In 2012, Indonesia bought four 500-kg IAI Searcher II, which are mainly used to fight pirates in the Strait of Malacca. In April, 2013 was announced plans for the local development of the Wulung 120-kg for the Indonesian Air Force. It will be designed by the Agency for Technology Assessment and Implementation (BPPT), and the manufacturing company will be Indonesian Aerospace.
In 2007, Malaysian companies Composites Technology Research Malaysia (CTRM), Ikramatic Systems and Systems Consultancy Services formed the joint venture Unmanned Systems Technology (UST). The UST website provides a list of its products: Aludra 200-kg in the configuration of the pushing two-bladed propeller, flying-wing Aludra SR-2,1 08-kg and Intisar 400 helicopter in the 100 kg class.
500-kg Yabhon Aludra with front tail is a joint development of UST and Adcom Systems from the United Arab Emirates. In the interests of the Malaysian air force, two such drons are in operation along with two Aludra Mk2 and two Boeing / Insitu Scan Eagles, and neither perform reconnaissance missions over the eastern part of the Sabah state.
In 2013, it was reported that Malaysia is going to cooperate with Pakistan in the development of a long-range drone with a long duration of flight.
The Philippine Army, in collaboration with Obi Mapua, developed the Assunta 14-kg drone. However, plans to use this drone, ultimately, was not destined to come true, as two 180-kg drone Emit Aviation Blue Horizon II drone, manufactured under license from Singapore Technologies Aerospace (STA), were purchased.
At the end of 2013, the Philippine army announced that two types of low-cost drones were involved in its counter-insurgency operations, Knight Falcon worth 6700 dollars and Raptor cost 3400 dollars; both are designed by her R & D Command based on the Skywalker RC model, manufactured by a Hong Kong company.
Beginning in 2002, the Philippine army received intelligence information from American drones, mainly from General Atomics' Gnat 750 and Predator-A, used by the CIA, and from Aerovironment Puma, Sensitel Silver Fox and ScanEagle from Boeing / Insitu, used by the US military. The Predator drone in the Philippines in 2006 unsuccessfully struck Hellfire missiles at the bases of the Indonesian terrorists Umar Patek, who were accused of a terrorist attack on Bali in 2002.
The Singapore Air Force received an 40 drone IAI Searcher in 1994 to replace the 159-kg IAI Scout, which Singapore once received 60 units. Searcher is armed with a squadron in Murai Camp from 1998, but in 2012, the unit began to move to 1150-kg IAI Heron I. Another squadron of drones in the Singapore Air Force stationed in Tengah, in 2007, it adopted the 550-kg Elbit Hermes 450.
The Skyblade III Singapore 5-kg drone was jointly developed by ST Aerospace, DSO National Laboratories, DSTA and the army of this country, which it is armed with. ST Aerospace's later projects include Skyblade IV 70-kg, which entered service with the Singapore Army in 2012 year. The Skyblade 360 kg 9,1 kg model uses fuel cell technology in order to obtain a flight duration of six hours. The new 1,5-kg SkyDiper helipod is still being tested. At the Singapore Airshow in February 2014, the company showed its Ustar-X with four rotors and Ustar-Y with six rotors.
It is assumed that at the end of 2010, the Thai Air Force purchased one Aeronautics Aerostar system weighing 210 kg for a comparative assessment with a G-Star weight 220 kg, which was developed on the basis of Innocon Mini-Falcon II 150-kg from Thai company G-Force Composites. It looks like Aerostar won, since some more 20 drones were purchased in 2012. The Air Force Academy has a small number of Sapura Cyber Eye 65-kg purchased from Malaysian Sapura Secured Technologies, for which the development of drones is conducted by its sister company CyberFlight from Australia.
In 2010, the Thai Air Force began developing the Tigershark drone as part of a research program. The Thai Army, which previously operated four Searcher, received twelve X-NUMX-kg RQ-1,9Raven from AeroVironment.
Vietnam has so far lagged behind in the use of drones, although in 2004 and 2005, the Institute of Defense Technologies developed and tested the drones M-100CT and M-400CT. The Vietnamese Academy of Science and Technology manufactured five devices, varying in weight from 4 to 170 kg, and tested three of them in 2013 year. At present, Vietnam is likely to buy 100-kg Grif-1 developed by the Belarusian aircraft repair plant number 558, which made its first flight in February 2012 of the year.
