Military Review

Russian metal

53
Russian metal



How iron deficiency affected history Kievan and Moscow Rus

Despite the fact that the “Iron Age” for humanity began a thousand years before our era, Russia, and then Russia, up to the XVIII century, experienced an acute shortage of metal.

Modern man lives in the world of metal, diverse metal surrounds him everywhere - both at work and in everyday life. It is difficult to imagine that once everything was completely wrong - any metal was in short supply, for its production required the most complex and time-consuming technologies.

Birch bog marsh iron

Modern iron is produced from ore mined, as a rule, at depths from 200 to 600 meters — such are, for example, the occurrence levels of the Kursk Magnetic Anomaly ore, the world's largest iron ore basin. The fuel for modern metallurgy is coal, the average depth of the mines of the largest Kuznetsk coal basin in Russia is about 200 meters.

The first mine with a depth of 200 meters appeared in Russia only at the beginning of the XIX century, at the Zmeinogorsky mine of Altai, and even then for the extraction of silver and gold - that is, where the volume of ore raised from the depths is relatively small.

In short, the rich reserves of high-quality iron ore on the East European Plain for its inhabitants throughout the Middle Ages remained inaccessible.

In Kiev, and then in Moscow Rus, until the very end of the 17th century, “lake” and “marsh” ores located on the surface served as raw material for iron production. In science, this is called "brown iron from organic origin" or "limonite." If in deep ores, for example, the already mentioned Kursk magnetic anomaly, iron is of the order of 70%, then the “brown iron” contains it in half.


Limonite Photo: Sevastopol Stone Museum


Unlike deep ores, whose deposits are usually huge, amounting to millions of tons, very small deposits of "swamp" ores are scattered throughout the country, representing, in fact, ore placers of insignificant volumes. You can literally extract such ore with a shovel, only by removing a thin layer of swamp vegetation. Therefore, such ore is sometimes also called "sod" or "meadow".

However, in addition to the ease of extraction of iron-poor "swamp ores" there is another advantage - the metal is smelted from them already at 400 degrees Celsius, and with 700 – 800 you can get acceptable quality iron. That is, to establish such a production can be handicraft in simple furnaces.

In addition, "swamp" ores are common in forest areas, and before the beginning of the XIX century, for the manufacture of iron was used not coal, but charcoal. All forge production in the past also worked exclusively on such coal.

But charcoal also required certain "technical parameters" - suitable for smelting iron is coal from fairly rare and slowly growing hardwood (oak, hornbeam, beech); coal from coniferous species (pine, spruce) or soft-leaved (aspen, alder) will be unsuitable for high-quality smelting.

Fortunately, convenient for the primitive metallurgical production of charcoal is obtained from the common birch throughout Russia. Therefore, until the end of the 17th century, almost all the iron in our country was obtained from swamp ore and using birch coal.

Such production remained, in fact, rural. All summer, the marsh ore was dug in small excavations near forest marshes, and in the fall it was “dried” by burning on fires. At the same time, wood was harvested — it was burned out in turf-covered pits for coal, this process was laborious and lengthy, up to one month. Already in winter, over the snow, prepared ore and charcoal were transported on sleds to places of smelting.

In the primitive "domnitsah" received battered iron. Usually these were disposable “mountains”, clay-fortified pits or stone hearths, where a small amount of ore (up to several tens of kilograms) was mixed with charcoal.


Melting iron in the domnitsa. Photo: Historic Jamestowne


The resulting red-hot “crista” - a loose iron mass filled with slag, was forged with hammers to seal and remove impurities. The iron obtained in this way was already suitable for the manufacture of simple metal products.

Such very small handicrafts were distributed throughout Russia. For example, during the excavations of Old Ryazan in the layers of the beginning of the XIII century, in many excavated dwellings of the townspeople found traces of home cooking of iron - it was actually cooked in pots, in ordinary furnaces.

However, on the eve of the Mongol invasion in Russia, there were already large enough for the era of the iron production. The largest of the “domnits” discovered by archaeologists was located in the Raikovetsky site of ancient settlement (now the territory of the Zhytomyr region of Ukraine), far from residential buildings and reaching two meters in diameter. Larger melting furnaces in Russia will start to be made only in the 17th century.

At the end of the history of Kievan Rus, entire areas specialized in the production of iron had already appeared. In the south of the present Kursk region, the city of Rims destroyed by the Polovtsi was located, during the excavations of which, already in the twentieth century, a vast area was discovered with remains of many domnits, slag heaps and shrimps.

In the XIII century in the north of Russia (the territory of the present Vologda region) on the lands controlled by the Novgorod Republic the city of Ustyug-Zhelezny arose, another version of the name was Ustyuzhna Zheleznopolskaya. The name of the city comes from the "Iron Field", the name of the area rich in marsh ores. For several centuries it was one of the centers of iron production in the north of Eastern Europe.

In general, during the XIII – XIV centuries, it was the Novgorod lands that were the main centers of iron ore in Russia. From the regions of Ustyuzhna, Yama, Koporye, Oreshka, the “marsh iron” mined by the peasants came to the Novgorod masters, and was also distributed by merchants throughout Russia.

Nevertheless, the Novgorod Republic had to buy its entire iron from Germany and Sweden from the Hansa merchants throughout its history. They bought German iron wire, needles, and just iron “in the pair” (Novgorod medieval measure of volume).

Periodically, during political aggravations with Novgorod, the Livonian Order and the Hansa trade union simply stopped selling metals to Novgorod. For example, the decision taken by the Hanseatic 12 February 1422 of the year “to stop the sale of copper, tin and other metals from which it is made weapon».

Iron deficiency

While in Russia, before the development of deposits in the far Ural, the main source of iron was scanty “marshland” ores, in Western Europe the sources of metal were rich deposits in the mountains in the southeast and in the center of the German lands in Bohemia, Saxony, Hesse, Harz. For this era, the mass mining of metal ores by the mining method began here already in the XIII century.


Engraving from the book “De re metallica” by George Agricola, 1556 year


By the beginning of the 16th century, the number of people employed in the mining industry in the territory of present-day Germany reached 100 thousand people - approximately an order of magnitude more than the iron ore mining operations in Russia did then. If by that time Germany was literally covered with mines, where all metals known to humanity were mined, from iron to silver, gold, tin and copper, then the emerging centralized Moscow state had to be content with the poor “swamp” ores based on it was impossible to start large-scale industrial production.

In addition, the "marsh" ore gave only low-grade iron, and non-ferrous metals in the territory of Russia until the XVIII century was practically absent. Small sources of copper were found at the very end of the 15th century in the Olonets region and in the Pechora region, but they could not saturate the domestic market.

Novgorod knew about the sources of silver in the Urals at the time of Kievan Rus. The first special expedition of “miners” in search of silver ores in the eastern foothills of the Urals was sent by Ivan III in 1491. Silver was not found then, but copper was found on the Tsilma River (the territory of the modern Komi Republic).

However, if in Germany, rich iron, silver and copper ores were actually located close to large cities, then the same Russian copper at Tsilma was separated from Russia by almost 1,500 kilometers - for the transport technologies of that time it is six months' journey, and even more with cargo.

It was this lack of a metallurgical base that predetermined the economic and technological backwardness of Russia from Europe. Until the 18th century, our country had to buy much of the iron and most of the non-ferrous metals in the West.

It is not by chance that the Voskresenskaya Chronicle in the record under 1479 for the first time, mentioning roofing iron for the first time, calls it "German." The import of iron and non-ferrous metals from Europe through Novgorod, after the city was joined to Moscow, even increased - the new centralized state needed more metals, and its own rich sources did not yet exist.

The deficit and, accordingly, the cost of the metal were such that over the course of the 15th – 17th centuries a significant part of the “local army” - the noble equestrian militia, the striking force of the Russian army - wore cloth “tegilya”, quilted with hemp and filled with horsehair, instead of expensive steel armor . While in the west of Europe, with its rich mountain mines, from the XV century, steel armor has already supplanted non-metallic versions of protective weapons.

In the XVI century, Ustyuzhna Zheleznopolskaya, a large city by the standards of that time with a population of about six thousand people, remained the largest center of metalworking and weapons business in Moscow Russia. At that time 77 owners of large forges lived in Ustyuzhna, while in Tula, another center of metal and weapons production, they were two times smaller.

In addition to Ustyuzhna and Tula, Russian iron in the 16th century was produced in Tikhvin, in the east of the modern Leningrad Region, and in Karelia in Olonets and Zaonezhie. Here, local peasants smelted iron from marsh ore in primitive pits called “mines,” and the Tikhvin blacksmiths, famous throughout Russia, forged the rod, the iron bands that were traded all over the country.

However, its iron chronically lacked. By the end of the XVI century, it was bought mainly in Sweden, through the representative offices of the Swedish merchants in Novgorod. Through Novgorod, the bulk of lead, tin and copper, without which neither craft nor weapon production could have functioned, then got into Russia.


Livonian War, Boris Horikov, 1836 Year


All metals - above all, iron and copper - were then strategic goods necessary for military affairs. The Western rivals of Russia, Poland and Sweden, taking advantage of Russia's dependence on the supply of metals from Europe, periodically, in order to put political pressure and military easing Moscow, blocked their imports to our country. Therefore, the “Livonian War” begun by Ivan the Terrible was precisely the struggle for free access to the trade routes of the Baltic Sea, so that Russia could export its furs to the West and freely buy metals that were not enough for it.

When in the 1553 year, a trading ship from Britain first appeared at the mouth of the Northern Dvina, the government of Ivan the Terrible was primarily interested in the possibility of the British merchants to supply weapons, iron and other metals bypassing the former trade routes in the Baltic Sea controlled by Sweden and Poland. Already in the 70 of the 16th century, the English merchants of the Moscow Company began to actively sell lead, tin, copper and various weapons to Russia. For example, only in 1576 year for Tsar Ivan the Terrible in England they bought copper for 1082 rubles.

In May 1584, the son of Grozny, Tsar Fyodor Ioannovich, specifically sent a letter to Queen Elizabeth of England asking for the supply of metals, copper, tin and lead, “which comes in handy to the army”. Already in 1604, English and Dutch ships delivered various metals for the sum of 16 088 rubles to Arkhangelsk. Throughout the 17th century, metals constituted a significant part of European goods purchased through Arkhangelsk.

Prices for imported iron and gold

During the first king of the Romanov dynasty, our country actively bought non-ferrous metals and high-quality gun steel, as well as ready-made guns and gun barrels from European merchants. In 1633 – 34, when Russia waged a difficult and unsuccessful war with Poland, due to the lack of its own metals, a significant amount of metal and weapons had to be bought in Holland. So, in 1633, the Dutch merchant Elias Trip bought 12 bronze cannons, 3 thousands of “saber strips” (blanks for sabers) and 15 thousands of poods of iron.

