". In particular, the ICBM will become the owner of a higher energy than the ICBM RS-20В. This will allow it to reliably overcome the missile defense system created by the Americans, including by being able to hit targets not only in energy-optimal trajectories with tight, and therefore predictable approach azimuths, but from various directions, including delivery of maneuvering warheads across the South Pole. At present, the design of the ICBM and the Republic of Kazakhstan in general has been completed. Design and technological documentation was released, production of components of the Republic of Kazakhstan, components and assemblies of ICBMs started. They are experimental processing. It is assumed that the flight design tests of the ICBM will begin in the second half of next year. Adoption of the Republic of Kazakhstan is possible in 2018 – 2020. It will be deployed in the Dombarovsk and Uzhur rocket divisions, which are now armed with the RK Voyevoda.
The third OCD (Barguzin), headed by the Moscow Institute of Thermal Engineering, is aimed at developing a combat railway missile system (BZHRK). This mobile RK will embody a positive operating experience of its predecessor - BZHRK 15P961, created in Soviet times and decommissioned in 2005. But recreated BZHRK should significantly exceed it in a number of characteristics. It is believed that the ICBM, which will equip this RK, will be made on the basis of the PC-24. If this is the case, then the overall weight characteristics of this rocket will allow it to easily fit into a standard refrigerated wagon with four wheeled pairs. At the end of 2014, the outline design of the created BZHRK was completed, the development of design documentation began. It is expected that the development of BZHRK with conducting flight tests of the ICBM, which it will equip, will be completed in 2018 year, followed by the adoption of the weapons no later than 2020.
Thus, by the year 2021, the Strategic Missile Forces group will contain only modern and prospective RKs of two types of basing: mining (RK Topol-M, RK Yars and RK with heavy-duty ICBMs) and mobile (RK Topol-M, RK "Yars", RK "Yars-M" and BZHRK). At the same time, all ICBMs that will be equipped with Topol-M RK, Yars RK, Yars-M RK and BZhRK RK belong to the same family of solid-fuel missiles, the first of which was the RS-12М ICBM. Only a heavy-duty ICBM will be a liquid-propellant rocket.
"Borey" with the continuation
The grouping of naval strategic nuclear forces (NSNS) is planned to be radically updated due to the introduction of an additional number of Borei strategic missile cruisers into the composition of the Northern Fleet (NF) and the Pacific Fleet. Of the existing SSBNs of the 667BDRM project, only those that have an operational resource reserve after 2020 of the year will remain, and the SSBN of the 667BDR project will be removed from the composition of the submarine forces of the Pacific Fleet.
Currently, the construction of three SSBNs of the modernized 955A project: Prince Vladimir (founded in July 2012), Prince Oleg (July 2014), and Generalissimo Suvorov (December 2014-th). These SSBNs differ from the first three SSBNs of the 955 project with the hull and chop contours, as well as better acoustics and less noise.
Photo by wikipedia.org
In total, the construction of the series of eight Borei-type SSBNs is envisaged under the NSNF development plan. The last two submarine cruisers of this series (in the form of 955А) will be laid in the 2015 year. This will allow them to be put into operation by 2020 and thereby fully implement the LG-2020 in the part concerning the buildup of the combat capabilities of the NSNF group.
It should be noted that Borey-type SSBNs are not inferior to the best world models, and surpass them in a number of characteristics. Thus, the maximum depth of the Borei-type SSBN is 450 meters, and the American Ohio-launched ballistic-missile submarine (SSBN) is less than 400 meters; "- 29 nodes.
After 2020, as stated by the general director of the central design bureau of marine equipment "Rubin" Igor Vilnit, further improvement of the Borey-type SSBN is envisaged.
One impact type
With regard to the aviation component of the SNF, modernization of the entire fleet of existing TB is planned, as well as the development of a promising long-range aviation complex (PAK DA) and new-generation aviation weapons.
Modernization of TB Tu-160 is carried out by the Kazan Aviation Production Association (KAPO) named after Gorbunov, and TB Tu-95MS - by Aviakor aviation plant. As stated by the DA Commander, Lieutenant-General Anatoly Zhikharev, on all aircraft subject to modernization, they will not only replace obsolete components and assemblies, but also install new engines and weapon systems that will ensure the use of promising samples of aviation weapons. This will increase the service life of aircraft, improve their combat capabilities.