The Nishant reconnaissance drone (dawn) from DRDO first took off in 1995, but is still used by the Indian army and police in the central district in limited numbers
One of the products of the Pakistani company Satuma (Surveillance And Target Unmanned Aircraft) is Flamingo 245-kg, which carries 30 kg equipment and has a maximum flight duration of 8 hours
The Mukhbar short-range reconnaissance drone (informant) from Satuma weighing 40 kg is a smaller version of the 145-kg Jasoos II (Bravo II), the same company that has been used extensively by the Pakistani Air Force since 2004.
The Shahpar-3 480-kg mass was designed and manufactured by the GIDS consortium, and the Aero Zumr-1 multitouch station (EP) is installed on it. It is in service with the Pakistani Air Force and Army since 2012.
India is the main user of Israeli drones, receiving at least the IAI Searcher and 108 Heron I UAVs, plus Harpy and Harop, the various patronizing weapons. Reportedly, Searcher II since 68 has been manufactured under license in India. At the end of 2006, the government approved the purchase of another 2013 Heron for 15 million dollars.
The main developer of drones in India is the Organization of Defense Research and Development (DRDO). It was made about 100 drones-targets Lakshya, but for the Indian army today made, apparently, no more 12 reconnaissance drone Nishant. The Rustom series is intended to replace Heron and serves as a base for the impact drone. The flight of the essentially new Rustom II drone was scheduled around the middle of 2014.
Pakistan has several small private companies that are active in the field of drones. For example, Satuma developed Flamingo’s medium range 245-kg, Jasoos II tactical range 145-kg (earned the nickname “country workhorse”), the short-range 40-kg, and Stingray’s mini-tron.
Global Industrialand Defense Solutions (GIDS) developed 480 kg Shahpar, 200 kg Uqab, Huma and 4 kg Scout. The Uqab UAV is operated by the Pakistani army and fleet, it was recently joined by the Shahpar drone, which looks like a Chinese CH-3. Another local development is the Burraq shock drone, created by the state company National Engineering & Scientific Commission (Nescom).
Integrated Dynamics has developed several drone projects, including the Border Eagle, which has been exported to five countries, including Libya. Pakistani forces ordered 10 0,8-kg Skycam drones from the same company.
In 2006, Pakistan ordered five Falcon 420-kg machines from Selex ES with further licensed production by the company Pakistan Aeronautical Complex (PAC). The Pakistani army and navy are armed with an 40-kg drone EMT Lunadrone.
The Sri Lankan Air Force has two IAI Searcher II drone units, 111 and 112 squadrons. They previously exploited IAI Super Scout (from 1996 onwards) and Emit BlueHorizon II.
One of the most successful drones in the world, IAI Heron, is in service with the country's 21. Four countries used it in Afghanistan; pictured drone of the Australian Air Force
For four decades, Israel has been a world leader in the development of drones, mainly due to the success of IAI / Malat, which began producing unmanned vehicles in the 1974 year. Israeli drones have flown more than 1,1 a million hours in more than 50 countries. According to the Stockholm World Research Institute, Israel is responsible for the 41% of drones sold worldwide in the first decade of our century.
The first of the two experimental devices IAI Super Heron HF (HeavyFuel - heavy fuel) (registration 4X-UMF) made its first flight in October 2013 of the year. The container under the right wing accommodates an automatic take-off and landing system
IAI Super Heron first appeared in public at the Singapore 2014 Air Show in February with a full complement of equipment, including the Elta Mosp 3000-HD optical electronic station and a synthetic aperture radar / selection of EL / M-2055D ground moving targets
Although IAI Heron TP made its first flight around 2004 and was actively exploited since 2009, the first Israeli Air Force received it officially in December 2010
In the photo, Elbit Hermes 900, which made its first flight over the Golan Heights in 2009, seems to be aimed at conquering the market for one-ton reconnaissance drones. He has already been selected by the Israeli army and four overseas customers.