After the Russian army lost almost all the siege artillery due to the surrender of Smolensk in 1634, the next decade bought a large number of the latest model guns to compensate for these losses in Holland and German Lübeck. It is not by chance that in the 1667 year, monastic schismatics and the monastery were besieged by the Tsar's archers, the leader of the rebels, Archimandrite Nicanor, according to eyewitnesses, “walked around the towers incessantly, and sprinkled cannons and water, and told them: Mothers de mine golanochki, hope we have on you, you will defend us ... ”The cannons of the Solovetsky monastery were precisely the newest tools bought in Holland and then called“ golanachkas ”in Russia.

Prices for European metal were very high. If at the beginning of the XVII century one pound (16 kg) of Russian iron cost the manufacturer about 60 kopecks, then the cost of a pound of imported Swedish iron reached 1 ruble 30 kopecks. A pood of imported iron wire cost even more - from a ruble to three.

To understand how high the prices for the metal were, it is enough to point out that an ordinary horse was then estimated at 2 rubles, and it was worth to buy a slave from 3 to 5 rubles. That is, the man was worth a little more than 16 kilograms of iron wire.

Higher prices were for high-grade steel weapons. At the beginning of the 17th century, a saber of Swedish iron cost 5 – 7 rubles in Russia, and especially high-quality damask sabers from Persia were sold even more expensively, according to 40 and even 50 rubles per unit. Over the course of the 16th – 17th centuries, almost continuously fighting Russia quite massively purchased so-called saber lanes and sabers in the East and West. Such a “strip of bulatna” cost about 3 rubles, it is curious that they were brought into Moscow Russia from two opposite ends of the world - by the Dutch and Persian merchants.

Copper was purchased from English, Dutch, Danish and Swedish merchants. It was noticeably more expensive than iron and cost from 1,5 to 3 rubles per pound, and the roofing copper from which Orthodox churches made domes was even more expensive - up to 6 rubles per pound.

The most expensive of all metals was gold, which at that time everything was imported in Russia. Pud of imported gold by the beginning of the XVII century cost about 3300 rubles. Silver, also mainly imported in Russia at that time, was cheaper - approximately 450 rubles per pood.

Throughout the 17th century, copper, copper wire, boilers and copper basins, tin in bars and tin cups, and lead in bars were imported from Germany through the port of Arkhangelsk from Germany. Tin, lead, iron wire were also supplied by Dutch merchants.

The main source of high-quality iron for Russia at that time was Sweden. This country and now ranks first in Western Europe in terms of reserves of iron ore. Although the mining of ore was mastered here later than in Germany, but already in the 16th century, massive exports of Swedish metals began and for the next two centuries, Sweden firmly occupied the position of the main supplier of iron and copper on the European market.

Only in 1629, the royal treasury bought 25 thousands of pounds of high-quality iron from Sweden - that is, over a third of all the iron that appeared in Russia that year. Over the 17th century, over 90% of the value of all purchases of Russian merchants in Sweden were copper and iron, in some years this percentage was even higher - for example, in 1697, just before the start of the Northern War, 97% of all Russian money spent in Stockholm, went to buy iron and copper. In fact, Russia bought only metal from Sweden - primarily high-quality (as it was called in the Russian documents of those years, “rod” or “blackened”) iron.

It was a powerful metallurgical base that by the XVII century turned Sweden into the leading superpower of the Baltic region, making this country a powerful and difficult opponent of Russia during the future Northern War.

Start of industrial metallurgy in Russia

To overcome the constant shortage of metals, both in the XVI and in the XVII centuries, the tsarist government officially forbade repeatedly to export and sell iron, copper, tin, and lead outside Russia under the penalty of the death penalty. However, neither the harsh prohibitive measures, nor the artisanal “swamp” iron, nor the extremely expensive imports from Europe, saved Russia from a chronic shortage of metals. Therefore, immediately after the country recovered from the consequences of the “Time of Troubles”, the tsarist government attempted to set up its own metallurgical industry.

In 1632, Tsar Mikhail Fedorovich Dutch merchant Vinius was given a chartered diploma on the construction of an iron works near Tula. In this area, metallurgical production in the form of small handicraft has long existed, thanks to the availability of affordable and high-quality ore (“good ores” - as Russian documents of that time wrote). It was no longer “bog iron”, but deposits of high-quality iron ore located near the surface of the earth near the village of Didilovo, located near the surface of the earth.

Developed handicraft from the middle of the XVI century Didilovsky mines became the raw material base for the future plant of the Dutchman Vinius. Under the orders of the king, an entire volost in 347 of peasant souls was attributed to the plant as a labor force - they were obliged to serve the plant with ore mining, preparation and supply of charcoal. Both the "ascribed", that is, in fact, the serfs, and the civilian employees (the "eager people" - as they were called in the documents of those years) were engaged in direct work at the plant.


Andrey Denisovich Vinius, engraving by Cornelius Vishera, 1650 year


The company gave the first metal in 1637 year. The plant built by the Dutchman was no longer a cottage industry, but a real manufactory using machines that worked on water (as it was written in Russian documents - "mill") energy. A few years later, the Dutchman Vinius officially converted to Russian citizenship, accepted Orthodoxy, and was enlisted in the Moscow nobility.

Dutch merchant Filimon Akema and Dane from Hamburg Peter Marselis soon joined the metal business of Vinius. This merchant association, based on the European experience, built for the Russian tsar three more iron-making manufactories in the Tula region. For that time it was a whole industrial complex, it was called Gorodishchenskie Zavody.

Following the Gorodishchensky plants, Marcelis and Akema built four more iron manufactories on the River Skniga (a tributary of the Oka in the territory of the present Moscow and Tula regions), called Kashirsky factories. In addition to Russian masters, they were attended by invited experts from Germany, Sweden and France. The costs of creating these enterprises were estimated by contemporaries in a huge amount for those times - 25 thousand rubles.

By the middle of the 17th century, these eight manufactories that constituted the Gorodishchensky and Kashirsky "factories" became the main center of metallurgy in Russia. The tsarist government, delighted by these successes, tried to build a similar plant using water energy in Karelia for copper production. In 1670, the Novgorodian Semyon Gavrilov with craftsmen smelters was sent to Zaonezhie "to search for copper ores". In the same year, they built the first state-owned copper smelting plant in Foymogubsky Pogost.

However, the scarce reserves of Karelian copper did not allow the new enterprise to turn around, because of the large labor intensity of work and the associated significant costs of public funds, the plant was unprofitable at the end of 1674, and closed. An attempt to do without expensive imported copper failed - before the start of industrial production of this metal in the Urals, there were still a few decades.

Iron ore in Karelia was slightly better than copper ore, therefore, from 1681 to 1690, five water-based metallurgical factories were built here, collectively called the Olonets Factories. Since 1700, these plants began to specialize in orders for the military being built by Peter the Great. fleet in the Baltic.

Almost simultaneously in the south of Russia, under the current Lipetsk, in 1693, the first iron-smelting plant is being built using water energy. Here, as well as at Tula, high-quality iron ore came to the surface. The metal of the Lipetsk plant was supplied to Voronezh shipyards, where Peter I built a fleet for the Azov campaigns.

In 1703 – 1705, the metallurgical production in this area was expanded, so Lipsky Iron Plants appeared. They not only gave birth to the modern city of Lipetsk, but also became the main metallurgical base for the Russian fleet in the Sea of ​​Azov, and in the first years of the war with Sweden they gave half of the metal needed by Russia for military production.

However, neither “swamp” ores, nor very rare surface iron ore deposits on the East European Plain could provide sufficient metal production. On the eve of the Northern War with Sweden, which was the largest iron producer in Europe at that time, Russia needed its own metallurgical base capable of overcoming the chronic shortage of metals.

The nearest region, where technologies of that time allowed to extract a mass of ore, sufficient for industrial production, was the Urals. They knew about its metal reserves in the Middle Ages, when the Novgorod ushkuyniki discovered on its slopes "Chudskie Mine", numerous traces of ancient mining.
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  1. cosmos111
    cosmos111 14 February 2015 08: 43
    +9
    great article good thank...
    1. kaa_andrey
      kaa_andrey 14 February 2015 12: 04
      +14
      Thank you for the article. very informative.
      pleased with the actual material.
      and the phrase: "Periodically, during political exacerbations with Novgorod, the Livonian Order and the Hanseatic Trade Union simply stopped selling metals to Novgorodians. For example, the Hanseatic’s decision of 12 on February 1422 of the year known is “to stop selling copper, tin and other metals from which weapons are made”."Just a slice of modern Western sanctions.
      1. Alex
        Alex 14 February 2015 13: 11
        +6
        Quote: kaa_andrey
        Just a slice of modern Western sanctions.

        That's just the times have changed a bit now, and Russia is not that ...
    2. Enot-poloskun
      Enot-poloskun 14 February 2015 19: 29
      +1
      The article is very interesting! I look forward to continuing!
      I bet that the next part will be about Demidovs)
    3. Pervusha Isaev
      Pervusha Isaev 15 February 2015 00: 23
      +4
      It was this lack of a metallurgical base that predetermined the economic and technological backwardness of Russia from Europe. Until the 18th century, our country had to buy much of the iron and most of the non-ferrous metals in the West.

      Well, it’s a lie only in the 14th century, the Kulikovo battle — the number of Russian soldiers is defined as 50-60 thousand people each had swords, chain mail, horseshoe horses, and other weapons. All of these weapons were IRON and what was it ALL bought in the west? What a nasty thing to say.
      After the RAS library with priceless books burned down, scribes such as this bagpipe can now carry any nonsense that before civilization in Russia there was no civilization.
      one picture in our time has a tiny clay stove, but it’s not clear WHAT POWER caused the fur to move? because the many-hour process of cooking iron does not allow for a decrease in the rate of supply (volume) of air for cooking, and even in a tiny furnace by 20 liters, two buckets must be pumped continuously for up to 12 m1.5 of air per minute for 3 hours, those who manually inflated car tires on the 0,6-m3 car knows what a difficult job it is, besides metal pipes with a CHECK VALVE are needed for pumping, I don’t think this modern picture is true ...
      1. Mikhail3
        Mikhail3 15 February 2015 10: 26
        +3
        well it's a lie

        Well, not quite. Swamp iron chain mail and swords. There was enough for a weapon, especially for a cold one. What power? Well, there are a couple of options. The first is a horse. The simplest turntable drive for water wheels was invented in time immemorial. To adapt it to furs is not at all a task. The second is a trickle. There were plenty of "water resources" in Russia. The third is family. Two sons and a dad, quite enough for 12 hours of work, if the guys are not weak.
        Pipes And who said that the check valve should be iron? What for? We put it a little further from the oven, or shield it with a wall, and you can make a wooden one in a wooden pipe. The pipe near the hot zone, where the shielding no longer works, will simply be clay. Pots burned, pipes as much as you want could be done.
        1. Pervusha Isaev
          Pervusha Isaev 15 February 2015 17: 53
          +1
          Quote: Mikhail3
          Swamp iron chain mail and swords.


          in general, swamp ore is ore with all sorts of impurities, so iron is of BAD QUALITY. This ore should not be allowed to make weapons.