In the 2014 year, seven modernized TB Tu-160 and Tu-95MS, as well as two improved long-range bomber Tu-22М3, were entered into the combat squadron. The state defense order for the 2015 year provides for the modernization of 12 airplanes while maintaining this schedule in the future - by 12 units per year.
The Il-78M refueling aircraft are currently undergoing selective reconditioning with replacement of the components and assemblies that have developed their service life. In the near future, deliveries to YES of the modernized IL-78М2-90А are planned, and in the second half of the decade - a new strategic aircraft refueling aircraft, built on the basis of IL-96-400Т.
The enhanced capabilities of the above samples will allow an increase in the range of action of the attack aviation complexes.
With the development of PAK YES, the situation is as follows. In August, the Ministry of Defense 2009 of the Russian Federation concluded a three-year contract with the Tupolev Design Bureau for research work on the development of the PAK DA advance project, which was defended in 2012. In March, 2013 was approved a draft design for the creation of an airplane according to the “flying wing” scheme. It will be subsonic with a range without in-flight refueling to 15 thousands of kilometers, with a wide range of weapons in the shock arsenal.
PAK YES will come to replace not only the Tu-95MS and Tu-160 TBs, but also the Tu-22М3 long-range bomber. That is, in the future, YES will have one type of strike aircraft, which will reduce operating costs.
The state contract for the implementation of the development work on the creation of the PAK DA was concluded with United Aircraft Corporation (UAC) at the end of 2013. The cooperation of enterprises belonging to the UAC was formed, headed by the Tupolev Design Bureau with minimal involvement of outsiders. It is expected that the first test aircraft will appear in 2019-m, and will come into service in the 2025 year.
As for the information on the development of long-range air-launched cruise missiles (ALCM) for long-range TB, it is scarce and in many ways controversial. It can only be reliably asserted that the machine-building design bureau Raduga is implementing a project whose goal is to create two new long-range ALCMs, X-101 and X-102. Both missiles, which are a further development of the concept laid down during the creation of the X-55 concept, are supposed to be unified as much as possible, and all the differences will affect only their combat equipment: the X-101 X-102 will have a high-explosive fragmentation warhead, and the X-101 X-XNUMX will have a nuclear fragmentation warhead. The options for equipping the ALCM X-XNUMX with a high-explosive, detonating and cluster warhead are also possible.
In the spring of 2012, Anatoly Serdyukov, in a speech at the extended meeting of the Defense Ministry Board, mentioned that the Air Force received a new long-range ALCM. In September of the same year, other information appeared in the media. With reference to the then First Deputy Minister of Defense Alexander Sukhorukov, it was stated that in the coming months, an AREA of increased range would arrive in DA. But up to the present, there have been no official reports on the adoption of the X-101 / X-102 ALCM.
An assessment of fragmentary reports on the development of ALCM X-101 / X-102, which appeared in the media in 2013 – 2014 with reference to anonymous sources, suggests that these missiles are still undergoing a test cycle. The purchase of small batches of ALCM X-2012 / X-2013 (in quantities up to 101 units) that have been reported on the inclusion of 102 and 20 in the state defense order should most likely be regarded as the acquisition by the Air Force of experimental batches for subsequent testing in modernized TB Tu-95MS and Tu-Xnumx.
With regard to the tactical and technical characteristics of the ALCM X-101 / X-102, the following information is available: the rocket length is about 7,5 meter, the launch weight is 2200 – 2400 kilograms, the maximum flight speed is 250 – 270 meters per second, the maximum range is 5000 – 5500 kilometers The missiles are equipped with an autonomous optical-electronic correlation system and an integrated receiver of the GLONASS system, and an optical-electronic homing system is used in the final part of the trajectory of their movement. All this provides the possibility of flying at extremely low altitudes (30 – 70 m) with rounding of the terrain, which greatly complicates their detection by radars on the background of the underlying surface, and also allows to achieve high accuracy of hitting the target.
If the above characteristics of the ALCOM X-101 / X-102 correspond to reality, equipping these missiles Tu-95MS and Tu-160 with these missiles will significantly increase their combat capabilities and give them the ability to hit targets at distances of the enemy’s air defense.