As this photo of Hermes 900 with the Selex Gabbiano marine radar shows, Elbit has the ability to upgrade its device to the requirements of the customer.
One of the most successful tactical drones was the Aeronautics Aerostar drone weighing 220 kg, which was introduced in the 2001 year and has now been ordered by 15 countries
1250-kg Heron I (local name Shoval) first flew in 1994 year. Heron is operated in a 21 country, four of which used it in Afghanistan. The Heron family has flown a total of over 250 000 flight hours.
The latest Heron piston engine is the 1452-kg Super Heron HF (Heavy Fuel). The first of the two prototypes is supposed to take off for the first time in October 2013 of the year (IAI is strangely silent about this) and was shown in Singapore in February of 2014 of the year. It is equipped with an 149 kW diesel engine Dieseljet Fiat, the duration of the vehicle being in the air for 45 hours.
The Super Heron was presented at the exhibition with an optical-electronic IAI Mosp3000-HD station and a M-2055D radar from IAI / Elta EL. Also on the fuselage were installed various communication systems and electronic intelligence ELK-1894 Satcom, ELL-8385 ESM / Elint and ALK-7065 3D Compact HF Comint. There are several ELK-7071 Comint / DF radio antenna and direction finding antennas on the tail beams, and an automatic take-off and landing sensor is located in a container under the right wing.
A significantly heavier (4650 kg) Heron Tpor or Eitan with a turboprop engine received a baptism of fire during the strike of the Israeli air force on a convoy carrying Iranian weapon through Sudan in 2009 year. It competes with the American MQ-9 for the orders of several major European powers.
Other IAI products include Searcher III 436-kg. Drone Searcher is in service with 14 countries, including Spain and Singapore, which used it in Afghanistan. The Panther series of UAVs with vertical propeller turning and landing screws consists of the Panther 65-kg and the mini-Panther 12-kg. At the lower end of the IAI line are the 5,6-kg Bird Eye 400 and 11-kg Bird Eye 650. Panther and Bird Eye drones have been tested with fuel cells.
Aeronautics Orbiter series minidrones, even more widespread than Aerostar, are offered for military and military use and are operated in 20 countries
There is a growing interest in the "winged grenade", which can deliver its warhead accurately and to a greater distance than traditional thrown counterparts. Bluebird MicroB - a vivid example
The BlueBird Spylite with an electric mass of 9 kg can be airborne for up to 4 hours. The number of users other than the Chilean army includes one of the African countries
The BlueBird Blueye 60-kg drone was created not only for tasks such as delivering small emergency cargoes to advanced bases, but also as an air component of a photogrammetric system for fast terrain mapping
Drones from Elbit Systems have flown a total of over 500 000 flight hours, mainly due to 550-kg Hermes 450, which is used in 12 countries, and is also the base for the Thales Watchkeeper. The new 115-kg Hermes 90 made its first flight in the 2009 year.
Hermes 900 weighing 1180 kg from Elbit also took off for the first time in the 2009 year, and in the 2012 year the Israeli Air Force was chosen as the next generation drone.
He recently received the designation Kochav (star). It is also in service with Chile, Colombia, Mexico and other countries. Switzerland had to choose between the Hermes 900 and Heron I by the middle of the 2014 year. In 2013, more than 50 Hermes drones were manufactured.
Smaller Elbit drones with electric motors include the Skylark ILE 7,5-kg. This is a drone level battalion of the Israeli army, it is also in service with more than 20 armies and French special forces. The Skylark II 65-kg, launched from the machine, was chosen as the brigade-level drone and was tested with power from the fuel cell.
The leader of the Aeronautics family is the Aerostar 220-kg, which was bought by 15 customers and has flown a total of more than 130 000 flight hours. The Orbiter series of this company is in service with 20 armies and consists of Orbiter-I 7-kg, Orbiter-II 9,5-kg (used by the Israeli Air Force and Navy, ordered by Finland) and Orbiter-III 20-kg.
40-kg Aerolight flies not only in the Israeli Air Force, the US Navy and in other combat arms. 720-kg Picador is a variant of the Belgian double version of the Dynali H2S. He flew for the first time in the 2010 year and is designed to work with Israeli corvettes.