          Quote: Mikhail3
          We had enough weapons


          this stove in the picture melts bad iron during repeated forging, it turns out there is enough iron for a KNIFE, but to make a SWORD you probably need HUNDREDS of hours of melting, forging and then fine-tuning to the state of the weapon, so that you know ...

          Quote: Mikhail3
          The first is a horse.


          Since that time, many engravings and other images of iron cooking have been preserved, and so there IS NONE ONE that the horse is adapted for the work of bellows, probably because in those days the horse was expensive ...

          Quote: Mikhail3
          The second is a trickle. In Russia there was plenty of "water resources


          for the manufacture of such tools you need a river with a good level difference, and Russia, as you know, a flat country, is not the same in the images either, nor in the excavations of such devices ...

          Quote: Mikhail3
          The third is family. Two sons and a father, it is enough for 12 hours of work, if the guys are not weak.


          you don’t imagine what it means to pump air for 12 hours, and for the manufacture of the KNIFE, and for the release of more iron, you need generally extraordinary efforts ...


          Quote: Mikhail3
          And who said that the check valve should be iron? What for?


          and then that the gas in the furnace is 1200 degrees and if the non-return valve is not iron, but wooden, it will simply burn, and then the furs will also burn ...
          In short, the issue of IRON Smelting, not forging the finished one, is so complicated and until iron in the open-hearth was melted, not in a raw-material way, but with heated gas, all of these many thousands of medieval wars are UNDERSTANDING, and there’s nothing to say about antique
          here are the links for enthusiasts to analyze bone smelting

          http://chronologia.org/cgi-bin/dcforum/dcboard.cgi?az=read_count&om=10592&forum=


          DCForumID14
          http://chronologia.org/cgi-bin/dcforum/dcboard.cgi?az=read_count&om=10770&forum=


          DCForumID14
          http://chronologia.org/cgi-bin/dcforum/dcboard.cgi?az=read_count&om=10902&forum=


          DCForumID14

          http://chronologia.org/cgi-bin/dcforum/dcboard.cgi?az=show_thread&om=13941&forum
          = DCForumID2 & viewmode = all
          1. Mikhail3
            Mikhail3 23 February 2015 14: 55
            0
            generally swamp ore - ore with all kinds of impurities

            Yes. It turned out after the smelting of the cry. Then they warmed the krizen in the furnace, forged it on the anvil. Then they still warmed, still forged. They beat out part of the impurities. And then the obtained forgings were already processed, and as a rule, not those who smelted, including smelting.
            enough iron for KNIFE

            Well yes. On the knife and done. Or to kritzu, and then forging. Which can be relaxed in a strip. Take a bunch of stripes. And forge a sword. Damask in fact.
            because in those days the horse was expensive ...

            Was breathing cheap? I love you, clean, distilled cabinet historians. Without a horse in those days, life was IMPOSSIBLE. There is no horse - you are a corpse. No engravings preserved? So what? For wells, the turning circle to come up with people did not slow down. For lifting goods - realized. But for furs - no? It is not necessary to consider ancestors as mentally defective. As a rule, this is more characteristic of their descendants.
            for the manufacture of such devices you need a river with a good level difference

            Here is a plague ... Hundreds of thousands of mills standing on Russian rivers, they seemed to me. Canceled. Were not. Because there is an opinion. Authoritative. Russian rivers do not have "sufficient level difference". Ugh.
            you have no idea what the 12 hours mean to pump air and for making a KNIFE

            I have a good idea. You lift a stone tied to a rope and thrown through a block. You let go. And the stone drives the furs. Not 12 hours, of course, this is not necessary for smelting, this is not so much in the furnace and fuel, but even 12. 4 hours in the right rhythm, intermittently? So what?
            and then that gas in the furnace xnumx degrees

            Either the air is now drunk, or the goblin is now ryan, or has a flaw occurred in me’s ear? How can you be so ... so ... and climb to explain? Okay. Near the check valve, the fact that the bellows (understand? Bellows, not the stove - is it available?) The temperature is not 1200 degrees. It, suddenly, is equal to the ambient temperature, degrees 25. When the non-return valve closes, this does not mean that furnace gases fly directly to it. They are in the FURNACE! And in the duct there is an air column! And near the valve, if it is not too pissing and still performs its function, otherwise melting will not work, it will be thirty degrees, and even that is not a fact.
            What, we read books and fettered several knives on a gas burner? Oh, readers ...
    4. Powder
      Powder 16 February 2015 16: 55
      0
      Dear Marshal, in my opinion, the article is built as an ideological throwback. Again we are flawed.
      1 The metallurgy in Russia is tendently presented,
      I am quoting the Ipatiev Chronicle "Weapons in Russia have been available since ancient times", and this is the 10th century.
      2 Not a single figure about the needs of the state at the time. The purchase of 100 iron canvases for sabers (knives) does not mean anything. Maybe our ancestors carried out mechanical tests of enemy iron, ours should be better.
      Sorry, but it’s a shame for the state.
      By the way, Akinfiy Demidov did not go to the Urals to develop wild lands, Peter 1 gave the family an already existing plant, the goal is to increase the volume of necessary military products. All further history is competition with state enterprises. How they hated Tatishchev (by the way, the creator of one of the versions of The History of the Russian State.
      I hope that I didn’t offend you.
      Sincerely, simple lieutenant.
  2. Sunseich
    Sunseich 14 February 2015 08: 46
    0
    Thanks to the author for an interesting and informative article!
  3. Evgeniy667b
    Evgeniy667b 14 February 2015 09: 45
    +4
    The article is very indicative, far from just Russia has developed its metallurgy, both ferrous and non-ferrous. This must be appreciated and protected. But how much metal has been stolen since the beginning of the 90s. Aluminum, Copper, Nickel, Platinum ... In some places, everything is selected to the aluminum wire. And the activities of gentlemen such as Deripaska, Vekselberg, Rossel and others like them ...? Estonia has become a major supplier of metals - where is the limit of greed?
  4. Monster_Fat
    Monster_Fat 14 February 2015 10: 07
    +9
    The author is not always accurate. When he talks about gold in Russia in the "pre-Peter" era. The gold was allegedly imported and cost 3300 rubles per pood. That is, a pood of gold was worth 3300 gold rubles? Or silver ones? That is, it turns out that they paid for gold in gold? Or exchanged for "fur" or some other "equivalent"? This, by the way, was the main "brake" in the development of the gold mining industry, in the absence of a single exchange equivalent. Well, really, how to pay for the mined gold-gold? Or grain? Or a position? and so on. This problem was completely solved only with the appearance of "emission" money, that is, bank notes. It is incorrect to say that gold was almost entirely imported in Russia before Peter the Great. Gold was mined in Russia and how. He was "washed" even in the rivers near Moscow (by the way, even now they are "on the sly" washing, those "who are in the subject"). The same "notorious" Demidov gold mines were based on very old vein mining. The mined gold was brought to cities and exchanged for goods and products in the markets. It is another matter that state gold mining did not exist then. The official history of "state gold mining" begins in the 18th century, when in the Yekaterinburg district one of the schismatics officially announced that he had found a nugget ... "State searches" for gold deposits began only in 1719 by decree of Peter the Great, and even then mainly " eager people. " At that time, gold, even that was found "at public expense", was given to "development" to private owners of various types, concessions, partnerships, artels and just individuals with the obligatory payment of a share of the mined "to the treasury"
    Purely state-owned gold mining began to take place only in Soviet times, and gradually ceased with the collapse of the Soviet Union. Now, that is, at the present time, all the gold mined in Russia is extracted again only by "private traders".
  5. lao_tsy
    lao_tsy 14 February 2015 11: 06
    0
    The article is very informative. Until now, there is no order in the mining industry.
  6. silver169
    silver169 14 February 2015 11: 07
    0
    Very interesting and informative article. +
  7. Angro Magno
    Angro Magno 14 February 2015 11: 13
    +1
    Thanks to the author.
    Infrequently known, but disparate facts are collected in a holistic and vivid picture.
    To squeeze an article to one page and into a school textbook.
    It would be helpful.
  8. moskowit
    moskowit 14 February 2015 11: 59
    0
    Interesting and informative. It would be desirable to cover a little more broadly the topic of making cold steel in the 13-16 centuries. For those wishing to learn more, I recommend Valery Khorev's book "Weapons from Damascus and Bulat". The book can be found in one of the electronic libraries. The article is undoubtedly a plus, I hope to continue.
  9. Aaron Zawi
    Aaron Zawi 14 February 2015 12: 24
    +3
    Extremely informative. A pleasant exception to the grayness that has filled IN lately.
  10. Alex
    Alex 14 February 2015 13: 20
    +8
    Great historical excursion. It’s just not clear where
    in deep ores, for example, the already mentioned Kursk magnetic anomaly, iron contains about 70%
    The richest iron oxide FeO (and oxides are the main form of existence of iron minerals) contains only 77,8% iron. Considering that ore is not only a mineral, but also impurities (mainly ubiquitous quartz), the iron content becomes at least 1.5-2 times lower (and this is for happiness, some ores are even worse). As a result, we have something of the order of maximum 50%, which is actually observed on KMA (from 32 to 66%).