Priority in all respects
Increasing the level of the combat power of the SNF largely depends on the quality of its management. According to General Valery Gerasimov, head of the General Staff of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation, the task of creating a promising system of centralized command and control of the SNF for the Russian Defense Ministry is a priority in all respects.
The first real step in this direction was the appearance in 2014 of the National Defense Management Center (NUAU) of the Russian Federation, which was put on combat duty on December 1. The structure of the National Center of Control and Administration of Nuclear Weapons Control weapons according to the decision of the highest military-political leadership of the country. It is believed that this center can significantly reduce the time for making and implementing decisions in emergency conditions.
Another primary task is to complete the development and adoption of the Unified Space System (CEN) for early warning and combat control, which is being created according to the LG-2020. It is planned to have in its composition an orbital grouping of 10 specialized spacecraft (SC) of a new generation (OCD "Tundra") and upgraded command posts providing control of orbital grouping, receiving, processing and transmitting special information to consumers in automatic mode. At the same time, new spacecraft will become multifunctional: they are not only able to reliably determine the launch of any ballistic missiles and track their flight trajectories, but also due to the communications equipment placed on board they will constitute the space segment of the automated system for managing the SNF. Through them, in a matter of seconds, it is possible to transmit the order of the President of the Russian Federation - the Supreme Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation to the response of the SNF.
As the Deputy Commander of the Space Command of the EKR Troops, Major General Alexander Nestechuk, stated at the end of last year, in 2015, the launch of the first spacecraft was planned to form the orbital constellation of the EKS. The full orbital group, according to him, will start functioning in 2018 year.
This will make it possible to significantly increase the timeliness of the detection of a rocket attack on Russia, the reliability and speed of bringing the orders of the centralized command and control system to the response of the SNF in the most unfavorable situation.
The implementation of the above plans (programs) for the construction and development of strategic nuclear forces will require serious efforts by the federal government not only in terms of resources, primarily financial and personnel support, but also modernization of the defense industry. With the latter, we are clearly late. As a result, there was an unacceptable gap between the advanced engineering solutions that are laid in the developed weapons, and the production capabilities of the military-industrial complex. If this gap is not operatively closed, all good intentions to equip the strategic nuclear forces with promising weapons will hang in the air.
And the second. Given the evolving negative situation in the Russian economy, which is fraught with a repetition of the 2008 – 2009 crisis and even more serious consequences, it cannot be ruled out that the planned plans for the construction and development of the SNF may be subject to significant adjustment. At the same time, it is very important to preserve the required amount of funding for the implementation of R & D to create promising models of strategic offensive arms, having sacrificed mass production. They can be relatively easily increased after the country's economy leaves the crisis state, but a slowdown or worse is worse - freezing R & D will have an extremely adverse effect on the prospects of the strategic nuclear forces.
Nor will it be critical for national security if Russia cannot achieve parity with the United States in the number of strategic offensive weapons by the year of 2018. Based on the assessments carried out by the Russian expert community, it seems quite acceptable to have 530 – 570 deployed carriers and about 1550 warheads deployed on them in the Russian strategic nuclear forces by this date. The structure of this shock grouping can be as follows: 300 – 320 deployed RCs with ICBMs equipped with 900 – 940 warheads; 11 – 12 SSBNs with 176 – 192 deployed SLBMs and 530 – 560 warheads on them; 54 – 58 deployed TB with 54 – 58 warheads counted for them.
There is no doubt that by the year 2018 in the USA there will be 700 deployed carriers with 1550 warheads. In addition, the Americans will be the owners of more than the Russians, the so-called return potential of strategic offensive weapons. But this superiority will not have a significant impact, since none of the parties to the Russian-American START-3 Treaty will be able to take advantage of the return potential. By February 5 2021 - the moment of the expiration of the contract - Russia will in any case approach the bar in the 700 deployed carriers that it has installed.
This will ensure the maintenance of the potential of the strategic nuclear forces of the Russian Federation at a level that ensures the possibility of solving the problem of causing unacceptable damage to any aggressor and, as a result, strategic deterrence from starting a war against our country and its allies in any military-strategic situation.