BlueBird Aero Systems developed the 1,5-kg MicroB manual launch, the SpyLite 9-kg, which is used by the Israeli army and others (including the Chilean army) and the WanderB 11-kg, which takes off from the runways. In 2013, the company introduced the 24-kg ThunderB with a flight duration of 20 hours.
BlueBird distinguished itself by creating the first Boomerang mass-produced fuel cell minidron of 10 kg, which was purchased by the Ethiopian army.
Innocon manufactures 3,5-kg Spider, 6-kg MicroFalcon-LP and 10-kg MicroFalcon-LE with articulated wing, 90-kg MiniFalconI and 150-kg MiniFalcon II and 800-kg Falcon Eye, which is based on a manned machine.
Innocon's MiniFalcon II 150-kg, typically run with a rail, is equipped with a wheeled chassis with a sled for landing either on a runway or for landing on a field or beach. Takeoff and landing at the machine automatic
Adcom Systems has created a series of high-performance drones that seem to bring the main income to the company. Russia is considered one of the main customers. The photo 570-kg Yabhon-X2000, which has a cruising speed of up to 850 km / h and a flight duration of up to two hours
Adcom Systems' Yabhon RX is a tactical reconnaissance drone weighing 160 kg, which takes off from a rail and automatically sits on two retractable skids of a tandem circuit, although it also has an emergency parachute on board
Another Middle East
It seems that Qods Aeronautics Industries (QAI) is the main developer of drones in Iran, a division of the Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps, although a number of drones for training operators and drones were manufactured by Iran Aircraft Manufacturing (Hesa), which is part of the Iran Aerospace Industries Organization (IAIO).
The Mohajer-1 reconnaissance drone (migrant) from QAI took off in 1981 year and made 619 sorties in the war with Iraq, possibly with a fixed camera, although it could be converted into a locking attack drone with an RPG-7 warhead. More than 200 advanced 85-kg Mohajer-2 drones were manufactured. The next model Mohajer-3 or Dorna has an increased range and duration of the flight, in the version of the same Mohajer-4 or Hodhod with a mass of 175 kg these characteristics were further increased. It is in service with the Iranian army and corps, was sold to Hezbollah, Sudan and Syria and was manufactured under license from Venezuela under the name of Arpia.
The lighter (83-kg) Abalil front-end drone (swallow) from QAI is operated by Iran, Sudan and Hezbollah. Three vehicles were shot down in 2006 year over Israel and in 2009 year over Iraq (US Air Force), as well as over Sudan (rebels) in 2012 year.
Shahed-129 (witness) from QAI is similar to Thales' Watchkeeper, the flight duration is 24 hours, and most likely it belongs to the weight category 1000 kg. It has two suspensions for armament, and according to some data, its mass production began in the 2013 year. However, the largest drone is the Fotros from IAIO, which was shown at the end of 2013 of the year. He has two transport-launch containers, and the flight duration is 30 hours.
Iran appears to have several strike drones in service, including Ra'ad-85, which began production in 2013, the twin-engine Sarir (throne) and Toophan-2 very similar to Harpy.
The new Iranian project, introduced in 2013 year and named Yasir, is very similar to ScanEagle with twin tail spars and added inverted V-shaped tail. The only Iranian reactive drone is the 900-kg Hesa Karrar (strike force), which can carry one 200-kg or two 113-kg bombs.
The Arabian Peninsula
Adcom Systems, a company from the United Arab Emirates, originally manufactured a series of target drones that were sold to several countries, including Russia, and then switched to the production of reconnaissance drones.
Initially, they had a traditional design, but Adcom focused on the wings of large lengthening tandem mounted on a serpentine fuselage. Whether there is a positive interference between the two wings is achieved only, perhaps, Adcom knows. It is completely clear that the release of the load from under any wing will create a longitudinal displacement of the center of gravity.
Adcom has considered various powerplant options for a series of drones attracting the attention of themselves. In Dubai, in 2013, the company presented a mockup of a ten-ton Global Yabhon project with two unnamed turbofan engines and a wide range of weapons. Of course, more interest (presumably Russia and Algeria) is caused by the previous version of the United 40 Block5 with a two-piston engine weighing 1500 kg, which already flies and, according to the company, has a flight duration of 100 hours.