    However, this blunder in no way diminishes the historical and metallurgical value of the article for those interested in this issue. The author is definitely a big "+" and many thanks for the interesting material.
  11. Powder
    Powder 14 February 2015 15: 42
    +7
    With something I agree, with something I do not. There is an interesting detail. In the swamps of the Central Russian Plain, 4/3 of the world's reserves of "swamp iron" are concentrated - this is not found in any country in the world, imagine iron under your feet everywhere. Giant renewable energy resources (birch in the forests), the ease of mining and processing of ore (a forge in each village) suggests the opposite, read the materials of archaeological expeditions of the USSR Academy of Sciences, mining and smelting of iron in ancient times. In this aspect, I recalled China's attempt in the late sixties to catch up and overtake the developed countries in iron production, the decision is a blast furnace in every house. This caused, against the background of the Soviet metallurgical giants, our sarcasm. But the bottom line is that this program has fulfilled the transitional task. They provided themselves with the metal needed for industrialization. Moreover, getting carried away with the issues of making high-quality edged weapons, I found an interesting link that in Japan, when making the best swords, the addition of Russian "krinichny iron" to the local metal for some reason is mentioned. I have been fond of this topic for many years. An interesting hypothesis is the beginning of the Iron Age in Russia. All the prerequisites are there. Ease of ore mining, energy resources - where in the world there is such a unique combination. With admiration
    1. lao_tsy
      lao_tsy 14 February 2015 16: 36
      +2
      I also read about "4/3 of the world's reserves of" swamp iron "" in our country. Then the lack of iron in Russia is completely incomprehensible, and this is really confirmed by historical documents.
      Something here is not clean.
    2. ibnvladimir
      ibnvladimir 14 February 2015 23: 04
      0
      But what about the famous damask steel?
  12. fan1945
    fan1945 14 February 2015 17: 06
    0
    Brothers! Confused. The article so clearly outlined our problems with industrial development.
    and iron in particular. And here it turns out we walk on metal ...? And in general - the Iron Age began almost in Russia. However, for some reason, it was necessary to buy it, as usual - from the Germans, Angles, Swedes, etc. " ".
    IMHO article for me is extremely informative and generally consistent with mine
    ideas about the industrial development of the Russian State.
    At the same time, it’s true about the little gold. It comes across much more often than they think. But in
    such an amount that there will be no "gold rush". However, there was no such rush in Kolyma either.
    Definitely a big plus!
    1. Powder
      Powder 14 February 2015 22: 05
      +9
      Dear fan1945, do you go for mushrooms? In the marshy places of the Moscow Region, rusty stains are found everywhere, or not. It’s just that today we don’t even think about the iron under our feet, it’s not profitable. Imagine, according to historians. making something from meteorite iron ... ... where to get it.
      Firstly, it is very rare, though manna from heaven is a more frequent occurrence, but iron.
      Technologically, you imagine how cast iron and steel are cooked. This is a 5 or 6 technological conversion.
      1 Ore mining (call me mines in Europe with at least 50% iron content).
      2 A mine with a depth of 200-300 meters needs to be dug up, cut through in hard rocks
      3 In states where hands were chopped for brushwood, they provided energy for metallurgical processes (coking coal is a much later time).
      4 It can be assumed that as a result of the malicious exploitation of its environmental resources, Europe lost all of its forests.
      5 Coal burners turn quality wood into charcoal.
      6 Ore concentration, (Magnetic mountains are known only in Russia).
      7 Smelting of cast iron.
      8 Deoxidation (removal of excess carbon) to produce iron capable of forging. Malleable cast iron, a thing born in the 20th century.
      These steps should have been provided by steep European metallurgists as a first approximation in order to create an excess of metal for sale.
      Yes, they bought metal, but the volume compared to consumption, appreciate. This article is not even considered.
      By the way, at the Battle of Hastings, in 1066, gentlemen Europeans drenched each other with stone axes, specially raised heather for making simple onions, the design of complex Russian onions was too difficult for them to make, or maybe their brains did not allow them. Crossbows appeared much later, look at the design of the throwing part, an approximate repetition of the Russian bow.
      Let's return to the "swamp gland", the number of redistributions is halved, while this is very significant. The main issue is volume, but this is somewhat different.
      Basically, historians judge the distribution of iron by its quantity in the burials of leaders, I agree, there are very few wars. Found a horseshoe, fortunately. The question is, in Japan they buried along with precious weapons, the answer is unequivocal - no. The weapon was inherited. And the worse we are, the damask sword, tested by battles, is a holy thing, how to bury it. The life of war depends on him.
      By the way, about gold gold, read the inventory of the Armory for 1868, brothers three pounds of silver is serious. Look and think about how much silver and gold were melted into a coin to pay for the Polish interventionists in 1612.
      In Russia, not everything was so sad, as the author of the article writes.
      Sorry for the confusion in the presentation ..
      Sincerely.
  13. Powder
    Powder 14 February 2015 17: 12
    +11
    Quote: lao_tsy
    I also read about "4/3 of the world's reserves of" swamp iron "" in our country. Then the lack of iron in Russia is completely incomprehensible, and this is really confirmed by historical documents.
    Something here is not clean.

    The development of industrial relations and the strengthening of the state required other volumes of metals. After several decades, Russia began to supply iron, copper, and tin to the same markets in Europe. The author wrote about Tula, Olonets, then the Urals, Altai - continuous plants, state and private. China moved from the blast furnace in each house to the metallurgical giants. In the nineties, millions of tons of steel were exported from Russia in the form of scrap metal. The beginning of the billion-dollar fortunes of today's elite of Russia. Metal structures and equipment of the closed plants and factories were cut. After all, all this happened before our eyes.
    With a flawed amount of non-ferrous metals, it is impossible to cast masterpieces in the form of the Tsar Bell, the Tsar Cannon - and this is already unique technological capabilities and skill. There is a well-known saying in Moscow "The bell is being poured". If sayings are created in the memory of the people, then how many of them were poured. There are forty or forty churches in Moscow alone, count how many bells you need. The crimson ringing over the cities of Russia is well known. Tales about the technological backwardness of Russia carry an ideological basis. Everyone talks about the lack of ammunition in the Russian army in World War I, with what weapon the Red Army won in the Civil War, think about it. It's like in perestroika, food products suddenly disappeared from store shelves, where did everything go ???? Find at least one historical source about the lack of iron for agriculture and the army in the Middle Ages in Russia. I personally did not find it.
    Best regards
    1. lao_tsy
      lao_tsy 14 February 2015 20: 09
      +1
      Neither take away nor add!
    2. Simple
      Simple 14 February 2015 23: 26
      0
      Quote: Gunpowder
      It's like in perestroika, food suddenly disappeared from store shelves, where did everything go ????



      At first, it didn’t go anywhere, just with the collapse of the Union, production ties collapsed and production at the winery was paid out by vodka wassat , at the bakery - bread products. After work, people went to the market to exchange goods. am .


      In short, he was still a madhouse.
      1. Powder
        Powder 15 February 2015 16: 54
        0
        While serving in the army of the Far Eastern Federal District, he once went in a detachment for food to a district warehouse. I was struck by a slowly moving column and also slowly leaving. In my view, the district's strategic food stocks were updated daily. I think the supply system of the Far Eastern Military District did not differ much from the Moscow or Trans-Baikal. It was in 1976. And there are state warehouses in case of a nuclear war. Food shortages and sick excitement could be repaid. This has not been done. The anger of the people was needed, it was received. The result - the USSR ceased to exist.
        Yes, you don’t have to go far, follow the previous crisis organization algorithm and project for today, we were robbed again. The dollar collapsed, devalued pensions and social programs. Draw your own conclusions.
        Best regards
    3. Alex
      Alex 16 February 2015 16: 17
      +3
      Dear, do not get carried away. Almost everything you have said is correct, but only partially.
      Quote: Gunpowder
      With a flawed amount of non-ferrous metals, casting masterpieces in the form of Tsar Bell, Tsar Cannon is impossible, and this is unique technological capabilities and craftsmanship.
      Technologies are not unique, similar products were not rare in Western Europe at that time (there is no place here to consider in detail the history of the development of the cannon business, it is quite well known), but with mass participation it is just a completely different matter - the Tsar Cannon is a one-time product, assembled for For him, the required amount of bronze is a difficult matter, but quite solvable. By the way, I don’t share the author’s opinion about the large deposits of non-ferrous metals in Europe: the "bell tax" in favor of artillery from captured cities is quite common. There were cases when they were limited to a ransom in the form of all the bells from churches, then for a long time parishioners went to services on the quiet.

      Quote: Gunpowder
      Raspberry ringing over the cities of Russia is well known.
      As well as the fact that he received the name from the Belgian city of Malin, where these bells for the most part were cast. Only at the end of the 15th century, when the city began to lose its former greatness, and the composition of the alloy and the technology of its production became known and accessible to Russian foundry workers, did such iridescent bells sound in Russia, that is, just at the time described by the author.

      Your patriotism is pleasant, but before you cite the facts, check their authenticity.
      1. Pervusha Isaev
        Pervusha Isaev 16 February 2015 17: 06
        +1
        Quote: Alex
        As well as the fact that he received the name from the Belgian city of Malin, where these bells for the most part were cast.


        the Russian expression Raspberry Ringing appeared in ancient times, but the technology of casting bells of the city of Mechelen (Raspberry) brought, as usual, Petya to the country, so by the checkout your post ...

        List of surviving Russian guns until 1700
        https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%A1%D0%BF%D0%B8%D1%81%D0%BE%D0%BA_%D1%81%D0%BE%
        D1%85%D1%80%D0%B0%D0%BD%D0%B8%D0%B2%D1%88%D0%B8%D1%85%D1%81%D1%8F_%D1%80%D1%83%D
        1%81%D1%81%D0%BA%D0%B8%D1%85_%D0%BF%D1%83%D1%88%D0%B5%D0%BA_%D0%B4%D0%BE_1700_%D
        0%B3%D0%BE%D0%B4%D0%B0
        Russian guns of the master Andrei Chokhov squeak WOLF
        1. Alex
          Alex 17 February 2015 07: 22
          +3
          Quote: Pervusha Isaev
          Russian expression Raspberry ringing appeared in ancient times

          The link, please, is different - you yourself understand who has passed the ticket office.
          1. Pervusha Isaev
            Pervusha Isaev 17 February 2015 09: 53
            0
            Quote: Alex
            The link, please, is different - you yourself understand who has passed the ticket office.


            http://shkolazhizni.ru/archive/0/n-17810/

            like a bell to Russia brought rooster, like everything else, but the bells were poured before Peter and, accordingly, the expression Raspberry bell was also before him, so our foreigners vryatli taught how to pour bells ...
            1. Alex
              Alex 17 February 2015 15: 15
              +3
              Quote: Pervusha Isaev
              http://shkolazhizni.ru/archive/0/n-17810/

              So there it is precisely the version of Raspberry-Melechen that is voiced.

              If you find at least one phrase where I argued that the bells in Russia and Peter did not pour, then it’s understandable. Good luck finding what is not.

              And anyway, what kind of strange correspondence? You didn’t give any evidence refuting my thesis (by the way, also, no more than a version, but much more justified than yours), on the contrary - your link is directly to the cashier.

              Who taught whom and what to cast ( lol repeat ), I don’t know, the history is ancient, but until Christian times, EMNIP, there were no bells in Russia, in any case, archaeologists did not find any more ancient than 1000 years ago. Percussive self-sounding metal instruments are also quite ancient, so they could learn themselves, but they could borrow from Byzantium, for example (or the same Arabs).
      2. Pervusha Isaev
        Pervusha Isaev 16 February 2015 17: 12
        +2
        Quote: Alex
        The Tsar Cannon is a one-time item; to collect for it the necessary amount of bronze is a difficult, but quite solvable business


        squeak INROG -450 PUDS OF COPPER Andrey Chokhov, even those guns that remained in Russia after Peter even mean that RUSSIA SAMA extracted iron and copper and made weapons for its countless wars in every century, and did not stand in line for weapons in the west ...
        1. Alex
          Alex 17 February 2015 07: 31
          +3
          First, they squealed — quite ordinary guns (by the way, they were by no means massive either, but, to use modern terms, small-scale ones), with the Tsar Cannon and not standing next to them. Secondly, no one says that in Russia there was no independent extraction of iron and copper, we are talking about industrial and cadaveric volumes. As well as industrial (mass) production technologies. You have specific quantitative data on firearms (guns, rifles) until the end of the 15th century - in the studio, with links to the source. Personally, I have never seen such anywhere, which indirectly confirms my thesis. Argue with you Pervusha Isaev, on emotions and cheers-patriotism (believe me, I also love my homeland) I'm not going to.
          1. Pervusha Isaev
            Pervusha Isaev 17 February 2015 10: 01
            +1
            Quote: Alex
            You have specific quantitative data on firearms (guns, rifles) until the end of the XNUMXth century - in the studio, with links to the source. Personally, I have never seen such anywhere, that indirectly serves as confirmation


            And what was the royal army like? Let us dwell on the size of the Russian army and its mobilization capabilities. According to A.S. Pushkin, in the first Crimean campaign "the army consisted of 400, and according to two chronicles known to Golikov, of 000" (200). In his notes from the 000th century, the German G. A. Schleissinger writes: “I have heard from many that they, as soon as they wish, can put up an army of 4 - 17 thousand people. Their soldiers are staunch, but not nearly as trained as those of other nations ... ”(300). Richard Chancellor, being the pioneer of English-Russian trade relations, in addition to Arkhangelsk, visited Moscow in March 400. The splendor and power of the Russian army simply stunned him: "This prince is the sovereign and tsar over many countries, and his power is amazingly great. He can lead 5 and 1554 thousand people into the field; he himself never appears in the field with less than 200 thousand people, and when he goes on a campaign, he still leaves troops on the borders, the number of which is not small.On the Livland border, he keeps up to 300 thousand people, on the Lithuanian border, up to 200 thousand, against the Nogai Tatars, also 40 thousand people, it's just amazing to hear, besides, he does not take either peasants or merchants to wars.All of his soldiers are horsemen, he does not use infantry, with the exception of artillery servants and servants, who will be 60 thousand. Riflemen-arrows have the same bows and ride the same like the Turks. Their armor consists of chain mail and a shield on the head. Some cover their chain mail with velvet or gold or silver brocade; it is their passion to dress luxuriously on a campaign, especially between nobles and nobles. As I heard, decorated their chain mail is very expensive, in part I saw it myself, otherwise I would hardly have believed it "(60). 30-26 thousand soldiers, which are celebrated by the Russian tsar since the 300th century - this is a huge force! No one in the world then had a fifth of this army. For comparison with the Petrine era, in the decisive battle near Poltava, the Russian army numbered ONLY 400, and the army of Charles XII, 16 bayonets. These are such interesting comparisons.
          2. Pervusha Isaev
            Pervusha Isaev 17 February 2015 10: 06
            0
            Quote: Alex
            . You have specific quantitative data on firearms (guns, rifles) until the end of the XNUMXth century - in the studio, with links to the source. Personally, I have not seen such anywhere, which indirectly confirms my thesis


            And what part of the tsarist army was the cavalry? Already during the time of Basil III, Paul Iovius numbered more than 150 royal cavalry (000). In the “Discourse on Muscovy” attributed to Marco Foscarini (approximately, 27), it is said: “And during my short stay here [in Moscow] I saw two cavalry troops, each of 1557 people ...” (100000). Archbishop Jan Lassky of Gnezna testifies back in 27 that “the usual number of the cavalry troops of the Moscow sovereign exceeded 1514.” (200) F. Ruggieri (000) and Jerio (28) write about 200.000 horse soldiers. (1568) F. Tiepolo, who wrote about Muscovy in 1570, also testifies to this figure: "And if he (the tsar) were forced by greater necessity, he could have sent 28 thousand horsemen and a considerable number of footmen in addition to the above" (30 In the report of Domenico Trevisano from 1560 it is said: "This duke is a great sovereign in the many lands that he possesses and the people he commands; they say that he can put in the field one hundred and fifty thousand cavalry, quite fit for battle. "(200) The notes of B. Coyette say that the Russian Tsar Alexei in 29 was going to put up against the Swedes 1554 only one Kalmyk cavalry (31). Adam Clement testifies: "In preparing for war, the Moscow sovereign never arms less than 1675 people: of them 300 are taken out into the field, and the rest are garrisoned, located in border areas for the defense of the state" (000).
          3. Pervusha Isaev
            Pervusha Isaev 17 February 2015 10: 10
            +1
            Quote: Alex
            You have specific quantitative data on firearms (guns, rifles) until the end of the XNUMXth century - in the studio, with links to the source. Personally, I have never seen such anywhere, that indirectly serves as confirmation



            But was the Russian army so untrained and backward if it conquered and held such vast territories? Let's check our historians for order. The remarkable 18th-century historian Nikolai Gerasimovich Ustryalov describes the Russian army before Peter: “Our great sovereign, against his government enemies, has a large and uncountable army, and the structures are different: many thousands of spear companies are built by the hussar system; many thousands more, mounted, with fire fighting, Reyta system; many thousands, with large muskets, a dragoon system; and many others thousands of soldiers. The initial people were placed above all of them: generals, colonels, lieutenant colonels, majors, captains, warrants, warrant officers. The Nizovaya, Kazan, Astrakhan, and Siberian forces are also innumerable; and all of it is horse-drawn and fights with a ray battle. The Tatars of Bolshoi and Malago Nogayu, the Bashkirs, Kalmyks are fighting the same battle. Sagittarius in Moscow alone, not including city, 40.000; and they’re fighting soldiers. Cossacks Don, Tver, Yaitsky fight in a fire battle; and Zaporizhzhya Cherkasy and fiery and ray. The nobles of the sovereign cities are fighting with different customs, and with a bow and fire battle, whoever knows how. In the sovereign's regiment, the stewards, solicitors, noblemen of Moscow, tenants, have their own custom: only they have a battle, that the argamaks are playful, but sabers are sharp; wherever they come, no regiments stand against them. “That is our great sovereign structure.” So said in Florence, 30 years before the events described by us, the Russian envoy, the stolnik Ivan Ivanovich Chemodanov ... The same was repeated abroad and our other ambassadors, envoys, messengers. Listening to them, one might think that Russia long before Peter had not only infinite strength, but also a well-organized, regular army; at least of this opinion, many of the new researchers of Russian antiquity. In reality, it was the same otherwise ”(6).

            Here, it turns out, what a myriad army of the Russian tsars before Peter! The imperial army was composed of soldiers from all over Russia from the Carpathians to the Pacific Ocean. It was a regular, highly organized army, ready at any moment to crush the enemy. The tale of the great imperial Russian army began the speeches of the tsar's ambassadors to foreign courts - everyone should have remembered the strength of the Supreme Ruler. The tsarist army was multinational and indestructible.
          4. Pervusha Isaev
            Pervusha Isaev 17 February 2015 10: 10
            +1
            Quote: Alex
            You have specific quantitative data on firearms (guns, rifles) until the end of the XNUMXth century - in the studio, with links to the source. Personally, I have never seen such anywhere, which indirectly confirms my thesis. To argue with you, Pervusha Isaev, on emotions and cheers



            But how can all this be explained in the framework of TI? Why was the vaunted army of Peter ten times smaller and could hardly be proud of such a high organization? And the answer lies on the surface: with the advent of the Great Reformer, the best parts of the once united all-destroying tsarist army (Kalmyks, Tatars, Bashkirs, Nogais, Cossacks, Moscow archers) will be on the other front line, and only foreigners will remain in the composition of the Petrine guards. Of course, the notorious fable about the superiority of the troops of the foreign system is suitable only for closed readings. Therefore, N.G. Ustryalov modestly ascribes at the end: "in reality, it was the same otherwise." Nikolai Gerasimovich perfectly understood that such historical references did not fit into the “right” history at all - had to constantly make excuses. It did not help - the works of Ustryalov were banned.
            But maybe Ustryalov really thought it all up. Take in hand foreign sources. The Englishman Giles Fletcher in 1588 writes: “When the whole army is assembled, it is distributed into units, or pariahs, consisting of ten, fifty, one hundred, thousand people, etc., each unit under its own chief, and four of these units are composed regiment, or legion ... ”(7). Pay attention to what strict organization in the Russian army, as in the legendary Roman army, regiments are called legions. No wonder, this is the historical army of the Russian Roman Emperor. “The Sagittarius, the infantry, do not carry any weapons except for a self-made gun in his hand, a berdysh on his back and a sword on the side” (7). But is this not enough? The Dumas musketeers in the 17th century had one floppy musket with a stand for four, and a thin skewer of a skirt to lift up ladies of easy virtue. The Russian warrior has a separate samopal for everyone! At the same time, manual, besides special: “The barrel of their self-propelled gun is not the same as that of a soldier's gun ... although they fire a very small bullet from it” (7). Could it be rifles? Anyway, the smaller the bullet, the further it will fly, the more effective the shooting. Flatcher has never seen such "homemade".