Among the few medium-length twin-engine drones with a long duration of flight offered on the market, one can find the two-ton Yabhon United 40 Block 5 with the tandem arrangement of the wings Adcom Systems. He made his debut in Dubai in 2013, and, apparently, aroused the interest of Russia and Algeria
Little in Europe there are good drones that could be sold for export. Among them is Austria with its 200-kg Schiebel Camcopter S-100, France with 250-kg Sagem Sperwer, Germany with 40-kg EMT Luna, Italy with Selex ES 450-kg Falco and the Mirach series of targets, Norway with 16-gram Prox Dynamics PD-100 Black Hornet (the first microdron to reach operational readiness) and Sweden with the 150 / 180-kg CybAero Apid 55 / 60.
Promising machines include the French 1050 kg Sagem Patroller (mentioned in the first part of this article), the Italian 6145 kg Piaggio Aero P.1HH Hammerhead, the Spanish 200 kg Indra Pelicano (based on Apid 60) and the Swedish 230 kg Saab Skeldar -200. Drone Skeldar actually conquered the world, surprisingly the first order came from another country, and specifically from the Spanish fleet. It will be interesting to see how the Piaggio Avanti succeeds as a drone, because it is based on a business plane aviation.
With the great help of investors from the Arabian Peninsula, Piaggio began developing an unmanned version of its business aircraft with a tandem arrangement of the wing P-180 Avanti. The photo shows his full-size mock-up for the Dubai 2014 airshow. A large-diameter fuselage will allow it to accept a large number of electronic and electronic reconnaissance systems, as well as additional fuel. With a load of 200 kg it will have a flight duration of 16 hours. The functional systems to be installed on it include the Selex SkyIstar, the Flir Starfire 380HD ventral station and the Seaspray 7300 E Radar radar (pictured)
Originally developed for the United Arab Emirates, which ordered 60 systems, the Schiebel Camcopter S-100 has become one of the few successful European projects. S-100 in the photo is equipped with the Sage ESM radio intelligence system from Selex SE
Drone Falco from Selex ES is in service with Pakistan (manufactured under license), Jordan and Saudi Arabia. In 2013, Selex won a three-year contract to provide Falco support for UN operations in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. The existence of a fairly large number of countries that claim to have fully developed their own drones, but are still buying Western models, is proof that the development of drones is not such a simple task as it may seem at first glance
However, it is quite understandable that Europe is currently limited to a small piece of the world drones market with the possible exception of the marine helicopter systems segment. For several years, there have been government statements of intent regarding international cooperation on drones, but they have not been provided with sufficient funding.
One of the obvious gaps in the market is the lack of a medium-altitude drone with a long duration of flight with two engines, backup systems, anti-icing measures and a tail configuration that allows you to lift the nose when landing.
In the 2010 year, a principled British-French agreement was reached on the development of a Male-class drone (medium-altitude with a long flight) Telemos, which is generally considered the development of a BAE Systems twin-engine turboprop unit, which first took off at the end of 2009. However, Telemos could compete with the Eads twin-engine jet drone Talarion; a situation that resembles other mutually harmful duplications (for example, Typhoon-Rafale). As a result, funding has been reduced to a minimum.
In December 2013 of the year, all 28 countries of the European Union signed agreements to develop the unarmed Male class reconnaissance drone, which can be put into service around the year of 2022. If the project is funded properly and does not get lost in the bureaucratic corridors, this can produce results, although the final product may meet with competition from any country. This is the territory of the motor glider, not rocket science.
On the other hand, at the opposite end of the spectrum, we see that the development of impact drone requires a high level of technology and funding. Dassault leads a consortium in which six countries participate (France, Greece, Italy, Spain, Sweden, and Switzerland). Under a program worth 535 million euros (France pays half), the consortium developed the drone Neuron, which soared for the first time in December 2012. The eight-ton Taranis drone, which was developed as part of the British program, led by BAE Systems and funded by the British government and industry, took off in August 2013. 185 million pounds was spent on this. The main purpose of the Taranis is to lay the groundwork for an impact UAV, which may become available after 2030, as a potential replacement for the Typhoon.