            TI reinforced the idea of ​​the continuity of handguns from advanced Europe. This is absolutely not true. The history of Russian hand-held firearms begins at the end of the last quarter of the 1486th century. This is evidenced by the message of the Russian ambassador to Milan G. Perkamota, dated 8, and the discovery of two of the world's oldest examples of Russian "hand-held hands" dating back to the end of the XNUMXth century. Note that in Europe, the first guns were called muskets. Let's understand the etymology of this word: “There was also an assumption about the Spanish origin of the term - precisely from the word“ mascas ”or“ masquas ”, which means“ sparks from fire ”. Another version of the homeland of this weapon indicates Russia, which was called Muscovy at that time. ”XNUMX Apparently, the Russian origin of the word musket has real grounds for it, for the first hand-held hands appeared in“ dense ”Muscovy.
      3. Powder
        Powder 16 February 2015 17: 30
        -2
        Sorry, but somewhat disagree with you. Raspberry jingle is a metaphor.
        At one time, the Ottoman Empire was fond of large-caliber guns, but apart from the written sources of the guns, it wasn’t, and the Tsar Cannon was in the Kremlin, the question is, where, apart from the paper, this naturally survived ???? Smelted for domestic needs, pans and boilers.
        Why, with all the copper deficiency, this is not done. After the defeat near Narva, Peter 1 re-melted the bells throughout Russia to guns. This is a fact. The Tsar Cannon and the Tsar Bell did not touch. Military necessity demanded, but he did not touch. A man shaved his beards, broke his life, but did not touch the rarities. What stopped him? Who will answer? Maybe because the mentality of the Russians in besieged Leningrad preserved the unique seed fund of the planet, collected if I am not mistaken by Vernadsky. All this is precious to us.
        As for the bells, a great many are important. My question is, what greatness of the city of Malin are you talking about. Where is he generally mentioned in world history. I will gladly replenish my stock of knowledge.
        The discussion gives me pleasure. I wish to continue.
        Sincerely.
        1. Alex
          Alex 17 February 2015 07: 40
          +2
          Quote: Gunpowder
          a unique seed fund of the planet, collected if I am not mistaken by Vernadsky.
          You are wrong, Vavilov. The teaching value of this "collection" is zero. The fact that they did not eat it can be explained simply - there are no more than 10% of grain crops suitable for consumption (taking into account hunger - up to 20%), in the total mass - several kilograms. It would have been possible to feed a couple of people with such an amount, so the game was not worth the trouble.

          The rest of the arguments of the same type, from one Tsar Cannon a couple of Peter's guns would have come out, to no avail, but as an advertisement for mastery (by the way, it’s absolutely correct) it’s quite suitable. The bells were removed from the churches for hundreds of pounds, these are already significant quantities. The Tsar Bell is generally unsuitable for this purpose, bell bronze is fragile (that is why it burst during a fire), a viscous gun is needed, a serious alteration is necessary for processing bells. So this rarity was quite suitable for defeating the imagination of foreigners - in Europe there was no such thing at all.

          In modern times, Turkey generally degraded to the state of a semi-primitive empire; any piece of iron was like national wealth to it, and everything that could be re-melted. After Peter and Catherine, there was no need for this in Russia, and unique masterpieces of foundry craftsmanship were preserved.
      4. Powder
        Powder 19 February 2015 23: 09
        0
        Just tell me where in Europe such unique works of art are located today. In their tablets they wrote a lot, where are the material monuments.
        These are in the Kremlin (Moscow), but where in Europe?
        Sincerely.
  14. Akuzenka
    Akuzenka 14 February 2015 21: 02
    +7
    The article is one-sided, as a geologist say. There were other deposits. Belgorod, for example. There are a lot of hematite near Moscow, not limonite.
  15. koroed
    koroed 14 February 2015 22: 40
    +4
    "They knew about its metal reserves back in the Middle Ages, when the Novgorod ushkuiniks discovered on its slopes" Chud mines ", numerous traces of ancient mining developments." - but this is the most interesting in the article, who in the Urals produced ancient mining, what kind of Chuds mines, why we do not know anything about this, who have lost our glorious ancient history, and our ancestors, who lived in the 15th century, did not know about this, because they supposedly possessed information about the developed, powerful Tartary, Hyperborea, i.e. about the ancestor country of ancient Russia?
    1. Dali
      Dali 14 February 2015 23: 37
      +3
      Quote: koroed
      and our ancestors who lived in the 15th century did not know about it, because they supposedly owned information about the developed, powerful Tartaria, Hyperborea, i.e. about the progenitor country of ancient Russia?


      Because no one officially speaks the truth about the so-called Troubled Times ... and what happened before the Troubled Times is generally "fairy tales of a modern enlightened geyropa"

      Yes, and the Romanovs too ... destroyed 99% of the church archives, essentially destroying the history of Russia ... and what erupts is rare passages of Western travelers, and even they are hidden and hushed up.
    2. Powder
      Powder 16 February 2015 18: 19
      0
      Dear koroed, the review of the author of an article on the metallurgy of Russia has affected me to the core. Again we are flawed. The question arose as long as they would mock us like that. Questions, questions and questions. Dezhnev in Alaska, what did he forget there ?? Mine in the Urals, who dug them there, probably green men. Most importantly, there were many of these mines. Sorry, the ushkunik is a warrior, at that time just a robber, but he was also struck by the breadth of the metallurgical industry. Metal is a profitable business. The question is not only in stocks, but also in the possibility of turning these stocks into state resources.
      The discussion that developed was whether Russia could use its reserves without foreigners. This topic is now. I affirm Russia both the people and the state are self-sufficient.
      Remember the laws of Alexei Mikhailovich and Peter 1 on ore miners - a lot of privileges. What does this mean? The country needs metal, and craftsmen in Russia have always had enough. Oh, they give money.
      An interesting question, why are traces of ancient developments ?? Throughout its history, Russia had the so-called "predatory development". The guys came, skimmed the cream from the deposit, sold the mined and went on to search. The principle in Russia is that the minimum labor costs are the maximum profit. In our tales, Emelya and the pike are a typical example. But, please note this is a special case.
      Regards
  16. Simple
    Simple 14 February 2015 22: 53
    +1
    German life in the Middle Ages (here often hold fairs, fairs dedicated to any historical event).
  17. SmileSimple
    SmileSimple 15 February 2015 13: 29
    0
    The article is useful.
    Comments are interesting in their argumentation.

    I like it. Thank.
  18. anomalocaris
    anomalocaris 15 February 2015 20: 11
    +2
    However, in addition to the ease of mining, marsh ores that are poor in iron have one more advantage - the metal from them is smelted already at 400 degrees Celsius, and at 700-800, iron can be obtained of acceptable quality.

    I did not read further and gave the author a bold minus. To make it clear: the melting point of pure iron is 1520 ° C and this is a constant value for the chemical element number 26 in the periodic table, called "iron". At lower temperatures, in principle, it cannot melt.
    In the old days, iron was obtained by heating iron oxide in a reducing atmosphere. Carbon monoxide served as a reducing agent, which was formed during the incomplete oxidation of carbon contained in charcoal. This process is described by the formula Fe2O3 + 3CO = 2Fe + 3CO2 and took place at temperatures of 800-900 ° С. As a result, carbon dioxide escapes into the atmosphere, and in the furnace there remains a solid residue (in no case molten) consisting of reduced iron and a mixture of various compounds. In the process of subsequent forging, less ductile substances were squeezed out, and iron remained. It turned out to be of very disgusting quality.
    1. anomalocaris
      anomalocaris 20 February 2015 04: 55
      0
      : melting point of pure iron 1520 ° C

      I apologize terribly, I just messed up.
      The melting point of pure iron is 1539 ° C.
      recourse
  19. Powder
    Powder 16 February 2015 19: 32
    0
    Quote: anomalocaris
    I did not read further and gave the author a bold minus. To make it clear: the melting point of pure iron is 1520 ° C and this is a constant value for the chemical element number 26 in the periodic table, called "iron". At lower temperatures, in principle, it cannot melt.
    In the old days, iron was obtained by heating iron oxide in a reducing atmosphere. Carbon monoxide served as a reducing agent, which was formed during the incomplete oxidation of carbon contained in charcoal. This process is described by the formula Fe2O3 + 3CO = 2Fe + 3CO2 and took place at temperatures of 800-900 ° С. As a result, carbon dioxide escapes into the atmosphere, and in the furnace there remains a solid residue (in no case molten) consisting of reduced iron and a mixture of various compounds. In the process of subsequent forging, less ductile substances were squeezed out, and iron remained. It turned out to be of very disgusting quality.


    In everything you are right, I absolutely agree, but ...
    I already mentioned the damask weapon. Being interested in this issue, I suddenly discovered an interesting technology (Ossetia). The simplest steel, CT3, in the form of a strip, is twisted into a bundle, placed in a pot and poured into this pot, excuse me with urine, this is not my fantasy. All this is leavening for 3-4 years. From this raw material, craftsmen forge knives and daggers close in their properties to damask steel. Multipass forging, layers, up to 30-40 reach the required quality of the blade. Iron oxides surrounded by more plastic components are removed to the cutting part of the blade blade. Fragile but hard oxides in combination with soft iron create amazing qualities of the blade.
    What is characteristic, in the Middle Ages, knowledge from alloying additives in iron did not even exist. They simply did not know about molybdenum, vanadium, chromium, nickel, tungsten. I think you can’t jump above your head. All this was much later. In my mind, what was at hand was used. But the main skill and gigantic experience of a blacksmith, a profession in Russia respected for centuries.
    Sincerely.
    1. anomalocaris
      anomalocaris 17 February 2015 09: 59
      +1
      Excuse me, but my diploma says: "engineer for the repair and maintenance of mechanical equipment of ferrous metallurgy plants." I have worked in my specialty for 15 years. In different factories, in different cities and even countries. It was the case that brought me to the glorious city of Chrysostom (what it is now, I consider the shame of our state). There are still craftsmen there who melt cast damask.
      I will explain the difference. There is such a widespread concept as "Damascus" steel, the bulk of the Homo, who consider themselves Sapiens, believe that this is damask steel. So, this is a fundamentally wrong delusion. Damascus is a composite material obtained by forging different grades of steel. In the future, it is forged, twisting, bending, twisting in various ways. In the end, a structured mixture of hard and soft metal fibers is obtained in one way or another. By the way, everyone knows, thanks to Hollywood, katanas are created using this technology (well, there are a couple of nuances, but this is a separate conversation). The material is not very bad, but it's not damask.
      Damask steel is cast crucible steel. It is obtained as a result of remelting in a crucible of critical iron with the addition of graphite. For a long time it was believed that the secret to making damask steel was lost, but in the middle of the 19th century Pavel Petrovich Anosov, director of the Zlatoust plant, revealed this technology. In a nutshell, it consisted of cleaning the starting materials, a neutral crucible, and a very long cooling cycle. As a result of the process, rather large crystals of iron carbide are formed in the mass of metal, having a very high hardness. And they determine the properties of damask.
      Z.Y. The Ossetian technology described by you is just a variation on the topic of obtaining carbide inclusions in the mass of metal.
      What is characteristic, in the Middle Ages, knowledge from alloying additives in iron did not even exist.

      It did not exist, but there are natural impurities in ore, clay, sand, etc. So believe me, the ancestors were no dumber than you and me, to realize that the metal obtained in a furnace made of bricks was blinded from this clay, this sand, and smelted from a mixture of ores from there and from there (in a certain proportion ) much better than the rest.
      1. Alex
        Alex 19 February 2015 08: 54
        +4
        Quote: anomalocaris
        the ancestors were no dumber than you and me, to realize that the metal obtained in a furnace made of bricks was blinded from this clay, this sand, and melted from a mixture of ores from and to there (in a certain proportion) much better than the rest .

        Absolutely agree. The same katanas were not forged from any ore, but only taken from one specific place (EMNIP, the outskirts of Fuji). As a later analysis showed, it contains trace elements of tungsten (well, and also other so popular alloying additives), which give it these unique properties. However, there is nothing surprising: an extinct volcano is an excellent natural blast furnace, in which ore you want to be found.
        1. anomalocaris
          anomalocaris 20 February 2015 00: 27
          +1
          I will only add that this ore is of a very rare type - placer. Streams flowing down from the mountains erode rocks and carry ore particles down, where formations are formed that are completely analogous to gold placers. Thus, nature itself created an enrichment factory.
      2. Powder
        Powder 19 February 2015 22: 31
        0
        Dear anomalocaris, I am very grateful to you for your additions.
        We do not contradict each other, but complement.
        You know very well that during steelmaking, smelting, even one grade of steel has a difference in composition, the presence of impurities determines the ore from which it is smelted (cast iron). I want to say that each heat has its own individual face. Today there is no problem describing this face in great detail. True, it would be great to have these details officially published. Weapons samples in abundance, with the analysis of the composition of steel there are no problems at all. In any of our plants producing responsible products, a laboratory for the input control of materials (metals) is in every workshop. But the trouble is, I saw an analysis of the composition of ores in the works of the USSR Academy of Sciences only from excavations of 4-6 centuries and that’s all ......... They write, it was local ore, swamp ore, they processed a lot, and poor ore miners were sick in the swamps . Maybe I was not lucky, and I could not find an analysis of the ores and metal smelted from them. I think the debate about casting crucible steel (damask) castings would simply disappear if the data appeared, how, from where and where it was made (with a tight binding of the chromatographic analysis of ore). I am a simple Russian engineer, but I’m very interested in the history of damask helmets and huraluzhny swords, as I am sorry to say in the annals (9-12 century). Most interesting, today these issues can simply be removed. Why historians paid by you and me do not do this.
        Pavel Petrovich Anosov is a unique Russian engineer-technologist, he read his works, but somewhat later was Chernov Dmitry Konstantinovich, also a great clever girl.
        In my opinion, the definition of who, where and when is not interesting to historians.
        After all, imagine that after analyzing the metal of the sword found in the ancient burial places of Rome, it is discovered that it is made of swamp ore from the Vladimir region of Russia, such an analysis is possible today, this is not the Shroud of Turin. Everything is simpler here. The composition of each steel melting, like fingerprints, is unique. Gold thieves are specifically fought, calculating by impurities the place of extraction of confiscated metal. Criminal investigators have been doing this for a very long time.
        By the way, on damask steel, I'm sorry, but as an engineer, I don’t understand what a structured mixture of hard and soft metal fibers is. The melting point of F3C-iron carbide (cementite) is 1600 degrees Celsius, a simple question, how to achieve a similar temperature in the kitchen in ancient India to get a damask ingot ??? Blowing obviously does not help, think about it. Maybe I'm wrong of course. Amosov is clever, but compared to the ancient Indians, he already had other technological capabilities, it seems to me he made his unique discovery and created his own unique alloy.
        The existence of a unique column of pure iron In India, I do not deny it, but I do not accept green men either.
        Thanks a lot for communication, I will continue with pleasure .....
        1. anomalocaris
          anomalocaris 20 February 2015 00: 20
          0
          The melting point of F3C-iron carbide (cementite) is 1600 degrees Celsius, the simple question is how to achieve a similar temperature in the kitchen in ancient India,

          Firstly, a temperature of 1600 ° C was not obtained. You see, there is no need to melt it to form iron carbide. This process runs quite well at temperatures of 800-900 ° C with direct contact of iron and a material containing a large amount of carbon (these materials are called carburizers), naturally in a volume isolated from air. This process, called cementation, is now widely used in industry.
          Secondly, no one was involved in metallurgy "in the kitchen" in India. I am not even going to "think" about it, for the simple reason that I know how the crucible furnace was arranged in which they melted damask steel, and not only damask steel. In it, it is quite possible to get a temperature in the region of 1500 ° C, but the fuel consumption by today's standards will be simply wild in relation to the amount of the product obtained. By the way, until the middle of the 19th century, crucible remelting was the only way to obtain cast steel.
          The existence of a unique column of pure iron In India, I do not deny it, but I do not accept green men either.

          Well, let’s say, the column is far from unique, just the largest. Its composition was analyzed long ago and found out that it was made of ordinary, although fairly high-quality, critical iron (while the sulfur content in it is really minimal, but there is too much phosphorus). It is made by the method of blacksmith welding from six separate cores. Everything, in principle, is simple and understandable, except for one thing - how did the ancient masters manage to forge such a colossus?
          As for the "green men", I admit their existence, but so far I have not come across a single direct proof of this fact.
          1. Powder
            Powder 20 February 2015 16: 56
            0
            Dear anomalocaris, it is very nice to communicate with a knowledgeable person.
            You absolutely rightly noticed that this process (the formation of iron carbide) goes on quite well at temperatures of 800-900 ° C. But we are discussing exactly steel melting with you, and this is a different temperature regime. You, as a specialist in metallurgical processes, can approximately calculate the amount of charcoal to perform the ingot smelting, at least 1 kilogram in a crucible. How much forest is needed. The truth is interesting. With the advent of numbers, at least as a first approximation, it will provide the basis for further discussion.
            I just live in Elektrostal. The name of the city speaks for itself. Electricity consumption by the Electrostal plant is very large.
            The most interesting thing about the column in India, why it does not rust. The climate in India, destroys the city in 5 years without supervision. The garden plot, after the death of a neighbor, turned into a jungle in two seasons. Everything is overgrown.
            Sincerely, I look forward to continuing our research.
            1. anomalocaris
              anomalocaris 20 February 2015 20: 03
              0
              I am not a metallurgist. I just worked in this area and have the appropriate education.
              But coal really needs not just a lot, but a lot. Suffice it to say that the famous forests that the Robin Hood ran through the British converted to coal by the end of the 18th century. About temperature conditions ... Why guess, look at the iron-carbon diagram
              1. anomalocaris
                anomalocaris 20 February 2015 20: 30
                0
                Something was buggy.
                Something was buggy.
              2. anomalocaris
                anomalocaris 20 February 2015 20: 50
                0
                Something was buggy.

                It can be seen from this diagram that steels with a carbon content higher than 0,8% (namely damask steel) begin to melt at temperatures of 1200–1350 ° C, and a complete melt occurs at temperatures of 1450–1500 ° C. Again, when crucible remelting, it is not necessary to achieve a complete melt (although it is certainly desirable) it is enough to obtain a fluid mass, which will be collected at the bottom of the crucible by gravity. Naturally, in this situation, the melting time will increase. With very slow cooling, in this melt crystallite will crystallize in the thickness of the metal, which, in fact, forms a characteristic pattern and gives the damask outstanding cutting properties.
                Electricity consumption by the Electrostal plant is very large.

                Well, the power consumed by one 100-ton furnace is 100-120 MW.
                The most interesting thing about the column in India, why it does not rust.

                Why doesn't it rust? The part that is in the ground is quite rusting.
                1. Powder
                  Powder 21 February 2015 11: 15
                  0
                  After your remarks, I turned to her, the Chernov diagram.
                  You gave a figure from which you can push off for an approximate calculation of energy consumption per 1 kg of damask steel. (This was my request in a previous post).
                  The main thing is not to get lost in the zeros. Please check, this sometimes happens with veterans. So.....
                  Initial data: (we assume that the value of electricity for the smelting of 1 kg of damask steel requires approximately equal amounts in modern conditions. How else). The calculation is based on your numbers .....
                  100 T - 100 MW (for the convenience of calculation, and the fact that we do not cook stainless steel, we accept your minimum figure)
                  1 kg- ?
                  1000 kg -1 MW
                  1 kg - 1 kW
                  It turns out that something is wrong here. 1 KW is a kettle for boiling water, not steel.
                  Check again, maybe I was mistaken somewhere.
                  As for the iron pillar, at my work the blued equipment during careless storage is covered with oxide coating, although it is easily washed off with a rag in oil, the equipment is like new. During its existence, this unique should turn into a bunch of ocher. Something is wrong here.
                  Sincerely.
                  1. anomalocaris
                    anomalocaris 22 February 2015 11: 00
                    0
                    The approach is not true.
                    Let's try a little differently.
                    The process of heating and molten steel can be described by the following equation:
                    Q1 + Q2 = Q3, where
                    Q1 = q * m1 * Δt is the heat required to heat the material, then the melting point, where:
                    specific heat of steel: q = 460 J / (kg * K),
                    m1 is the mass of material, take m1 = 1 kg,
                    the temperature difference is Δt = 1500 ° C-20 ° C = 1470 ° C,
                    so that to heat 1 kg of steel to the melting temperature we need:
                    Q1=460Дж/(кг*К)*1кг*1470°=676200Дж.

                    Q2 = λ * m1 is the heat needed to melt the material, where
                    λ = 84000 J / kg - specific heat of fusion,
                    m1 is the mass of material, take m1 = 1 kg,
                    Consequently:
                    Q2 = 84000J.
                    So we get that
                    Q3 = 676200J + 84000J = 760200J.
                    But on the other hand, Q3 = μ * m2 is the heat released during the combustion of fuel, where
                    μ = 34 * 10 ^ 6J / kg - specific heat of combustion of charcoal,
                    as a result, the mass of coal required for heating and melting 1 kg of steel will be:
                    m2=Q3/μ=760200Дж/(34*10^6Дж/кг)= 0,02кг.
                    It seems, well, wow, what for it was necessary to cut down the woods? But the dog rummaged from the other end. In this particular calculation, the heating of the air entering the furnace, the heating of the furnace and the total heat loss are not taken into account at all. That is, this formula gives an ideal option when all the heat obtained during the combustion of coal goes to the heating of the material by 100%. In reality, it took 100 to 150 times more coal to melt the steel in the crucible. And if you take into account the time that it was necessary to maintain a given temperature, then a couple more orders of magnitude more. That is, 1-20 kg of steel had to spend 30-XNUMX kg of coal.
                    1. Powder
                      Powder 22 February 2015 12: 24
                      0
                      I was initially confused by the figure in the previous calculation, the instantaneous power rating is not correct.
                      Forests need 160-240 kg (1: 8) Density of wood (dry birch) = 490 kg / m3, we get 0,5 m3 per 1 kilogram of steel.
                      For 100 tons of steel, you need 50000 cubic meters of forest.
                      Here forests scorched.
                      With respect
        2. anomalocaris
          anomalocaris 20 February 2015 03: 42
          0
          . Amosov is smart, but compared to the ancient Indians, he already had other technological capabilities



          The fact that it was one of the prominent metallurgists of all time is certainly, but one can argue about technological capabilities. He lived and worked just during that technological revolution, which created modern metallurgy and modern materials science.
          If, on occasion, you are in the glorious city of Zlatoust, be sure to visit the local museum (it is located on the III International Square in Anosov’s house), you won’t regret such beauty there! By the way, the level of Zlatoust masters can be very clearly observed in the Artillery Museum, where nearby are blades made in Germany, France, Turkey, Persia and ours.
  20. fedotow
    fedotow 17 February 2015 00: 33
    -1
    Hello to the good!
    Good, informative article. For me, this is a new look at the history of Russia. Everything is logical.
    Only there are some inaccuracies. This is not the fault of the author. Historians (humanities what to take from them) have long piled screaming and swamp iron in one pile. But modern metallurgists, after all, are no longer interested in swamp iron, so there is no one to correct except me. I am an ancient man. He was born in the last century, and even in the last millennium. I remember a lot of things.