The outcome of the British-French meeting in January 2014 was the "Declaration of Security and Defense", which included a statement on the joint future air battle system Future Combat Air System (FCAS). This was preceded by a 15-month preparation phase conducted by six industrial partners: Dassault Aviation, BAE Systems, Thales France, Selex ES, Rolls-Royce and Safran. The statement refers to a two-year feasibility study worth 120 million pounds, which will be supplemented by national studies worth 40 million pounds for each company. As part of this phase, the necessary concepts and technologies will be developed.
Selex is developing a larger version of its Falco, known as the Falco Evo (Evolution). Basically it is distinguished by a significantly larger wingspan and longer tail beams. Longer flight duration and payload capacity will allow you to perform long-range reconnaissance missions with equipment consisting of Selex Picosar synthetic aperture radar installed in the nose and electronic warfare sensors mounted on the wingtips
Saab helped CybAero create Aspid-55 and continued to develop an entirely new Skeldar-V200 235 kg mass, which, with an engine mounted on heavy fuel, can fly up to six hours with a 40 kg load.
The corresponding memorandum of understanding on the next stage of FCAS was signed at the Farnborough airshow 2014. As a result, the two countries “are ideally suited in 2016 to decide whether to cooperate in the demonstration and production phases.” In other words, times are hard and there is no urgent need for shock drones, but Europe cannot afford to lose existing technical specialists.
Europe is strongly recommended to develop high-tech drones, since several countries with a low standard of living want to gain a foothold in the aerospace industry and believe that the easiest way to win their place under the sun is low-tech drones with excellent sales prospects. Brazil and South Korea have shown by their example that a strong aerospace industry can be created from scratch, and countries like Thailand and Vietnam want to follow their path.
While the main European powers are fighting to preserve a certain semblance of aerospace capabilities, Turkey is slowly but surely gaining its place in the drones business. At the end of 2010, Turkish Aerospace Industries (TAI) for the first time lifted its Anka Male-drone 1500-kg, which in Block A variant with the Aselsan Aselflir-300T optical-electronic station, has a flight time of 18 hours. A satellite connection will be added to the Block B option. If Turkish Engine Industries (TEI) can increase the power of its Thielert Centurion 2.0 engine, then in the future Anka drone can install a synthetic aperture radar from Aselsan. TEI also collaborated with GE Aviation in developing a new engine for the Anka drone.
Exporting Turkish drones can be a very profitable business, especially given good relations with countries such as Egypt and Pakistan. Bayraktar minidron is one of the most promising products manufactured by Baykar Makina, the Turkish army ordered these drones for 200
The leading European shock drone project is the Neuron program, in which six countries participate with Dassault Aviation as the lead contractor. Neuron took off in December 2012 of the year, in the photo his first flight with the released chassis
In the long run, TAI hopes to develop a larger armed version of Anka with a turbofan engine, but maybe everything will depend on the US permission to supply the engine. The existing device will carry only light weapons, such as a laser-guided Cirit 70-mm rocket and a promising XMUM-kg Smart Micro-Munition rocket (pictured below) produced by the Turkish company Roketsan. In July, 23, it was announced that TAI had begun design work on an armed option, called Anka + A.
At the end of 2012, there were reports that Egypt, unable to buy Predator drones, ordered ten Anka systems, but apparently these messages were premature. In October 2013, the Turkish defense industry sub-secretariat announced that its country had issued a TAI contract for ten Anka systems with deliveries from 2016 to 2018. However, the latest press release from TAI for the Anka drone said only that negotiations are underway on an initial production batch of ten systems for the Turkish Air Force. TAI also developed two drone targets: the 70-kg Turna and Simsek with a jet engine.
The Turkish company Baykar Makina has developed two mini-drums: Goezcu and Bayraktar Mini-UAS X-NUMX-kg. According to some reports, the Turkish army bought Bayraktar 4,5 mini-guns, and Qatar ordered ten units worth 200 million dollars. Other products of the company include the Bayraktar Tactical UAS and the Malazgirt drone helicopter. The Turkish company Vestel Savunma Sanayi developed the Karayel 25 kg, Bora 500 kg and Efe drone 85 kg.
Military Technology 2013