    Kritza is a casting obtained by cheese-ore dressing from ore in a furnace. This process is well described in his commentary on anomalocaris. I just didn’t say that screaming iron is produced this way.

    And bog iron was "made" or "made" without a furnace. Its production technology is even simpler than described in the article and in the comments. The dried bog ore was calcined in a forge, trying to get the highest possible temperature, and then put on an anvil and forged with heavy hammers. As a result, drops and films of iron appeared on the surface, which were collected. This was done several times until the iron ceased to be released. Iron does not need temperature, but energy. Half of the required energy came from heat, and the rest from the hammer. And with a margin. So the iron production process was stable and almost did not depend on the quality of the fuel. Then the collected drops and films were heated again and bound in one piece. The result was iron (layered) of the same poor quality as the iron. However, it, as well as the blast, could be remelted and obtained normal pig iron or, (depending on the method of melting,) steel.
    1. anomalocaris
      anomalocaris 17 February 2015 10: 09
      +1
      Kritza is a casting obtained by cheese-ore dressing from ore in a furnace.

      For such a statement you would have received a "bad" in the exam, in the institution in which I studied. And with the summer. The croutons from the forge did not melt. Fundamentally.
      1. fedotow
        fedotow 21 February 2015 11: 58
        0
        You know, I agree to "not". I’m not a metallurgist, I’ve never seen a bullshit. By the way, when I mentioned her, I immediately referred to you, meaning that you know better. I wrote about swamp gland and how to get it.

        The fact is that even in my school years I had the opportunity to hear the story of collective farms blacksmiths to my father. Out of curiosity, they tried to extract iron from the marshy mud using ancient technology that they had heard about somewhere. They succeeded the first time and formed the belief that it is not at all difficult. Well, only the performance is small.
    2. Alex
      Alex 19 February 2015 17: 17
      +3
      Quote: fedotow
      To restore iron, it is not temperature that is needed, but energy.
      Something you have here is a problem with chemistry, and it’s complete. To recover iron from ore, which is one of the oxides (or a mixture of them), not only energy is needed, but also a reducing agent, which, for example, is hydrogen (almost never been used), carbon (but coal is the most common reducing agent) or electricity (electrofusion is a relatively new method of direct steel production). If hammer blows are equivalent to the transition of electrons from carbon atoms (hydrogen, cathode) to a metal atom, then you have a direct road to the Nobel Committee: the epoch-making discovery table will probably be awarded with two prizes at once - in the field of chemistry (for the discovery of a new mechanism of redox reactions) and in the field of physics (for the materialization of energy).

      Half of the necessary energy was given by heat, and the rest was hit by a hammer.
      Here is also a big discovery: it turns out that inelastic interaction does not transform mechanical energy into thermal energy. Have you ever tried a piece of iron with your hand after two or three dozen hits with a heavy hammer? Warm up? Or is it not that warm?
      1. anomalocaris
        anomalocaris 20 February 2015 00: 35
        0
        but also a reducing agent, which, for example, are hydrogen (almost never been used), carbon (but coal is the most common reducing agent)

        I’ll fix it a bit.
        Hydrogen has been used for itself and is being used as a reducing agent. Since at least the 30s of the 20th century, the supply of water vapor to the blast furnace has been very wide. At temperatures above 600 ° C, water decomposes into hydrogen and a hydroxyl group.
        The reducing agent is not carbon, but carbon monoxide (CO).
        1. Alex
          Alex 21 February 2015 12: 47
          +3
          Quote: anomalocaris
          The reducing agent is not carbon, but carbon monoxide (CO).

          In the industrial blast furnace process, in fact, yes - the kinetics of gas-phase reactions is higher than that of solid-phase ones, but carbon monoxide has time before. In ancient times, copper was directly reduced by coal - carbon monoxide from those furnaces quickly evaporated. Lead and later tin received about the same. This is already later, when large and closed furnaces appeared, the mechanism of the process changed. Almost a paradox - it is not often in chemistry that one can find an example of a process when its mechanism changes in such a radical way when the design of the reactor (furnace) changes and the composition of the components is constant (qualitatively). Plus, the addition of fluxes also contributed to the sequence of recovery processes.

          Sorry for the verbosity, carried away a little. Probably, these details are of little interest to anyone except metallurgists and chemists. hi
      2. fedotow
        fedotow 21 February 2015 12: 30
        +2
        But I will not argue with you about the Nobel Prize. If so, then please award. As for the rest, we can say this:

        1. It’s not me who invented the method of producing marsh iron. He is widely known. In my comment, I only reminded the participants of the discussion about it.

        2. Be that as it may, but without a hammer in the furnace, iron is not restored. And that is a fact. And I don’t dare to judge what processes occur during forging. It seems to be a suggestion that mechanical energy goes into heat. But I will not argue this.

        In general, I agree with you. The misunderstanding is due to the fact that I did not express my thoughts intelligibly enough. From the height of today's technology, the difference between iron and swamp iron is really negligible. But before it was huge. The scary method is semi-industrial, and the manufacture of bog iron is simple, "home".
        1. Alex
          Alex 21 February 2015 12: 53
          +3
          I apologize for the somewhat frivolous tone repeat .

          During mechanical action, mechanical energy passes into other types, mainly thermal. This fact was first recorded by Devi and then quantitatively confirmed in the classic works of Joule - they drove the last nail into the coffin of the theory of calorific.

          Mechanical impact during the alteration of iron alloys is also a well-known fact, it just triggers a whole string of various physical-mechanical and chemical processes, which is now a whole science was born from this rather primitive and "domestic" process in antiquity. And the more we learn, the more interesting it is to go further: knowledge is infinite. wink
        2. anomalocaris
          anomalocaris 22 February 2015 11: 06
          0
          Be that as it may, but without a hammer in the furnace, iron is not restored.

          It is restored, respected, restored. Just due to the fact that the temperature does not reach the melting point of the iron in the raw-iron furnace, we accordingly do not get a melt and slags cannot surface, so it would be easier for us to remove them. On the contrary, they impregnate the whole mass of kriza, and that they should be kicked out to expel them. Moreover, it is advisable to do this immediately.
          From the height of today's technology, the difference between iron and swamp iron is really negligible. But before it was huge. The scary method is semi-industrial, and the manufacture of bog iron is simple, "home".

          Yah? I wonder how it is? Or maybe other iron oxides in the swamp ore than in the ore used to produce kritz?
  21. Pervusha Isaev
    Pervusha Isaev 17 February 2015 11: 09
    0
    I invite all those who are not indifferent and the history of the forum users to switch to the FORUM in the topic that I created in the last of this article by Alexei Volynets and the different opinions of the forum users on this topic.
    http://forum.topwar.ru/topic/289-допетровская-русская-армия/
    "Pre-Petrine Russian Army"
  22. Powder
    Powder 17 February 2015 17: 33
    +1
    Quote: Alex
    You are wrong, Vavilov. The teaching value of this "collection" is zero. The fact that they did not eat it can be explained simply - there are no more than 10% of grain crops suitable for consumption (taking into account hunger - up to 20%), in the total mass - several kilograms. It would have been possible to feed a couple of people with such an amount, so the game was not worth the trouble.

    I completely agree with you, Vavilov- expeditions around the world (the time of I.V. Stalin). You consider the plant gene pool of the planet a zero value, sorry.
    You probably can’t imagine what hunger is ... There are cases during the blockade of cannibalism in St. Petersburg, and here are the seeds.
    True trifle.
    When you starve to death, any sheepskin is worth something. It seems that in 1973 our border guards on a barge were taken to the Pacific Ocean, they ate soldiers' belts. Sheepskin would be very helpful.
    Regards
  23. Powder
    Powder 19 February 2015 20: 51
    0
    Quote: Pervusha Isaev
    The Musketeers of Dumas in the 17th century had one floppy musket with a stand for four, and a thin skewer of a skirt to lift up ladies of easy virtue.


    And a wide-brimmed hat, to ensure the safety of the head from the shit dumped from the upper floors of the buildings of the cities of France. Look at what century it was forbidden to empty night pots on the heads of passers-by. More recently, 150-200 years, the date can be clarified. Our children are indestructible in pranks to this day, they pour mainly water, and according to the story of Dragunsky even semolina.
    Best regards
  24. Powder
    Powder 21 February 2015 14: 04
    0
    Quote: Alex
    I apologize for the somewhat frivolous tone repeat .

    During mechanical action, mechanical energy passes into other types, mainly thermal. This fact was first recorded by Devi and then quantitatively confirmed in the classic works of Joule - they drove the last nail into the coffin of the theory of calorific.

    Mechanical impact during the alteration of iron alloys is also a well-known fact, it just triggers a whole string of various physical-mechanical and chemical processes, which is now a whole science was born from this rather primitive and "domestic" process in antiquity. And the more we learn, the more interesting it is to go further: knowledge is infinite. wink

    Without these components, there would be no elementary contact welding.
    Best regards
  25. fan1945
    fan1945 23 February 2015 05: 42
    0
    Thank you! I learned more about steel and iron than in all my previous life. Although a book about
    Anosova was presented to me by girls in the classroom on February 23, 1963. The year of graduation is
    boarding school №1.
    Today is February 23rd. On this peasant day I congratulate everyone! Health to ALL and cognitive mutual communication ..